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LESSON 50- PARAMITA - SIX PARAMITAS -SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS -SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH -06 -10 -2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. - Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
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LESSON  50 PARAMITA  06 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. - Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                 MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!                ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

 

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHAMMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

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Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
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PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81ramit%C4%81

Buddhist
Perfections
 
10 pāramī
dāna
sīla
nekkhamma
paññā
viriya
khanti
sacca
adhiṭṭhāna
mettā
upekkhā
   
 6 pāramitā 
dāna
sīla
kṣānti
vīrya
dhyāna
prajñā
 
Colored items are in both lists.

Pāramitā (Pāli; Sanskrit; Devanagari: पारमिता) or pāramī (Pāli) is “perfection” or “completeness.”[1] In Buddhism, the pāramitās refer to the perfection or culmination of certain virtues. In Buddhism, these virtues are cultivated as a way of purification, purifying karma and helping the aspirant to live an unobstructed life, while reaching the goal of awaken-ness.

Etymology

Scholar Donald Lopez describes the etymology of the term:

The term pāramitā, commonly translated as “perfection,” has two etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning “highest,” “most distant,” and hence, “chief,” “primary,” “most excellent.” Hence, the substantive can be rendered “excellence” or “perfection.” This reading is supported by the Madhyāntavibhāga (V.4), where the twelve excellences (parama) are associated with the ten perfections (pāramitā). A more creative yet widely reported etymology divides pāramitā into pāra and mita, with pāra meaning “beyond,” “the further bank, shore or boundary,” and mita, meaning “that which has arrived,” or ita meaning “that which goes.” Pāramitā, then means “that which has gone beyond,” “that which goes beyond,” or “transcendent.” This reading is reflected in the Tibetan trasnslation pha rol tu phyin pa (“gone to the other side”).[2]

Theravāda Buddhism

Theravāda Buddhism’s teachings on the pāramitās can be found in late canonical books and post-canonical commentaries.

Canonical sources

In the Pāli canon’s Buddhavaṃsa[3] the Ten Perfections (dasa pāramiyo) are (original terms in Pāli):

  1. Dāna pāramī : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. Sīla pāramī : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. Nekkhamma pāramī : renunciation
  4. Paññā pāramī : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. Viriya (also spelt vīriya) pāramī : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. Khanti pāramī : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. Sacca pāramī : truthfulness, honesty
  8. Adhiṭṭhāna (adhitthana) pāramī : determination, resolution
  9. Mettā pāramī : loving-kindness
  10. Upekkhā (also spelt upekhā) pāramī : equanimity, serenity

Two of the above virtues, metta and upekkha also comprise two of the four immeasurables (brahmavihāra).

Historicity

The Theravādin teachings on pāramitās can be found in canonical books (Jātaka, Apadāna, Buddhavaṃsa, Cariyāpiṭaka) and post-canonical commentaries which were written to supplement the Pāli canon at a later time, and thus they are not an original part of the Theravādin teachings.[4][5] The oldest parts of the Sutta Piṭaka (for example, Majjhima Nikāya,Digha Nikāya, Saṃyutta Nikāya and the Aṅguttara Nikāya) do not have any mention of the pāramitās as a category (though they are all mentioned individually).[6]

Some scholars even refer to the teachings of the pāramitās as a semi-Mahāyāna[7] teaching which was added to the scriptures at a later time, in order to appeal to the interests and needs of the lay community and to popularize their religion.[8] However, these views rely on the early scholarly presumption of Mahāyāna originating with religious devotion and appeal to laity. More recently, scholars have started to open up early Mahāyāna literature which is very ascetic and expounds the ideal of the monk’s life in the forest.[9] Therefore, the practice of the pāramitās is closer to the ideals of the ascetic tradition of the śramaṇa in Buddhism.

Traditional practice

Bodhi (2005) maintains that, in the earliest Buddhist texts (which he identifies as the first four nikāyas), those seeking the extinction of suffering (nibbana) pursued the noble eightfold path. As time went on, a backstory was provided for the multi-life development of the Buddha; as a result, the ten perfections were identified as part of the path for the bodhisattva (Pāli:bodhisatta). Over subsequent centuries, the pāramīs were seen as being significant to aspirants of both Buddhahood and of arahantship. Thus, Bodhi (2005) summarizes:

It should be noted that in established Theravāda tradition the pāramīs are not regarded as a discipline peculiar to candidates for Buddhahood alone but as practices which must be fulfilled by all aspirants to enlightenment and deliverance, whether as Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, or disciples. What distinguishes the supreme bodhisattva from aspirants in the other two vehicles is the degree to which the pāramīs must be cultivated and the length of time they must be pursued. But the qualities themselves are universal requisites for deliverance, which all must fulfill to at least a minimal degree to merit the fruits of the liberating path.[10]

Mahāyāna Buddhism

Theravāda Buddhism’s teachings on the pāramitās can be found in late canonical books and post-canonical commentaries.

Canonical sources

In the Pāli canon’s Buddhavaṃsa[3] the Ten Perfections (dasa pāramiyo) are (original terms in Pāli):

  1. Dāna pāramī : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. Sīla pāramī : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. Nekkhamma pāramī : renunciation
  4. Paññā pāramī : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. Viriya (also spelt vīriya) pāramī : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. Khanti pāramī : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. Sacca pāramī : truthfulness, honesty
  8. Adhiṭṭhāna (adhitthana) pāramī : determination, resolution
  9. Mettā pāramī : loving-kindness
  10. Upekkhā (also spelt upekhā) pāramī : equanimity, serenity

Two of the above virtues, metta and upekkha also comprise two of the four immeasurables (brahmavihāra).

Historicity

The Theravādin teachings on pāramitās can be found in canonical books (Jātaka, Apadāna, Buddhavaṃsa, Cariyāpiṭaka) and post-canonical commentaries which were written to supplement the Pāli canon at a later time, and thus they are not an original part of the Theravādin teachings.[4][5] The oldest parts of the Sutta Piṭaka (for example, Majjhima Nikāya,Digha Nikāya, Saṃyutta Nikāya and the Aṅguttara Nikāya) do not have any mention of the pāramitās as a category (though they are all mentioned individually).[6]

Some scholars even refer to the teachings of the pāramitās as a semi-Mahāyāna[7] teaching which was added to the scriptures at a later time, in order to appeal to the interests and needs of the lay community and to popularize their religion.[8] However, these views rely on the early scholarly presumption of Mahāyāna originating with religious devotion and appeal to laity. More recently, scholars have started to open up early Mahāyāna literature which is very ascetic and expounds the ideal of the monk’s life in the forest.[9] Therefore, the practice of the pāramitās is closer to the ideals of the ascetic tradition of the śramaṇa in Buddhism.

Traditional practice

Bodhi (2005) maintains that, in the earliest Buddhist texts (which he identifies as the first four nikāyas), those seeking the extinction of suffering (nibbana) pursued the noble eightfold path. As time went on, a backstory was provided for the multi-life development of the Buddha; as a result, the ten perfections were identified as part of the path for the bodhisattva (Pāli:bodhisatta). Over subsequent centuries, the pāramīs were seen as being significant to aspirants of both Buddhahood and of arahantship. Thus, Bodhi (2005) summarizes:

It should be noted that in established Theravāda tradition the pāramīs are not regarded as a discipline peculiar to candidates for Buddhahood alone but as practices which must be fulfilled by all aspirants to enlightenment and deliverance, whether as Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, or disciples. What distinguishes the supreme bodhisattva from aspirants in the other two vehicles is the degree to which the pāramīs must be cultivated and the length of time they must be pursued. But the qualities themselves are universal requisites for deliverance, which all must fulfill to at least a minimal degree to merit the fruits of the liberating path.[10]

Mahāyāna Buddhism

In Mahāyāna Buddhism, the Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapundarika), lists the six perfections as (original terms in Sanskrit):

  1. Dāna pāramitā: generosity, giving of oneself (in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, 布施波羅蜜; in Wylie Tibetan, sbyin-pa)
  2. Śīla pāramitā : virtue, morality, discipline, proper conduct (持戒波羅蜜; tshul-khrims)
  3. Kṣānti (kshanti) pāramitā : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance (忍辱波羅蜜, bzod-pa)
  4. Vīrya pāramitā : energy, diligence, vigor, effort (精進波羅蜜, brtson-’grus)
  5. Dhyāna pāramitā : one-pointed concentration, contemplation (禪定波羅蜜, bsam-gtan)
  6. Prajñā pāramitā : wisdom, insight (智慧波羅蜜, shes-rab)

Note that this list is also mentioned by the Theravāda commentator Dhammapala, who says it is equivalent to the above list of ten.[11]

In the Ten Stages (Daśabhūmika) Sutra, four more pāramitās are listed:

7. Upāya pāramitā: skillful means
8. Praṇidhāna pāramitā: vow, resolution, aspiration, determination
9. Bala pāramitā: spiritual power
10. Jñāna pāramitā: knowledge

Tibetan Buddhism

According to the perspective of Tibetan Buddhism, Mahāyāna practitioners have the choice of two practice paths: the path of perfection (Sanskrit:pāramitāyāna) or the path of tantra (Sanskrit:tantrayāna), which is the Vajrayāna.

Traleg Kyabgon Rinpoche renders “pāramitā” into English as “transcendent action” and then frames and qualifies it:

When we say that paramita means “transcendent action,” we mean it in the sense that actions or attitude are performed in a non-egocentric manner. “Transcendental” does not refer to some external reality, but rather to the way in which we conduct our lives and perceive the world - either in an egocentric or a non-egocentric way. The six paramitas are concerned with the effort to step out of the egocentric mentality.[12]

The gyulü is said to be endowed with the six perfections (Sanskrit: ṣad-pāramitā).[13]

Notes

  1. ^ For the Pāli terms, see, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede, 1921-25, p. 454, entries for Pāramī and Pāramitā,” retrieved 23 Mar 2010 and 30 Jun 2007, respectively. For the Sanskrit term, see, e.g., Apte (1957-59), p. 111, entry for pāramita, retrieved 24 Mar 2010.

    While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli, the Pāli literature makes far greater reference to pāramī. Bodhi (2005) states:

    “The word pāramī derives from parama, ’supreme,’ and thus suggests the eminence of the qualities which must be fulfilled by a bodhisattva in the long course of his spiritual development. But the cognate pāramitā, the word preferred by the Mahāyāna texts and also used by Pāli writers, is sometimes explained as pāram + ita, ‘gone to the beyond,’ thereby indicating the transcendental direction of these qualities.” (Velthuis convention lettering replaced with Pāli diacritics.)
  2. ^ Lopez, Donald S., Jr. The Heart Sutra Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries (1988) State Univ of New York Pr. ISBN 0887065899 pg 21[1]
  3. ^ Buddhavaṃsa, chapter 2. For an on-line reference to the Buddhavaṃsa’s seminality in the Theravāda notion of pāramī, see Bodhi (2005).
    In terms of other examples in the Pāli literature, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 454, entry for “Pāramī,” (retrieved 2007-06-24) cite Jātaka i.73 and Dhammapada Atthakatha i.84. Bodhi (2005) also mentions AcariyaDhammapala’s treatise in the Cariyāpiṭaka-Atthakatha and the Brahmajala Sutta subcommentary (ṭika).
  4. ^ “[Prose portions of the Jātakas] originally did not form part of [the Theravādins] scriptures”: Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 224
  5. ^ Regarding the Cariyāpiṭaka, Horner (2000), Cariyāpiṭaka section, p. vi, writes that it is “[c]onsidered to be post-Asokan….”
  6. ^ “[the Theravādins’] early literature did not refer to the pāramitās.” Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 228
  7. ^ “The incorporation of pāramis by the Theravādins in the Jātakas reveals that they were not immune from Mahāyānic influence. This happened, of course, at a much later date[.]” Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 219
  8. ^ “It is evident that the Hinayānists, either to popularize their religion or to interest the laity more in it, incorporated in their doctrines the conception of Bodhisattva and the practice of pāramitās. This was effected by the production of new literature: the Jātakas and Avadānas.” Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 251. The term “Semi-Mahāyāna” occurs here as a subtitle.
  9. ^ “As scholars have moved away from this limited corpus, and have begun to explore a wider range of Mahāyāna sutras, they have stumbled on, and have started to open up, a literature that is often stridently ascetic and heavily engaged in reinventing the forest ideal, an individualistic, antisocial, ascetic ideal that is encapsulated in the apparently resurrected image of “wandering alone like a rhinoceros.” Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004): p. 494
  10. ^ Bodhi (2005). (Converted the document’s original use of the Velthuis convention to Pāli diacritics.)
  11. ^ The passage is translated in Bodhi (1978), p. 314.
  12. ^ Ray, Reginald A. (ed.) (2004). In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambala. ISBN 1-57062-849-1 (pbk.: alk. paper) p.140.
  13. ^ Keown, Damien (ed.) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Great Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.270. ISBN 0-19-860560-9

[edit]Sources

[edit]See also

[edit]External links

http://www.spoonfeddesign.com/stunning-stop-motion-animation





http://www.experiencefestival.com/spiritual_power_in_buddhism





Spiritual Awaken-nessLives Will Change Forever.
Don’t Miss Out on November 5th 2010
youtube.com/enlightenq



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_VuCAGdkJdI&feature=pyv&ad=6304115653&kw=spiritual&gclid=COvTnu_EvqQCFcJS6wodqSx7QA



SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS



Spiritual power in Buddhism

A Wisdom Archive on Spiritual power in Buddhism



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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ts8UYG8b8g



Namo Amituofo - Pure Land (1 Mala - 108 Repetitions



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Six Paths of Rebirth



1) Gods (Devas in Sanskrit);  2) Humans (Manushya in Sanskrit);  3) Asuras (Titans);  4) Animals or beasts (includes non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, viruses and bacteria, single-celled organisms);  5)Ghosts (also called “hungry-ghosts” or Pretas or bhutas in Sanskrit);  6) Hell-beings or Hell-dwellers (demons live in the narakas [in Sanskrit]).

“The Six Paths of Rebirth, also called the Six Destinies, refer to the six categories of living beings who are not enlightened. The particular category that one finds oneself reborn in depends upon one’s karma at the time of rebirth (seekarma and rebirth).” (Epstein, 2003: p. 183)

All of the rebirths in these six realms are impermanent. (Source: Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation)

The Six Paths of Rebirth are part of the Ten Dharma Realms. They are also discussed under that listing.

(Source: Epstein, 2003: p. 183)

———-

1) Chinese Mandarin: lyou chyu , lyou dau lwun hwei , 2) Sanskrit: gati, sad-gatyah, 3) Pali: gati, 4) Alternate Translations: six destinies, six courses of existence.

See also: Ten Dharma Realms, Six Paths of Rebirth, the listings under the individual destinies: 1) Gods (Devas in Sanskrit);  2) Humans (Manushya in Sanskrit);  3) Asuras (Titans);  4) Animals or beasts (includes non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, viruses and bacteria, single-celled organisms);  5) Ghosts (also called “hungry-ghosts” or Pretas or bhutas in Sanskrit);  6) Hell-beings or Hell-dwellers (demons live in the narakas [in Sanskrit]);   
Living beings, Life according to Buddhist Ayurveda, Life according to modern science, karma and rebirth.

Buddhist Text Translation Society (http://www.bttsonline.org/) References: SS V 135; HD 83; TD 39-54; VBS #206, p. 7. 
 

(NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under Shastra tradition and “Fair Use” by an Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor (Compiler) of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation)


Related Websites: 
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http://www.amitabha-buddha.com/, http://www.amitabha-sutra.com/, 
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http://www.prajna-paramita.com/, http://www.diamond-sutra.net/, http://www.vajra-sutra.com/, 
http://www.sixth-patriarch.com/, http://www.dharani-sutra.com/, http://www.sanghata-sutra.com/ 
http://www.manjushri-bodhisattva.com/, http://www.avalokiteshvara-bodhisattva.com/, 
http://www.samantabhadra-bodhisattva.com/, http://www.ksitigarbha-bodhisattva.com/, http://www.ksitigarbha.com/, 
http://www.nagarjuna-bodhisattva.com/, http://www.nalanda-university.com/, http://www.tibetan-thangka.com/, 
http://www.buddhist-sutras.com/, http://www.buddhist-sutra.com/, http://www.ayurvedic-college.org/


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At Nalanda Online University we practice daily and introduce you to (via downloadable multimedia MP3 audio and WMV video lectures) the teachings and practices of the Five Traditions transmitted by the Buddha Shakyamuni: 

1.  Teaching School  (Mahayana Sutrayana - Paramitayana - Hua Yan and Tian Tai, Yogachara, Nalanda Prasangika Madhyamika, Theravada Sutta)   

See also: Tripitaka (1. Sutras, 2. Vinaya, 3. Shastras or Abhidharma, or Tantra), Taisho Catalog Numbering System, Dharma, and names of individual sutras (such as Shurangama Sutra, Avatamsaka Sutra[Flower Adornment Sutra], Lotus Sutra [Wonderful Dharma Flower Sutra], Earth Store Sutra, Dharani Sutra, Brahma Net Sutra, Medicine Master Buddha Sutra, Sixth Patriarch Platform Sutra, Sutra in 42 Sections,Sutra on the Buddha’s Bequeathed Teaching, et al.

2.  Moral Regulations School  (Vinaya Pratimoksha Shila - Bodhisattva Pranidhana - Vajrayana-Samaya - Yogic Yama)

3.  Esoteric School  (Vajrayana - Mantrayana - Tantrayana - Dharani - Secret School of the Mahayana)

4.  Meditation School  (Indian Dhyana Samadhi - Shamatha - Vipassana, Chinese Chan, Japanese Zen, 
        Tibetan Mahamudra of Kagyupa, and Tibetan Dzogchen of Nyingmapa)

5.  Pure Land Devotional School  (Bhakti Puja - Buddha-Bodhisattva Mindfulness and Nama Japa – 
         Name Recitation of Buddhas Amitabha-Amitayus, Medicine Buddha - Bhaisajya Guru - Akshobhya, 
         and Bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara-Guanyin-Chenrezig-Mahakala, Tara, Samantabhadra Universal Worthy, 
         Manjushri-Kalarupa Great Wisdom, Maitreya Great Loving-Kindness, Mahasthamaprapta Great Strength,  
         Ksitigarbha - Earth Store Great Vows, Vajrapani, Vajrasattva, 
         Chandraprabha Moonlight Radiance, Suryaprabha Sunlight Radiance, Medicine King Bodhisattva, Medicine Superior Bodhisattva
         and others Dharma Protecting Dharmapala Lokapala Bodhisattvas, Gods and Goddesses


Compilation Sources for the Above Material on the Teachings of the Buddha:

Primary Compilation Source: Epstein, Ronald B., Ph.D, compiler, Buddhist Text Translation Society’s Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003. ISBN: 0881393533  Paperback: 284 pages.  http://www.bttsonline.org/     http://www.amazon.com/   
http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118     http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20

Secondary Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw/     

Secondary Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007:  Username is “guest”, with no password.
http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by Soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991.  296 pages.  ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.shambhala.com/,   http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, 
http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm





Media in category “Illustrated Scrolls of the Six Paths of Rebirth”

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Rebirth of an icon: Hubble’s first images since Servicing Mission 4



First images after Servicing Mission 4First images after Servicing Mission 4



Astronomers today declared the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope a fully rejuvenated observatory ready for a new decade of exploration, with the release of observations from four of its six operating science instruments.
 
“This is one more important step in the confirmation of this wonderful mission. We Europeans are proud to be part of this and heartily congratulate the engineers, astronauts and scientists who got us to this point,” said ESA’s Director of Science and Robotic Exploration, David Southwood. 

Topping the list of exciting new views are colourful multi-wavelength pictures of far-flung galaxies, a densely packed star cluster, an eerie ‘pillar of creation’ and a butterfly-shaped nebula. Hubble’s suite of new instruments now allows it to study the Universe’s across a wide swath of the light spectrum, from ultraviolet light all the way to near-infrared light.  
 

WFC3 infrared image of Carina Nebula
WFC3 infrared image of Carina Nebula
In addition, scientists released spectroscopic observations that slice across billions of light-years to map the structure of the cosmic web that permeates the Universe and also the distribution of the chemical elements that are fundamental to life as we know it. 

“This marks a new beginning for Hubble,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. “The telescope was given an extreme makeover and is now significantly more powerful than ever — well equipped to last well into the next decade.” 

The new instruments are more sensitive to light and therefore will significantly improve Hubble’s observing efficiency. The space telescope is now able to complete observations in a fraction of the time that was needed with earlier generations of Hubble instruments. Therefore the space observatory today is significantly more powerful than it has ever been.
 
 

Gravitational lensing in the galaxy cluster Abell 370
Gravitational lensing in the galaxy cluster Abell 370
“We couldn’t be more thrilled with the quality of the images from the new Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and the repaired Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and the spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The targets we’ve selected to showcase Hubble’s capabilities reveal the great range of capabilities in our newly upgraded Hubble,” said Keith Noll, leader of the team at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, USA, that planned the early release observations.
 
 



Supernova animation
These results are compelling evidence of the success of the STS-125 Servicing Mission in May, which has brought the premier space observatory to the peak of its scientific performance. Two new instruments, the WFC3 and COS, were installed, and two others, the ACS and STIS, were repaired at the circuit board level.

Mission scientists also announced today that the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) was brought back into operation during the three months of calibration and testing.
 
 
“On this mission we wanted to replenish the ‘toolkit’ of Hubble instruments that scientists around the world rely on to carry out their cutting-edge research,” said David Leckrone, Senior Hubble Project Scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, USA. “Prior to Servicing Mission 4 we had only three unique instrument channels still working, and today we have a total of 13. I’m very proud to be able to say, ‘mission accomplished’.”
 
 

Hubble resolves myriad stars in dense star cluster
Hubble resolves myriad stars in dense star cluster
For the past three months scientists and engineers at STScI and the Goddard Space Flight Center have been focusing, testing and calibrating the instruments. Hubble is one of the most complex space telescopes ever launched, and the Hubble Servicing Mission astronauts performed major surgery on the 19-year-old observatory’s multiple systems. This orbital verification phase was interrupted briefly on 19 July to observe Jupiter in the aftermath of a collision with a suspected comet.

Hubble now enters a phase of full science observations. The demand for observing time will be intense. Astronomers look forward to using the telescope to conduct a broad range of observations: from studying the population of Kuiper Belt objects at the fringe of our Solar System, to observing the birth of planets around other stars, to probing the composition and structure of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. 

There are ambitious plans to take the deepest-ever near-infrared portrait of the Universe to reveal never-before-seen infant galaxies that existed when the Universe was less than 500 million years old. Other planned observations will attempt to shed light on the behaviour of dark energy, a repulsive force that is pushing the Universe apart at an ever-faster rate.
 
 
Notes for editors:
 
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. It was launched in 1990. The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977; as a result of this agreement European astronomers have guaranteed access to 15% of Hubble’s observing time. 

For more information: 

Colleen Sharkey, Hubble/ESA, Garching, Germany
E-mail: csharkey @ eso.org




 
 


NGC 6302 as seen by WFPC2 and WFC3
 
 


Hubble captures star birth in the Carina Nebula



 
 


Zoom out of Stephan’s Quintet
 

First Image From ‘Rebirth’ of Futurama



<em/>Futurama TM and © 2010 Twentieth Century Fox Film. All rights reserved.



Futurama TM and © 2010 Twentieth Century Fox Film. All Rights Reserved.



Futurama fans will see some familiar faces stuck on top of a rack of skeletons in this first image from the resuscitated series,



which returns to television June 24.

The first episode of Season 6, titled “Rebirth,” will be the first of two back-to-back episodes aired that night,



Comedy Central said in a press release Wednesday. Comedy Central Insider will dole out new details — including stills,



storyboards and videos — about the show every weekday in the lead up to the new run of episodes.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARLaB_OoifQ



Futurama Season 6 Premiere Review Rebirth & In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela


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