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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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10/11/10
LESSON 55 MEDITATION 11 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, We make our world. – Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Field of Medicine-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble Chief Minister congratulates players for enhancing prestige and honour of Uttar Pradesh
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LESSON  55 MEDITATION 11 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, We make our world. – Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!       SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

MEDITATION


The Basics of Buddhist Meditation

Dr. C. George Boeree 
Shippensburg University


Buddhism began by encouraging its practitioners to engage in smrti (sati) or mindfulness, that is, developing a full consciousness of all about you and within you — whether seated in a special posture, or simply going about one’s life.  This is the kind of meditation that Buddha himself engaged in under the bodhi tree, and is referred to in the seventh step of the eightfold path.

Soon, Buddhist monks expanded and formalized their understanding of meditation.  The bases for all meditation, as it was understood even in the earliest years of Buddhism, are shamatha and vipashyana.

Shamatha is often translated as calm abiding or peacefulness.  It is the development of tranquility that is a prerequisite to any further development.  Vipashyana is clear seeing or special insight, and involves intuitive cognition of suffering, impermanence, and egolessness.

Only after these forms were perfected does one go on to the more heavy-duty kinds of meditation.  Samadhi is concentration or one-pointed meditation.  It involves intense focusing of consciousness.

Samadhi brings about the four dhyanas, meaning absorptions.  Buddha refers to samadhi and the dhyanas in the eighth step of the eightfold path, and again at his death.  Dhyana is rendered as Jhana in Pali, Ch’an in Chinese, Son in Korean, and Zen in Japanese, and has, in those cultures, become synonymous with meditation as a whole.


Basic Meditation

The most basic form of meditation involves attending to one’s breath.

Begin by sitting in a simple chair, keeping your back erect if you can.  The more traditional postures are the lotus position, sitting on a pillow with each foot upon the opposite thigh, and variations such as the half lotus (one foot on the opposite thigh, the other out in front of the opposite knee).  This is difficult for many people.  Some people kneel, sitting back on their legs or on a pillow between their legs.  Many use a meditation bench:  kneel, then place a little bench beneath your behind.  But meditation is also done while standing, slowly walking, lying on the floor, or even in a recliner!

Traditionally, the hands are placed loosely, palms up, one on top of the other, and with the thumbs lightly touching.  This is called the cosmic mudra, one of a large number of symbolic hand positions.  You may prefer to lay them flat on your thighs, or any other way that you find comfortable.

Your head should be upright, but not rigid.  The eyes may be closed, or focussed on a spot on the ground a couple of feet ahead of you, or looking down at your hands.  If you find yourself getting sleepy, keep your eyes open!

Beginning meditators are often asked to count their breath, on the exhale, up to ten.  Then you begin back at one.  If you loose track, simply go back to one.  Your breath should be slow and regular, but not forced or artificially controlled.  Just breathe naturally and count.

A few weeks later, you may forego the counting and try to simply follow your breath.  Concentrate on it entering you and exiting you.  Best is to be aware as fully as possible of the entire process of breathing, but most people focus on one aspect or another:  the sensation of coolness followed by warmth at the nostrils, or the rise and fall of the diaphragm.  Many meditators suggest imagining the air entering and exiting a small hole an inch or two below your navel.  Keeping your mind lower on the body tends to lead to deeper meditation.  If you are sleepy, then focus higher, such as at the nostrils.

You will inevitably find yourself distracted by sounds around you and thoughts within.  The way to handle them is to acknowledge them, but do not attach yourself to them.  Do not get involved with them.  Just let them be, let them go, and focus again on the breath.  At first, it might be wise to scratch when you itch and wiggle when you get uncomfortable.  Later, you will find that the same scant attention that you use for thoughts and sounds will work with physical feelings as well.

A more advanced form of meditation is shikantaza, or emptiness meditation.  Here, you don’t follow anything at all.  There is no concentration — only quiet mindfulness.  You hold your mind as if you were ready for things to happen, but don’t allow your mind to become attached to anything.  Things — sounds, smells, aches, thoughts, images — just drift in and out, like clouds in a light breeze.  This is my own favorite.

Many people have a hard time with their thoughts.  We are so used to our hyperactive minds, that we barely notice the fact that they are usually roaring with activity.  So, when we first sit and meditate, we are caught off guard by all the activity.  So some people find it helpful to use a little imagination to help them meditate.  For example, instead of counting or following your breath, you might prefer to imagine a peaceful scene, perhaps floating in a warm lagoon, until the noise of your mind quiets down.

Meditate for fifteen minutes a day, perhaps early in the morning before the rest of the house wakes up, or late at night when everything has quieted down.  If that’s too much, do it once a week if you like.  If you want, do more.  Don’t get frustrated.  And don’t get competitive, either.  Don’t start looking forward to some grand explosion of enlightenment.  If you have great thoughts, fine.  Write them down, if you like.  Then go back to breathing.  If you feel powerful emotions, wonderful.  Then go back to breathing.  The breathing is enlightenment.


The Ananda Sutta

Ananda, Buddha’s cousin, friend, and devoted disciple, once asked him if there was one particular quality one should cultivate that would best bring one to full awakening.  Buddha answered:  Being mindful of breathing.

“There is the case where a monk, having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and setting mindfulness to the fore. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

“Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long. Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body, and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body. He trains himself to breathe in calming the bodily processes, and to breathe out calming the bodily processes.

“He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to rapture, and to breathe out sensitive to rapture. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to pleasure, and to breathe out sensitive to pleasure. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to mental processes, and to breathe out sensitive to mental processes. He trains himself to breathe in calming mental processes, and to breathe out calming mental processes.

“He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the mind, and to breathe out sensitive to the mind. He trains himself to breathe in satisfying the mind, and to breathe out satisfying the mind. He trains himself to breathe in steadying the mind, and to breathe out steadying the mind. He trains himself to breathe in releasing the mind, and to breathe out releasing the mind.

“He trains himself to breathe in focusing on inconstancy, and to breathe out focusing on inconstancy. He trains himself to breathe in focusing on dispassion, and to breathe out focusing on dispassion. He trains himself to breathe in focusing on cessation, and to breathe out focusing on cessation. He trains himself to breathe in focusing on relinquishment, and to breathe out focusing on relinquishment.”

(adapted from The Samyutta Nikaya 54.13,)


Obstacles

The Five Hindrances (Nivarana) are the major obstacles to concentration.

1.  Sensual desire (abhidya)

2.  Ill will, hatred, or anger (pradosha)

3.  Laziness and sluggishness (styana and middha)

4.  Restlessness and worry (anuddhatya and kaukritya)

5.  Doubt (vichikitsa) — doubt, skepticism, indecisiveness, or vacillation, without the wish to cure it, more like the common idea of cynicism or pessimism than open-mindedness or desire for evidence.


For more original sutras on Buddhist meditation, see the following:


Resources

Snelling, John (1991). The Buddhist Handbook.  Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

Rahula, Walpola (1959).  What the Buddha Taught.  NY:  Grove Press.

Gard, Richard (1962).  Buddhism.  NY:  George Braziller.

The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion (1994).  Boston: Shambhala.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica CD (1998).  Chicago:  Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Field of Medicine

What are the fields of medicine?

Surgery - which can be divided into general, orthopedic, neurosurgery, urology, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic, ophthalmology, ENT, maxillofacial, and traumatology.

Internal Medicine - which can be divided into general, dermatology, gastro-intestinal, immunology, endocrinology, hepatology, pulmonology, cardiology, nephrology, geriatrics, hematology, infectious diseases, rheumatology, bariatrics and oncolgy

Psychiatry

Neurology

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Pediatrics which includes neonatology

Pathology which includes toxicology

Emergency medicine

Pharmicology

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine which also includes pain management

Considering a Career in Medicine?

 
Questions to Ask Yourself:

Exploration Resources and Opportunities:

Books

Organizations

American Medical Student Association (AMSA)

MIT’s Chapter of the American Medical Student Association (AMSA)

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)

The American Medical Association (AMA)

Gay and Lesbian Medical Association

Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA)

MIT Hippocratic Society

MIT Traditional Medicine Society

BioMatrix

MIT Biology Undergraduate Student Association

MIT Biological Engineering & Biomedical Engineering Society

Web Resources

Explore Health Careers

Student Doctor

AspiringDocs.org

Global Health Education Consortium

World of Rural Medical Education

Informational Interviews

MIT Alumni: ICAN

Networking 101

Opportunities

Research Opportunities

MIT Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

National Institue of Health (NIH)

AAMC List of Summer Undergraduate Research Programs

Volunteer Work

Examples of MIT Opportunities

Medlinks: Students Promoting Health at MIT

MIT EMT

MIT Public Service Center

Examples of Non-MIT Opportunities

Boston Medical Reserve Corps

Community Health Worker Initiative of Boston

Boston Healthcare for the Homeless Program

Hepatitis B Initiative

Medical Interpreter Training

Massachusetts League of Community Health Centers

Search Engines

Volunteer Match

Volunteer Solutions, Inc.

Idealist

United Way of Massachusetts

Local Hospitals

Complete List of volunteer opportunities at local hospitals

Summer Programs

Summer Program Workshop

Summer Medical and Dental Education Programs (SMDEP)

AAMC Database of Summer Enrichment Programs

Internships

MIT Career Development Center

Health Career Connection Summer Internship

MISTI

MIT Physician Shadow Program

Physician shadow opportunities for current MIT students are offered during IAP and spring semester through local area hospitals (Massachusetts General Hospital, Tufts Medical Center, and the Boston Children’s Hospital). Announcements on how to sign-up for a shadow opportunity are sent via e-mail to the prehealth e-mail lists in late November each Fall semester. To sign-up to be on a prehealth e-mail list vist the Preprofessional Advising home page for instructions.

Requirements for participating in the shadow program include meeting MIT’s health requirements (immunizations and vaccinations), signing hospital observer agreements and submission of a resume.

2010 MIT Physician Shadow Program Information - The 2010 program has closed. Information about the 2011 program will be posted in late Fall.

 

GOOD GOVERNANCE


 

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble Chief Minister congratulates players for enhancing prestige and honour of Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow: 10 October 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.

Mayawati has extended her heartiest felicitations and

good wishes to the players who have enhanced the

prestige and honour of Uttar Pradesh by winning the

medals in Commonwealth Games. She said that the

State Government is committed to encourage the sports

in the State and provide all possible facilities to players.

Hon’ble Chief Minister has appreciated the

achievements of Mr. Onkar- shooting (Azamgarh), Km.

Renu Bala- weight lifting(Lucknow), Km. Alka Tomarwrestling(

Meerut) and Mr. Imran Hasanshooting(

Bareilly) for winning Gold Medals and Mr.

Rituraj Chatterji- Archery(Varanasi), Km. Sonia Chanu –

weight lifting(Sports College Lucknow) for Silver Medals

and Mr. Ashish- Gymnastics(Allahabad) for Silver and

Bronze Medals.

************

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