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Dr Ambedkar’s Buddha painting with open eye at Chicholi-LESSON 67 FOUR JHANAS PART VII 23 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:”If there is no other world and there is no fruit and ripening of actions well done or ill done, then here and now in this life I shall be free from hostility, affliction, and anxiety, and I shall live happily.- The Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Second phase of Bihar elections-list of candidates - Bahujan Samaj Party (45)
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LESSON 67 FOUR JHANAS PART VII  23 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

“If there is no other world and there is no fruit and ripening of actions well done or ill done, then here and now in this life I shall be free from hostility, affliction, and anxiety, and I shall live happily.- The Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!


Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss






Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches










































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English Section

The Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation
by Bhikkhu Henepola Gunaratana

Chapter 1


The Doctrinal Context of Jhana

The Buddha says that just as in the great ocean there is but one taste, the taste of salt, so in his doctrine and discipline there is but one taste, the taste of freedom. The taste of freedom that pervades the Buddha’s teaching is the taste of spiritual freedom, which from the Buddhist perspective means freedom from suffering. In the process leading to deliverance from suffering, meditation is the means of generating the inner awakening required for liberation. The methods of meditation taught in the Theravada Buddhist tradition are based on the Buddha’s own experience, forged by him in the course of his own quest for enlightenment. They are designed to re-create in the disciple who practices them the same essential enlightenment that the Buddha himself attained when he sat beneath the Bodhi tree, the awakening to the Four Noble Truths.

The various subjects and methods of meditation expounded in the Theravada Buddhist scriptures — the Pali Canon and its commentaries — divide into two inter-related systems. One is called the development of serenity (samathabhavana), the other the development of insight (vipassanabhavana). The former also goes under the name of development of concentration (samadhibhavana), the latter the development of wisdom (pannabhavana). The practice of serenity meditation aims at developing a calm, concentrated, unified mind as a means of experiencing inner peace and as a basis for wisdom. The practice of insight meditation aims at gaining a direct understanding of the real nature of phenomena. Of the two, the development of insight is regarded by Buddhism as the essential key to liberation, the direct antidote to the ignorance underlying bondage and suffering. Whereas serenity meditation is recognized as common to both Buddhist and non-Buddhist contemplative disciplines, insight meditation is held to be the unique discovery of the Buddha and an unparalleled feature of his path. However, because the growth of insight presupposes a certain degree of concentration, and serenity meditation helps to achieve this, the development of serenity also claims an incontestable place in the Buddhist meditative process. Together the two types of meditation work to make the mind a fit instrument for enlightenment. With his mind unified by means of the development of serenity, made sharp and bright by the development of insight, the meditator can proceed unobstructed to reach the end of suffering, Nibbana.

Pivotal to both systems of meditation, though belonging inherently to the side of serenity, is a set of meditative attainments called the jhanas. Though translators have offered various renderings of this word, ranging from the feeble “musing” to the misleading “trance” and the ambiguous “meditation,” we prefer to leave the word untranslated and to let its meaning emerge from its contextual usages. From these it is clear that the jhanas are states of deep mental unification which result from the centering of the mind upon a single object with such power of attention that a total immersion in the object takes place. The early suttas speak of four jhanas, named simply after their numerical position in the series: the first jhana, the second jhana, the third jhana and the forth jhana. In the suttas the four repeatedly appear each described by a standard formula which we will examine later in detail.

The importance of the jhanas in the Buddhist path can readily be gauged from the frequency with which they are mentioned throughout the suttas. The jhanas figure prominently both in the Buddha’s own experience and in his exhortation to disciples. In his childhood, while attending an annual ploughing festival, the future Buddha spontaneously entered the first jhana. It was the memory of this childhood incident, many years later after his futile pursuit of austerities, that revealed to him the way to enlightenment during his period of deepest despondency (M.i, 246-47). After taking his seat beneath the Bodhi tree, the Buddha enter the four jhanas immediately before direction his mind to the threefold knowledge that issued in his enlightenment (M.i.247-49). Throughout his active career the four jhanas remained “his heavenly dwelling” (D.iii,220) to which he resorted in order to live happily here and now. His understanding of the corruption, purification and emergence in the jhanas and other meditative attainments is one of the Tathagata’s ten powers which enable him to turn the matchless wheel of the Dhamma (M.i,70). Just before his passing away the Buddha entered the jhanas in direct and reverse order, and the passing away itself took place directly from the fourth jhana (D.ii,156).

The Buddha is constantly seen in the suttas encouraging his disciples to develop jhana. The four jhanas are invariably included in the complete course of training laid down for disciples. [1] They figure in the training as the discipline of higher consciousness (adhicittasikkha), right concentration (sammasamadhi) of the Noble Eightfold Path, and the faculty and power of concentration (samadhindriya, samadhibala). Though a vehicle of dry insight can be found, indications are that this path is not an easy one, lacking the aid of the powerful serenity available to the practitioner of jhana. The way of the jhana attainer seems by comparison smoother and more pleasurable (A.ii,150-52). The Buddha even refers to the four jhanas figuratively as a kind of Nibbana: he calls them immediately visible Nibbana, factorial Nibbana, Nibbana here and now (A.iv,453-54).

To attain the jhanas, the meditator must begin by eliminating the unwholesome mental states obstructing inner collectedness, generally grouped together as the five hindrances (pancanivarana): sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry and doubt.[2] The mind’s absorption on its object is brought about by five opposing mental states — applied thought, sustained thought, rapture, happiness and one pointedness [3] — called the jhana factors (jhanangani) because they lift the mind to the level of the first jhana and remain there as its defining components.

After reaching the first jhana the ardent meditator can go on to reach the higher jhanas, which is done by eliminating the coarser factors in each jhana. Beyond the four jhanas lies another fourfold set of higher meditative states which deepen still further the element of serenity. These attainments (aruppa), are the base of boundless space, the base of boundless consciousness, the base of nothingness, and the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.[4] In the Pali commentaries these come to be called the four immaterial jhanas (arupajhana), the four preceding states being renamed for the sake of clarity, the four fine-material jhanas (rupajhana). Often the two sets are joined together under the collective title of the eight jhanas or the eight attainments (atthasamapattiyo).

The four jhanas and the four immaterial attainments appear initially as mundane states of deep serenity pertaining to the preliminary stage of the Buddhist path, and on this level they help provide the base of concentration needed for wisdom to arise. But the four jhanas again reappear in a later stage in the development of the path, in direct association with liberating wisdom, and they are then designated the supramundane (lokuttara) jhanas. These supramundane jhanas are the levels of concentration pertaining to the four degrees of enlightenment experience called the supramundane paths (magga) and the stages of liberation resulting form them, the four fruits (phala).

Finally, even after full liberation is achieved, the mundane jhanas can still remain as attainments available to the fully liberated person, part of his untrammeled contemplative experience.

Etymology of Jhana

The great Buddhist commentator Buddhaghosa traces the Pali word “jhana” (Skt. dhyana) to two verbal forms. One, the etymologically correct derivation, is the verb jhayati, meaning to think or meditate; the other is a more playful derivation, intended to illuminate its function rather than its verbal source, from the verb jhapeti meaning to burn up. He explains: “It burns up opposing states, thus it is jhana” (Vin.A. i, 116), the purport being that jhana “burns up” or destroys the mental defilements preventing the developing the development of serenity and insight.

In the same passage Buddhaghosa says that jhana has the characteristic mark of contemplation (upanijjhana). Contemplation, he states, is twofold: the contemplation of the object and the contemplation of the characteristics of phenomena. The former is exercised by the eight attainments of serenity together with their access, since these contemplate the object used as the basis for developing concentration; for this reason these attainments are given the name “jhana” in the mainstream of Pali meditative exposition. However, Buddhaghosa also allows that the term “jhana” can be extended loosely to insight (vipassana), the paths and the fruits on the ground that these perform the work of contemplating the characteristics of things the three marks of impermanence, suffering and non-self in the case of insight, Nibbana in the case of the paths and fruits.

In brief the twofold meaning of jhana as “contemplation” and “burning up” can be brought into connection with the meditative process as follows. By fixing his mind on the object the meditator reduces and eliminates the lower mental qualities such as the five hindrances and promotes the growth of the higher qualities such as the jhana factors, which lead the mind to complete absorption in the object. Then by contemplating the characteristics of phenomena with insight, the meditator eventually reaches the supramundane jhana of the four paths, and with this jhana he burns up the defilements and attains the liberating experience of the fruits.

Jhana and Samadhi

In the vocabulary of Buddhist meditation the word “jhana” is closely connected with another word, “samadhi” generally rendered by “concentration.” Samadhi derives from the prefixed verbal root sam-a-dha, meaning to collect or to bring together, thus suggesting the concentration or unification of the mind. The word “samadhi” is almost interchangeable with the word “samatha,” serenity, though the latter comes from a different root, sam, meaning to become calm.

In the suttas samadhi is defined as mental one-pointedness, (cittass’ekaggata M.i,301) and this definition is followed through rigorously in the Abhidhamma. The Abhidhamma treats one-pointedness as a distinct mental factor present in every state of consciousness, exercising the function of unifying the mind on its object. From this strict psychological standpoint samadhi can be present in unwholesome states of consciousness as well as in wholesome an neutral states. In its unwholesome forms it is called “wrong concentration” (micchasamadhi), In its wholesome forms “right concentration” (sammasamadhi).

In expositions on the practice of meditation, however, samadhi is limited to one-pointedness of mind (Vism.84-85; PP.84-85), and even here we can understand from the context that the word means only the wholesome one-pointedness involved in the deliberate transmutation of the mind to a heightened level of calm. Thus Buddhaghosa explains samadhi etymologically as “the centering of consciousness and consciousness concomitants evenly and rightly on a single object … the state in virtue of which consciousness and its concomitants remain evenly and rightly on a single object, undistracted and unscattered” (Vism.84-85; PP.85).

However, despite the commentator’s bid for consistency, the word samadhi is used in the Pali literature on meditation with varying degrees of specificity of meaning. In the narrowest sense, as defined by Buddhaghosa, it denotes the particular mental factor responsible for the concentrating of the mind, namely, one-pointedness. In a wider sense it can signify the states of unified consciousness that result from the strengthening of concentration, i.e. the meditative attainments of serenity and the stages leading up to them. And in a still wider sense the word samadhi can be applied to the method of practice used to produce and cultivate these refined states of concentration, here being equivalent to the development of serenity. It is in the second sense that samadhi and jhana come closest in meaning. The Buddha explains right concentration as the four jhanas (D.ii,313), and in doing so allows concentration to encompass the meditative attainments signified by the jhanas. However, even though jhana and samadhi can overlap in denotation, certain differences in their suggested and contextual meanings prevent unqualified identification of the two terms. First behind the Buddha’s use of the jhana formula to explain right concentration lies a more technical understanding of the terms. According to this understanding samadhi can be narrowed down in range to signify only one mental factor, the most prominent in the jhana, namely, one-pointedness, while the word “jhana” itself must be seen as encompassing the state of consciousness in its entirety, or at least the whole group of mental factors individuating that meditative state as a jhana.

In the second place, when samadhi is considered in its broader meaning it involves a wider range of reference than jhana. The Pali exegetical tradition recognizes three levels of samadhi: preliminary concentration (parikammasamadhi), which is produced as a result of the meditator’s initial efforts to focus his mind on his meditation subject; access concentration (upacarasamadhi), marked by the suppression of the five hindrances, the manifestation of the jhana factors, and the appearance of a luminous mental replica of the meditation object called the counterpart sign (patibhaganimitta); and absorption concentration (appanasamadhi), the complete immersion of the mind in its object effected by the full maturation of the jhana factors.[5] Absorption concentration comprises the eight attainments, the four immaterial attainments, and to this extent jhana and samadhi coincide. However, samadhi still has a broader scope than jhana, since it includes not only the jhanas themselves but also the two preparatory degrees of concentration leading up to them. Further, samadhi also covers a still different type of concentration called momentary concentration (khanikasamadhi), the mobile mental stabilization produced in the course of insight contemplation of the passing flow of phenomena.

[1] See for example, the Samannaphala Sutta (D. 2), the Culahatthipadopama Sutta (M. 27),etc.
[2] Kamacchanda, byapada, thinamiddha, uddhaccakukkucca, vicikiccha.

[3] Vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata.
[4] Akasanancayatana, vinnanancayatana, akincannayatana, nevasannanasannayatana.
[5] See Narada, A Manual of Abhidhamma. 4th ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980), pp.389, 395-96


Babasaheb Dr Ambedkar, Father of Indian Constitution said………..

* Become as fierce as a tiger, nobody then shall bother you……..* Fraternity
is the only real safeguard against the denial of liberty or equality………..*
If you want the administrative class to be responsible, then the legislative
should be well represnted…………..* Positively my social Philosophy may be
said to be enshrined in three words: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity……*
Democracy primarily has two enemies, one is dictotorship and the other is the
culture harboring inequalities…….* Those who want the Co-operation of
depressed class, should first give them justice…………….* My mesage is
struggle, and more struggle, sacrifice and more sacrifice. It is struggle and
struggle alone without counting the sacrifices or sufferings that will bring
their emancipation. Nothing else will…….. * Buddha was born as a son of man
and was content to remain a common man and preached his gospel as a common man.
He never claimed any
supernatural origin or supernatural power nor did he perform miracles to prove
his supernatural powers……………

* Dr. Milind Jiwane

Second phase of Bihar elections -Factfile

list of candidates - Bahujan Samaj Party (45)

The second of the six phases of the month-long elections to the Bihar state assembly is to be held Sunday.

Number of assembly constituencies - 45

Total voters - 9,844,981 (5,28,0234 men and 4,56,4747 women)

Total number of candidates - 623

Total number of woman candidates - 46

Assembly constituency with maximum candidates - Kanti (24 candidates)

Assembly constituency with minimum candidates - Rosera (Scheduled Caste - six candidates)

Party-wise list of candidates - Bahujan Samaj Party (45), Bharatiya Janata Party (17), Communist Party India (8), Congress (45), Nationalist Congress Party (31), Janata Dal-United (28), Rashtriya Janata Dal (34) and other parties (168).

Independent candidates - 228

Electronic voting machines to be used - 25,025

Largest assembly constituency area-wise - Warisnagar

Largest assembly constituency voter-wise - Kalyanpur

Smallest assembly constituency voter-wise - Madhuban


Nanobiotechnology is the branch of nanotechnology with biological and biochemical applications or uses. Nanobiotechnology often studies existing elements of nature in order to fabricate new devices.[1]

The term bionanotechnology is often used interchangeably with nanobiotechnology, though a distinction is sometimes drawn between the two. If the two are distinguished, nanobiotechnology usually refers to the use of nanotechnology to further the goals of biotechnology, while bionanotechnology might refer to any overlap between biology and nanotechnology, including the use of biomolecules as part of or as an inspiration for nanotechnological devices.[2]

Nanobiotechnology is that branch of one, which deals with the study and application of biological and biochemical activities from elements of nature to fabricate new devices like biosensors.

Nanobiotechnology is often used to describe the overlapping multidisciplinary activities associated with biosensors - particularly where photonics, chemistry, biology, biophysics nanomedicine and engineeringconverge. Measurement in biology using for example, waveguide techniques such as dual polarisation interferometry are another example.


One example of current nanobiotechnological research involves nanospheres coated with fluorescent polymers. Researchers are seeking to design polymers whose fluorescence is quenched when they encounter specific molecules. Different polymers would detect different metabolites. The polymer-coated spheres could become part of new biological assays, and the technology might someday lead to particles that could be introduced into the human body to track down metabolites associated with tumors and other health problems. Nanobiotechnology is relatively new to medical, consumer, and corporate bodies.

Antibody-Nanoparticle Computational Modeling

The conjugation of antibodies and nanoparticles with high affinity & specificity through receptor-ligand recognition modes is of paramount importance in the development of vehicles which can be used for diagnosis, treatment of cancer and various other diseases, application of immunodiagnostic nano-biosensors etc. The bio-nanocomplex formed by an artificial nanomaterial (nanoliposomes and nanoparticles) and a biological entity such as an antibody is brought about by the formation of covalent bonds based on their specific chemical and structural properties such as water solubility, biocompatibility, and biodegradability.[3] There is a requirement of a comprehensive understanding of the relationship of the thermodynamic & kinetic aspects of antibody-membrane association, translational, rotational mobilities of membrane bound antibodies, interactions with the diverse cell surface, circulating molecules and various artificial nanomolecules as well as the conformation. These details are of great importance in the development, application of various nanoscale immunodiagnostic devices. The association of antibodies with cell surfaces is a key molecular event in antibody-mediated immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis, antibody mediated immune dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.[4]

Recently it has been noted that there exists certain natural proteins, antibodies, that can recognize specific nanoparticles . For example, a specific antibody from the mouse immune system can specifically recognize derivatized C60 fullerenes with a binding affinity of about 25 nM.[3] From the studies carried out by Noon et al., it is hypothesized that the fullerene-binding site is formed at the interface of the light and heavy chains lined with a cluster of shape-complementary hydrophobic amino acid residues. As the covalent modifications of the functionalized fullerenes, occupy only a small fraction of the particle surface area, the largely unoccupied surface would be free to interact with the antibody. Therefore, in order to gain in-depth understanding of the detailed interactions of the nps and the antibody, molecular dynamics simulation is carried out using molecular dynamics simulation; the purpose of our theoretical modeling studies is to be able to identify the energetically favorable binding modes.[5]

For the modeling study, the initial coordinates of the antibody can be made available from the Protein Data Bank (PDB).[3][6]

The basic assumptions, as a first approximation, during the modeling study would be that the hydrophilic derivatizations do not play a critical role in the predominantly hydrophobic nanomaterial-antibody interactions and that the electronic structure remains undisturbed during the conjugation. The nanoparticle is docked into a suggested binding site from the previously done literature studies.[3] Polar-hydrogen potential function (PARAM19) and a modified TIP3P water solvent model for the protein is used.[1].

The simulation involves approximately 300 steps of minimization, using the Steepest Descent and the Newton Raphson method. To reduce the necessary simulation time, a highly efficient method for simulating the localized interactions in the active site of a protein, the stochastic boundary molecular dynamics (SBMD) is used. The reference point for partitioning the system in SBMD was chosen to be near the center of the nanomaterials, which is assumed to be a uniform sphere. The complex nano-bio system can be assumed to be separated into spherical reservoir and reaction zones; the latter is further sub-divided into a reaction region and a buffer region. The atoms in the reaction region are propagated by molecular dynamics, whereas those in the buffer region involve Langevin dynamics are retained using harmonic restoring forces.

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