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10/09/10
10th Oct 2010 @ 10AM 10 mins. & 10 secs. It is 10.10.10.10.10.10 that comes once in 1000 years-LESSON 54 FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS 10 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared. - Buddha-WISDOM IS POWER-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Grateful Nation remembers Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji with great respect and honour Hon’ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji pays tributes to BSP founder Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji on his fourth death anniversary BSP Government of Uttar Pradesh has honoured Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji-U.P. Government complied with the orders of Hon’ble Supreme Court and Hon’ble High Court-Hon’ble C. M. greets people on Agrasen Jayanti-Nano-biotechnology meet in Bangalore
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 11:37 pm

 

10th Oct 2010 @ 10AM 10 mins. & 10 secs. It is

                                      10.10.10.10.10.10                                     

that comes once in 1000 years

To the one who had

Committed his entire life to

PraBuddha Bharath’s Scheduled Castes/

Scheduled Tribes,

Backward classes and

Other neglected sections

To make them stand

On their own feet

With dignity

A grateful nation pays

Its humble homage

On the solemn occasion of

“the 4th death anniversary”

(October 9, 2010)

Of

Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji

shri-kanshiram-smarak-sthal

LESSON  54 FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS 10 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!       SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared. - Buddha

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mlQDdBn_2Q

Music Video - Five Precepts - ศีล 5

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbDt7szNWNA&feature=related

Five Precepts for Kids

http://online.sfsu.edu/~rone/Buddhism/FivePrecepts/fiveprecepts.html

Five Moral Precepts

Compiled by Dr Ron Epstein 
Philosophy Department
 
San Francisco State University 
Please send all comments, suggestions, and corrections to epstein@sfsu.edu
.








The Five
No Killing or Harming of Sentient Life
No Stealing or Taking What is Not Given
No Sexual Misconduct
No False Speech
No Taking of Intoxicants








The Five

“Five Moral Precepts, “ Buddhism A to Z
“Why Should We Take the Five Precepts?” Excerpted from the Teachings of the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua (1918-1995)
“Precepts for Laypeople” by Ajaan Lee
“The Healing Power of the Precepts” by Thanissaro Bhikkhu 
“The Five Precepts,” Path to Freedom 
“The Five Precepts,” Going for Refuge, Taking the Precepts by Bhikkhu Bodhi
“The Five Precepts of the Layperson” Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
“Aiding Practices of the Bodhimanda,” Shurangama Sutra (.pdf file) 
“The Lesser Section on Virtue”
“Sankha Sutta: The Conch Trumpet” 
“Sunakkhatta Sutta”–Claiming that one is enlightened does not justify unrestrained behavior
Pañcasila — the Five Precepts (for lay men and women) 
“Abhisanda Sutta”–The rewards of observing the precepts: AN VIII.39 
“Vipaka Sutta”–The consequences of failing to observe the precepts: AN VIII.40 

No Killing or Harming of Sentient Life

“The Precept Against Killing,” From Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
Buddhist Resources on Vegetarianism and Animal Welfare
“Buddhist Ideas for Attaining World Peace” by Ron Epstein 
“Violence and Disruption in Society: A Study of the Early Buddhist Texts” by Elizabeth J. Harris
“WHO: 1.6 million die in violence annually” by Thomas H. Maugh II
“Deaths by Mass Unpleasantness: Estimated Totals for the Entire  20th Century” 
“Youth violence connected to aggression at home” by Anand Vaishnav
“Violence Unabated: Children’s Programming in A Cynical Age” by George Gerbner
“Highlights of the Television Violence Profile”

“TV today, violence tomorrow: Study links viewing by kids to aggression later in life” by Nanette Asimov
“Spanking Causes Misbehavior”
“Analysis of Studies Suggests Abortion Can Raise Breast Cancer Risk” by Jane E. Brody

No Stealing or Taking What is Not Given

“The Precept Against Stealing,” Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
“Contemplations to Inspire the Avoidance of Stealing,” Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom

No Sexual Misconduct

“The Precept Against Sexual Misconduct,” Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
“The Offenses and Retributions Inherent in Adultery“, Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
“Cancer, Infidelity Link Eyed” by Paul Recer
“Coconspirator? Genital Herpes Linked to Cervical Cancer” by Nathan Seppa 
“Sex and Lifespan”

No False Speech

“The Precept Against False Speech,” Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
“Lies Parents Tell Themselves about Why They Work” by Shannon Brownlee and Matthew Miller

No Taking of Intoxicants

“The Precept Against Consuming Intoxicants,” Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom
“A Discipline of Sobriety” by Bhikkhu Bodhi
“Alcohol’s Erroneous Ways Revealed” by Emma Young 
“Cannabis Smoking ‘More Harmful’ than Tobacco” by Emma Young
“Cannabis Link to MentalIillness Strengthened” by Emma Young
“Warning Over Light Pregnancy Drinking”
“Alcohol Increases Breast Cancer Risk” 
“Alcohol or Drug Link Found in 80 Percent of U.S. Prisoners” by Christopher S. Wren
“Why We Are All Addicted” by Andrew Weil, M.D.
“AMA Urges Ban on Alcohol Ads” by Suzanne C. Ryan
“Cocaine Kills Brain’s ‘Pleasure’ Cells”
“Study of Twins Backs Marijuana-Drug Link

http://www.bhaisajyaguru.com/buddhist-ayurveda-encylopedia/five_moral_precepts_pancha-shila_panca-sila_wu-jye_sikkhapada_mindfulness-trainings.htm

Five Moral Precepts

The Five Moral Precepts are prohibitions against 1) killing, 2) stealing, 3) sexual misconduct, 4) false speech, and 5) taking intoxicants.

“The Five Precepts prohibit killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and taking intoxicants. Why should one keep the Five Precepts? In order to:

Do no evil, yet 
Reverently practice good deeds.

Do not kill; do not steal; do not commit sexual misconduct; do not engage in false speech; do not take intoxicants. If you observe the Five precepts, you do not do these five kinds of evil deeds and you instead practice good acts.

1. No Killing - Be Vegetarian where possible.

“Why should one refrain from killing? It is because all living beings have a life; they love their life and do not wish to die. Even one of the smallest creatures, the mosquito, when it approaches to bite you, will fly away if you make the slightest motion. Why does it fly away? Because it fears death. It figures that if it drinks your blood you will take its life. From this you can see that all living beings love life and do not wish to die. Especially people. Everyone wants to live and no one wants to die. Although people sometimes commit suicide, ordinarily people do not seek death. Suicide is a special exception to the principle. That is why we should nurture compassionate thought. Since we wish to live, we should not kill any other living beings. That explains the precept against killing.

pāṇātipātā veramaṇī: ‘abstaining from the killing of living beings’, is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all Buddhists; s. sikkhāpada (Source: Mahathera, 2007)

2. No Stealing - Do not take that which is not given.

“Stealing. If you don’t steal, no one will steal from you. Many of you have heard this verse I wrote:

If in this life you don’t cage birds, 
in future lives you will not sit in jail. 
If in this life you do not fish, 
in future lives you will not beg for food. 
If in this life you do not kill, 
in future lives you’ll suffer no disasters. 
If in this life you do not steal, 
in future lives you won’t be robbed. 
If in this life you commit no sexual misconduct, 
in future lives you will not be divorced. 
If in this life you do not lie, 
in future lives you will not be deceived. 
If in this life you do not take intoxicants, in future lives you will not go insane . . . .

“Some people say, ‘Of the Five Precepts, the four which prohibit killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, and lying are very important. But taking intoxicants is a very commonplace thing. Why prohibit that?’ When you consume intoxicants, it becomes very easy to break the other precepts. Thus, we ban such things as drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, and taking any kind of intoxicating drugs.

5. No Alcohol - No drug, no cigarettes

“Some people say, ‘The Five Precepts don’t specifically prohibit smoking tobacco or taking drugs. Doing those things is not in violation of the precepts.’ Those people are wrong. The precept against intoxicants also prohibits smoking tobacco, taking drugs, and using all intoxicating substances — including marijuana and opium.” (BRF 59-60)

“Someone may say, however, ‘I understand why one should not kill. After all, all living beings have the Buddha-nature, all can become Buddhas, and so every living being’s life should be spared. I also understand why stealing is not good and that it is important to refrain from indulging in sexual misconduct and lying, but why are intoxicants included within the Five Precepts? I always enjoyed drinking and smoking. Everybody drinks. Everybody smokes. What’s wrong with it? In fact I’m seriously considering dropping my study of the Buddhadharma just because of this prohibition against intoxicants.’

“You should stop and think about it, instead of just following the crowd. Others enjoy smoking, and so you join them; others enjoy drinking , and so you drink too. You get caught up in such company and do the things they do until eventually you get the habit as well. Most people don’t have grave illnesses, rather merely slight sicknesses and little problems. But just on account of those slight problems you would consider cutting short your study of the Buddhadharma. How stupid that would be! Do you want to know why there is a prohibition against alcohol? I’ll tell you a true story which should clarify this point.

“There once was a man who liked to drink. He took the Five Precepts, but afterwards he didn’t keep them . . . . One day he thought, ‘Perhaps I’ll have a little drink of wine’ He took out a bottle and had a few swallows. He was accustomed to having something to eat with his drink, so he set the bottle down and went outside to look for something to eat. He noticed that his neighbor’s chicken had strayed over into his yard. ‘Good,’ he thought, ‘it will make a good chaser,’ and he snatched up the pullet. At that point he broke the precept against stealing. Once he’d stolen it, he had to kill it before he could eat it, and so he broke the precept against killing. Once the chicken was cooked, he used it to chase down his wine, and soon he was roaring drunk, thus braking once again the precept against the use of intoxicants. About that time there was a knock at his door. It was the neighbor lady in search of her chicken. ‘I haven’t seen it, he blurted out, thereby breaking the precept against lying.

A second glance at the neighbor lady revealed her beauty to him and, aroused by an overpowering sexual desire, he raped her.

Afterwards he was met with litigation. All that came about because he wanted to drink. Just because he had a few drinks, he broke the other four precepts and got into a lot of trouble. Intoxicants cause one to become confused and scattered, and so they re the object of one of the Buddhist prohibitions. A person who is drunk lacks self-control.

With no forewarning he can find himself suddenly in the heavens, suddenly on earth. He mounts the clouds and drives the fog–he’ll do anything . . . .

“The Five Precepts are extremely important. Strict adherence to them will insure rebirth in the realm of humans. If you cultivate the Five Precepts, you won’t lose the opportunity to be born a person.

“If you receive the Five Precepts and do not violate them, then you are protected by good Dharma-protecting spirits, who are connected with each precept. If you break the precepts, the good spirits leave and no longer protect you. That is why receiving the precepts is extremely important in Buddhism.” (SS I 46-47)

1) Chinese Mandarin: wu jye , 2) Sanskrit: panca-sila; 3) Pali: panca-sila, sikkhapada; Alternate Translations: Five Items of Good Behavior.

See also: moral precepts, Five School of Buddhism (Vinaya), Ten Wholesome Deeds, Samaya of Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism

(Source: Epstein, 2003: pp. 83 - 85)

Buddhist Text Translation Society (http://www.BTTSonline.org) References: BRF 59-61; DFS II 211; DFS V 902-3; S42 75-76 (precepts); TT 58; SV 14-29; BNS I 73-97; FAS Ch26(2) 4, 10,17,20, 25-26, 28.

(NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under Shastra tradition and “Fair Use” by an Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor (Compiler) of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation)








Related Websites: 
www.Shakyamuni-Buddha.com, 
www.Amitabha-Buddha.com, www.Amitabha-Sutra.com, 
www.Bhaisajya-Guru.com, www.Medicine-Buddha.org,
www.Avatamsaka-Sutra.com, www.Flower-Adornment.com, 
www.Shurangama-Mantra.com, www.Shurangama-Sutra.com, 
www.Prajna-Paramita.com, www.Diamond-Sutra.net, www.Vajra-Sutra.com, 
www.Sixth-Patriarch.com, www.Dharani-Sutra.com, www.Sanghata-Sutra.com 
www.Manjushri-Bodhisattva.com, www.Avalokiteshvara-Bodhisattva.com, 
www.Samantabhadra-Bodhisattva.com, www.Ksitigarbha-Bodhisattva.com, www.Ksitigarbha.com, 
www.Nagarjuna-Bodhisattva.com, www.Nalanda-University.com, www.Tibetan-Thangka.com, 
www.Buddhist-Sutras.com, www.Buddhist-Sutra.com, www.Ayurvedic-College.org








Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya teachings 
(as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit-Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely BodhisattvaBhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples. 

These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Nagarjuna, Ashvaghosha, Aryasura Kumarajiva, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Chandragomin, Vasubandhu, Asanga, Hui Neng, Atisha,Kamalashila, Dharmarakshita, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Patanjali, Sushruta, Charaka, Vagbhata, Nichiren, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Shen Kai, Tenzin Gyatso, Kyabje Zopa, Ajahn Chah, Vasant Lad, and other modern day masters.  We consider them to be in accord with Master Hsuan Hua’s “Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers

Nalanda Online University’s teachings are based especially on the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, thePrajna Paramita Hridayam Sutra, the Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters

At Nalanda Online University we practice daily and introduce you to (via downloadable multimedia MP3 audio and WMV video lectures) the teachings and practices of the Five Traditions transmitted by the Buddha Shakyamuni: 

1.  Teaching School  (Mahayana Sutrayana - Paramitayana - Hua Yan and Tian Tai, Yogachara, Nalanda Prasangika Madhyamika, Theravada Sutta)   

See also: Tripitaka (1. Sutras, 2. Vinaya, 3. Shastras or Abhidharma, or Tantra), Taisho Catalog Numbering System, Dharma, and names of individual sutras (such as Shurangama Sutra, Avatamsaka Sutra[Flower Adornment Sutra], Lotus Sutra [Wonderful Dharma Flower Sutra], Earth Store Sutra, Dharani Sutra, Brahma Net Sutra, Medicine Master Buddha Sutra, Sixth Patriarch Platform Sutra, Sutra in 42 Sections,Sutra on the Buddha’s Bequeathed Teaching, et al.


2. 
 Moral Regulations School  (Vinaya Pratimoksha Shila - Bodhisattva Pranidhana - Vajrayana-Samaya - Yogic Yama)

3.  Esoteric School  (Vajrayana - Mantrayana - Tantrayana - Dharani - Secret School of the Mahayana)

4.  Meditation School  (Indian Dhyana Samadhi - Shamatha - Vipassana, Chinese Chan, Japanese Zen, 
        Tibetan Mahamudra of Kagyupa, and Tibetan Dzogchen of Nyingmapa)

5.  Pure Land Devotional School  (Bhakti Puja - Buddha-Bodhisattva Mindfulness and Nama Japa – 
         Name Recitation of Buddhas Amitabha-Amitayus, Medicine Buddha - Bhaisajya Guru - Akshobhya, 
         and Bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara-Guanyin-Chenrezig-Mahakala, Tara, Samantabhadra Universal Worthy, 
         Manjushri-Kalarupa Great Wisdom, Maitreya Great Loving-Kindness, Mahasthamaprapta Great Strength,  
         Ksitigarbha - Earth Store Great Vows, Vajrapani, Vajrasattva, 
         Chandraprabha Moonlight Radiance, Suryaprabha Sunlight Radiance, Medicine King Bodhisattva, Medicine Superior Bodhisattva
         and others Dharma Protecting Dharmapala Lokapala Bodhisattvas,
 Gods and Goddesses








Compilation Sources for the Above Material on the Teachings of the Buddha:

Primary Compilation Source: Epstein, Ronald B., Ph.D, compiler, Buddhist Text Translation Society’s Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003. ISBN: 0881393533  Paperback: 284 pages.  www.BTTSOnline.org     www.Amazon.com   
http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118     http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0881393533/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20

Secondary Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: www.budaedu.org.tw     

Secondary Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007:  Username is “guest”, with no password.
http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb - Based in large part on the Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by Soothill and Hodous) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.

Secondary Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991.  296 pages.  ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 www.Shambhala.com,   http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0877735204/ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20, 
http://www.shambhala.com/html/catalog/items/isbn/978-0-87773-520-5.cfm


















The Dharma is a Priceless Jewel, 
thus these research compilations
and audio and video teaching materials are 
offered free-of-charge by this anonymous Buddhist Monk
for the
 Bodhi Resolve benefit of All Sentient Beings in the Universe

…under a Creative Commons License.

< ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />

The rights to textual segments (”quoted, paraphrased, or excerpted”) of the are owned by the author-publisher indicated in the brackets next to each segment and are make available and commented on (under the “shastra tradition”) under Fair Use. For rights regarding the Buddhist “Encyclopaedia - Glossary - Dictionary” compilation as a whole, please know that it is offered under this Creative Commons License.
 








This Nalanda University site (www.Nalanda-University.com) 
is redacted by an anonymous Buddhist monk 
for the benefit of all living beings 
so they may diligently (virya paramita) cultivate freely to 
realize Bodhi enlightenment for the sake of all.  

On the Buddha Shakyamuni’s Birthday 2007, 
this free redaction is offered (received, upheld, read, recited, studied, pondered, explained, and written out), 
in accordance with the Lotus Saddharma Pundarika Sutra Chapter 19: “Merit and Virtue of a Dharma Master” as a 
selfless offering to the Buddhas and Bodhisattva Sangha above to adorn the Pure Lands and 
to liberate living beings suffering in samsara below by compassionately helping them to plant good roots in this and their future rebirths.
 
The merit is dedicated to anuttarasamyaksambodhi.

Increasing Effect Mantra:
Om Sambhara Sambhara (These Bhikshu Bodhisattva Bodhichitta Vows) Bimana Sara (Spread) Maha (Greatly) Java (Rapidly) Hum (recited 7x)

To increase by 100,000 times the merit created: 
Tadyatha Om Pancha Griya (five offerings or five faces) Ava Bodhani Svaha (7x)

Om Dhuru Dhuru Jaya (Victory) Mukhe (Face or Mouth) Svaha (7x)
 

I Now Universally Transfer the Merit and Virtue of to All Beings to realize Anuttara-Samyak-Sam-Bodhi 
(“Unsurpassed Proper and Equal Right Enlightenment”)

Sarva Mangalam. 
May all be Auspicious. 

Arya Bhikshu Shantideva’s Bodhisattvacharyavatara says: 
Just as Manjushri works 
To fulfill the aims of all limited beings 
To the far reaches of space in the ten directions, 
May my behavior become just like that. 

For as long as space remains, 
And for as long as wandering beings remain, 
May I too remain for that long, 
Dispelling the sufferings of wandering beings. 

(Like Ananda says in the Shurangama Sutra introduction to the Shurangama Mantra, 
“And even could the nature of shunyata melt away, my vajra-like Supreme Resolve would still remain unmoved.)

Whatever sufferings wandering beings might have, 
May all of them ripen on me, 
And through the Bodhisattva assembly, 
May wandering beings enjoy happiness.

May the teachings, 
the sole medicine for the sufferings of wandering beings 
And the source of all happiness,
Continue to endure for a very long time,
With material support and shows of respect.
 

Updated May 10, 2008

http://www.gardendigest.com/zen/ten.htm

http://www.bodhimonastery.net/bm/precepts.html

http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma2/5precepts.html

http://web.singnet.com.sg/~alankhoo/Precepts.htm

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Grateful Nation remembers Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji with great respect and honour

Hon’ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji pays tributes to BSP founder Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji on his fourth death anniversary

BSP Government of Uttar Pradesh has honoured Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji

Lucknow : October 09, 2010

The grateful nation today remembered Bahujan Nayak

Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji with great respect and honour today

who struggled throughout his life to provide rights to crores of

dalits, backwards and oppressed people of the Country to live

with dignity. Under the leadership of the Hon’ble Chief Minister of

U.P. and BSP National President Ms. Mayawati ji, crores of BSP

workers, office bearers, supporters, followers and Surv Samaj

people paid tributes to Bamcef, DS-4 and BSP founder Manyawar

Sri Kanshiram ji.

On the death anniversary (Punyatithi) of Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji, the Hon’ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji visited

Bahujan Samaj Prerna Kendra first, where she offered floral

tributes on Asthi Kalash of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji.

Afterwards, Hon’ble Chief Minister visited Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Smarak Sthal and paid floral tributes on his statue.

Before entering the main premises, she inspected the greenery

and cleanliness of the outer areas-jail road, VIP road and

Gitapalli marg. At Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Smarak Sthal, she

participated in the Shanti Path by Bauddha Monks. On this

occasion, Hon’ble Chief Minister did Cheever Daan to all Bauddha

Monks present there. She also visited Bauddha Vihar Shanti

Upvan and offered floral tributes to four-faceted statues of

Tathagat Gautam Buddha and Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji.

In the evening, Hon’ble Chief Minister offered floral tributes

on the statue of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji set-up at Samajik Parivartan Pratik Sthal, Gomti Nagar. Afterwards, she visited

Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sthal,

where she paid floral tributes to the statue of Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji at Pratibimb Sthal, whose inspiration was behind

the laying of foundation stone for the establishment of Dr.

Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sthal in 1995 during the

regime of BSP Government. On this occasion, she also visited Dr.

Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sangrahalaya, Samajik

Parivartan Gallery, Buddha Sthal, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Smarak

Drishya Sthal and paid homage to the statues of Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji established there. She also paid homage to all

saints, gurus and great men’s statues set-up in these premises.

After paying floral tributes to Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji

who provided a new thrust to the movement for social change,

the Hon’ble Chief Minister said that after the death of Param

Pujya Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji understood humanitarian movement of Baba Saheb

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar seriously and he took forward his

movement in a planned manner. She said that with a view to

organising dalits, backwards and other weaker sections of the

society, Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji had constituted Bahujan

Samaj Party on the anniversary of Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao

Ambedkar on 14th April, 1984.

Hon’ble Chief Minister said that Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji

had handed over the responsibility of Bahujan Samaj Party

during his lifetime to such a dynamic leadership, owing to which

people of opposition parties would never become successful in

withering away the BSP party.

Remembering the sacrifices and struggle of Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji towards BSP movement, Hon’ble Chief Minister said

that the contribution of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji in taking the

halted movement of Param Pujya Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao

Ambedkar forward with complete understanding and

responsibility could never be forgotten. His entire life was

dedicated to the establishment of equality based society in the

Country on the basis of social harmony. She said that BSP

Government in Uttar Pradesh was doing its best efforts to

remove inequality and establish mutual brotherhood among Sarv

Samaj following the path of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji. The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that her party Government

had done various important works to make the memories of

Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji everlasting, which include the

construction of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Smarak Sthal,

Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Prerna Dwar, Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Multi Speciality Hospital, Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji

Yadgar Vishram Sthal, Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Smriti Upvan,

Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Bal Chikitsalaya, Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Paryatan Prabandh Sansthan and Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Paryavaran Bhavan, besides setting up of Manyawar

Sri Kanshiram ji Engineering College of Information Technology

at Azamgarh and Ambedkar Nagar districts, Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Government Medical College at Saharanpur,

Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Agricultural and Technology

University at Banda. A district had also been created on the

name of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji, she added.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that in memory of this great

personality, the Government has started Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Shahari Garib Awas Yojana in all districts of the

State. The State Government has started Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji International Sports Award, Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Award for social change and Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji State Handloom Award, besides Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram ji Export Award. She said Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji

Bahujan Nayak Park is under construction in Lucknow at present.

The construction of Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Green Garden

(Eco) Park in Lucknow is in progress. All these works are a

humble homage to Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji from the grateful

Nation.

U.P. Government complied with the orders of Hon’ble Supreme Court and Hon’ble High Court

Lucknow : October 09, 2010

After paying tributes to Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji at

Smarak Sthal on his death anniversary, the Hon’ble Chief

Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji while talking to media

said that Uttar Pradesh completely complied with the orders of

the Hon’ble Supreme Court and Hon’ble High Court and regarded

it. She said that all works at Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji Smarak

Sthal, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sthal etc. had

become completed and no construction work was being taking

place at these memorials.

Hon’ble Chief Minister regretted that no Government either

in Uttar Pradesh or in the entire Country had honoured or

respected those saints, gurus and great men who took birth in

scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other backward sections in

the Country and struggled very hard to establish equality based

social system changing unequal social system. She said that

when BSP Government of Uttar Pradesh had honoured and

respected all such saints, gurus and great men in various forms

by constructing memorials, museum, park, statues etc., then

anti-dalit and such elements with casteist mentality made their

efforts to create hurdles in construction of these memorials and

malign the image of Uttar Pradesh Government by lodging false

complaints. More than that, these elements did not keep silence

and continuously made false allegations in the Hon’ble Supreme

Court and the Hon’ble High Court regarding continuation of

construction work at present, even after the completion of

construction works and these places being dedicated to the

people. On this occasion, she said to the media persons that after

becoming aware today, they should ask such elements where the

construction work was taking place.

Hon’ble C. M. greets people on Agrasen Jayanti

Lucknow: 07 October 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Ms.

Mayawati ji has greeted the people of the State, especially

the Vaishya community on the occasion of Maharaja Agrasen

Jayanti.

Hon’ble Chief Minister said that Maharaja Agrasen gave

the message of Sarv Samaj’s welfare by strengthening social

harmony and unity. In the present context, this message has

become more relevant, she added.

Ms. Mayawati ji said that Vaishya community played an

important role in the economic and social progress of the

Country. She expressed the hope that this community would

actively participate in the development process in future also.

*********

Friday, October 8, 2010

Rajya Sabha passes Women’s Reservation Bill

The controversial yet historic Women’s Reservation Bill, ensuring 33% reservation to women in Parliament and state legislative bodies, was passed in the Rajya Sabha on Tuesday after two days of high drama that saw suspension of seven members who violently disrupted proceedings.
The Bill, pushed by the government despite the threat of withdrawal of support by Samajwadi Party and RJD, was passed by a two-third majority, a day after it was moved in the House for consideration but could not be taken up because of unruly scenes.
Of the votes polled, 186 were in favour of the bill and only one was against.
The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill could get through with “unequivocal” support from the BJP and the Left in the Upper House where the ruling UPA coalition is in minority. The 245-member House has an effective strength of 233.
UPA ally Trinamool Congress, with two members in the Upper House, did not participate in the voting.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Leader of Opposition Arun Jaitley described the measure as “momentous and historic”.
BSP, having 12 members, walked out of the House saying the bill did not contain amendments suggested by it.
Lok Sabha also witnessed unruly scenes created by SP, RJD and JD(U) who forced four adjournments.
14 years after the first attempt was made inthe Lok Sabha and repeated failures subsequently, the Constitution amendment bill was adopted in the mandatory division with 186 members voting for it and one voting against.
In the 245-member House with an effective strength of 233, the bill required the backing of at least 155 members and the UPA had the clear support of 165 in the run up to the event.
The bill seeks to reserve for women 181 of the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha and 1,370 out of a total of 4,109 seats in the 28 State Assemblies.
Ruling UPA constituent Trinamool Congress,which has two members, kept away from voting, while 15-member BSP, which has opposed the bill in its present form, walked out before voting.
JD(U), whose present Sharad Yadav is a staunch opponent of the Bill, appears to have backed the Bill fully with most of its 7 members voting for it in response to the call by one of its senior leaders and Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar.
After frenzied opposition and repeated disruptions, the Rajya Sabha on Tuesday evening finally debated the historic women’s reservation bill in the run up to a vote on the legislation.
Amongst those who spoke were Bharatiya Janata Party’s (BJP) Arun Jaitley, CommunistParty of India-Marxist’s (CPI-M) Brinda Karat,
Bahujan Samaj Party’s (BSP) Satish Mishra and Jayanthi Natarajan of Congress.
Opening the debate was Jaitley, who said his party “unequivocally” supported the women’s bill but added that the privilege ofsupporting it had been diluted by “some of the most shameful incidents in India’s parliamentary history”.
The leader of the opposition in the Rajya Sabha, who spoke after the constitution amendment bill was put to vote by Chairman Hamid Ansari, said he had a feeling of being a party to history in the making when he came to the house.
Karat, a vocal supporter of the bill, said women’s reservation in parliament and state legislatures would change the “cultureof the country because women today are still caught in a culture prison. In the name of tradition, stereotypes are imposed and we have to fight these every day”.
These stereotypes will also be broken by thebill, said Karat, who believes the entry of a larger number of women in legislatures would make for “more sensitive politics”.
“The women’s reservation bill will ensure that women of Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Other Backward Classes, poor women and Muslim women would benefit from it,” Karat said, addressing concerns that the bill would benefit only some sections.
Congress leader and spokesperson Jayanti Natarajan also refuted critics demanding a special quota for Scheduled Caste women, saying Scheduled Castes and Tribals would continue to get reservation under the bill.
A triumphant Natarajan said no other party had the courage to deliver the promise (of reservation for women) to the people of India”. She said Congress president Sonia Gandhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singhhad not lagged behind in supporting measures for women’s empowerment.
However, Bahujan Samaj Party’s Satish Mishra said his party would not be able to support the proposed legislation in the current form. He wanted the prime ministerto reserve 50 percent of all seats in legislatures for women in line with their population ratio.
Shivanand Tiwari of the Janata Dal-United (JD-U) created a minor stir in the house by speaking in favour of the bill, which has been opposed vocally by a section of his colleagues led by party president Sharad Yadav.
The AIADMK’s V. Maitreyan pointed out that the bill was a great tribute to the Indian housewife who he said had proved to be better financial managers of the household”than all the finance ministers of India”.

The Women

*.More women participation in politics and society.
*.Social norms in India strongly favour men, therefore, reservation for women is expected to create equal opportunity for men and women.
*.Due to female foeticide .infantacide and issues related to women’s health, sex ratio in India is alarming at 1.06 males per female . It is expected this will change the society to give equal status to women.
*.Women are supposedly more resistant to corruption. Therefore, this bill might prove to be a factor restraining the growth of corruption.
*.Women will get 33% reservation after this bill is passed and condition of women will improve.

Possible drawbacks

Passing the Women Reservation Bill may cause bias in the democratic process because of the following reasons:
*.It may hurt the self respect of women who have come up on their own ability, it may result in lesser respect for women in the society. It may also bring down the quality of leaders.
*.Parties will be forced to find women whether or not the women identify with the overall party agenda and the rest of the issues concerning all citizens, as opposed tojust women issues. There are no provisions to prevent discrimination against men because of finding women whoare inclined towards women issues alone, or, in other words, biased against men.
*.Powerful male members of parties will be tempted to find female relatives to reserve the seat for themselves during the following cycle.
*.It is feared that reservation would only help women of the elitist groups to gain seats, therefore causing further discrimination and under-representation to the poor and backward classes (According to a National Election Study, 68 per cent of today’s women MPs are millionairesses).

Nano-biotechnology meet in Bangalore

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT

A two-day national conference on Molecular Medicine and Nano-biotechnology will be held at the NIMHANS Convention Centre here from October 13.

Organised jointly by the Department of Biotechnology, Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore, and the Department of Life Sciences, Reva Institute of Science and Management, Bangalore, the conference seeks to highlight and bring forth the latest trends and developments in the domains of molecular medicine and nano-biotechnology through plenary talks, paper and poster presentations, workshops and panel discussions.

Illustrious personalities from the field of medicine, pharmacy, bio-engineering, life sciences and clinical research, besides delegates representing academics, research and development institutes, bio-tech companies and publishing houses are expected to attend the event.

“Molecular medicine can now be defined as distinctive discipline, concerned with understanding the pathogenesis of diseases at molecular level. Based on this knowledge, specific molecular tools for diagnosis, treatment and prevention are designed,” said a statement from the organisers.

The conference will be inaugurated by Principal Secretary, Information Technology, Bio-Technology and Science and Technology, Government of Karnataka Ashok Kumar Manoli.

The conference will be sponsored by Krishnadevaraya Education Trust, Bangalore, and REVA Group of Educational Institutions, Bangalore. The Hindu is the media partner.

More information can be obtained on website www.abhyuday.co.in and by sending an e-mail to mmnbt2010@gmail.com. Interested persons can call Ph: 9916303565 or 9845030652.

http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=36800897

Nano-Biotechnology - A Boon to Mankind

Date Published: 26 Apr 2005

By Aravind T Seshagiri, Research Analsyt.

Sky is the limit; Future has no end; Growth knows no bounds; Technology Leaps!

Sounds too imaginative? Yes! Imagination is the key in human life and that is the main force behind every development of human lifestyle. Man founded technology, nurtured it, needless to say used it to perfection, and now, technology seems to have turned around and leading to ‘payback time’. What you sow, so you reap will be apt in describing the marriage of these two technologies; semiconductors and bio-tech; that has transformed into one called nano-biotechnology to form a branch called nanoway.

So what is it that we are talking about here? A techno-monitor: a chip that checks various parameters in a human body, and its functions and help in supplying appropriate potions/drugs to keep it going. Are we saying it is going to give life and increase the longevity of humans? Considering the impact that science and technology have had on the human race in the past, its natural to think that nothing is impossible.

What is Nano-biotechnology?

Nanotechnology (prefix ‘nano’ means dwarf in Greek) is an amalgamation of science and engineering that has effected the measurment in the lowest units (nanometer - billionth of a meter). Nanotechnology is a valuable contribution of the profound research by scientists and engineers to create new systems with novel functionalities. This gives nanotechnology greater share of control over a wide range of usage in applications right from high-density data to detecting DNA sequence to improved taste and wider variety of fruits and vegetables. On the commercial front, nanotechnology has enhanced every field in science, engineering, and technology; a phenomenal advantage, thus giving high efficiency and profitability.

Biotechnology is the application of biological research techniques to develop products that cater to the need of living beings.Nano-biotechnology, as the name suggests, is a mariage of nanotechnology and biotechnology. Each of these technologies has a tremendous impact by itself and therefore when they complement each other it results in efficacious fourth dimensional solutions.

Nanobiotechnology at its best

Technology is turning around to help the humans by providing easier methods to keep up a healthy living. As the population in the modern times ages, scientists are finding it difficult to manage the right combination of drugs to make them effective. The existing means of intake of drugs orally or through injections are becoming moderately effective and can be extremely painful due to the non-availability of accurate diagnosis.

One of the newer methods to deliver drugs at the right place, time, and amounts is being addressed through nano-biotechnology. Scientists and engineers have come out with new systems where the human-body parameters are monitored using a semiconductor chip that is placed inside a human body. The information recorded/acquired is then transmitted to another wrist-watch like equipment using telemetry, which, in turn, instructs the semiconductor chip to deliver the right amounts of drug to the right place.

For example: When a patient is being treated for diabetes, the semiconductor chip monitors the blood-sugar levels and passes on the information to the device outside of the body. The external device, in turn, instructs the semiconductor chip that acts as the drug delivery system, to release the right amounts of insulin into the blood, thus causing less or no side effects to the patient.

Summary

Nanotechnology used in biotechnology is definitely a life-saving innovation that has come as a boon to mankind. The above semiconductor chip application is just a modicum of what it is capable in terms of its impact on human race. The real applications can turn around the life-cycle of human beings in the years to come.

For comments or queries, please write to aseshagiri@frost.com

 

comments (0)
LESSON 53-We are the followers of Babasaheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar. So we are Buddhists-Kanshiram-EIGHTEEN REALMS 09 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Aboriginal Inhabitants of Jambudipa,i.e., the Great PraBuddha Bharath (Scheduled Caste)Buddhist movement-Rare pictures of Saheb Kanshi Ram Ji and Behan Mayawati-Mayawati pays floral tributes to Kanshi Ram
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 2:21 am

We are the followers of Babasaheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar. So we are Buddhists-Kanshiram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 2002, Kanshi Ram, a popular Scheduled caste(Aboriginal Inhabitant of Jambydipa,i.e., the Great PraBuddha Bharath) political leader from a Sikh religious background, announced his intention to convert to Buddhism on October 14, 2006, the fiftieth anniversary of Ambedkar’s conversion. He intended for 20,000,000 of his supporters to convert at the same time. Part of the significance of this plan was that Ram’s followers include not only Untouchables, but persons from a variety of castes, who could significantly broaden Buddhism’s support. However, he passed away October 9, 2006[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6032563.stm Indian Scheduled Caste leader passes away] ] after a lengthy illness; he was cremated as per Buddhist rituals [ [http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/10/stories/2006101003771200.htm Kanshi Ram cremated as per Buddhist rituals] 

Another popular Scheduled caste(Aboriginal Inhabitant of Jambydipa,i.e., the Great PraBuddha Bharath) leader, Bahujan Samaj Party chief Minister Ms.Mayawati, has said that she and her followers will embrace Buddhism after the BSP gains control of the government. [cite web
url = http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/10/stories/2006101003771200.htm
title = Kanshi Ram cremated as per Buddhist rituals
publisher = The Hindu
date = 2006-10-10
accessdate = 2007-08-30
]

 


 

LESSON  53 EIGHTEEN REALMS  09 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!       SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it. - Buddha

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

EIGHTEEN REALMS

Eighteen Realms

The Eighteen Realms are comprised of the Six Organs, the Six Objects, and the Six Consciousnesses.

The Six Organs are: 1) eyes, 2) ears, 3) nose, 4) tongue, 5) body, 6) mind.

The Six Objects are: 1) sights, 2) sounds, 3) smells/odors, 4) tastes/flavors, 5) objects of touch, 6) dharmas (or objects of mind).

The Six Consciousnesses are: 1) eye-consciousness , 2) ear- consciousness, 3) nose-consciousness, 4) tongue-consciousness, 5) body-consciousness, 6) mind-consciousness.

The Six Organs and the Six Objects taken together are known as the Twelve Bases. They are the bases for the production of the Six Consciousnesses.

Like the Five Skandhas, the Eighteen Realms are a way of analyzing the entire psycho-physical world as an aid to breaking attachments to it. Everything that we experience is included in the Eighteen Realms. The first five or the Six Objects include the entire external world. The first five of the Six Organs describe our physical bodies. Together they comprise the entire physical world. The mind organ, dharmas as objects of mind, and the Six Consciousnesses comprise the world of mind. All mental experience is included within them. Since both mental and physical worlds are completely included, there is no need for recourse to a real, permanent self or soul to describe any experience.

According to the teachings of the Mahayana, all dharmas are empty of any real, permanent, inherent identifying characteristics.

Therefore, in emptiness there . . . [are] no eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body or mind; no sights, sounds, smells, tastes, objects of touch or dharmas; no field of the eyes, up to and including no field of mind-consciousness. (HS 56-57)

1) Ch. , 2) Skt. , , 3) Pali , 4) Alternate Translations: fields, sense-fields, constituents, element, factors,psycho-physical constituent elements, elements in sense consciousness.

See also: Eight Consciousnesses.

BTTS References: HD 31; HS 56-59; PS 334-335

The Heart Sutra

“NO EYE, EAR, NOSE, TONGUE, BODY OR MIND; NO FORM,
SOUND, SMELL, TASTE, TOUCH OR MIND OBJECT; NO REALM OF THE EYE, UNTIL WE COME TO NO REALM OF CONSCIOUSNESS.”

This portion of the Sutra is the Teaching on Emptiness in connection with the eighteen worldly dharmas, or the eighteen realms; the uninstructed lack understanding of the Dharma, of Emptiness and repeatedly yield to the play of delusion as permanence and as independent existence. Ultimate Emptiness is not the obstinate void of the worldlings nor the annihilation view of those on the heterodox path; it is not the analysis of the Void as practiced by Theravadins, nor the Void of the present moment as perceived by the bodhisattva.

The supramundane Emptiness of True Existence is not possessed by buddhas alone: All of us are endowed with the same truth and would come to know it, if only we relinquished our discriminating mind; that is the supramundane Void of True Existence. In order to have correct practice it is not necessary to apply the method of Theravada, the Middle Vehicle or the Mahayana. Anyone can become buddha spontaneously by deeply comprehending that “all existence is Void.” The Arhat of Theravada is equal to a worldly person of great potential.

A worldling of superior potential can sharpen his/her wisdom and receive the radiant Dharma at any time. People of mundane concerns wear themselves out in the realm of the eighteen mundane dharmas that lead to confusion and craving; for them there can be no salvation. The six organs, i.e., eye, car, nose, tongue, body and mind, and the corresponding six sense- data or dust, i.e., form, sound, smell, taste, touch and mental formations generate the six kinds of consciousness, i.e., eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness, tongue consciousness, body consciousness and mind consciousness. The group is referred to as the eighteen realms or the eighteen mundane dharmas. To be conscious means to be conscious of something, to distinguish or to discriminate.

The average person works to make a living, eats and drinks every day always bound by the eighteen realms. He/she always sees with his/her eyes, hears with his/her ears, smells with his/her nose, tastes with his/her tongue, touches with his/her body and knows mental objects with his/her mind. The cognitive objects are discerned, produce sense data and from the six kinds of consciousness arise all the other functions.

People assume the reality of subject and object behind the process, unaware as they are of it being a mere assumption unverifiable by experience. To understand this doctrine means liberation, but getting confused about it means falling into the ocean of suffering. Six kinds of consciousness arise from the six organs and the six data. The six organs are useless to a dead body. How could the six kinds of consciousness receive the six data and act upon receiving them? Since Emptiness is the substance of the six organs and, consequently, of the six kinds of data, what do the six kinds of consciousness depend on for their existence? The sutra says: “No realm of the eye all the way up to no realm of consciousness,” meaning no realm of eye consciousness, no realm of ear consciousness, no realm of nose consciousness, no realm of tongue consciousness, no realm of body consciousness and no realm of mind consciousness.

The mundane Dharma of eighteen realms and their range is clear: Each of them has a character of its own. As a matter of fact, just as one hundred rivers merge into one ocean, all dharmas are contained in one teaching, the teaching of Emptiness. To attain enlightenment instantly, all one needs is to comprehensively understand the Dharma of Emptiness as the essence of reality. The uninformed majority submerge their True Nature in confusion resulting from misconception regarding the eighteen realms, a concept that has no counterpart in reality. Whenever mind touches a point, there is feeling; it may itch, hurt, feel numb, burn, or produce any of the countless sensations, and the knowing consciousness is alerted. When the taste buds are stimulated, there is the knowing of tasting. There is sweet, bitter, sour, etc. and the tasting nature becomes confused by the variety and the complexity. Similarly, the moment the eye makes contact, the eye consciousness engages in making distinctions in terms of light/dark, and the pristine seeing nature gets covered over by them. When the ear catches a sound, the hearing nature gets lost in judgments regarding it. These cognitive patterns are so deep it is difficult to trace and abandon them. And yet, it manifests complete misunderstanding of the original nature of consciousness. Looking at the city at night, we see the brilliant lights of ten-thousand households: Such is the form of light. During blackout we are able to observe the form of darkness. Light and darkness both have birth and death, yet the nature of seeing is free of cyclic existence. It is in the nature of seeing to perceive darkness in the absence of light and light in the absence of darkness. This should help us to understand the timeless nature of seeing. Our tendency to crave and grasp the object of seeing is a major obstacle to an understanding of the true nature of reality.

Attachment resulting from pleasurable eye contact, once established, is exceedingly difficult to relinquish. Most people do not have any understanding of the subject of seeing. The organ of the eye does not have the ability to see - only the nature of seeing does. The one who can enlighten himself/herself as to the subject of the nature of seeing can understand his/her own mind and see his/her own nature immediately. Whether a person is holy or worldly depends entirely on his/her ability (or the lack of it) to see his own Original Nature. This holds true for the nature of hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and for the nature of knowing. The Surangama Sutra says: “When one organ has returned to its source all six of them are liberated.” Our study and practice should begin by looking inward in order to free ourselves from the effect of light and dark. It is truly important to turn our attention completely onto our nature of seeing. When it is accomplished it means a true awakening to the supreme Tao. At first we should learn the BuddhaDharma and try to understand the doctrine. When we start to practice we should apply what we have learned: Without practice there is no learning.

The World Honored One is said to have attained Buddhahood in the previous asamkhiya kalpa; nevertheless, he appeared in the world in order to save all sentient beings, manifesting himself as a worldling and a prince. The son of king Suddhodana of the Sakya clan, he renounced his regal status at the age of twenty-nine so he could dedicate himself wholeheartedly to the quest for liberation from suffering. He practiced ascetic meditation in the Himalayas, and at the age of thirty-five the former prince attained perfect and complete enlightenment while meditating beneath a Bodhi tree. Noticing a bright star in the eastern sky, the Buddha observed that the nature of seeing is boundless. He commented that all sentient beings have the same wisdom and virtue as the Tathagata, but since it is covered over with delusion, attachment and aversion, sentient beings do not attain enlightenment. All evidence affirms that the Buddha attained the Original Nature, but most people are confused regarding their own, mistaking the four elements for their bodies and the reflections of their six conditioned sense data for their minds. That is delusion and grasping, and these are major hindrances to attaining the Tao.

The preceding explanation dealt with the eighteen realms consisting of six sense organs, six sense data and six kinds of consciousness. Now I would like to sum up, using the eye organ for illustration:

There are two aspects to the eye: There is the organ of sensation and the faculty of sensation; the eye is the organ; the faculty of sensation has two parts - seeing and form. The capacity of the eye to see, or the subject of seeing, is called the nature of seeing. The form of seeing is related to the object of seeing: It is always connected to an object, and therefore the eye is always seeing something, whether a thing, a shape, a color or a size. The object of seeing is most confusing, and the uninstructed can easily fall into self-deception as to the independent existence of whatever they are looking at. The process of experience gets twisted so it suits the volition to grasp and to possess, thus changing into a source of suffering. The Buddha’s teaching is the path to liberation and whoever understands this, understands all the Mahayana sutras as well.

We return once more to the example of the mirror and the reflection. The mirror was made to reflect whatever it faces, including mountains, rivers, even the great earth; the problem arises when the reflection is mistaken for the object and when it is no longer realized that it may vanish at any time, it being part of the birth/death cycle. The susceptibility to reflect is the real self, the timeless characteristic of the mirror we are talking about, yet it is very seldom realized. There was a Ch’an master who said: “Always facing it, yet not knowing what it is!”, meaning that worldlings do not recognize the nature of seeing for what it is: Ignoring the clarity of the mirror they hold on to the reflection.

Time passes very quickly; even if we live for one-hundred years, it still is a very brief period of time. Those who inhabit heavens still worry about death although their lives last much longer. Things seen during one’s life are completely useless after one has died. The nature of seeing, however, is not amenable to birth or death, it is not dependent on the organ of the eye. To have eyes does not necessarily mean having seeing awareness. The nature of seeing is like the capacity of the mirror to reflect images, shapes or actions; after the images, shapes or actions vanish, the nature of seeing remains, unmovable and unchangeable. The same applies to the nature of hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and knowing.

Simply stated, people should not hold reflections as permanent, clinging to them and grasping them. To perceive the reflectivity of the mirror as the True Self means quick release from defilement and an expeditious liberation. The remaining five sense doors can be inferred from the example of the eye organ; the six sense-organs with their corresponding six data and six kinds of consciousness collectively generate the eighteen realms or the eighteen worldly Dharmas: All of these are reflections, impermanent, subject to birth and death. Only the nature of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and knowing, like the nature of the mirror, remains unchanged. Furthermore, that which reflects is the also reflection, and the reflection becomes that which reflects it: They complement one another.

Thus there is “no eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind: No form, sound, smell, taste, touch and no mind object. No eye realm until no realm of consciousness.” According to the phrase “all five skandhas are empty” the five skandhas are the true Void of the supramundane existence and the Dharma of the Five Skandhas is the fundamental Dharma. In the true Void of supramundane existence, when there are no more skandhas, there is nothing to be attained. The eighteen realms are void at this very moment. Without the mirror, how can there be reflection?

Aboriginal Inhabitants of Jambudipa,i.e., the Great PraBuddha Bharath (Scheduled Caste)Buddhist movement

The Scheduled Caste Buddhist movement (Pāli नवयान “navayāna” as dubbed by certain Ambedkerites)Omvedt, Gail. Buddhism in India : Challenging Brahmanism and Caste. 3rd ed. London/New Delhi/Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2003. pages: 2, 3-7, 8, 14-15, 19, 240, 266, 271] in India began with support of Sri Lankan Buddhist monks. It received an impetus with B. R. Ambedkar’s call for conversion of Dalits to Buddhism in the context of a caste based society that considered them to be at the lower end of the hierarchy. [citebook|title=Political Ideas in Modern India: thematic explorations |author= Thomas Pantham, Vrajendra Raj Mehta, Vrajendra Raj Mehta,|year= 2006|publisher=Sage Publications|id=ISBN 0761934200|url= http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0761934200&id=KJejtAaonsEC&pg=PA48&lpg=PA48&dq=%22Self-respect+movement%22&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html&sig=2MFf1OTrHpydPFBq6ZS4SdlaHjs]

Origins

Buddhism was once dominant through much of India, it had however begun to decline by the 12th century (seeDecline of Buddhism in India). The Buddhist revival began in India in 1891, when the Sri Lankan Buddhist leaderAnagarika Dharmapala founded the Maha Bodhi Society. [cite book
last=Ahir
first=D.C.
title=Buddhism in Modern India
year=1991
publisher=Satguru
id=ISBN 81-7030-254-4
] The Maha Bodhi Society mainly attracted upper-caste people.citation
last=Das
first=Bhagwan
title=Revival of Buddhism in India. Role of Dr Baba Sahib B.R.Ambedkar
year=1998
publisher=Dalit Today Prakashan
location=Lucknow
id=ISBN 81-7030-254-4]

South India

In 1890 Pandit C. Ayodhya Dasa (1845-1914), better known as Iyothee Thass, founded the Sakya Buddhist Society (also known as the Indian Buddhist Association). The first president of the Indian Buddhist Association was the German born American Paul Carus, the author of “The Gospel of Buddha” (1894).

Thass, a Tamil Siddha physician, was the pioneer of the Tamil Scheduled Caste movement. He argued that Tamil Scheduled Castes were originally Buddhists. He led a delegation of prominent Scheduled Castes to Henry Steel Olcott and asked for his help in the reestablishment of “Tamil Buddhism.” Olcott helped Thass to visit Sri Lanka, where he received “diksha” fromBhikkhu Sumangala Nayake. After returning to India, Thass established the “Sakya Buddhist Society” in Madraswith branches in many places including Karnataka. [cite book
last=Geetha
first=V.
title=Towards a Non Brahmin Millennium - From Iyothee Thass to Periyar
year=2001
publisher=Bhatkal & Sen,India
id=ISBN 81-8560-437-1
] Thass established a weekly magazine called “Oru Paisa Tamizhan” (”One Paisa Tamilian”) in Chennai in 1907, which served as a newsletter linking all the new branches of the Sakya Buddhist Society. The magazine discussed traditions and practices of Tamil Buddhism, new developments in the Buddhist world, and the Indian subcontinent’s history from the Buddhist point of view.

Brahmananda Reddy, a Scheduled Caste leader of Andhra Pradesh, was also fascinated by Buddhism.

Uttar Pradesh

In the early 20th century, the Barua Buddhists of Bengal under the leadership of Kripasaran Mahasthavir (1865-1926), founder of the Bengal Buddhist Association, Calcutta (1892) established viharas in cities such as Lucknow,Hyderabad, Shillong and Jamshedpur.

In Lucknow, Bodhanand Mahastavir (1874-1952) advocated Buddhism for Scheduled Castes. Born Mukund Prakash in a Bengali Brahmin family, he was orphaned at a young age, and was then raised in Benaras by an aunt. He was initially attracted to Christianity, but became a Buddhist after a meeting with Buddhists monks from Ceylon at aTheosophical Conference in Benares. He later lived in Lucknow where he came in contact with Barua Buddhists, many of whom were employed as cooks by the British. In 1914, Prakash was ordained Bodhanand Mahastavir in Calcutta in the presence of Kripasaran Mahasthvir. He began preaching Buddhism in Lucknow. He founded the “Bharatiye Buddh Samiti” in 1916, and set up a vihara in 1928. In his book “Mula Bharatavasi Aur Arya” (”Original Inhabitants and Aryans”), Mahastavir stated that the shudras were the original inhabitants of India, who were enslaved by the Aryans.citation|last=Bellwinkel-Schempp|first=Maren|chapter=Roots of Ambedkar Buddhism in Kanpur |editor-last=Jondhale |editor-first=Surendra |editor2-last=Beltz|editor2-first=Johannes |title=Reconstructing the World: B.R. Ambedkar and Buddhism in India|location=New Delhi|publisher=OUP|year=2004|pages=221-244| chapter-url=http://www.maren-bellwinkel.de/artikel/ambedkarbuddhism.pdf]

Bodhanand Mahastavir wrote another book on Buddhist rituals called “Baudha Dvicharya”. His associate, Chandrika Prasad Jigyasu, founded the “Bahujan Kalyan Prakashan”. The two co-authored a book on the life and teaching of the Buddha.

Acharya Ishvardatt Medharthi (1900-1971) of Kanpur also supported the cause of the Scheduled Castes. He had studied Pali atGurukul Kangri and Buddhist scripture was well known to him. He was initiated into Buddhism by Gyan Keto and the Lokanatha in 1937. Gyan Keto (1906-1984), born Peter Schoenfeldt was a German who arrived to Ceylon in 1936 and became a Buddhist. Although Medharthi heavily criticized the Indian caste system, he didn’t criticize Hinduism. He claimed that the Dalits (”Adi Hindus”) were the ancient rulers of India and had been trapped into slavery by the Aryan invaders. He also claimed that the sanatana dharma was the religion of “Adi Hindus”, and tried to reconcile Buddhism with the Sant Mat.

Another Bhikkhu of Kanpur, Bhikshu Uttam, was a strong supporter of the Arya Samaj and the “Jat Pat Todak Mandal”, the anti-caste wing of the Arya Samaj.

B. R. Ambedkar

At the Yeola conference in 1935, prominent Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar declared that he would not die a Hindu, saying that it perpetuates caste injustices. Ambedkar was approached by various leaders of different denominations and faiths. Meetings were held to discuss the question of Dalit religion and the pros and cons of conversion. On May 22, 1936, an “All Religious Conference” was held at Lucknow. It was attended by prominent Dalit leaders including Jagjivan Ram, though Ambedkar could not attend it. At the conference, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, and Buddhist representatives presented the tenets of their respective religions in an effort to win over Scheduled Castes.

Buddhist monk Lokanatha visited Ambedkar’s residence at Dadar on June 10, 1936 and tried to persuade him to embrace Buddhism. Later in an interview to the Press, Lokanatha said that Ambedkar was impressed with Buddhism and that his own ambition was to convert all Dalits to Buddhism [cite book
last=Keer
first=Dhananjay
title=Dr Ambedkar Life and Mission
year=1990
publisher=Popular Prakashan, Bombay
id=ISBN 81-8560-437-1
] . In 1937, Lokanatha published a pamphlet “Buddhism Will Make You Free”, dedicated to the Depressed Classes of India from his press in Ceylon.

In early 1940s, Ambedkar visited Acharya Ishvardatt Medharthi’s Buddhpuri school in Kanpur. Medharthi had earlier been initiated into Buddhism by Lokanatha, and by the mid-1940s, he had close contacts with Ambedkar. For a short while, Ambedkar also took Pali classes from Medharthi in Delhi.

Bodhananda Mahastvir and B. R. Ambedkar first met in 1926, at the “Indian Non-Brahmin Conference” convened by Shahu IV of Kolhapur. They met on two more occasions and for a short while in the 1940s, where they discussed dhamma. Mahastavir was objected to Dr Ambedkar’s second marriage because his wife was a Brahmin. Later, his followers actively participated in Ambedkar’s Republican Party of India.

Ambedkar’s conversion

After publishing a series of books and articles arguing that Buddhism was the only way for the Untouchables to gain equality, Ambedkar publicly converted on October 14, 1956 in Nagpur. He took the three refuges and the Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk, Bhadant U Chandramani, in the traditional manner and then in his turn administered them to the 380,000 of his followers that were present. The conversion ceremony was attended by Medharthi, his main disciple Bhoj Dev Mudit, and Mahastvir Bodhanand’s Sri Lankan successor, Bhante Pragyanand. Ambedkar would die less than two months later, just after finishing his definitive work on Buddhism.

Many Dalits employ the term “Ambedkar(ite) Buddhism” to designate the Buddhist movement, which started with Ambedkar’s conversion.

22 Vows of Ambedkar

After receiving ordination, Ambedkar gave “dhamma diksha” to his followers. The ceremony included 22 vows given to all new converts after Three Jewels and Five Precepts. On 16 October 1956, Ambedkar performed another mass religious conversion ceremony at Chanda. He prescribed 22 vows to his followers:

# I shall have no faith in Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara nor shall I worship them.
# I shall have no faith in Rama and Krishna who are believed to be incarnation of God nor shall I worship them.
# I shall have no faith in Gauri, Ganapati and other gods and goddesses of Hindus nor shall I worship them.
# I do not believe in the incarnation of God.
# I do not and shall not believe that Lord Buddha was the incarnation of Vishnu. I believe this to be sheer madness and false propaganda.
# I shall not perform “Shraddha” nor shall I give “pind-dan“.
# I shall not act in a manner violating the principles and teachings of the Buddha.
# I shall not allow any ceremonies to be performed by Brahmins.
# I shall believe in the equality of man.
# I shall endeavor to establish equality.
# I shall follow the noble eightfold path of the Buddha.
# I shall follow the ten “paramitas” prescribed by the Buddha.
# I shall have compassion and loving kindness for all living beings and protect them.
# I shall not steal.
# I shall not tell lies.
# I shall not commit carnal sins.
# I shall not take intoxicants like liquor, drugs etc.
# I shall endeavor to follow the noble eightfold path and practice compassion and loving kindness in every day life.
# I renounce Hinduism, which is harmful for humanity and impedes the advancement and development of humanity because it is based on inequality, and adopt Buddhism as my religion.
# I firmly believe the Dhamma of the Buddha is the only true religion.
# I believe that I am having a re-birth.
# I solemnly declare and affirm that I shall hereafter lead my life according to the principles and teachings of theBuddha and his Dhamma.

Dalit Buddhism movement after Ambedkar’s death

The Buddhist movement was somewhat hindered by Dr. Ambedkar’s death so shortly after his conversion. It did not receive the immediate mass support from the Untouchable population that Ambedkar had hoped for. Division and lack of direction among the leaders of the Ambedkarite movement have been an additional impediment. According to the 2001 census, there are currently 7.95 million Buddhists in India, at least 5.83 million of whom are Buddhists in Maharashtra [http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/Religion_WhizMap1/housemap.htm Census GIS HouseHold ] ] . This makes Buddhism the fifth-largest religion in India and 6% of the population of Maharashtra, but less than 1% of the overall population of India.

The Buddhist revival remains concentrated in two states: Ambedkar’s native Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh — the land of Bodhanand Mahastavir, Acharya Medharthi and their associates.

Developments in Uttar Pradesh

Acharya Medharthi retired from his Buddhapuri school in 1960, and shifted to an ashram in Haridwar. He turned to the Arya Samaj and conducted vedic yajnas all over India. After his death, he was cremated according to Arya Samaj rites. His Buddhpuri school became embroiled in property disputes. His follower, Bhoj Dev Mudit, converted to Buddhism in 1968 and set up a school of his own.

Rajendranath Aherwar appeared as an important Dalit leader in Kanpur. He joined the Republican Party of India and converted to Buddhism along with his whole family in 1961. In 1967, he founded the Kanpur branch of “Bharatiya Buddh Mahasabha”. He held regular meetings where he preached Buddhism, officiated at Buddhist weddings and life cycle ceremonies, and organized festivals on Dr. Ambedkar’s Jayanti (birth day), Buddha Jayanti, Diksha Divas (the day Ambedkar converted), and Dr Ambedkar Paranirvan Divas (the day Ambedkar died).

The Dalit Buddhist movement in Kanpur gained impetus with the arrival of Dipankar, a Chamar bhikkhu, in 1980. Dipankar had come to Kanpur on a Buddhist mission and his first public appearance was scheduled at a mass conversion drive in 1981. The event was organized by Rahulan Ambawadekar, an RPI Scheduled Caste leader. In April 1981, Ambawadekar founded the Scheduled Caste Panthers (U.P. Branch) inspired by the Maharashtrian Scheduled Caste Panthers. The event met with severe criticism and opposition from Vishwa Hindu Parishad and was banned.


By Bahujan Samaj P


Rare pictures of Saheb Kanshi Ram Ji and Behan Mayawati



Behan Mayawati speaking and Saheb Kanshi Ram Ji sitting in front row.Behan Mayawati speaking and Saheb Kanshi Ram Ji sitting in front row.



In 2002, Kanshi Ram, a popular out-caste political leader from a Sikh religious background, announced his intention to convert to Buddhism on October 14, 2006, the fiftieth anniversary of Ambedkar’s conversion. He intended for 20,000,000 of his supporters to convert at the same time. Part of the significance of this plan was that Ram’s followers include not only Untouchables, but persons from a variety of castes, who could significantly broaden Buddhism’s support. However, he passed away October 9, 2006[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6032563.stm Indian Dalit leader passes away] ] after a lengthy illness; he was cremated as per Buddhist rituals [ [http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/10/stories/2006101003771200.htm Kanshi Ram cremated as per Buddhist rituals] ] .Kanshi Ram



Another popular Dalit leader, Bahujan Samaj Party chief Mayawati, has said that she and her followers will embrace Buddhism after the BSP gains control of the government. [cite web
url = http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/10/stories/2006101003771200.htm
title = Kanshi Ram cremated as per Buddhist rituals
publisher = The Hindu
date = 2006-10-10
accessdate = 2007-08-30
]



Please visit: http://www.in.com/videos/watchvideo-jai-bheem-kanshi-ram-ji-barood-7667097.html for jai bheem kanshi ram ji {Barood}



http://www.in.com/videos/watchvideo-kanshi-rams-green-park-5265501.html for Kanshi Ram’s Green Park

Mayawati pays floral tributes to Kanshi Ram

Lucknow, Oct 9 : Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati today paid floral tributes to Bahujan Samaj Party(BSP) founder Kanshi Ram on his 4th death anniversary which remained a low key affair owing to the imposition of model code of conduct in view of the ongoing Panchayat elections.



Ms Mayawati, Bahujan Samaj Party president, along with her senior party leaders and ministers visited Bahujan Samaj Prerna Sthal, Kanshi Ram Memorial and Baudh Vihar Upvan in the state capital and paid tributes to the party ideologue for his contribution in building up the party.

She garlanded the statue of Kanshi Ram at the monuments which were built as a mark of respect to the party’s founder.

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister chose the occasion to lambast her detractors saying it was for everyone to see that there was no construction in the violation of the Court order. ‘’Even then, some vested interests are approaching the Court with malafide intentions against the BSP,'’ she remarked.

The BSP supremo will visit Samtamulak Chowk and B R Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sthal later in the evening.



http://www.in.com/videos/watchvideo-ayodhya-verdict-upto-the-centre-to-ensure-compliance-says-mayawati-9644969.html for Ayodhya verdict: Upto the Centre to ensure compliance, says Mayawati



Maharashtra



Japanese-born Bhadant Nagarjun Surai Sasai is an important Buddhist leader in India. Susai came to India in 1966 and met Nichidatsu Fuji, whom he helped with the Peace Pagoda at Rajgir. He fell out with Fuji, however, and started home, but, by his own account, was stopped by a dream in which a figure resembling Nagarjuna appeared and said, “Go to Nagpur”. In Nagpur, he met Wamanrao Godbole, the person who had organized the conversion ceremony for Dr. Ambedkar in 1956. Sasai claims that when he saw a photograph of Dr. Ambedkar at Godbole’s home, he realized that it was Ambedkar who had appeared in his dream. At first, Nagpur folk considered Surai Sasai very strange. Then he began to greet them with “Jai Bhim” (victory to Ambedkar) and to build viharas. In 1987 a court case to deport him on the grounds that he had overstayed his visa was dismissed, and he was granted Indian citizenship. Sasai is one of the main leaders of the campaign to free the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya from Hindu control.



Organized mass conversions



Since Ambedkar’s conversion, several thousand people from different castes have converted to Buddhism in ceremonies including the twenty-two vows. The Tamil Nadu and Gujarat governments passed new laws in 2003 to ban “forced” religious conversions. These laws were later withdrawn due to heavy oppositionFact|date=February 2007.



;1957:In 1957, Mahastvir Bodhanand’s Sri Lankan successor, Bhante Pragyanand, held a mass conversion drive for 15,000 people in Lucknow.



;2001:A prominent Indian Dalit Buddhist leader and political activist, Udit Raj, organized a large mass conversion on November 4, 2001 where he gave the 22 vows, but the event met with active opposition from the government. [cite web
url = http://www.buddhismtoday.com/english/world/facts/conversion-manpreet.htm
title = 50,000 Dalits embrace Buddhism
publisher = Buddhism Today
accessdate = 2007-08-30
]



;2006, Hyderabad:A report from the UK daily “The Guardian” said that some Hindus have converted to Buddhism.Buddhist monks from the UK and the U.S. attended the conversion ceremonies in India. In response, Hindu nationalists asserted that Dalits should concentrate on illiteracy and poverty rather than looking for new religions[http://www.guardian.co.uk/india/story/0,,1922410,00.html Untouchables embrace Buddha to escape oppression] ] .



;2006, Gulbarga:On October 14, 2006 hundreds of people converted from Hinduism to Buddhism in Gulburga(Karnataka) [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2171942.cms Hundreds embrace Buddhism in Gulbarga-Bangalore] ] .



;2006:A Buddhist source claimed that “300,000 Dalits are estimated” to have converted to Buddhism as part of 50th year celebrations of Ambedkar’s deeksha in 2006. [cite web
url = http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=42,3309,0,0,1,0
title = Prominent Indian female politician to embrace Buddhism
publisher = The Buddhist Channel
date = 2006-10-17
accessdate = 2007-08-30
] Non-Partisan sources put the number of attendees (not converts) at 30,000Prerna Singh Bindra .” [http://web.archive.org/web/20030622160717/http://www.the-week.com/21nov18/events6.htm Heads, I win…] “. The Week Magazine. November 18, 2001.] .The move was criticized by Hindu groups as “unhelpful” and has been criticized as a “political stunt.”



;2007, Mumbai:On May 27, 2007 tens of thousands of Dalits from Maharashtra gathered at the Mahalakshmi racecourse in Mumbai to mark the 50th anniversary of the conversion of Ambedkar. The number of people who actually converted, however, versus the number of people in attendance was not clear [[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6695695.stm Mass Dalit conversions in Mumbai] ] . The event was organized by theRepublican Party of India leader Ramdas Athvale [Nithin Belle. ” [http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/subcontinent/2007/May/subcontinent_May1097.xml§ion=subcontinent&col= Thousands of Dalits in ‘mass conversion’] “. Khaleej Times. May 28 2007] .



Criticism of conversions



Hindu critics have argued that efforts to convert Hindus to Ambedkarite Buddhism are political stunts rather than sincere commitments to social reform [http://web.archive.org/web/20030622160717/http://www.the-week.com/21nov18/events6.htm Conversion: Ram Raj’s rally was probably just an exercise in self-promotion] ] . In addition, several  Scheduled Caste leaders have stated that they are not against the upper castes per se. Leaders of the Dalit Bahujan Samaj Party have said that their being branded as “anti-Hindu” because of the publicity associated with the conversions is largely the work of partisan and politically motivated groups within the Dalit movement and that they are only interested in peaceful dialogue with the Brahmins [[http://www.hindu.com/2005/06/10/stories/2005061008120100.htm BSP showcases its `Brahmin might’] ,”The Hindu”] .



Distinctive interpretation



According to controversial academic Gail Omvedt:



Most Dalit Indian Buddhists espouse an eclectic version of Buddhism, primarily based on Theravada, but with additional influences from Mahayana and Vajrayana. On many subjects, they give Buddhism a distinctive interpretation. Of particular note is their emphasis on Shakyamuni Buddha as a political and social reformer, rather than merely as a spiritual leader. They point out that the Buddha required his monastic followers to ignore caste distinctions, and that he was critical of the social inequality that existed in his own time. Ambedkar’s followers do not believe that a person’s unfortunate conditions at birth are the result of previous karmaFact|date=April 2008.



They also point out that Ormvedt’s idea of an ‘Awaken-ness version of the dhamma’ opposed to a traditional ‘acceptance by faith’ is a misapplication of Western categories, since the Buddha encouraged people to put all teachings - including his own - to critical test and not to accept anything on the basis of tradition.



ee also



*Buddhism in India
*Buddhism in Nepal
*Buddhism in Tibet
*Humanistic Buddhism



References



External links



*” [http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_buddha/ The Buddha and His Dhamma] “, text of the book by B. R. Ambedkar
* [http://voi.org/books/wiah/ch11.htm Are neo-Buddhists- Hindus?] Article on India’s Buddhism by Koenraad Elst.
* [http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/2589year.htm 2590 Years Of Buddhism] 
*Omvedt, Gail. Buddhism in India : Challenging Brahmanism and Caste. 3rd ed. London/New Delhi/Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2003.
* [http://www.navayana.info/ Buddhism Navayana: Buddhist links and Navayana Buddhism] 
* [http://www.dalitliberation.blogspot.com/ Dalit Liberation]



Global organizations
* [http://acjp.sts.winisp.net/default.aspx Ambedkar Center for Justice and Peace] 
* [http://www.ambedkarmission.org/default_home.htm Dr. Ambedkar International Mission] 
* [http://www.tbmsg.org/index1.html Trailokya Bauddha Mahasangha Sahayaka Gana] 
* [http://www.karuna.org/ Karuna Trust] 
* [http://www.jambudvipa.org The Jambudvipa Trust]



 


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