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912 LESSON 07-05-2013 TUESDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Life-Coaching-Small-Business-Idea.htm Life Coaching Small Business Idea The Pros and Cons of Starting a Life Coaching Business Mahavagga 38 Mahakkhandhakaü Pali English Sinhala
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912 LESSON 07-05-2013 TUESDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Life-Coaching-Small-Business-Idea.htm

Life Coaching Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Life Coaching Business

Mahavagga

38 

 Mahakkhandhakaü

 Pali

 English

 Sinhala

AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE

Life Coaching Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Life Coaching Business



It can be difficult to overcome challenges when you feel overwhelmed,
confused and misdirected. Life coaching is a growing field that helps
people overcome life’s challenges; it can be a very rewarding experience
for everyone involved — both coaches and clients.

If you are a compassionate, non-judgmental listener and want to
create a business around helping others overcome personal challenges in
their lives, a life coaching business might be for you.

The Pros

Life coaching is the perfect business idea
for those that are passionate about helping others and are exceptional
communicators. Some of the benefits of starting a life coaching business
include:

  • You can run your entire business from home, coaching clients over the telephone.
  • Your earning potential is high.
  • You can start your business while training and taking steps to become certified.
  • It’s a rewarding business that allows you to make a difference in others’ lives.
  • You can coach individuals or groups.
  • You can develop products that complement your coaching services for added income.

The Cons

Some of the potential challenges of starting a life coaching business include:

  • You may decide to invest in formal training and certifications, which can be expensive.
  • You need to be trustworthy, respectful, non-judgmental and have a high level of integrity.
  • You must be an excellent communicator, including your ability to listen.
  • Much of your time will be spent on the phone or in meetings.
  • You need to be patient, compassionate and encouraging.
  • You need to be 100% “on” for every session, with every client, regardless what is happening in your personal life.
  • It can be difficult to build up a client base when you are just starting out.

Recommended Resources

Related Articles


http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/1Vinaya-Pitaka/index.html

The Mahàvagga.

Reverence to the Blessed One, the Holy One,

The Fully Enlightened One.

First Khandhaka

(The Admission to the Order of Bhikkhus (1).)

1 (2).


1. At that time the Blessed Buddha dwelt at [\q 74/] Uruvelà, on the bank of the river Nera¤jara (3),
at the foot of the Bodhi tree (tree of wisdom), just after He had
become Sambuddha. And the Blessed Buddha sat cross-legged at the foot of
the Bodhi tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of
emancipation
(4). [\q 75/]

2. Then
the Blessed One (at the end of these seven days) during the first watch
of the night fixed His mind upon the chain of causation
(5), in direct and in reverse order:

From ignorance (6) spring the [\q 76 /] saïkharas (7)
from the saïkharas springs consciousness, from consciousness spring
name-and-form, from name-and-form spring the six provinces (of the [\q
77/] six senses
(8)),
from the six provinces springs contact, from contact springs sensation,
from sensation springs thirst (or desire), from thirst springs
attachment, from attachment springs existence, from existence birth,
from birth spring old age and death, grief, lamentation, suffering,
dejection, and despair. Such is the origination of this whole mass of
suffering. Again, by the destruction of ignorance, which consists in the
complete absence of lust, the saïkharas are destroyed, by the
destruction of the saïkharas consciousness is destroyed, by the
destruction of consciousness name-and-form are destroyed, by the
destruction of name-and-form the six provinces are destroyed, by the destruction
of the six provinces contact is destroyed, by the destruction of
contact sensation is destroyed, by the destruction of sensation thirst
is destroyed, by the destruction of thirst attachment is destroyed, by
the destruction of attachment existence is destroyed, by the destruction
of existence birth is destroyed, by the destruction of birth old age
and death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair are [\q
78/] destroyed. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.’

3. Knowing
this the Blessed One then on that occasion pronounced this solemn
utterance: `When the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent,
meditating bràhmaõa, then all his doubts fade away, since he realises
what is that nature and what its cause.’

4. Then the
Blessed One during the middle watch of the night fixed His mind upon the
chain of causation, in direct and reverse order: `From ignorance
spring, the saïkharas, &c. such is the origination of this whole
mass of suffering, &c. such is the cessation of this whole mass of
suffering.

5. Knowing
this the Blessed One then on that occasion pronounced this solemn
utterance: `When the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent,
meditating bràhmaõa, then all his doubts fade away, since he has
understood the cessation of causation.’

6. Then the Blessed One during the third watch of the night fixed His mind, &c.

7. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: `When the real
nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, meditating bràhmaõa, he
stands, dispelling the hosts of Màra, like the sun that illuminates the
sky.’

Here Ends the Account of What Passed

Under the Bodhi Tree.


______________________


[\q 79/]

2.

1. Then
the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state
of meditation, and went from the foot of the Bodhi tree to the Ajapàla
Banyan tree (Banyan tree of the goat-herds
(9)).
And when He had reached it, He sat cross-legged at the foot of. The
Ajapàla Banyan tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the
bliss of emancipation.

2. Now a certain bràhmaõa, who was of a haughty disposition (10),
went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him, He
exchanged greeting with the Blessed One; having exchanged with Him
greeting and complaisant words, He stationed himself near Him; then
standing near Him that bràhmaõa thus spoke to the Blessed One: `By what,
Gotama, does one become a bràhmaõa, and what are the characteristics
that make a man a bràhmaõa?’

3. And the
Blessed One, having heard that, on this occasion pronounced this solemn
utterance: that bràhmaõa who has removed (from himself) all sinfulness,
who is free from haughtiness, free from impurity, self-restrained, who
is an accomplished master of knowledge (or, of the veda), who has
fulfilled the duties of holiness, such a bràhmaõa may [\q 80/] justly
call himself a bràhmaõa, whose behaviour is uneven to nothing in the
world.’

Here Ends the Account of What Passed

Under the Ajapàla tree.


______________________



3.

1. Then
the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state
of meditation, and went from the foot of the Ajapàla Banyan tree to the
Mucalinda tree. And when He had reached it, He sat cross-legged at the
foot of the Mucalinda tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying
the bliss of emancipation.

2. At that
time a great cloud appeared out of season, rainy weather which lasted
seven days, cold weather, storms, and darkness. And the nàga (or
serpent) king Mucalinda came out from his abode, and seven times
encircled the body of the Blessed One with his windings, and kept
extending his large hood over the Blessed One’s head, thinking to
himself: `May no coldness (touch) the Blessed One I may no heat (touch)
the Blessed One! May no vexation by gadflies and gnats, by storms and
heat of the sun, and reptiles (touch) the Blessed One!’

3. And at the
end of those seven days, when the nàga king Mucalinda saw the open,
cloudless sky, he loosened his windings from the body of the Blessed
One, made his own appearance disappear, created the appearance of a
youth, and stationed himself in front of the Blessed One, raising his
clasped hands, and paying reverence to the Blessed One. [\q 81/]

4. And the
Blessed One, perceiving that, on this occasion, pronounced this solemn
utterance: `Happy is the solitude of him who is full of joy, who has
learnt the Truth, who sees (the Truth). Happy is freedom from malice in
this world, (self-)restraint towards all beings that have life. Happy is
freedom from lust in this world, getting beyond all desires; the
putting away of that pride which comes from the thought “I am!” This
truly is the highest happiness!’

Here Ends the Account of What Passed

Under the Mucalinda Tree.


______________________



4.

1. Then
the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state
of meditation, and went from the foot of the Mucalinda tree to the
Ràjàyatana (tree
(11));
when He had reached it, He sat cross-legged at the foot of the
Ràjàyatana tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of
emancipation.

2. At that
time Tapussa and Bhallika, two merchants, came travelling on the road
from Ukkala (Orissa) to that place. Then a deity who had been (in a
former life) a blood-relation of the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika,
thus spoke to the merchants [\q 82/] Tapussa and Bhallika: `Here, my
noble friends, at the foot of the Ràjàyatana tree, is staying the
Blessed One, who has just become Sambuddha. Go and show your reverence
to Him, the Blessed One, by (offering Him) rice-cakes and lumps of
honey. Long will this be to you for a good and for a blessing.’

3. And the
merchants Tapussa and Bhallika took rice-cakes and lumps of honey, and
went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him and
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they stationed themselves near
Him; standing near Him, the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika thus
addressed the Blessed One: `May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept from us
these rice-cakes and lumps of honey, that that may long be to us for a
good and for a blessing!’

4. Then the Blessed One thought: `The Tathàgatas (12)
do not accept (food) with their hands. Now [\q 83/] with what shall I
accept the rice-cakes and lumps of honey?’ then the four Mahàràja gods
(13),
understanding by the power of their minds the reflection which had
arisen in the mind of the Blessed One, offered to the Blessed One from
the four quarters (of the horizon) four bowls made of stone (saying),
`May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept herewith the rice-cakes and the
lumps of honey!’ the Blessed One accepted those new stone bowls; and
therein He received the rice-cakes and honey lumps, and those, when He
had received, He ate.

5. And Tapussa and Bhallika, the merchants, when they saw that the Blessed One had cleansed (14)
His bowl and His hands, bowed down in reverence [\q 84/] at the feet of
the Blessed One and thus addressed the Blessed One: `We take our
refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One and in the Dhamma; may the Blessed One
receive us as disciples who, from this day forth while our life lasts,
have taken their refuge (in Him).’ These were the first in the world to
become lay-disciples (of the Buddha) by the formula which contained
(only) the dyad
(15).

Here Ends the Account of What Passed

Under the Ràjàyatana Tree.


______________________

5.

1. Then the
Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, arose from that state of
meditation, and went from the foot of the Ràjàyatana tree to the Ajapàla
Banyan tree. And when He had reached it, the Blessed One stayed there
at the foot of the Ajapàla Banyan tree.

2. Then in the
mind of the Blessed One, who was alone, and had retired into solitude,
the following thought arose: `I have penetrated this Doctrine which is
profound, difficult to perceive and to understand, which brings quietude
of heart, which is exalted, which is unattainable by reasoning,
abstruse, intelligible (only) to the wise. This people, on the other
hand, is given to desire, intent upon desire, delighting in desire. To
this people, therefore, who [\q 85/] are given, to desire, intent upon
desire, delighting in desire, the law of causality and the chain of
causation will be a matter difficult to understand; most difficult for
them to understand will be also the extinction of all saïkharas, the
getting rid of all the substrata (of existence
(16)),
the destruction of desire, the absence of passion, quietude of heart,
Nirvàna! Now if I proclaim the Doctrine, and other men are not able to
understand my preaching, there would result but weariness and annoyance
to me.’

3. And then the following . . . (17)
stanzas, unheard before, occurred to the Blessed One: `With great pains
have I acquired it. Enough! Why should I now proclaim it? This Doctrine
will not be easy to understand to beings that are lost in lust and
hatred.

`Given to
lust, surrounded with thick darkness, they will not see what is
repugnant (to their minds), abstruse, profound, difficult to perceive,
and subtle.’

4. When the
Blessed One pondered over this matter, His mind became inclined to
remain in quiet, and not to preach the Doctrine. Then Brahmà [\q 86/]
Sahampati
(18),
understanding by the power of his mind the reflection which had arisen
in the mind of the Blessed One, thought: `Alas! The world perishes!
Alas! The world is destroyed! If the mind of the Tathàgata, of the Holy,
of the Absolute Sambuddha inclines itself to remain in quiet, and not
to preach the Doctrine.’

5. Then Brahmà
Sahampati disappeared from Brahmà’s world, and appeared before the
Blessed One (as quickly) as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out,
or draw back his out-stretched arm.

6. And Brahmà
Sahampati adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, and
putting his right knee on the ground, raised his joined hands towards
the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: `Lord, may the Blessed One
preach the Doctrine! May the perfect one preach the Doctrine! There are
beings whose mental eyes are darkened by scarcely any dust; but if they
do not hear the Doctrine, they cannot attain salvation. These will
understand the Doctrine.’

7. Thus spoke
Brahmà Sahampati; and when he had thus spoken, he further said: `The
Dhamma hitherto manifested in the country of Magadha has been impure,
thought out by contaminated men. But do Thou now open the door of the
Immortal
(19); let them hear the Doctrine discovered by the Spotless One!

`As a man
standing on a rock, on mountain’s [\q 87/] top, might overlook the
people all around, thus, O Wise One, ascending to the highest palace of
Truth, look down, all-seeing one, upon the people lost in suffering,
overcome by birth and decay, Thou, who hast freed Thyself from
suffering!

`Arise, O
Hero; O Victorious One! Wander through the world, O Leader of the
pilgrim band, who Thyself art free from debt. May the Blessed One preach
the Doctrine; there will be people who can understand it!’

8. When he had
spoken thus, the Blessed One said to Brahmà Sahampati: `The following
thought, Brahmà, has occurred to me: “I have penetrated this Doctrine
(&c., down to end of sect.2).” And also, Brahmà, the following . . .
(20)
stanzas have presented themselves to my mind, which had not been heard
(by me) before: “With great pains (&c., down to end of sect.3).”
When I pondered over this matter, Brahmà, my mind became inclined to
remain in quiet, and not to preach the Doctrine.’

9. And a
second time Brahmà Sahampati said to the Blessed One: `Lord, may the
Blessed One preach the Doctrine (&c., as in sects. 6, 7).’ and for
the second time the Blessed One said to Brahmà Sahampati: `The following
thought (&c., as before).’

10. And a
third time Brahmà Sahampati said to the Blessed One: `Lord, may the
Blessed One preach the Doctrine (&c., as before).’

Then the
Blessed One, when He had heard Brahmà’s solicitation, looked, full of
compassion towards sentient beings, over the world, with His
(all-perceiving) eye of a Buddha. And the Blessed One, looking over the
world with His eye of a Buddha, [\q 88/] saw beings whose mental eyes
were darkened by scarcely any dust, and beings whose eyes were covered
by much dust, beings sharp of sense and blunt of sense, of good
disposition and of bad disposition, easy to instruct and difficult to
instruct, some of them seeing the dangers of future life and of sin.

11. As,
in a pond of blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, some blue
lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, born in the water, grown up
in the water, do not emerge over the water, but thrive hidden under the
water; and other blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, born in
the water, grown up in the water, reach to the surface of the water;
and other blue lotuses, or water-roses, or white lotuses, born in the
water, grown up in the water, stand emerging out of the water, and the water does not touch them,-

12. Thus
the Blessed One, looking over the world with His eye of a Buddha, saw
beings whose mental eyes were darkened (&c., the text repeats
sect.10) ; and when He had thus seen them, He addressed Brahmà Sahampati
in the following stanza: `Wide opened is the door of the Immortal to
all who have ears to hear; let them send forth faith to meet it. The
Dhamma sweet and good I spake not, Brahmà, despairing of the weary task,
to men.’

13. Then
Brahmà Sahampati understood: `The Blessed One grants my request that He
should preach the Doctrine.’ And he bowed down before the Blessed One,
and passed round Him with his right side towards Him; and then he
straightway disappeared.

Here Ends the Story of Brahmà’s Request


______________________

[\q 89/]

6.

1. Now the Blessed One thought: `To whom shall I preach the Doctrine first? Who will understand this Doctrine easily?’ and the Blessed One thought: `There is âëàra Kàlàma (21);
he is clever, wise, and learned; long since have the eye of his mind
been darkened by scarcely any dust. What if I were to preach the
Doctrine first to âëàra Kàlàma? He will easily understand this
Doctrine.’

2. Then
an invisible deity said to the Blessed One: Kàlàma has died, Lord,
seven days ago.’ And knowledge sprang up in the Blessed One’s mind that
âëàra Kàlàma had died seven days ago. And the Blessed One thought:
`Highly noble was âëàra Kàlàma. If he had heard my Doctrine, he would
easily have understood it.’

3. Then the
Blessed One thought: `To whom shall I preach the Doctrine first? Who
will understand this Doctrine easily?’ And the Blessed One thought:
`There is Uddaka Ràmaputta I ; he is clever, wise, and learned; long
since have the eye of his mind been darkened by scarcely any dust. What
if I were to preach the Doctrine first to Uddaka Ràmaputta? He will
easily understand this Doctrine.’

4. Then an
invisible deity said to the Blessed One: `Uddaka Ràmaputta has died,
Lord, yesterday evening.’ And knowledge arose in the Blessed One’s mind
that Uddaka Ràmaputta had died the previous evening, and the Blessed One
thought: [\q 90/] `Highly noble was Uddaka Ràmaputta. If he had heard
my Doctrine, he would easily have understood it.’

5. Then the
Blessed One thought: `To whom shall I preach the Doctrine first? Who
will understand this Doctrine easily?’ And the Blessed One thought: `The
five bhikkhus
(22) have done many services to me (23);
they attended on me during the time of my exertions (to attain
sanctification by undergoing austerities). What if I were to preach the
Doctrine first to the five bhikkhus?’

6. Now the
Blessed One thought: `Where do the five bhikkhus dwell now?’ And the
Blessed One saw by the, power of His divine, clear vision, surpassing
that of men, that the five bhikkhus were living at Benares, in the deer
park Isipatana
(24). And the Blessed One, after having remained at Uruvelà as long as He thought fit, went forth to Benares.

7. Now Upaka, a
man belonging, to the âjãvaka sect (i.e. the sect of naked ascetics),
saw the Blessed One travelling on the road, between Gayà and the Bodhi
tree; and when he saw Him, he said to the Blessed One: `Your
countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. In
whose [\q 91/] name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is
your teacher? Whose Doctrine do you profess?’

8. When Upaka
the âjãvaka had spoken thus, the Blessed One addressed him in the
following stanzas: `I have overcome all foes; I am all-wise; I am free
from stains in every way; I have left everything; and have obtained
emancipation by the destruction of desire. Having myself gained
knowledge, whom should I call my master? I have no teacher; no one is
equal to me; in the world of men and of gods no being is like me. I am
the holy one in this world, I am the highest Teacher, I alone am the
absolute Sambuddha; I have gained coolness (by the extinction of all
passion) and have obtained Nirvàna. To found the kingdom of Truth I go
to the city of the Kasis (Benares); I will beat the drum of the Immortal
in the darkness of this world.’

9. (Upaka replied): `You profess then, friend, to be the holy, absolute Jina.’ (25)

(The Buddha said): `Like me are all jinas who have reached extinction of the àsavas (26); I have overcome (gita me) all states of sinfulness’; therefore, Upaka, am I the Jina.’

When He had spoken thus, Upaka the âjãvaka replied: `It may be so, friend;’ shook his head, took another road, and went away.

10. And the
Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Benares, to the deer
park Isipatana, to the place where the five bhikkhus were. And [\q 92/]
the five bhikkhus saw the Blessed One coming from afar; when they saw
Him, they concerted with each other, saying, `Friends, there comes the
samaõa Gotama, who lives in abundance, who has given up his exertions,
and who has turned to an abundant life. Let us not salute him; nor rise
from our seats when he approaches; nor take his bowl and his robe from
his hands. But let us put there a seat; if he likes, let him sit down.’

11. But when
the Blessed One gradually approached near unto those five bhikkhus, the
five bhikkhus kept not their agreement. They went forth to meet the
Blessed One; one took His bowl and His robe, another prepared a seat, a
third one brought water for the washing of the feet, a foot-stool, and a
towel
(27).
Then the Blessed One sat down on the seat they had prepared; and when
He was seated, the Blessed One washed His feet. Now they addressed the
Blessed One by His name, and with the appellation `Friend.’

12. When
they spoke to Him thus, the Blessed One said to the five bhikkhus: `Do
not address, O bhikkhus, the Tathàgata by His name, and with the
appellation “Friend.” The Tathàgata, O bhikkhus, is the Holy, Absolute
Sambuddha. Give ear, O bhikkhus! The Immortal (amata) has been won (by
me); I will teach you; to you I preach the Doctrine. If you walk in the
way I show you, you will, ere long, have penetrated to the Truth, having
yourselves known it and seen it face to face; and you [\q 93/] will
live in the possession of that highest goal of the holy life, for the
sake of which noble youths fully give up the world and go forth into the
houseless state.’

13. When He
had spoken thus, the five monks said to the Blessed One: `By those
observances, friend Gotama, by those practices, by those austerities,
you have not been able to obtain power surpassing that of men, nor the
superiority of full and holy knowledge and insight. How will you now,
living in abundance, having given up your exertions, having turned to an
abundant life, be able to obtain power surpassing that of men, and the
superiority of full and holy knowledge and insight?’

14. When they
had spoken thus, the Blessed One said to the five bhikkhus: `The
Tathàgata, O bhikkhus, does not live in abundance, he has not given up
exertion, he has not turned to an abundant life. The Tathàgata, O
bhikkhus, is the Holy, Absolute Sambuddha. Give car, O bhikkhus; the
Immortal has been won (by me); I will teach you, to you I will preach
the Doctrine. If you walk in the way I show you, you will, ere long,
have penetrated to the Truth, having yourselves known it and seen it
face to face; and you will live in the possession of that highest goal
of the holy life, for the sake of which noble youths fully give up the
world and go forth into the houseless state.’

15. And the
five bhikkhus said to the Blessed One a second time (as above). And the
Blessed One said to the five bhikkhus a second time (as above). And the
five bhikkhus said to the Blessed One a third time (as above).

16. When they
had spoken thus, the Blessed One [\q 94/] said to the five bhikkhus: `Do
you admit, O bhikkhus, that I have never spoken to you in this way
before this day?’

You have never spoken so, Lord.’

The Tathàgata, O bhikkhus, is the holy, absolute Sambuddha. Give ear, O bhikkhus, &c. (as above).’

And the Blessed One was able to convince the five bhikkhus; and the five bhikkhus again (28)
listened willingly to the Blessed One; they gave ear, and fixed their
mind on the knowledge (which the Buddha imparted to them).

17. And the Blessed One thus addressed the five bhikkhus (29):
`There are two extremes, O bhikkhus, which he who has given up the
world, ought to avoid. What are these two extremes? A life given to
pleasures, devoted to pleasures and lusts: this is degrading, sensual,
vulgar, ignoble, and profitless; and a life given to mortification: this
is painful, ignoble, and profitless. By avoiding these two extremes,
O bhikkhus, the Tathàgata has gained the knowledge of the middle path
which leads to insight, which leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm,
to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvàna.

18. `Which,
O bhikkhus, is this middle path the knowledge of which the Tathàgata
has gained, which leads to insight, which leads to wisdom which [\q 95/]
conduces to calm, to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvàna? It is the
holy eightfold path, namely, right belief, right aspiration, right
speech, right conduct, right means of livelihood, right endeavour, right
memory, right meditation. This, O bhikkhus, is the middle path the
knowledge of which the Tathàgata has gained, which leads to insight,
which leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to knowledge, to the
Sambodhi, to Nirvàna.

19. `This, O
bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of Suffering: birth is suffering; decay is
suffering; illness is suffering; death is suffering. Presence of objects
we hate, is suffering; separation from objects we love, is suffering;
not to obtain what we desire, is suffering. Briefly, the fivefold
clinging to existence
(30) is suffering.

20. `This, O
bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering: thirst, that
leads to re-birth, accompanied by pleasure and lust, finding its delight
here; and there. (this thirst is threefold), namely, thirst for
pleasure, thirst for existence, thirst for prosperity.

21. `This, O
bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering: (it ceases
with) the complete cessation of this thirst — a cessation which
consists in the absence of every passion — with the abandoning of this
thirst, with the doing-away with it, with the deliverance from it, with
the destruction of desire.

22. `This, O
bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path Which Leads to the Cessation of
Suffering: [\q 96/] that holy eightfold path, that is to say, right
belief, right aspiration, right speech, right conduct, right means of
livelihood, right endeavour, right memory , right meditation.

23. `”This
is the Noble Truth of Suffering.” Thus, O bhikkhus, of this Doctrine,
which formerly had not been heard of, have I obtained insight,
knowledge, understanding, wisdom, intuition. “This Noble Truth of
Suffering must be understood,” thus, O bhikkhus, of this Doctrine
(&c., down to intuition). “This Noble Truth of Suffering I have
understood,” thus, O bhikkhus, of this Doctrine (&c., down to
intuition).

24. `”This is
the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering.” Thus, O bhikkhus, (&c.)
“This Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering must be abandoned
(31). . . has been abandoned by me,” thus, O bhikkhus, (&c.)

25. `”This
is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering,” thus, O bhikkhus,
(&c.) “This Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering must be seen
face to face . . . has been seen by me face to face,” thus, O bhikkhus,
(&c.)

26. `”This
is the Noble Truth of the Path Which Leads to the Cessation of
Suffering,” thus, O bhikkhus, (&c.) “This Noble Truth of the Path
Which Leads to the Cessation of Suffering must be realised . . . has
been realised by me,” thus, O bhikkhus, (&c.)

27. `As long, O
bhikkhus, as I did not possess with perfect purity this true knowledge
and insight into these Four Noble Truths, with its three [\q 97/]
modifications and its twelve constituent parts
(32);
so long, O bhikkhus, I knew that I had not yet obtained the highest,
absolute Sambodhi in the world of men and gods, in Màra’s and Brahmà’s
world, among all beings, samaõas and bràhmaõas, gods and men.

28.`But since I
possessed, O bhikkhus, with perfect purity this true knowledge and
insight into these four noble Truths, with its three modifications and
its twelve constituent parts, then I knew, O bhikkhus, that I had
obtained the highest, universal Sambodhi in the world of men and gods
(&c., as in sect.27).

29. `And
this knowledge and insight arose in my mind: “The emancipation of my
mind cannot be lost; this is my last birth; hence I shall not be born
again!”‘

Thus the
Blessed One spoke. The five bhikkhus were delighted, and they rejoiced
at the words of the Blessed One. And when this exposition was
propounded, the Venerable Konda¤¤a obtained the
pure and spotless eye of the Truth (that is to say, the following
knowledge): `Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination, is
subject also to the condition of cessation.’

30. And as the
Blessed One had founded the kingdom of Truth (by propounding the four
noble Truths), the earth-inhabiting devas shouted: `Truly the Blessed
One has founded at Benares, in the deer park Isipatana, the highest
kingdom of Truth, which may be opposed neither by a samaõa nor by a
bràhmaõa, neither by a deva, nor by Màra, nor by Brahmà, nor by any
being in the world.’

[\q 98/]

Hearing the
shout of the earth-inhabiting devas, the Càtumahàràjika devas (gods
belonging to the world of the four divine Mahàràjas) shouted (&c.,
as above). Hearing the shout of the Càtumahàràjika devas, the Tàvatiüsa
devas
(33).
. . the Yàma devas . . . the Tusita devas the Nimmànarati devas . . .
the Paranimmitavasavatti devas . . . the Brahmakàyika devas shouted:
`Truly the Blessed One (&c., as above).

31. Thus in
that moment, in that instant, in that second the shout reached the
Brahmà world; and this whole system of ten Thousand worlds quaked, was
shaken, and trembled; and an infinite, mighty light was seen through the
world, which surpassed the light that can be produced by the divine
power of the devas.

And the
Blessed One pronounced this solemn utterance: `Truly
Konda¤¤a has perceived it
(”a¤¤àsi”), truly Konda¤¤a
has perceived it!’ Hence the Venerable Konda¤¤a
received the name
A¤¤àtakonda¤¤a
(Konda¤¤a who has perceived the Doctrine).

32. And the
Venerable A¤¤àtakonda¤¤a,
having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, having understood the
Truth, having penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having
dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody
else for knowledge of the Doctrine of the Teacher, thus spoke to the
Blessed One: `Lord, let [\q 99/] me receive the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations from the Blessed One.’

`Come, O
bhikkhu,’ said the Blessed One, `Well taught is the Doctrine; lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’ Thus
this Venerable person received the upasampadà ordination.

33. And the
Blessed One administered to the other bhikkhus exhortation and
instruction by discourses relating to the Dhamma. And the Venerable
Vappa, and the Venerable Bhaddiya, when they received from the Blessed
One such exhortation and instruction by discourses relating to the
Dhamma, obtained the pure and spotless eye of the Truth (that is to say,
the following knowledge): `Whatsoever is subject to the condition of
origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.’

34. And having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth (&c., as in sect.32), they
thus spoke to the Blessed One: `Lord, let us receive the pabbajjà and
upasampadà ordinations from the Blessed One.’ `Come, O bhikkhus,’ said
the Blessed One, `Well taught is the Doctrine; lead a holy life for the
sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’ Thus these Venerable
persons received the upasampadà ordination.

35. And the
Blessed One, living on what the bhikkhus brought Him, administered to
the other bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by discourse relating to
the Dhamma; in this way the six persons lived on what the three bhikkhus
(34) brought home from their alms pilgrimage.

[\q 100/]

36, 37. And
the Venerable Mahànàma and the Venerable Assaji, when they received from
the Blessed One (&c., as in sect.33,34,down to:). Thus these
Venerable persons received the upasampadà ordination.

38. And the
Blessed One thus spoke to the five bhikkhus: `The body (råpa), O
bhikkhus, is not the self if the body, O bhikkhus, were the self, the
body would not be subject to disease, and we should be able to say: “Let
my body be such and such a one, let my body not be such and such a
one.” But since the body, O bhikkhus, is not the self, therefore the
body is subject to disease, and we are not able to say: “Let my body be
such and such one, let my body not be such and such a one.”

39-41. `Sensation (vedanà), O bhikkhus, is not the self (&c. (35)) perception (sa¤¤à) is not the self . . . the saïkharas (36) are not the self . . . consciousness (vi¤¤àna) is not the self (&c. (37))

42. `Now what do you think, O bhikkhus, is the body permanent or perishable?’

[\q 101/] `It is perishable, Lord.’

`And that which is perishable, does that cause pain or joy?’

`It causes pain, Lord.’

`And that
which is perishable, painful, subject to change, is it possible to
regard that in this way. `This is mine, this am I, this is my self?’
`That is impossible, Lord.’

43. `Is sensation permanent or perishable?’ (&c. (38))

44.
`Therefore, O bhikkhus, whatever body has been, will be, and is now,
belonging or not belonging to sentient beings, gross or subtle, inferior
or superior, distant or near, all that body is not mine, is not me is
not my self: thus it should be considered by right knowledge according
to the Truth.

45. `Whatever sensation (&c. (39)).

46.
`Considering this, O bhikkhus, a learned noble hearer of the word
becomes weary of body, weary of sensation, weary of perception, weary of
the saïkharas, weary of consciousness. Becoming weary of all that, he
divests himself of passion; by absence of passion he is made free; when
he is free, he becomes aware that he is free; and he realises that
re-birth is exhausted; that holiness is completed; that duty is fulfilled; and that there is no further return to this world.
(40)

47. Thus the
Blessed One spoke; the five bhikkhus were delighted, and rejoiced at the
words of the, Blessed One. And when this exposition had been [\q 102/]
propounded, the minds of the five bhikkhus became free from attachment
to the world, and were released from the àsavas
(41).

At that time there were six arahats (persons who had reached absolute holiness) in the world.

End of the First Bhànavàra.


______________________


7 (42).

1. At that time there was in Benares a noble youth, Yasa by name, the son of a seññþi (or treasurer (43))
and delicately nurtured. He had three palaces, one for winter, one for
summer, one for the rainy season. In the palace for the rainy season he
lived during the four months (of that season), surrounded with female
musicians among whom no [\q 103/] man was, and he did not descend from
that palace (all that time). Now one day Yasa, the noble youth, who was
endowed with, and possessed of the five pleasures of sense
(44),
while he was attended (by those female musicians), fell asleep sooner
than usual; and after him his attendants also fell asleep. Now an oil
lamp was burning through the whole night.

2. And Yasa,
the noble youth, awoke sooner than usual; and he saw his attendants
sleeping; one had her lute leaning against her arm-pit; one had her
tabor leaning against her neck; one had her drum leaning against her
arm-pit; one had dishevelled hair; one had saliva flowing from her
mouth; and they were muttering in their sleep. One would think it was a
cemetery one had fallen into
(45).
When he saw that, the evils (of the life he led) manifested themselves
to him; his mind became weary (of worldly pleasures). And Yasa,, the
noble youth, gave utterance to this solemn exclamation: `Alas! What
distress; alas! What danger!’

3. And Yasa,
the noble youth, put on his gilt slippers, and went to the gate of his
house. Non-human beings opened the gate, in order that no being might
prevent Yasa the noble youth’s leaving the world, and going forth into
the houseless state. And Yasa, the noble youth, went to the gate of the
city. Non-human beings opened the gate, in order that no being might
prevent Yasa the noble youth’s leaving the world, and going forth into
the houseless state. And Yasa, the noble youth, went to. The deer park
Isipatana.

[\q 104/]

4. At that
time the Blessed One, having arisen in the night, at dawn was walking up
and down in the open air. And the Blessed One saw Yasa, the noble
youth, coming from afar. And when He saw him, He left the place where He
was walking, and sat down on a seat laid out (for Him). And Yasa, the
noble youth, gave utterance near the Blessed One to that solemn
exclamation: `Alas! What distress; alas! What danger!’ and the Blessed
One said to Yasa, the noble youth: `Here is no distress, Yasa, here is
no danger. Come here, Yasa, sit down, I will teach you the Truth
(Dhamma).’

5. And Yasa,
the noble youth, when he heard that there was no distress, and that
there was no danger, became glad and joyful; and he put off his gilt
slippers, and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having
approached Him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat
down near Him. When Yasa, the noble youth, was sitting near Him, the
Blessed One preached to him in due course: that is to say, he talked
about the merits obtained by alms-giving, about the duties of morality,
about heaven, about the evils, the vanity, and the sinfulness of
desires, and about the blessings of the abandonment of desire
(46).

6. When the
Blessed One saw that the mind of Yasa, the noble youth, was prepared,
impressible, free from obstacles (to understanding the Truth), elated,
and believing, then He preached what is the principal Doctrine of the
Buddhas, namely, suffering, [\q 105/] the cause of suffering, the
cessation of suffering the path. Just as a clean cloth free from black
specks properly takes the dye, thus Yasa, the noble youth, even while
sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless eye of the Truth (that is,
the knowledge): `Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination
is subject also to the condition of cessation.’

7. Now the
mother of Yasa, the noble youth, having gone up to his palace, did not
see Yasa, the noble youth, and she went to the seññþi, the householder
(her husband), and having approached him, she said to the seññþi, the
householder: `Your son Yasa, O householder, has disappeared.’ then the
seññþi, the householder, sent messengers on horseback to the four
quarters of the horizon; and he went himself to the deer park Isipatana.
Then the seññþi, the householder, saw on the ground the marks of the
gilt slippers; and when he saw them, he followed them up.

8. And the
Blessed One saw the seññþi, the householder, coming from afar. On seeing
him, He thought: `What if I were to effect such an exercise of
miraculous power, that the seññþi, the householder, sitting here, should
not see Yasa, the noble youth, who is sitting here also.’ And the
Blessed One effected such an exercise of His miraculous power.

9. And the
seññþi, the householder, went to the place where the Blessed One was;
having approached Him, he said to the Blessed One: `Pray, Lord, has the
Blessed One seen Yasa, the noble youth?’

`Well, householder, sit down. Perhaps, sitting here, you may see Yasa, the noble youth, sitting here also.’ [\q 106/]

And the seññþi
the householder, who thought: ,indeed, sitting here I shall see Yasa,
the noble youth sitting here also !’ became glad and joyful, and having
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near Him.

10. When the
seññþi, the householder, was sitting near Him, the Blessed One preached
to him in due course; that is to say, He talked about the merits
obtained by alms-giving (&c., as at end of sect.5). And the seññþi,
the householder, having seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth,
having penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having
dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody
else for the knowledge of the Doctrine of the Teacher, said to the
Blessed One: `Glorious, Lord ! Glorious, Lord! Just as if one should set
up, Lord, what had been overturned, or should reveal what had been
hidden, or should point out the way to one who had lost his way, or
should bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those who had eyes
might see visible things, thus has the Blessed One preached the Doctrine
in many ways. I take my refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the
Dhamma, and in the fraternity of bhikkhus; may the Blessed One receive
me from this day forth while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken
his refuge in Him.’

This was the first person in the world who became a lay-disciple by the formula of the holy triad.

11. And Yasa,
the noble youth, while instruction was administered (by the Buddha) to
his father, contemplated the stage of knowledge which he had seen with
his mind and understood; and his mind became free from attachment to the
world, and was [\q 107/] released from the àsavas. Then the Blessed One
thought: `Yasa, the noble youth, while instruction was administered to
his father, has contemplated the stage of knowledge which he had seen
with his mind and understood; and his mind has become free from
attachment to the world, and has become released from the àsavas. It is
impossible that Yasa, the noble youth, should return to the world and
enjoy pleasures, as he did before, when he lived in his house. What if I
were now to put an end to that exertion of my miraculous power.’ And
the Blessed One put an end to that exertion of His miraculous power.

12. Then the
seññþi, the householder, saw Yasa, the noble youth, sitting there. On
seeing him he said to Yasa, the noble youth: `My son Yasa, your mother
is absorbed in lamentation and grief; restore your mother to life.’

13. Then Yasa,
the noble youth, looked at the Blessed One. And the Blessed One said to
the seññþi, the householder:, `What do you think then, O householder?
That Yasa has (first) won only an imperfect
(47)
degree of knowledge and insight into the Truth, as you have yourself?
Or that rather he was contemplating the stage of knowledge which he had
seen with his mind and understood; and that his mind has thus become
free from attachment to the world, and has become released from the
àsavas? Now would it then be possible, O householder, that Yasa should
return to the world and enjoy pleasures as he did before, when he lived
in his house?’ `Not so, Lord.’ [\q 108/]

`Yasa, the
noble youth, O householder, had (first) won, like yourself, an imperfect
degree of knowledge and insight into the Truth. But when he was
contemplating the stage of knowledge which he had seen, with his mind
and understood, his mind has become free from attachment to the world,
and has become released from the àsavas. It is impossible, O
householder, that Yasa, the noble youth, should return to the world and
enjoy pleasures as he did before, when he lived in his house.’

14. `It is all
gain, Lord, to Yasa, the noble youth, it is high bliss, Lord, for Yasa,
the noble youth, that the mind of Yasa, the noble youth, has become
free from attachment to the world, and has become released from the
àsavas. Might, Lord, the Blessed One consent to take His meal with me
today together with Yasa, the noble youth, as His attendant?’

The Blessed
One expressed His consent by remaining silent. Then the seññþi, the
householder, when he understood that the Blessed One had accepted his
invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One,
and passing round Him with his right side towards Him, departed thence.

15. And Yasa,
the noble youth, soon after the seññþi, the householder, was gone, said
to the Blessed One: `Lord, let me receive the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations from the Blessed One.’

`Come, O
bhikkhu,’ said the Blessed One, `Well taught is the Doctrine; lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’

Thus this Venerable person received the upasampadà ordination. At that time there were seven arahats in the world.

End of the Story of Yasa’s Pabbajjà.


______________________

[\q 109/]

8.

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on His robes (48),
took His alms-bowl, and, with His civara on, went with the Venerable
Yasa as His attendant to the house of the seññþi, the householder. When
He had arrived there, He sat down on a seat laid out for Him. Then the
mother and the former wife of the Venerable Yasa went to the place where
the Blessed One was; having approached Him and having respectfully
saluted the Blessed One, they sat down near Him.

2. Then the Blessed One preached to them in due course; that is to say, He talked about the merits obtained by
alms-giving,. (&c., as in chap.7.5,6, down to:);thus they obtained,
while sitting there, the pure and spotless eye of the Truth (that is,
the knowledge): `Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.’

3. And having
seen the Truth (&c., as above, sects.5,6, down to:), dependent on
nobody else for knowledge of the Teacher’s Doctrine, they thus spoke to
the Blessed One: `Glorious, Lord ! Glorious Lord ! Just as if one
should set up (&c., as in chap.7.10, down to:). We take our refuge,
Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of
bhikkhus; may the Blessed One receive us from this day forth, while our
life lasts, as disciples who have taken their refuge in Him.’

These were the first females in the world who became lay-disciples by the formula of the holy triad. [\q 110/]

4. And the mother and the father and the former wife of the Venerable Yasa with their own hands served and offered (49)
excellent food, both hard and soft, to the Blessed One and to the
Venerable Yasa; and when the Blessed One had finished His meal, and
cleansed His bowl and His hands, they sat down near Him. Then the
Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the mother, and
father, and the former wife of the Venerable Yasa by religious
discourse; and then He rose from His seat and went away.


______________________


9.

1. Now
four lay persons, friends of the Venerable Yasa, belonging to the seññþi
families of Benares, and to the highest after the seññþi families, by
name Vimala, Subàhu, Puõõaji, and Gavampati, heard: `Yasa, the noble
youth, has cut off his hair and beard, and has put on yellow robes, and
has given up the world, and gone forth into the houseless state.’ When
they had heard that, they thought: `Surely that cannot be a common
doctrine and discipline, that cannot be a common renunciation of the
world, if Yasa, the noble youth, has cut off his hair and beard, and has
put on yellow robes, and has given up the world, and gone forth into
the houseless state.’ [\q 111/]

2. Those four
persons went to the place where the Venerable Yasa was; having
approached him and having respectfully saluted the Venerable Yasa, they
stood by his side. And the Venerable Yasa went with his four lay-friends
to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him and
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near Him.
Sitting near Him. The Venerable Yasa said to the Blessed One: `Lord,
here are four lay-friends of mine, belonging to the seññþi families of
Benares and to the highest after the seññþi families; their names are
Vimala, Subàhu, Puõõaji, and Gavampati. May the Blessed One administer
exhortation and instruction to these four persons.

3. Then the Blessed One preached to them (&c., as in chap.8.2).

4. And having
seen the Truth (&c., down to:) dependent on nobody else for the
knowledge of the Teacher’s Doctrine, they thus spoke to the Blessed One:
`Lord, let us receive the pabbajjà, and upasampadà ordinations from the
Blessed One.’

`Come, O
bhikkhus,’ said the Blessed One, `Well taught is the Doctrine; lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’

Thus these
Venerable persons received the upasampadà. Ordination. And the Blessed
One administered to these bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by
discourse relating to the Dhamma. While they received exhortation and
instruction from the Blessed One by discourse relating to the Dhamma, their minds became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the àsavas. [\q 112/]

At that time there were eleven arahats in the world.

Here Ends the Story of the Ordination of the Four Laymen.


______________________


10.

Now fifty lay
persons, friends of the Venerable Yasa, belonging to the highest
families in the country and to those next to the highest, heard
(&c., as in chap.9, sects. 1, 2, 3, 4, down to:) while they received
exhortation and instruction from the Blessed One by discourse relating
to the Dhamma, their minds became free from attachment to the world, and
were released from the àsavas.

At that time there were sixty-one arahats in the world.


______________________

11.

And the
Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: `I am delivered, O bhikkhus, from all
fetters, human and divine. You, O bhikkhus, are also delivered from all
fetters, human and divine. Go ye now, O bhikkhus, and wander, for the
gain of the many, for the welfare of the many, out of compassion for the
world, for the good, for the gain, and for the welfare of gods and men.
Let not two of you go the same way
(50).
Preach, O bhikkhus, the Doctrine [\q 113/] which is glorious in the
beginning, glorious in the middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit
and in the letter; proclaim a consummate, perfect, and pure life of
holiness. There are beings whose mental eyes are covered by scarcely any
dust, but if the Doctrine is not preached to them, they cannot attain
salvation. They will understand the Doctrine. And I will go also, O
bhikkhus, to Uruvelà, to Senàninigama
(51), in order to preach the Doctrine.’

2. And Màra
the wicked one went to the place where the Blessed One was; having
approached Him, he addressed the Blessed One in the following stanza:
`Thou art bound by all fetters, human and divine. Thou art bound by
strong fetters. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samaõa.’

Buddha
replied: `I am delivered from all fetters, human and divine. I am
delivered from the strong fetters. Thou art struck down, O death.’

(Màra said):
`The fetter which pervades the sky, with which mind is bound, with that
fetter I will bind Thee. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samaõa.’

(Buddha
replied): `Whatever forms, sounds, odours, flavours,, or contacts there
are which please the [\q 114/] senses, in me desire for them has ceased.
Thou art struck down, O death.’

Then Màra the
wicked one understood: `The Blessed One knows me, the perfect one knows
me,’ and, sad and afflicted, he vanished away.

Here Ends the Story of Màra.


______________________


12.

1. At
that time the bhikkhus brought (to Buddha), from different regions and
different countries, persons who desired to obtain the pabbajjà and
upasampadà ordinations, thinking: `The Blessed One will confer on them
the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations.’ Thus both the bhikkhus became
tired (from the journey), and also those who desired to obtain the
pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations. Now when the Blessed One was alone
and had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented
itself to His mind: `The bhikkhus now bring to me from different regions
and different countries persons who desire to obtain the pabbajjà and
upasampadà ordinations, thinking: “The Blessed One will confer on them
the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations.” Now both the bhikkhus become
tired, and also those who desire to obtain the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations. What if I were to grant permission to the bhikkhus, saying:
“Confer henceforth, O bhikkhus, in the different regions, and in the
different countries, the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations yourselves
(on those who desire to receive them) “‘

2. And
the Blessed One, having left the solitude [\q 115/] in the evening, in
consequence of that, and on this occasion, after having delivered a
religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus : `When I was alone, O
bhikkhus, and had retired into solitude, the following consideration,
&c what if I were to permit (&c., as in sect.1).

3. I grant
you, O bhikkhus, this permission: confer henceforth in the different
regions and in the different countries the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations yourselves (on those who desire to receive them). And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to confer the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations in
this way: let him (who desires to receive the ordination), first have
his hair and beard cut off; let him put on yellow robes, adjust his
upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the bhikkhus
(with his head), and sit down squatting; then let him raise his joined
hands and tell him to say:

4. `”I take my
refuge in the Buddha, I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge
in the Saïgha. And for the second time I take (&c., Saïgha). And for
the third time I take my refuge in the Buddha, and for the third time I
take my refuge in the Dhamma, and for the third time I take my refuge
in the Saïgha.”

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations consisting in the
three times repeated declaration of taking refuge (in the holy triad).’

End of the Account of the Upasampadà Ordination

By the Threefold Declaration of Taking Refuge (52).


______________________


[\q 116/]

13.

1. And the Blessed One, after having kept the vassa residence (53),
thus addressed the bhikkhus: `By wise contemplation, O bhikkhus, and by
wise firmness of exertion have I attained the highest emancipation,
have I realised the highest emancipation. Attain ye also, O bhikkhus,
the highest emancipation, realise the highest emancipation, by wise
contemplation and by wise firmness of exertion.’

2. And
Màra the wicked one went to the place where the Blessed One was; having
approached Him, he addressed the Blessed One by the following stanza:
`Thou art bound by Màra’s fetters, human and divine. `Thou art bound by
strong fetters. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samaõa.,

(Buddha
replied): `I am delivered from Màra’s fetters, human and divine. I am
delivered from the strong fetters. Thou art struck down, O death.’ Then
Màra the wicked one understood: `The Blessed One knows me, the perfect
one knows me,’ and, sad and afflicted, he vanished away.


______________________


14.

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Benares as long as He thought fit, went forth to
Uruvelà. And the Blessed One left the road and went to a certain grove;
having gone there, and having entered it He sat down at the foot of a
tree. At that time there was a party of thirty friends, rich young men,
who were sporting in that same grove [\q 117/] together with their
wives. One of them had no wife; for him they had procured a harlot. Now
while they did not pay attention, and were indulging in their sports,
that harlot took up the articles belonging to them, and ran away.

2. Then those
companions, doing service to their friend, went in search of that woman;
and, roaming about that grove, they saw the Blessed One sitting at the
foot of a tree. Seeing Him they went to the place where the Blessed One
was; having approached Him, they said to the Blessed One: `Pray, Lord,
has the Blessed One seen a woman passing by?’

`What have you to do, young men, with the woman?’

`We were
sporting, Lord, in this. Grove, thirty friends, rich young men, together
with our wives. One of us had no wife; for him we had procured a
harlot. Now, Lord, while we did not pay attention, and were indulging in
our sports, that harlot has taken up the articles belonging to us, and
has run away. Therefore, Lord, we companions, doing service to our
friend, go in search of that woman, and roam about this grove.’

3. `Now what
think you, young men? Which would be the better for you; that you should
go in search of a woman, or that you should go in search of
yourselves?’

`That, Lord, would be the better for us, that we should go in search of ourselves.’

`If so, young men, sit down, I will preach to you the Truth (Dhamma).’

The rich young companions replied: `Yes, Lord,’ and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and sat down near Him. [\q 118/]

4. Then the Blessed One preached to them, (&c., as in chap.8.2, or 9.3).

5. And having
seen the Truth (&c., as in chap.9.4 down to:). Thus these Venerable
persons received the upasampadà ordination.

Here Ends the Story of the Thirty Rich Young Companions.

End of the Second Bhànavàra.


______________________


15.

1. And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Uruvelà. At that time there lived in Uruvelà, three Jañilas (54),
Uruvelà, Kassapa, Nadã Kassapa (Kassapa of the river, i.e. The
Nera¤jarà,), and Gayà Kassapa (Kassapa of the village Gayà).
Of these the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa was chief, leader, foremost, first,
and highest over five hundred Jañilas; Nadã Kassapa was chief (&c.,
down to highest over) three hundred Jañilas, Gayà Kassapa was chief
(&c., down, to highest over) two hundred Jañilas.

2. And
the Blessed One went to the hermitage of [\q 119/] the Jañila Uruvelà
Kassapa; having gone there, He said to the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa: `If
it is not disagreeable to you, Kassapa, let me spend one night in the
room where your (sacred) fire is kept.’

`It is not disagreeable to me, Great Samaõa, but there is a savage nàga (or serpent) king of great magical power (55), a dreadfully venomous serpent; let him do no harm to you.’

And a second time the Blessed One said to the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa: `If it is not disagreeable,’ &c.

`It is not disagreeable,’ &c.

And a third time the Blessed One said: `If it is not disagreeable,’ &c.

`It is not disagreeable,’ &c.

`He is not likely to do any harm to me. Pray, Kassapa, allow me a place in the room where your fire is kept.’

`Stay there, Great Samaõa, as you wish it.’

3. Then the
Blessed One entered the room where the fire was kept, made Himself a
couch of grass, and sat down cross-legged, keeping the body erect and
surrounding Himself with watchfulness of mind
(56).
And the nàga saw that the Blessed One had entered; when he saw that, he
became annoyed, and irritated, and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then
the Blessed One thought: `What if I were to leave intact the skin, and
hide, and flesh, and ligaments, and bones, [\q 120/] and marrow of this
nàga; but were to conquer the fire, which he will send forth, by my
fire.’

4. And the
Blessed One effected the appropriate exercise of miraculous power and
sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then the nàga, who could not master his
rage
(57), sent forth flames. And the Blessed One, converting His body into fire (58),
sent forth flames. When they both shone forth with their flames, the
fire room looked as if it were burning and blazing, as if it were all in
flames, and the Jañilas, surrounding the fire room, said: `Truly the
countenance of the Great Samaõa is beautiful, but the nàga will do harm
to him
(59).’

5. That night
having elapsed, the Blessed One, leaving intact the skin and hide and
flesh and ligaments and bones and marrow of that nàga, and conquering
the nàga’s fire by His fire, threw him into His alms-bowl, and
showed him to the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa (saying), `Here you see the
nàga, Kassapa; his fire has been conquered by my fire.’

Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high
magical powers and great faculties, in that he is able to conquer by his
fire the fire of that savage nàga king, who is possessed of magical
power, that dreadfully venomous serpent. He is not, however, holy
(arahat) as I am.’

6 (60).
Near the Nera¤jarà river the Blessed One [\q 121/] said to
the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa: `If it is not disagreeable to you, Kassapa,
let me dwell this moonlight night in your fire room.’

`It is not
disagreeable to me, Great Samaõa, but in your own behalf I warn you off.
There is a savage snake king there possessed of magical power, a
dreadfully venomous serpent; let him do no harm to you.’

`He is not likely to do any harm to me; pray, Kassapa, allow me a place in your fire room.’

When He saw
that Kassapa had given his permission, fearlessly He, who had overcome
all fear, entered. When the chief of serpents saw that the sage had
entered, he became irritated, and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then the
chief of men
(61),
joyful and unperplexed, also sent forth a cloud of smoke. Unable to
master his rage, the chief of serpents sent forth flames like a burning
fire. Then the chief of men, the perfect master of the element of fire,
also sent forth flames. When they shone forth both with their flames,
the Jañilas looked at the fire room saying `Truly the countenance of the
Great Samaõa is beautiful, but the nàga will do harm to him.’

7. And when
that night had elapsed, the flames of the nàga were extinguished, but
the various coloured flames of Him who is possessed of magical powers
remained. Dark blue and red, light red, yellow, and crystal-coloured
flames of various colours [\q 122/] appeared on the Angiras’s
(62)
body. Having put the chief of serpents into His alms-bowl, He showed
him to the bràhmaõa (saying), `Here you see the nàga, Kassapa; his fire
has been conquered by my fire.’

And the Jañila
Uruvelà Kassapa, having conceived an affection for the Blessed One in
consequence of this wonder, said to the Blessed One: `Stay with me,
Great Samaõa. I will daily provide you with food.’

End of the First Wonder.


______________________


16.

1. and the
Blessed One resided in a certain grove near the hermitage of the Jañila
Uruvelà Kassapa. And on a beautiful night the four maharajas
(63),
filling the whole grove with light by the brilliancy of their
complexion, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having
approached Him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they stood in
the four directions like great firebrands.

2. And
when that night had elapsed, the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa went to the
place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him, he said to the
Blessed One: `It is time, Great Samaõa, the meal is ready. Who were
they, Great Samaõa, who came, this beautiful night, filling the whole
grove with light by the brilliancy of their complexion, to [\q 123/] the
place where you were, and having approached you and respectfully
saluted you, stood in the four directions like great firebrands?’

`They were the four maharajas, Kassapa, who came to me in order to bear my, preaching.’

Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high
magical powers and great faculties, since even the four maharajas come
to hear his preaching. He is not, however, holy like me.’

And the Blessed One ate the food offered by the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa, and continued to stay in that same grove.

End of the Second Wonder.


______________________


17.

1. And on a beautiful night Sakka (Sakra or Indra) the king of the devas, filling the whole grove with light by the brilliancy of his complexion, went to
the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he stood near him like a great
firebrand, surpassing in beauty and brilliancy the splendour of the
former appearances.

2. And when that night had elapsed (&c., as in chap.16.2).

End of the Third Wonder.


______________________

[\q 124/]

18.

And on a beautiful night Brahmà Sahampati (&c., as in chap.17).

End of the Fourth Wonder.


______________________


19.

1. At
that time a great sacrifice which the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa used to
celebrate was approaching, and all the people of Anga and Magadha wished
to go to that sacrifice carrying abundant food, both hard and soft. Now
the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Presently my great sacrifice is
approaching, and all the people of Anga and Magadha will come and bring
with them abundant food, both hard and soft. If the Great Samaõa should
perform a wonder before that great assembly, gain and honour would
increase to the Great Samaõa, and my gain and honour would diminish.
Well, the Great Samaõa shall not appear here tomorrow.’

2. Then
the Blessed One, understanding by the power of His mind this reflection
which had arisen in the mind of the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa, went to
Uttara Kuru; having begged alms there, He took the food (he had
received) to the Anotatta Lake
(64); there He took His meal and rested during the heat of the day at the same place.

And when the night had elapsed, the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was;
having approached Him, he said to the [\q 125/] Blessed One: `It is
time, Great Samaõa, the meal is ready. Why did you not come yesterday,
Great Samaõa? We have thought of you: “Why does the Great Samaõa not
come?” And your portions of food, both hard and soft, were served up for
you.’

3. (Buddha
replied): `Did you not think, Kassapa: presently my great sacrifice
(&c., as above down to:). Well, the Great Samaõa shall not appear
here tomorrow?

4. `Now I
understood, Kassapa, by the power of my mind this reflection which had
arisen in your mind, and I went to Uttara Kuru; having begged alms
there, I took the food to the Anotatta Lake; there I took my meal and
rested during the heat .of the day at the same place.’

Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high
magical powers and great faculties, since he is able to understand by
the power of his mind the thoughts of other people. He is not, however,
holy like me.’

And the Blessed One ate (&c., as in chap.16.2).

End of the Fifth Wonder.


______________________


20.

1. At
that time the Blessed One had rags taken from a dust heap (of which He
was going to make Himself a dress). Now the Blessed One thought: `Where
shall I wash these rags?’ Then Sakka the king of the devas,
understanding in his mind the thought which had arisen in the mind of
the, Blessed One, dug a tank with his own hand, [\q 126/] and said to
the Blessed One: `Lord, might the Blessed One wash the rags here.’

And the
Blessed One thought: `What shall I rub the rags upon?’ Then Sakka the
king of the devas, understanding, &c., put there a great stone and
said: Lord, might the Blessed One rub the rags upon this stone.’

2. And the
Blessed One thought: what shall I take hold of when going up (from the
tank)?’ Then a deity that resided in a kakudha tree, understanding,
&c., bent down a branch and said: `Lord, might the Blessed One take
hold of this branch when going up (from the tank).’

And the
Blessed One thought: `What shall I lay the rags upon (in order to dry
them)?’ Then Sakka the king of the devas, understanding, &c., put
there a great stone and said: `Lord, might the Blessed One lay the rags
upon this stone.’

3. And when
that night had elapsed, the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa went to the place
where the Blessed One was; having approached Him, he said to the Blessed
One: `It is time, Great Samaõa, the meal is ready. What is this, Great
Samaõa? Formerly there was here no tank, and now here is this tank.
Formerly no stone was put here; by whom has this stone been put here?
Formerly this Kakudha tree did not bend down its branch, and now this
branch is bent down.’

4. `I had
rags, Kassapa, taken from a dust heap; and I thought, Kassapa: “Where
shall I wash these rags?” Then, Kassapa, Sakka the king of the devas,
understanding in his mind the thought which had arisen. In my mind, dug a
tank with his hand and said to me: “Lord, might the Blessed One wash
the [\q 127/] rags here.” Thus this tank has been dug by the hand of a
non-human being.

`And I
thought, Kassapa: “What shall I rub the rags upon?” Then, Kassapa,
Sakka, &c. Thus this stone has been put here by a non-human being.

5. `And I
thought, Kassapa: “What shall I take hold of when going up (from the
tank)?” Then, Kassapa, a deity, &c. Thus this Kakudha tree has
served me as a hold for my hand.

`And I
thought, Kassapa: “Where shall I lay the rags upon(in order to dry
them)?” Then, Kassapa, Sakka, &c. Thus this stone has been put here
by a non-human being.`

6. Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high
magical powers and great faculties, since Sakka, the king of the devas
does service to him. He is not, however, holy like me.’

And the Blessed One ate (&c., as in chap.16.2).

7. And when
that night had elapsed, the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa went to the place
where the Blessed One was; having approached Him, he announced to the
Blessed One that it was time, by saying, `It is time, Great Samaõa, the
meal is ready.’

(Buddha replied): `Go you, Kassapa; I will follow you’.

Having thus
sent away the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa, He went to pluck a fruit from the
Gambia tree after which this continent of Jambudipa,(the jambu island,
or India) is named
(65); then arriving before [\q 128/] Kassapa He sat down in the room where Kassapa’s (sacred) fire was kept (66).

8. Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa saw the Blessed One sitting in the fire room;
seeing Him he said to the Blessed One: `By what way have you come, Great
Samaõa? I have departed before you, and you have arrived before me and
are sitting in the fire room.’

9. `Men I had
sent you away, Kassapa, I went to pluck a fruit from the jambu tree
after which this continent of Jambudipa is named; then I arrived before
you and sat down in the fire room. Here is the jambu fruit, Kassapa, it
is beautiful, fragrant, and, full of flavour; you may eat it, if you
like.’

`Nay, Great Samaõa, to you alone it is becoming to eat it; eat it yourself’

And the Jañila
Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high magical
powers and great faculties, since he is able, having sent me away
before him, to go and pluck a fruit from the jambu tree after which this
continent of Jambudipa is named, and then to arrive before me and to
sit down in the fire room. He is not, however, holy like me.’

And the Blessed One ate (&c., as in chap.16.2).

10. And when
that night had elapsed (&c., as in sect.7, down to:). Having thus
sent away the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa, He went to pluck a fruit from a
mango tree growing near the jambu tree after which this continent of
Jambudipa is named, &c. He [\q 129/] went to pluck a fruit from an
emblic myrobalan tree, &c., From a yellow myrobalan tree growing
near the jambu tree, &c. He went to the Tàvatiüsa heaven to
pluck a parikkhattaka (or parigataka) flower; then arriving before
Kassapa He sat down in the fire room. Then the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa
saw (&c., as in sect.8).

11. `When
I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went to the Tàvatiüsa heaven to pluck a
paricchattaka flower; then I arrived before you and sat down in the
fire room. Here is the paricchattaka flower, Kassapa; it is beautiful
and fragrant; you may take it, if you like.’

`Nay, Great Samaõa, to you alone it is becoming to keep it; keep it yourself.’

And the Jañila (&c., as in sect.9). `He is not, however, holy as I am.’

12. At that
time one day the Jañilas, who wished to attend on their sacred fires,
could not succeed in splitting fire-wood. Now these Jañilas thought:
`Doubtless this is the magical power and the high faculty of the Great
Samaõa that we cannot succeed in splitting fire-wood.’ Then the Blessed
One said to the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa: `Shall the fire-wood be split,
Kassapa?’

`Let it be split, Great Samaõa.

Then in a moment the five hundred pieces of fire-wood (67)
were split. And the Jañila Uruvelà [\q 130/] Kassapa thought: `Truly
the Great Samaõa possesses high magical powers and great faculties,
since even the fire-wood splits itself (at his command). He is not,
however, holy like me.’

13. At that
time the Jañilas who wished to attend on their sacred fires, could not
succeed in lighting up the fires (&c., as in the preceding story).

14. At that
time the Jañilas, after having attended on their sacred fires, could not
succeed in extinguishing the fires (&c., as above).

15. At that time in the cold winter nights, in the time between the ashtaka festivals (68),
when snow falls, the Jañilas plunged into the river
Nera¤jarà, and emerged again, and repeatedly plunged into the
water and emerged. And the Blessed One created five hundred vessels
with burning fire
(69);
at those the Jañilas coming out of the river warmed themselves. And the
Jañilas thought: `Doubtless this is the magical power and the high
faculty of the Great Samaõa that these vessels with fire have been
caused to appear here.’ And the Jañila Uruvelà. Kassapa thought: `Truly
the Great Samaõa possesses high magical powers and great faculties,
since he can create such great vessels with fire. He is not, however,
holy like me.’

16. At that
time a great rain fell out of season; and a great inundation arose. The
place where the Blessed One lived was covered with water. Then [\q 131/]
the Blessed One thought: `What if I were to cause the water to recede
round about, and if I were to walk up and down in the midst of the water
on a dust-covered spot.’ And the Blessed One caused the water to recede
round about, and He walked up and down in the midst of the water on a
dust-covered spot.

And the Jañila
Uruvelà Kassapa, who was afraid that the water might have carried away
the Great Samaõa, went with a boat together with many Jañilas to the
place where the Blessed One lived. Then the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa saw
the Blessed One, who had caused the water to recede round about, walking
up and down in the midst of the water on a dust-covered spot. Seeing
Him, he said to the Blessed One: `Are you there, Great Samaõa?’

`Here I am, Kassapa,’ replied the Blessed One, and He rose in the air and stationed Himself in the boat.

And the Jañila
Uruvelà Kassapa thought: `Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high magical
powers and great faculties, since the water does not carry him away. He
is not, however, holy like me.’

17. Then the
Blessed One thought: `This foolish man will still for a long time think
thus: “Truly the Great Samaõa possesses high magical powers and great
faculties; he is not, however, holy like me.” What if I were to move the
mind of this Jañila (in order to show him my superiority).’

And the
Blessed One said to the Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa: `You are not holy
(arahat), Kassapa, nor have you entered the path of arahatship, nor do
you walk in such a practice as will lead you to arahatship, or to
entering the path of arahatship.’ [\q 132/]

Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa prostrated himself, inclining his head to the
feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: `Lord, let me
receive the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations from the Blessed One.’

18. (Buddha
replied): `You, Kassapa, are chief, leader, foremost, first, and
highest of five hundred Jañilas; go first and inform them of your
intention, and let them do what they think fit.’

Then the
Jañila Uruvelà Kassapa went to those Jañilas; having gone to them, he
said to those Jañilas: `I wish, Sirs, to lead a religious life under the
direction of the Great Samaõa; you may do, Sirs, what you think fit.’

(The Jañilas
replied): `We have conceived, Sir, an affection for the Great Samaõa
long since; if you will lead, Sir, a religious life under the Great
Samaõa’s direction, we will all lead a religious life under the Great
Samaõa’s direction.’

19. Then the Jañilas flung their hair (70), their braids, their provisions (71),
and the things for the agnihotra sacrifice into the river, and went to
the place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him and
prostrated themselves before Him, inclining their heads to the feet of
the Blessed One, they said to the Blessed One: `Lord, let us receive the
pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations from the Blessed One.’ [\q 133/]

`Come, O
bhikkhus,’ said the Blessed One, `Well taught is the Doctrine; lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’

Thus these Venerable persons received the upasampadà ordination.

20. And the
Jañila Nadã Kassapa saw the hair the braids, the provisions, the things
for the agnihotra sacrifice, which were carried down by the river; when
he saw that, he became afraid that some misfortune might have befallen
his brother. He sent some Jañilas, saying, `Go and look after my
brother,’ and went himself with his three hundred Jañilas to the
Venerable Uruvelà Kassapa; having approached Him, he said to the
Venerable Uruvelà Kassapa: `Now, Kassapa, is this bliss?’

(Uruvelà Kassapa replied): `Yes, friend, this is bliss.’

21. And the Jañilas (who had come with Nadã Kassapa)(&c., as in sect.19).

22. And the Jañila Gayà Kassapa saw (&c., as in sect.20); when
he saw that, he became afraid that some misfortune might have befallen
his brothers. He sent some Jañilas, saying, `Go and look after my
brothers,’ and went himself with his two hundred Jañilas to the
Venerable Uruvelà Kassapa (&c., as above).

23. And the Jañilas (who had come with Gayà Kassapa)(&c., as in sect.19).

24. (72)At
the command of the Blessed One the five hundred pieces of fire-wood
could not be split and were split, the fires could not be lit up and [\q
134/] were lit up, could not be extinguished and were extinguished;
besides He created five hundred vessels with fire. Thus the number of
these miracles amounts to three thousand five hundred.


______________________


21.

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Uruvelà as long as He thought fit, went forth to Gayàsisa (73),
accompanied by a great number of bhikkhus, by one Thousand bhikkhus who
all had been Jañilas before. There near Gayà, at Gayàsisa, the Blessed
One dwelt together with those Thousand bhikkhus.

2. There
the Blessed One thus addressed the bhikkhus: `Everything, O bhikkhus,
is burning. And how, O bhikkhus, is everything burning?

`The eye, O bhikkhus, is burning;. Visible things are burning; the mental impressions based on the eye are burning; the contact of the eye (with visible things) is burning; the sensation produced by the
contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, be it
painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful, that also is burning. With
what fire is it burning? I declare unto you that it is burning with the
fire of lust, with the fire of anger, with the fire of ignorance; it is
burning with (the anxieties of) birth, decay, death, grief, lamentation,
suffering, dejection, and despair.

3. `The ear is
burning, sounds are burning, &c. The nose is burning, odours are
burning, &c. [\q 135/] The tongue is burning, tastes are burning,
&c. The body is burning, objects of contact are burning, &c. The
mind is burning, thoughts are burning, &c.
(74)

4.
`Considering this, O bhikkhus, a disciple learned (in the scriptures ),
walking in the noble path, becomes weary of the eye, weary of visible
things, weary of the contact of the eye (with visible things), weary
also of the sensation produced by the contact of the eye (with visible
things),be it pleasant, be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor
painful, he becomes weary of the ear (&c. down to ) becoming weary
of all that, he divests himself of passion; by absence of passion he is
made free; when he is free, he becomes aware that he is free; and he
realises that re-birth is exhausted; that holiness is completed; that
duty is fulfilled; and that there is no further return to this world.’

When this
exposition was propounded, the minds of those Thousand bhikkhus became
free from attachment to the world, and were released from the àsavas.

Here Ends the Sermon on `The Burning.’

End Of The Third Bhànavàra Concerning The Wonders Done At Uruvelà.


______________________

[\q 136/]

22.

1. And
the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Gayàsisa as long as He thought
fit, went forth to Ràjagaha, accompanied by a great number of bhikkhus,
by one thousand bhikkhus who all had been Jañilas before. And the
Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Ràjagaha. There the
Blessed One dwelt near Ràjagaha, in the Laccivana pleasure garden, near
the sacred shrine of Supaticcha
(75).

2. Then
the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra heard: `The samaõa Gotama Sakyaputta,
an ascetic of the Sakya tribe, has just arrived at Ràjagaha and is
staying near Ràjagaha, in the Lacchivana pleasure garden, near the
sacred shrine of Supaticcha. Of Him, the blessed Gotama such a glorious
fame is spread abroad: “Truly He is the Blessed, Holy, Absolute
Sambuddha, endowed with knowledge and conduct, the most Happy One, Who
understands all worlds, the Highest One, Who guides men as a driver
curbs a bullock, the Teacher of gods and men, the Blessed Buddha. He
makes known the Truth, which He has understood Himself and seen face to
face, to this world system with its devas, its màras, and its brahmàs;
to all beings, samaõas and brahmàs, [\q 137/] gods and men; He preaches
that Truth (Dhamma) which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the
middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit and in the letter; He
proclaims a consummate, perfect, and pure life.” It is good to obtain
the sight of holy men (arahats) like that.’

3. And the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra, surrounded by twelve myriads of Magadha bràhmaõas and householders (76),
went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him and
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near Him. And of those
twelve myriads of Magadha bràhmaõas and householders some also
respectfully saluted the Blessed One and sat down near Him; some
exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, having exchanged with Him
greeting and complaisant words, they sat down near Him; some bent their
clasped hands towards the Blessed One and sat down near Him; some
shouted out their name and their family name before the Blessed One and
sat down near Him; some silently sat down near Him.

4. Now those
twelve myriads of Magadha bràhmaõas and householders thought: `How now
is this? Has the Great Samaõa placed Himself under the spiritual
direction of Uruvelà, Kassapa, or has Uruvelà Kassapa placed himself
under the spiritual direction of the Great Samaõa?’

And the
Blessed One, who understood in His mind the reflection which had arisen
in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha bràhmaõas and
householders, addressed the Venerable Uruvelà Kassapa [\q 138/] in this
stanza: `What knowledge have you gained, O inhabitant of Uruvelà, that
has induced you, who were renowned for your penances
(77), to forsake your sacred fire? I ask you, Kassapa, this question: how is it that your fire sacrifice has become deserted?’

(Kassapa replied): `It is visible things and sounds, and also tastes, pleasures and woman that the sacrifices speak of (78) ; because I understood that whatever belongs to existence (79) is filth, therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and offerings (80).’

5. `But if your mind, Kassapa (said the Blessed One (81)), found there no more delight, either in visible things, or sounds, or tastes, what is it in the world of men or gods in which (82), your mind, Kassapa, now finds delight? Tell me that.’

(Kassapa replied): `I have seen the state of peace (i.e. Nirvàna) in which the basis of existence (upadhi (83)) and the obstacles to perfection (kiõcana (84))
[\q 139/] kanal) have ceased, which is free from attachment to sensual
existence, which cannot pass over into another state, which cannot be
led to another state; therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and
offerings.’

6. Then the
Venerable Uruvelà Kassapa rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe so
as to cover one shoulder, prostrated himself, inclining his head to the
feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: `My teacher,
Lord, is the Blessed One, I am His pupil; my teacher, Lord, is the
Blessed One, I am His pupil.’ Then those twelve myriads of Magadha
bràhmaõas and householders understood: `Uruvelà Kassapa has placed
himself under the spiritual direction of the Great Samaõa.’

7, 8. And the
Blessed One, who understood in His mind the reflection that had arisen
in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha bràhmaõas and
householders, preached to them. In due course (&c., as in chap.7,
sect.5, 6, down to:) just as a clean cloth free from black specks
properly takes the dye, thus eleven myriads of those Magadha bràhmaõas
and householders with Bimbisàra at their head, while sitting there,
obtained the pure and spotless eye of the Truth (that is, the
knowledge): `Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is
subject [\q 140/] also to the condition of cessation.’ One myriad
announced their having become lay-pupils.

9. Then the
Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra, having seen the Truth (&c. down to)
dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the Teacher’s Doctrine,
said to the Blessed One: in former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I
entertained five wishes; these are fulfilled now. In former days, Lord,
when I was a prince, I wished: “O that I might be inaugurated as king.”
This was my first wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. “And might then the
Holy, Absolute Sambuddha come into my kingdom.” This was my second
wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now.

10. `”And
might I pay my respects to Him, the Blessed One.” This was my third
wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. “And might He, the Blessed One preach
His Doctrine (Dhamma) to me.” This was my fourth wish, Lord; this is
fulfilled now. “And might I understand His, the Blessed One’s Doctrine.”
This was my fifth wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. These were the
five wishes, Lord, which I entertained in former days when I was a
prince; these are fulfilled now.

11. `Glorious,
Lord! (&c., as in chap.7. 10, down to:) who has taken his refuge in
Him. And might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take His meal with me
tomorrow together with the fraternity of bhikkhus.’

The Blessed One expressed His consent by remaining silent.

12. Then
the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra, when he understood that the Blessed
One had accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully
saluted the Blessed One, and, passing round Him with his right side
towards Him, went away. [\q 141/] and when the night had elapsed, the
Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra ordered excellent food, both hard and
soft, to be prepared, and had dinner-time announced to the Blessed One
in the words: `It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.’ And in the forenoon
the Blessed One, having put on His robes, took His alms-bowl, and with
His civara on entered the city of Ràjagaha, aha accompanied by a great
number of bhikkhus, by one Thousand bhikkhus who all had been Jañilas
before.

13. At that
time Sakka the king of the devas, assuming the appearance of a young
bràhman, walked in front of the bhikkhu fraternity with Buddha at its
head, singing the following stanzas: `The self-controlled one with the
self-controlled, with the former Jañilas, the released one with the
released, the Blessed One, gold-coloured like an ornament of siïgi gold
(85), has entered Ràjagaha.

`The emancipated one with the emancipated, with the former Jañilas, &c.

`He who has
crossed (the ocean of passion) with them who have crossed (it), with the
former Jañilas, the released one with the released, the Blessed One,
gold-coloured like an ornament of siïgi gold, hasentered Ràjagaha.

`He who is possessed of the ten noble states (86) [\q 142/] and of the ten powers (87), who understands the ten paths of kamma (88) and possesses the ten (attributes of arahatship) (89), the Blessed One, surrounded by ten hundred of followers, has entered Ràjagaha.’

14. The people
when they saw Sakka the king of the devas, said: `This youth indeed is
handsome; this youth indeed has a lovely appearance; this youth indeed
is pleasing. Whose attendant may this youth be?’

When they
talked thus, Sakka the king of the devas addressed those people in this
stanza: `He who is wise, entirely self-controlled, the unrivalled
Buddha, the arahat, the most happy upon earth: His attendant am I.’

15. And
the Blessed One went to the palace of the Magadha King Seniya
Bimbisàra. Having gone there, He sat down with the bhikkhus who followed
Him. On seats laid out for them. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisàra
with his own hands served and offered excellent food, both hard and
soft, to the fraternity of bhikkhus with the Buddha at [\q 143/]
its head; and when the Blessed One had finished His meal and cleansed
His bowl and His hands, he sat down near Him.

16. Sitting
near Him the Magadha King Seniya, Bimbisàra thought: `Where may I find a
place for the Blessed One to live in, not too far from the town and not
too near, suitable for going and coming, easily accessible for all
people who want (to see Him), by day not too crowded, at night not
exposed to much noise and alarm, clean of the smell of people, hidden
from men, well fitted for a retired life

17. And the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra thought: `There is the Veluvana (90),
my pleasure garden, which is not too far from the town and not too
near, suitable for going and coming . . . down to a retired life). What
if I were to make an offering of the Veluvana pleasure garden to the
fraternity of bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head

18. And
the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra took a golden vessel (with water in
it, to be poured over the Buddha’s hand); and dedicated (the garden) to
the Blessed One (by saying), `I give up this Veluvana pleasure garden,
Lord, to the fraternity of bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.’ The
Blessed One accepted the àràma (park). Then the Blessed One, after
having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Magadha King Seniya
[\q 144/] Bimbisàra by religious discourse, rose from His seat and went
away.

And in
consequence of this event the Blessed One, after having delivered a
religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I allow you, O
bhikkhus, to receive the donation of an àràma (a park).’


______________________

23.

1. At
that time Saïjaya, a paribbàjaka (wandering ascetic), resided at
Ràjagaha with a great retinue of paribbàjakas, with two hundred and
fifty paribbàjakas. At that time Sàriputta and Moggallàna (two young
bràhmaõas) led a religious life as followers of saàjaya the
paribbàjaka; these had given their word to each other: `He who first
attains to the Immortal (amata, i.e. Nirvàna) shall tell the other one.’

2. Now
one day the Venerable Assaji in the forenoon, having put on his robes,
and having taken his alms-bowl, and with his civara on, entered the city
of Ràjagaha for alms; his walking, turning back, regarding, looking,
drawing (his arms) back, and stretching (them) out was decorous; he
turned his eyes to the ground, and was dignified in deportment. Now the
paribbàjaka Sàriputta saw the Venerable Assaji , who went through
Ràjagaha for alms, whose walking, &c. was decorous, who kept his
eyes on the ground, and was dignified in deportment. Seeing him he
thought: `Indeed this person is one of those bhikkhus who are the worthy
ones (arahats) in the world, or who have entered the path of
arahatship. What if I were to approach this bhikkhu and [\q 145/] to ask
him: “In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is
your teacher? Whose Doctrine do you profess?”‘

3. Now the
paribbàjaka Sàriputta thought: `This is not the time to ask this
bhikkhu., He has entered the interior yard of a house, walking for alms.
What if I were to follow this bhikkhu step by step, according to the
course recognised by those who want something
(91).’

And the
Venerable Assaji, having finished his alms-pilgrimage through Ràjagaha,
went back with the food he had received. Then the, paribbàjaka Sàriputta
went to the place where the Venerable Assaji was; having, approached
him, he exchanged greeting with the Venerable Assaji; having exchanged
with him greeting and complaisant words, he stationed himself at his
side; standing at his side the paribbàjaka Sàriputta said to the
Venerable Assaji: `Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion
is pure and bright. In whose name, friend, have you retired from the
world? Who is your teacher? Whose Doctrine do you profess
(92)?’

4. (Assaji
replied): `There is, friend, the Great Samaõa Sakyaputta, an ascetic of
the Sakya tribe; in His, the Blessed One’s, name have I retired from the
world; he, the Blessed One, is my teacher; and His, the Blessed One’s,
Doctrine do I profess.’ [\q 146/]

And what is the Doctrine, Sir, which your teacher holds, and preaches to you?’

`I am only a
young disciple, friend; I have but recently received the ordination; and
I have newly adopted this Doctrine and discipline. I cannot explain to
you the Doctrine in detail; but I will tell you in short what it means.’

Then the
paribbàjaka Sàriputta said to the Venerable Assaji: `Well, friend, tell
me much or little as you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the
Doctrine); I want but the spirit; why do you make so much of the
letter?’

5. Then the
Venerable Assaji pronounced to the paribbàjaka Sàriputta the following
text of the Dhamma.. `Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the
Tathàgata has explained the cause, and He has explained their cessation
also; this is the Doctrine of the Great Samaõa.
(93)

And the
paribbàjaka Sàriputta after having heard this text obtained the pure and
spotless eye of the Truth (that is, the following knowledge):
`Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also
to the condition of cessation.’ (And he said): `If this alone be the
Doctrine (the Dhamma), now you have reached up to the state where all
sorrow ceases (i.e. Nirvàna), (the state) which has remained unseen [\q
147/] through many myriads of kappas (world-ages) of the past.’

6. Then the
paribbàjaka Sàriputta went to the place where the paribbàjaka Moggallàna
was. And the paribbàjaka Moggallàna saw the paribbàjaka Sàriputta
coming from afar; seeing him he said to the paribbàjaka Sàriputta: `Your
countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright.
Have you then really reached the Immortal, friend?’ `Yes, friend, I have
attained to the Immortal.’ `And how, friend, have you done so?’

7-9. `I saw, friend, the bhikkhu Assaji who went through Ràjagaha for alms (&c. (94), down to:) but I will tell you in short what it means.”

`”Tell me much
or little as you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the
Doctrine); I want but the spirit; why do you make so much of the
letter?”

10. `Then,
friend, the bhikkhu Assaji pronounced the following Dhamma sentence:
“Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the Tathàgata has explained
the cause, and He has explained their cessation also; this is the
Doctrine of the Great Samaõa.”‘

And the paribbàjaka Moggallàna, after having heard (&c., as in sect.5, down to the end).


______________________


24.

1. Then the
paribbàjaka Moggallàna said to the paribbàjaka Sàriputta: `Let us go,
friend, and join [\q 148/] the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One,
may be our teacher.’

(Sàriputta
replied): `It is on our account, friend, that these two hundred and
fifty paribbàjakas live here (as followers of Saïjaya), and it is we
whom they regard; let us first inform them also of our intention; then
they may do what they think fit.’

Then Sàriputta
and Moggallàna went to the place where those paribbàjakas were; having
approached them, they said to the paribbàjakas: `Friends, we are going
to join the Blessed One; that he, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.’

(The
paribbàjakas replied): `It is on your account, Sirs, that we live here,
and it is you whom we regard; if you, Sirs, are about to place
yourselves under the spiritual direction of the Great Samaõa, we all
will place ourselves also under the spiritual direction of the Great
Samaõa.’

2. Then
Sàriputta and Moggallàna went to the place where the paribbàjaka Saïjaya
was; having approached him, they said to the paribbàjaka Saïjaya:
`Friend, we are going to join the Blessed One; that he, the Blessed One,
may be our teacher.’

(Saïjaya replied): `Nay, friends, do not go; let us all three share in the leadership of this body (of disciples).’

And a second
time Sàriputta and Moggallàna said, &c. And a third time Sàriputta
and Magellan said, &c. (And a third time he replied): `Nay, friends,
do not go; let us all three share in the leadership of this body (of
disciples).’

But Sàriputta
and Moggallàna took with them those two hundred and fifty paribbàjakas
and went to the Veluvana. But the paribbàjaka Saïjaya [\q 149/] began,
on the spot, to vomit hot blood from his mouth
(95).

And the
Blessed One saw them, Sàriputta and Moggallàna, coming from afar; on
seeing them He thus addressed the bhikkhus: `There, O bhikkhus, two
companions arrive, Kolita and Upatissa
(96) ; these will be a pair of (true) pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.’

When (97)
(Sàriputta and Moggallàna), who had reached emancipation in the perfect
destruction of the substrata (of existence), which is a profound
subject accessible only to knowledge, came to the Veluvana, the Teacher,
who saw them, foretold about [\q 150/] them: `These two companions who
are now coming Kolita and Upatissa — these will be a pair of (true)
pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.’

4. Then
Sàriputta and Moggallàna went to the place where the Blessed One was;
having approached Him, they prostrated themselves, inclining their heads
to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: `Lord, let
us receive the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations from the Blessed
One.’

`Come, O
bhikkhus,’ said the Blessed One, `Well taught is the Doctrine; lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’ Thus
these Venerable persons received the upasampadà ordination.

5. At that
time many distinguished young Magadha noblemen led a religious life
under the direction of the Blessed One. The people were annoyed,
murmured, and became angry (saying), `The samaõa Gotama causes fathers
to beget no sons; the samaõa Gotama causes wives to become widows; the
samaõa Gotama causes families to become extinct. Now He has ordained one
Thousand Jañilas, and He has ordained these two hundred and fifty
paribbàjakas who were followers of Saïjaya; and these many distinguished
young Magadha noblemen are now leading a religious life under the
direction of the samaõa Gotama. And moreover, when they saw the
bhikkhus, they reviled them in the following stanza: `The Great Samaõa
has come to Giribbaja, Ràjagaha) of the Magadha people, leading with him
all the followers of Saïjaya; who will be the next to be led by him?’

6. Some
bhikkhus heard those people that were [\q 151/] annoyed, murmured, and
had become angry; these bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. (He
replied): `This noise, O bhikkhus, will not last long; it will last
only seven days; after seven days it will be over. And if they revile
you, O bhikkhus, in this stanza: “The Great Samaõa has come, &c.,”
you should reply to the revilers in the following stanza: “It is by
means of the true Doctrine that the great heroes, the Tathàgatas, lead
men. Who will murmur at the wise, who lead men by the power of the
Truth?”‘

7. At that time the people, when seeing the bhikkhus, reviled them in the following stanza: `The Great Samaõa has come, &c.’

Then the bhikkhus replied to the revilers in the following stanza: `It is by means of the true Doctrine, &c.’

Then the
people understood: `It is by Truth, and not by wrong, that the
Sakyaputtiya samaõas lead men;’ And thus that noise lasted only seven
days, and after seven days it was over.

Here Ends the Narration of the Ordination of

Sàriputta and Moggallàna.

End of the Fourth Bhànavàra.


________________________


25 (98).

1. At that
time some bhikkhus, as they had no upajjhàyas (preceptors) and received
no exhortation [\q 152/] and instruction, went on their rounds for alms
wearing improper under and upper garments (or, wearing their under and
upper garments improperly), and in an improper attire. While people were
eating, they held out their alms-bowls in which were leavings of food
(99),
over the hard food (which the people were eating), and held them out
over soft food, and held them out over savoury food, and held them out
over drinks. They asked for soup and boiled rice themselves, and ate it;
in the dining halls they made a great and loud noise.

2. The people
were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), `How can the
Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under
and upper garments (&c., as in sect.1, down to drinks)? How can they
make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? They behave like
bràhmaõas at the dinners given to them.’

3. Some
bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become
angry. Those bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal, modest, conscientious,
[\q 153/] anxious for training, were annoyed, murmured, and became
angry: `How can the bhikkhus go on their rounds for alms wearing
improper under and upper garments, &c.? How can they make so great
and loud a noise in the dining halls?’

4. These bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence
of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, having ordered the
fraternity of bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the bhikkhus: `Is it
true, O bhikkhus, that some bhikkhus go on their rounds (&c., down
to), that they make a great and loud noise in the dining halls?’

`It is true, Lord.’

5. Then the
Blessed Buddha rebuked those bhikkhus: `It is improper, O bhikkhus, what
these foolish persons are doing, it is unbecoming, indecent, unworthy
of samaõas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can these foolish
persons, O bhikkhus, go on their rounds, &c.? How can they make so
great and loud a noise in the dining halls? This will not do, O
bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted, and for augmenting the number
of the converted; but it will result, O bhikkhus, in the unconverted
being repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the converted being
estranged.’

6. And the
Blessed One rebuked those bhikkhus in many ways, spoke against
unfrugality, ill-nature, immoderation, insatiableness, delighting in
society, and indolence; spoke in many ways in praise of frugality,
good-nature, of the moderate, contented, who have eradicated (sin), who
have shaken off (sin), of the gracious, of the reverent, and of the
energetic. And having delivered before the bhikkhus a religious [\q
154/] discourse in accordance to, and in conformity with. These
subjects, He thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I prescribe, O bhikkhus,
(that young bhikkhus choose) an upajjhàya (or preceptor).

`The upajjhàya, O bhikkhus, ought to consider the saddhivihàrika (i.e. pupil) (100)
as a son; the saddhivihàrika ought to consider the upajjhàya as a
father. Thus these two, united by mutual reverence, confidence, and
communion of life, will progress, advance, and reach a high stage in
this Doctrine and discipline.

7. `And let
them choose, O bhikkhus, an upajjhàya in this way: let him (who is going
to choose an upajjhàya) adjust his upper robe so as to cover one
shoulder, salute the feet (of the intended upajjhàya), sit down
squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: “Venerable Sir, be my
upajjhàya; Venerable Sir, be my upajjhàya; Venerable Sir, be my
upajjhàya.” (If the other answer):”Well,” or, “Certainly,” or, “Good,”
or, “All right,” or, “Carry on (your work) with friendliness (towards
me),” or should he express this by gesture (lit. by his body), or by
word, or by gesture and word, then the upajjhàya has been chosen. If he
does not express this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and word,
the upajjhàya has not been chosen.

8. `The
saddhivihàrika, O bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards
his upajjhàya. And these are the rules for his conduct: let him arise
betimes, and having taken off his shoes
(101)
and adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, [\q 155/] let
him give (to the upajjhàya) the teeth-cleanser and water to rinse his
mouth with. Then let him prepare a scat (for the upajjhàya). If there is
rice-milk, let him rinse the jug and offer the rice-milk (to the
upajjhàya). When he has drunk it, let him give water (to the upajjhàya),
take the jug, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by)
rubbing, and put it away. When the upajjhàya has risen, let him take
away the scat. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

9. `If the upajjhàya wishes to go into the village, let (the saddhivihàrika) give
(to the upajjhàya) his under garment, take (from him) his second under
garment (i.e. his house-dress?), Give him his girdle, lay the two upper
garments upon each other
(102)
and give them (to the upajjhàya), rinse the alms-bowl, and give it him
with some water in it. If the upajjhàya wishes (to go with) an attendant
bhikkhu, let him put on his under garment so as to conceal the three
circles (viz. the navel and the two knees) and as to cover the body all
around; then let him put on his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon
each other and put them on, tie the knots, take his alms-bowl, after
having it rinsed, and follow the upajjhàya as his attendant. Let him not
go too far (from the upajjhàya) nor too near. Let him take (from the
upajjhàya) what has been put into his alms-bowl
(103).

10. `When the
upajjhàya speaks, let (the saddhivihàrika) [\q 156/] not interrupt him.
If the upajjhàya is in danger of committing an offence by the words he
says, let (the saddhivihàrika) keep him back. When (the upajjhàya) turns
back (from his alms-pilgrimage), let the saddhivihàrika go back (to the
vihàra) before (the upajjhàya), prepare a seat, get water for the
washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel
(104);
then let him go to meet the upajjhàya, take his bowl and his robe, give
him his second under garment (his house-dress?), And take his under
garment if the robe (of the upajjhàya) is wet with perspiration, let him
dry it a while in a hot place, but let him not leave the robe in a hot
place. Let him fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, let him fold
it up so as to leave (every day) four inches (more than the day before)
hanging over at the corners, in order that no fold may arise in the
middle of it
(105) let him . . . the girdle (106).
If there is any food received in the alms-bowl, and the upajjhàya
desires to eat it, let him give water (to the upajjhàya) and then offer
him the food.

11. `Let him
offer to the upajjhàya (water) to drink. When the upajjhàya has finished
his meal, let (the saddhivihàrika) give him water.. Take his alms-bowl,
hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, pour
the water out, and dry (the bowl) a while in some hot place, but let [\q
157/] him not leave the bowl in the hot place. Let him put away the
alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts away the alms-bowl, let him do so
holding the alms-bowl with one hand, and first feeling with the other
hand under the bed or under the chair (where he is going to put the
bowl), and let him not put the bowl on the bare ground. When he hangs up
the robe, let him take the robe with one hand and stroke with the other
hand along the bamboo peg or rope on which the robe is to be hung up,
and hang p the robe so that the border is turned away from him (and
turned to the wall), and the fold is turned towards him. When the
upajjhàya has risen, let him take away the seat and put away the water
for the washing of the feet, the foot-stool, and the towel
(107). If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

12. `If the
upajjhàya wishes to bathe, let him prepare a bath. If he wants cold
water, let him get cold water; if he wants hot water, let him get hot
water. If the upajjhàya wishes to go to the gantàghara
(108), let (the saddhivihàrika) knead the powder (109), moisten the clay (110),
take up the chair, belonging to the gantàghara, follow the upajjhàya
from behind, give him the chair, take his [\q 158/] robe and put it
aside, give him the powder and the clay. If he is able
(111),
let him also enter the gantàghara. When he is going to enter the
gantàghara, let him besmear his face with clay, cover himself from
before and behind, and thus enter the gantàghara.

13. `Let him
not sit down so as to encroach on senior bhikkhus, nor let him dislodge
junior bhikkhus from their seats. Let him wait upon the upajjhàya in the
gantàghara. When he is going to leave the gantàghara, let him take up
the chair belonging to the gantàghara, cover himself from before and
behind, and thus leave the gantàghara. Let him wait upon the upajjhàya
also in the water. When he has bathed `Let (the saddhivihàrika) go out
of the water first, let him dry his own body, put on his dress, then
wipe off the water from his upajjhàya’s body, give him his under garment
and his upper garment, take the chair belonging to the gantàghara, go
before the upajjhàya, prepare a seat for him, and get water for the
washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel
(112). Let him offer to the upajjhàya (water) to drink.

14. `If (the
upajjhàya) likes being called upon to deliver a discourse, let him call
upon (the upajjhàya to do so). If (the upajjhàya) likes questions being
put to him, let him put questions (to the upajjhàya).

`If the
vihàra, in which the upajjhàya dwells, is dirty, let him clean that
vihàra, if he is able to do so. When cleaning the vihàra, let him first
take away the alms-bowl and the robe (of the upajjhàya) [\q 159/] and
lay them aside. Let him take away the mat and the sheet
(113) and lay them aside. Let him take away the mattress and the pillow and lay them aside.

15. `Let him
turn down the bed, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the
floor) and without knocking it against door or door post, and put it
aside. Let him turn down the chair, take it away properly without
rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or
door-post, and put it aside. Let him take away the supporters of the bed
(114) and put them aside. Let him take away the spitting-box and put it aside. Let him take away the board to recline on (115)
and put it aside. Let him take away the carpet, after having noticed
how it was spread out, and put it aside. If there are cobwebs in the
vihàra, let him remove them as soon as he sees them. Let him wipe off
the casements
(116)
and the corners of the room. If a wall which is coated with red chalk,
is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the wall. If
the floor is coated black and is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring
it out, and scour the floor. If the floor is not blacked, let him
sprinkle it with water and scrub it in order that the vihàra may not
become dusty. Let him heap up the sweepings and cast them aside.

16. `Let him
bask the carpet in the sunshine, clean it, dust it by beating, take it
back, and spread it out as it was spread before. Let him put the
supporters of the bed in the sunshine, wipe them, [\q 160/] take them
back, and put them in their place. Let him put the bed in the sunshine,
clean it, dust it by beating, turn it down, take it back properly
without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against
door and door-post, and put it in its place. Let him put the chair in
the sunshine, &c. Let him put mattress and pillow in the sunshine,
clean them, dust them by beating, take them back, and lay them out as
they were laid out before. Let him put the mat and sheet in the
sunshine, &c. Let him put the spittoon in the sunshine, wipe it,
take it back, and put it in its place. Let him put in the sunshine the
board to recline on, &c.
(117)

17. `Let him
put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts them away (&c., as
in sect.1, down to:) and hang up the robe so that the border is turned
away from him and the fold is turned towards him.

18. `If dusty
winds blow from the east, let him shut the windows on the east. If dusty
winds blow from the west, let him shut the windows on the west, &c.
(118)
If it is cold weather, let him open the windows by day and shut them at
night. If it is hot weather, let him shut the windows by day and open
them at night.

19. `If the
cell is dirty, let him sweep the cell. If the store-room is dirty, let
him sweep the storeroom. If the refectory, &c. If the fire room,
&c. If the privy is dirty, let him sweep the privy. If there is no
drinkable water, let him provide drinkable water. If there is no food,
let him provide food. If there is no water in the water-pot for rinsing
the mouth with. Let him pour water into the pot. [\q 161/]

20. `If discontent has arisen within the upajjhàya’s heart, let the saddhivihàrika appease him (119),
or cause him to be appeased (by another), or compose him by religious
conversation. If indecision has arisen in the upajjhàya’s mind, let the
saddhivihàrika dispel it, or cause it to be dispelled, or compose him by
religious conversation. If the upajjhàya takes to a false Doctrine, let
the saddhivihàrika discuss it, or cause another to discuss it, or
compose (the upajjhàya) by religious conversation.

21. `If the upajjhàya is guilty of a grave offence, and ought to be sentenced to parivàsa discipline (120),
let the saddhivihàrika take care that the saïgha sentence the upajjhàya
to parivàsa discipline. If the upajjhàya ought to be sentenced to
recommence his penal discipline, let the saddhivihàrika take care that
the saïgha
(121)
may order the upajjhàya to recommence his penal discipline. If the
mànatta discipline ought to be imposed on the upajjhàya, let the
saddhivihàrika take care that the saïgha impose the mànatta discipline
on the upajjhàya. If the upajjhàya is to be rehabilitated (when his
penal discipline has been duly undergone), let the saddhivihàrika take
care that the saïgha rehabilitate the upajjhàya. [\q 162/]

22. `If the saïgha wishes to proceed against the upajjhàya by the tajjaniyakamma (122), or the nissaya (123),
or the pabbàjaniyakamma, or the patisaraniyakamrna, or the
ukkhepaniyakamma., Let the saddhivihàrika do what he can in order that
the saïgha may not proceed against the upajjhàya or may mitigate the
proceeding. Or if the saïgha has instituted a proceeding against him,
the tajjaniyakamma, &c., or the ukkhepaniyakamma, let the
saddhivihàrika do what he can in order that the upajjhàya may behave
himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance,
and that the saïgha may revoke its sentence.

23. `If the
robe of the upajjhàya must: be washed, let the saddhivihàrika wash it or
take care that the upajjhàya’s robe is washed. If a robe must be made
for the upajjhàya, let the saddhivihàrika make it or take care that the
upajjhàya’s robe is made. If dye must be boiled for the upajjhàya,
&c. If the robe of the upajjhàya must be dyed, &c. When he dyes
the robe, let him dye it properly and turn it whenever required, and let
him not go away before the dye has ceased to drop.

24. `Let him
not give his alms-bowl to any one without the permission of his
upajjhàya. Let him not accept an alms-bowl from any one else without the
permission of his upajjhàya. Let him not give his robe to any one else,
&c. Let him not accept a robe from any one. Else; let him not give
articles [\q 163] (required for a bhikkhu) to an one else; let him not
receive (such) articles from any one else; let him not shave the hair of
any one else; let him not have his hair shaven by any one else; let him
not wait upon any one else; let him not have done service by any one
else; let him not execute commissions for any one else; let him not have
commissions executed by any one else; let him not go with any one else
as his attendant; let him not take any one else with him as his
attendant; let him not carry any one’s food received by him in alms (to
the vihàra); let him not have the food received by himself in alms
carried by any one (to the vihàra) without the permission of his
upajjhàya. Let him not enter the village, or go to a cemetery, or go
abroad on journeys without the permission of hi upajjhàya. If his
upajjhàya is sick, let him nurse him as long as his life lasts, and wait
until he has recovered.’

End of the Duties Towards an Upajjhàya.


______________________


26.

1. The
upajjhàya, O bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his
saddhivihàrika, and these are the rules for his conduct: let the
upajjhàya, O bhikkhus, afford (spiritual) help and furtherance to the
saddhivihàrika by teaching, by putting questions to him, by exhortation,
by instruction. If the upajjhàya has an alms-bowl and the
saddhivihàrika has not, let the upajjhàya give ,the alms-bowl to the
saddhivihàrika or take care [\q 164/] that the saddhivihàrika gets an
alms-bowl. If the upajjhàya has a robe and the saddhivihàrika has not,
let the upajjhàya give the robe, &c. If the upajjhàya has the
articles (required for a bhikkhu) and the saddhivihàrika has not,
&c.

2-6. `If the
saddhivihàrika is sick, let (the upajjhàya) arise betimes and give him
the teeth cleanser and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let him
prepare a seat (for the saddhivihàrika). If there is rice-milk (&c.,
as in chap.25.8, 9, down to:) and give it him with some water in it.
When he expects: “Now he must be about to return,” let him prepare a
seat, get water for the washing of his feet (&c., as in
chap.25.10-13
(124), down to:) let him offer to the saddhivihàrika water to drink.

7-10. `If the vihàra in which the saddhivihàrika dwells, is dirty (&c., as in chap 25.14-22).

11. `If the
robe of the saddhivihàrika must be washed, let the upajjhàya tell the
saddhivihàrika: “Thus must you wash your robe,” or let him take care
that the saddhivihàrika’s robe is washed. If a robe must be made for the
saddhivihàrika, let the upajjhàya tell the saddhivihàrika: “Thus must
you make the robe,” or let him take care that the saddhivihàrika’s robe
is made. If dye must be boiled for the saddhivihàrika, &c. If the
robe of the saddhivihàrika must be dyed, let the upajjhàya tell, &c.
When he dyes the robe, let him dye it properly, and turn it whenever
required, and let him not go away before the dye has ceased to drop. If
the saddhivihàrika [\q 165/] is sick, let him nurse him as long as his
life lasts, and wait until he has recovered.’

End of the Duties Towards a Saddhivihàrika.


______________________

27.

1. At that time the saddhivihàrikas did not observe a proper conduct towards their upajjhàyas. The moderate bhikkhus (125)
were annoyed, murmured, and became angry , saying, `How can the
saddhivihàrikas not observe a proper conduct towards their upajjhàyas?’
These bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

(Then Buddha
questioned the bhikkhus):`Is it true, O bhikkhus, that the
saddhivihàrikas do not observe a proper conduct towards their
upajjhàyas?’

(They replied): `It is true, Lord.’

Then the
Blessed Buddha rebuked those bhikkhus: `How can the saddhivihàrikas, O
bhikkhus, not observe a proper conduct towards their upajjhàyas?’ Having
rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, He thus addressed the
bhikkhus
(126):
`Let a saddhivihàrika, O bhikkhus, not forbear to observe a proper
conduct towards [\q 166/] his upajjhàya. He who does not observe it, is
guilty of a dukkaña
(127) offence.’

2. Notwithstanding this, they did not observe a proper conduct.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I ordain, O
bhikkhus, to turn away (a saddhivihàrika) who does not observe a proper
conduct. And he ought, O bhikkhus, to be turned away in this way: (the
upajjhàya is to say): “I turn you away,” or, “Do not come back hither,”
or, “Take away your alms-bowl and robe,” or, “I am not to be attended by
you any more.” Whether he express this by gesture, or by word, or by
gesture and word, the saddhivihàrika has then been turned away. If he
does not express this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and word,
the saddhivihàrika has not been turned away.’

3. At that time saddhivihàrikas who had been turned away did not beg pardon (of their upajjhàyas).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that (a saddhivihàrika who has been turned away) should beg pardon (of his upajjhàya).’

They did not beg pardon notwithstanding. They told, &c.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that (a saddhivihàrika) who has been turned away shall not
forbear to beg pardon (of his upajjhàya). If he does not beg pardon, it
is a dukkaña offence.’ [\q 167/]

4. At that time upajjhàyas, when the saddhivihàrikas begged their pardon, would not forgive them. They told, &c.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, forgiving.’

Notwithstanding
this they did not forgive. The saddhivihàrikas went away, or returned
to the world, or went over to other schools. They told, &c.

`Let him who is asked for his pardon, not withhold it. He who does not forgive, is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’

5. At that
time upajjhàyas turned away (a saddhivihàrika) who observed a proper
conduct, and did not turn away one who did not observe it. They told,
&c.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, who observes a proper conduct, be turned away. He who turns
him away is guilty of a dukkaña offence. And let no one, O bhikkhus, who
does not observe a proper conduct, not be turned away. (an upajjhàya)
who does not turn him away is guilty of a dukkaña offence.

6. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a saddhivihàrika ought to be turned away: when he
does not feel great affection for his upajjhàya, nor great inclination
(towards him), nor much shame, nor great reverence, nor great devotion
(towards upajjhàya). In these five cases, O bhikkhus, a saddhivihàrika
ought to be turned away.

`In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a saddhivihàrika ought not to be turned away: when he
feels great affection, for his upajjhàya, great inclination (towards
him), &c. In these five cases, O bhikkhus, a saddhivihàrika ought
not to be turned away.

7. In five.
Cases, O bhikkhus, it is right to turn away a saddhivihàrika: when he
does not feel [\q 168/] great affection, &c. In these five cases, O
bhikkhus, it is right to turn away a saddhivihàrika.

`In five cases, O bhikkhus, it is not right, &c.

8. In five
cases, O bhikkhus, an upajjhàya who does not turn away a saddhivihàrika,
trespasses (against the law), and an upajjhàya who turns him away, does
not trespass. When he does not feel great affection, &c. In these
five cases, &c.

`In five
cases, O bhikkhus, an upajjhàya who turns away a saddhivihàrika,
trespasses (against the law), and an upajjhàya who does not turn him
away, does not trespass, &c.’


______________________


28.

1. At that
time a certain bràhmaõa. Came to the bhikkhus and asked them for the
pabbajjà ordination. The bhikkhus were not willing to ordain him. As he
did not obtain the pabbajjà ordination from the bhikkhus, he became
emaciated, lean, discoloured, more and more livid, and the veins became
visible all over his body.

And the
Blessed One saw this bràhmaõa, who had become emaciated, &c. When He
had seen him, He said to the bhikkhus: `How is it, O bhikkhus, that
this bràhmaõa has become emaciated, &c.?’

`This
bràhmaõa, Lord, came to the bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjà
ordination (&c., as above, down to:) and the veins became visible
all over his body.’

2. Then the Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: `Now, O bhikkhus, who remembers anything about this bràhmaõa?’ [\q 169/]

When he, had spoken thus the Venerable Sàriputta said to the Blessed One: `I remember something, Lord, about this bràhmaõa.

`And what is it you remember Sàriputta, about this bràhmaõa

`This
bràhmaõa, Lord, one day, when I, went through Ràjagaha for alms, ordered
a spoonful of food to be given to me; this is what I remember, Lord
about this bràhmaõa.’

3. `Good,
good, Sàriputta; pious men, Sàriputta, are grateful and remember what
has been done to then. Therefore, Sàriputta, confer you the pabbajjà and
upasampadà ordinations on that bràhmaõa.’

`Lord, how
shall I confer the pabbajjà and upasampadà &,ordinations on this
bràhmaõa?’ Then the Blessed One on this occasion after having delivered a
religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I abolish, O
bhikkhus, from this day the upasampadà ordination by the threefold
declaration of taking refuge
(128),
which I had prescribed. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you confer the
upasampadà ordination by a formal act of the order in which the
announcement (¤atti) is followed by three questions
(129).

4. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to confer the [\q 170/] upasampadà ordination in this
way: let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following
¤atti before the saïgha:

“Let the
saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N.N. desires to receive the
upasampadà ordination from the Venerable N.N. (i.e. with the Venerable
N.N. as his upajjhàya). If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha confer on
N.N. the upasampadà ordination with N.N. as upajjhàya.” This is the
¤atti.

5, 6. “Let the
saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N.N. desires to receive the
upasampadà ordination from the Venerable N.N. The saïgha confers on
N.N. the upasampadà ordination with N.N. as upajjhàya. Let any one of
the Venerable brethren who is in favour of the upasampadà ordination of
N.N. with N.N. as upajjhàya, be silent, and any one who is not in favour
of it, speak.

“And for the second time I thus speak to you: let the saïgha (&c., as before).

“And for the third time I thus speak to you: let the saïgha, &c.

“N.N. has
received the upasampadà ordination from the saïgha with N.N. as
upajjhàya. The saïgha is in favour of it, therefore it is silent. Thus I
understand
(130).”‘


______________________


29.

1. At that
time a certain bhikkhu shortly after having received the upasampadà
ordination, abandoned [\q 171/] himself to bad conduct. The bhikkhus
said to him: `You ought not to do so friend; it is not becoming.’

He replied: `I
never asked you, Sirs, saying, “Confer on me the upasampadà
ordination.” Why have you ordained me without your being asked?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, ordain a person unless he has been asked to do so. He who
does, commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you
ordain only after having been asked.

2. `And (a
bhikkhu) ought to be asked in this way: let him who desires to receive
the upasampadà ordination, go to the saïgha, adjust his upper robe so as
to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the bhikkhus with his head,
sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: “I ask the saïgha,
Reverend Sirs, for the upasampadà ordination might the saïgha, Reverend
Sirs, draw me out (of the sinful world) out of compassion towards me.”
And for the second time, &c.; And for the third time let him ask,
&c.

3. `Then let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person
N.N. desires to receive the upasampadà ordination from the Venerable
N.N.; N. N. asks the saïgha for the upasampadà ordination with N.N. as
upajjhàya. If the saïgha is ready, &c.
(131)“‘ [\q 172/]


______________________


30.

1. At that
time an arrangement had been made at Ràjagaha that the bhikkhus were to
receive excellent meals successively (in the houses of different rich
upàsakas). Now (one day) a certain bràhmaõa thought: `Indeed the
precepts which these Sakyaputtiya samaõas keep and the life they live
are commodious; they have good meals and lie down on beds protected from
the wind
(132).
What if I were to embrace the religious life among the Sakyaputtiya
samaõas?’ Then this bràhmaõa went to the bhikkhus and asked them for the
pabbajjà ordination; the bhikkhus conferred the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations on him.

2. When he had
been ordained, the arrangement of successive meals (with the rich
upàsakas) came to an end. The bhikkhus said to him: `Come, friend, let
us now go on our rounds for alms.’

He replied: `I
have not embraced the religious life for that purpose to going about
for alms; if you give me (food), I will eat; if you do not, I will
return to the world.’

(The bhikkhus said): `What, friend! Have you indeed embraced the religious life for your belly’s sake?’

`Yes, friends.’

3. The
moderate bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can a
bhikkhu embrace the religious life in so well-taught a Doctrine and
discipline for his belly’s sake?’ [\q 173/]

These bhikkhus
told this thing to the Blessed One. (The Buddha said): `Is it true, O
bhikkhu, that you have embraced the religious life for your belly’s
sake?’

(He replied): `It is true, Lord.’

Then the
Blessed Buddha rebuked that bhikkhu: `How can you, foolish person that
you are embrace the religious life in so well-taught a Doctrine and
discipline for your belly’s sake? This will not do, O foolish one, for
converting the unconverted and for augmenting the number of the
converted.’

Having rebuked him and delivered a religious discourse, He thus addressed the bhikkhus:

4. `I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that he who confers the upasampadà ordination (on a bhikkhu), tell him the four resources:

`The religious
life has morsels of food given in alms for its resource. Thus you must
endeavour to live all your life. Meals given to the saïgha, to certain
persons, invitations, food distributed by ticket, meals given each
fortnight, each Uposatha day (i.e. the last day of each fortnight), or
the first day of each fortnight, are extra allowances.

`The religious
life has the robe made of rags taken from a dust heap for its resource.
Thus you must endeavour to live all your life. Linen, cotton, silk,
woollen garments, coarse cloth, hempen cloth are extra allowances.

`The religious
life has dwelling at the foot of a tree for its resource. Thus you must
endeavour to live all your life. Vihàras, addhayogas, storied
dwellings, attics, caves
(133) are extra allowances. [\q 174/]

`The religious life has decomposing urine as medicine (134) for its resource. Thus you must endeavour to live all your life. Ghee, butter, oil, honey, and molasses are extra allowances.’

Here Ends the Fifth Bhànavàra, Which Contains,

The Duties Towards Upajjhàyas.


______________________


31.

1. At that
time a certain youth came to the bhikkhus and asked them to be ordained.
The bhikkhus told him the (four) resources before his ordination. Then
He said: `If you had told me the resources, Venerable Sirs, after my
ordination, I should have persisted (in the religious life); but now,
Venerable Sirs, I will not be ordained; the, resources are repulsive and
loathsome to me.’

The bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought
not, O bhikkhus, to tell the resources, (to the candidates) before their
ordination. He who does is guilty of a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you tell the resources (to the newly-ordained bhikkhus)
immediately after their upasampadà.’ [\q 175/]

2. At that time some bhikkhus performed the upasampadà service with a chapter of two or three bhikkhus

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, receive the upasampadà ordination before a chapter of less
than ten bhikkhus. He who performs the upasampadà service (with a
smaller number of bhikkhus), is guilt of a dukkaña offence. I prescribe
you, O bhikkhus, the holding of upasampadà services with a chapter of
ten bhikkhus or more than ten.’

3. At that
time some bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination on their
saddhivihàrikas one or two years after their own upasampadà.
(135)
Thus also the Venerable Upasena Vaïgantaputta conferred the upasampadà
ordination on a saddhivihàrika of his one year after his own upasampadà.
When he had concluded the vassa residence, after two years from his own
upasampadà had elapsed, he went with his saddhivihàrika, who had
completed the first year after his upasampadà, to the place where the
Blessed One was; having approached, Him and respectfully saluted the
Blessed One, he sat down near Him.

4. Now it is
the custom of the Blessed Buddhas to exchange greeting with incoming
bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to the Venerable Upasena
Vaïgantaputta: do things go well with you, bhikkhu? Do you get enough to
support your life? Have you made your journey with not too great
fatigue?’

`Things go
pretty well with us Lord; we get [\q 176/] enough, Lord, to support our
life, and we have made our journey, Lord, with not too great fatigue.’
The Tathàgatas sometimes ask about what they know; sometimes they do not
ask about what they know. They understand the right time when to ask
and they understand the right time when not to ask. The Tathàgatas put
questions full of sense, not void of sense; to what is void of sense the
bridge is pulled down for the Tathàgatas. For two purposes the Blessed
Buddhas put questions to the bhikkhus, when they intend to preach the
Doctrine or when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to their
disciples.

5. And the
blessed One said to the Venerable Upananda Vaïgantaputta: `How many year
have you completed, O bhikkhu, since your upasampadà?

`Two years, Lord.’

`And how many years has this bhikkhu completed?’

`One year, Lord.’

`In what relation does this bhikkhu stand to you?’

`He is my saddhivihàrika, Lord.’

Then the
Blessed Buddha rebuked him: `This is improper, O foolish one,
unbecoming, unsuitable, unworthy of a samaõa, unallowable, and to be
avoided. How can you, O foolish one, who ought to receive exhortation
and instruction from others, think yourself fit for administering
exhortation and instruction to another bhikkhu? Too quickly O foolish
one, have you abandoned yourself to the ambition of collecting
followers. This will not do (&c., as in chap.30.3). Let no one, O
bhikkhus, confer the upasampadà ordination who has not [\q 177/]
completed ten years. He who does, is guilty of a dukkaña offence. I
prescribe, O bhikkhus, that only he who has completed ten, years, or
more than ten years, may confer the upasampadà ordination.’

6. At that
time ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus (who said), `We have completed ten
years (since our upasampadà), we have completed ten years, conferred the
upasampadà ordination. (Thus) ignorant upajjhàya’s were found and
clever saddhivihàrikas; unlearned upajjhàyas were found and learned
saddhivihàrikas; upajjhàyas were found who had small knowledge, and
saddhivihàrikas who had great knowledge; foolish upajjhàyas were found
and wise saddhivihàrikas. And a certain bhikkhu who had formerly
belonged to a titthiya
(136)
school, when his upajjhàya remonstrated with him (on certain offences)
according to the Dhamma, brought his upajjhàya (by reasoning) to silence
and went back to that same titthiya school
(137).

7. The
moderate bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can
those ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus confer the upasampadà ordination
(saying), “We have completed ten years, we have completed ten years?”
(Thus) ignorant upajjhàyas are found and clever saddhivihàrikas
(&c., down to:), foolish upajjhàyas are found and wise
saddhivihàrikas.’

These bhikkhus told, &c.

`Is it true, O bhikkhus,’ &c.

`It is true, Lord.’

8. Then the
Blessed Buddha rebuked those bhikkhus: `How can these foolish persons, O
bhikkhus, [\q 178/] confer the upasampadà ordination (saying), “We
have, &c?” (Thus) ignorant upajjhàyas are found, &c. This will
not do, O bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted and for augmenting
the number of the converted.’

Having rebuked
those bhikkhus and delivered a religious discourse, He thus addressed
the bhikkhus: `Let no ignorant, unlearned bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, confer
the upasampadà ordination. If he does, he is guilty of a dukkaña
offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that only a learned, competent bhikkhu
who has completed ten years, or more than ten years, may confer the
upasampadà ordination.’

______________________

32.

1. At that
time some bhikkhus whose upajjhàyas were gone away, or had returned to
the world, or had died, or were gone over to a (schismatic) faction
(138),
as they had no àcariyas and received no exhortation and instruction,
went on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments
(&c., as in chap.25.1-6, down to:) He thus addressed the bhikkhus:
`I prescribe, O bhikkhus; (that young bhikkhus choose) an àcariya
(139). [\q 179/]

The àcariya, O
bhikkhus, ought to consider the antevàsika (i.e. disciple) as a son;
the antevàsika ought to consider the àcariya as a father. Thus these
two, united by mutual reverence, confidence, and communion of life, will
progress, advance, and reach a high stage in this Doctrine and
discipline.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you live (the first) ten years in dependence (on an
àcariya); he who has completed his tenth year may give a nissaya
(140) himself.’ [\q 180/]

2. `And let
(the antevàsika), O bhikkhus, choose his àcariya in this way: let him
adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet (of
the àcariya), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say:
“Venerable Sir, be my àcariya, I will live in dependence on you, Sir.”‘
(this formula is repeated thrice.)

`(If the other answers): “Well” (&c., as in chap.25.7).

3.`The antevàsika, O bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his àcariya’ (&c., as in chap.25.8-24).

End of the Duties Towards an âcariya.


______________________


33.

`The âcariya, O bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his antevàsika’ (&c., as in chap.26).

End of the Duties Towards an Antevàsika.

End of the Sixth Bhànavàra.


______________________


34.

At that time the antevàsikas did not observe a proper conduct towards their àcariyas (&c., as in chap.27.1-8).


______________________


[\q 181/]

35.

1, 2. At that
time ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus (who said),`We have completed ten
years (since our upasampadà), we have completed ten years, gave a
nissaya (i.e. they received young bhikkhus as their antevàsikas). (Thus)
ignorant àcariyas were found and clever antevàsikas; unlearned,
àcariyas were found and learned antevàsikas; àcariyas were found who had
small knowledge, and antevàsikas who had great knowledge; foolish
àcariyas were found and wise antevàsikas. The moderate bhikkhus were
annoyed (&c., as in chap.31.7, 8) .

`Let no
ignorant, unlearned bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, give a nissaya. If he does, he
is guilty of a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that only a
learned, competent bhikkhu who has completed ten years, or more than ten
years, may give a nissaya.’


______________________


36.

1. At that
time the bhikkhus whose àcariyas and upajjhàyas were gone away, or had
returned to the world, or had died, or were, gone over to a (schismatic)
faction, were not acquainted with (the rules about) the cessation of
their nissayas
(141).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are
five cases of cessation of anissaya, O bhikkhus, between (saddhivihàrika
and) upajjhàya. [\q 182/] When the upajjhàya is gone away, or he has
returned to the world, or has died, or is gone over to a (schismatic)
faction; the fifth case is that of order (given by the upajjhàya to the
saddhivihàrika
(142)). These, O bhikkhus, are the five cases of the cessation of a nissaya between (saddhivihàrika and) upajjhàya.

`There are six
cases of cessation of a nissaya, O bhikkhus, between (antevàsika and)
àcariya: when the àcariya is gone away, &c.; The fifth case is that
of order (given by the àcariya to the antevàsika); or (sixthly) when the
àcariya and the upajjhàya have come together at the same place
(143). These, O bhikkhus, are the six cases of cessation of a nissaya between (antevàsika and) àcariya.

2. `In five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer the upasampadà ordination, nor give a nissaya, nor ordain a novice (144):
when he does not possess full perfection in what belongs to moral
practices; or does not possess full perfection in what belongs to
self-concentration; or does not possess full perfection in what belongs
to wisdom; or does [\q 183/] not possess full perfection in what belongs
to emancipation; or does not possess full perfection in what belongs to
knowledge and insight into emancipation. In these five cases, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer the upasampadà ordination, nor
give a nissaya, nor ordain a novice.

3. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may confer the upasampadà ordination, give a
nissaya, and ordain a novice: when he possesses full perfection in what
belongs to moral practices, &c. In these five cases, O bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu may, &c.

4. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When he does not possess for himself full perfection in what belongs to
moral practices, and is not able to help others to full perfection in
what belongs to moral practices; or does not possess for himself full
perfection in what belongs to self-concentration, and is not able to
help others to full perfection in what belongs to self-concentration,
&c.

5. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, may confer, &c.: When he possesses for
himself full perfection in what belongs to moral practices, and is able
to help others to full perfection, &c.

6. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When he is unbelieving, shameless, fearless of sinning, indolent,
forgetful. In these five cases, &c.

7. In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he is believing,
modest, fearful of sinning, strenuous, of ready memory. In these five
cases, &c.

8. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When as regards [\q 184/] moral practices he is guilty of moral
transgressions; or when as regards the rules of conduct
(145)
he is guilty of transgressions in his conduct; or when as regards
belief he is guilty of heresy; or when he is unlearned; or when he is
foolish. In these five cases, &c.

9. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may confer, &c.: when as regards moral
practices he is not guilty of moral transgressions, &c.; When he is
learned; and when he is wise. In these five cases, &c.

10. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When he is not able to nurse or to get nursed an antevàsika or a
saddhivihàrika when he is sick, to appease him or to cause him to be
appeased when discontent with religious life has sprung up within him,
to dispel or to cause to be dispelled according to the Dhamma doubts of
conscience which have arisen in his mind; when he does not know what is
an offence; or does not know how to atone for an offence. In these five
cases, &c.

11. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus a bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he is able
(&c., down to:) when he knows what is an offence; and knows how to
atone for an offence. In these five cases, &c.

12. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When he is not able to train an antevàsika or a saddhivihàrika in the
precepts of proper conduct
(146), to educate, him [\q 185/] in the elements of morality (147),
to instruct him in what pertains to the Dhamma, to instruct him in what
pertains to the Vinaya, to discuss or to make another discuss according
to the Dhamma a false Doctrine that might arise. In these five cases,
&c.

13. `In five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he is able, &c.

14. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When he does not know what is an offence; or does not know what is no
offence; or does not know what is a light offence; or does not know what
is a grave offence; when the two pàtimokkhas are not perfectly known to
him in their entirety, with all their divisions and their whole course,
and with the entire discussion according to the single rules and to the
single parts of each rule. In these five cases, &c.

15. `In five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he knows, &c.

16. `And also
in other five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c.:
When he does not know what is an offence; or does not know what is no
offence; or does not know what is a light offence; or does not know what
is a grave offence; [\q 186/] or when he has not completed the tenth
year (after his upasampadà). In these five cases, &c,

17. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may confer, &c.: When he knows
(&c., down to:) when he has completed ten years or more than ten
years (after his upasampadà). In these five cases, &c.’

End of the Sixteen Times Five Cases Concerning

The Admissibility of Upasampadà.


______________________


37.

`In six cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not confer, &c. (148)

End of the Sixteen Times (149) Six Cases Concerning

The Admissibility of Upasampadà.


______________________


38.

1. At that
time that bhikkhu who, having formerly belonged to a titthiya school,
had (by reasoning) put to silence his upajjhàya, when he remonstrated
with him according to the Dhamma, and had returned to that same titthiya
school
(150), came back again and asked the bhikkhus for the upasampadà ordination. The bhikkhus told, &c.

That bhikkhu, O
bhikkhus, who having formerly [\q 187/] belonged to a titthiya school,
has put to silence his upajjhàya when he remonstrated with him according
to the Dhamma, and has returned to that same titthiya school, must not
receive the upasampadà ordination, if he comes back. On other persons, O
bhikkhus, who have formerly belonged to titthiya schools and desire to
receive the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations in this Doctrine and
discipline, you ought to impose a parivàsa (a probation time) of four
months.

2. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to impose it in this way: let him (who desires to
receive the ordination) first cut off his hair and beard; let him put on
yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute
the feet of the bhikkhus (with his head), and sit down squatting; then
let him raise his joined hands, and tell him to say: “I take my refuge
in the Buddha I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the
Saïgha. And for the second time, &c. And for the third time take I
my refuge in the Buddha, and for the third time take I my refuge in the
Dhamma, and for the third time take I my refuge in the Saïgha.”

3. `Let that
person, O bhikkhus, who has formerly belonged to a titthiya school,
approach the saïgha, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder,
salute the feet of the bhikkhus (with his head), sit down squatting,
raise his joined hands, and say: “I, N.N., Reverend Sirs, who have
formerly belonged to a titthiya school, desire to receive the upasampadà
ordination in this Doctrine and discipline, and ask the saïgha,
Reverend Sirs, for a parivàsa of four months.” Let him ask thus a second
time. Let him ask thus a third time. [\q 188/]

`Then let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person
N.N., who has formerly belonged to a titthiya school, desires to receive
the upasampadà ordination in this Doctrine and discipline. He asks the
saïgha for a parivàsa of four months. If the saïgha is ready, let the
saïgha impose on N.N., who has formerly belonged to a titthiya school, a
parivàsa of four months. This is the ¤atti.

4. `”Let the
saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N.N., who has, &c. He
asks the saïgha for a parivàsa of four months. The saïgha imposes on
N.N., who has formerly belonged to a titthiya school, a parivàsa of four
months. Let any one of the Venerable brethren who is in favour of
imposing a parivàsa of four months on N.N., who has formerly belonged to
a titthiya school be silent and an one who is not in favour of it,
speak. A parivàsa of four months has been imposed by the saïgha on N.N.,
who has formerly belonged to a titthiya school. The saïgha is in favour
of it, therefore it is silent. Thus I understand.”

5. `And this, O
bhikkhus, is the way in which a, person that has formerly belonged to a
titthiya school, succeeds or fails in satisfying (the bhikkhus and
obtaining upasampadà when the probation time is over).

`What is the
way, O bhikkhus, in which a person that has formerly belonged to a
titthiya school fails in satisfying (the bhikkhus)?

`In case, O
bhikkhus, the person that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school,
enters the village [\q 189/] too early and comes back (to the vihàra)
too late, thus, O bhikkhus, a person that has formerly belonged to a
titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the bhikkhus).

`And further, O
bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a titthiya
school, frequents the society of harlots, or of widows, or of adult
girls, or of eunuchs, or of bhikkhunis
(151), thus also, O bhikkhus, a person that has formerly. Belonged, to a titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the bhikkhus).

6. `And
further, O bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a
titthiya school, does not show himself skilled in the various things his
fellow bhikkhus have to do not diligent, not able to consider how those
things are to be done, not able to do things himself, not able to give
directions to others, thus also, O bhikkhus, &c.

And further O
bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a titthiya
school, does not show keen zeal, when the Doctrine is preached to him or
when questions are put, in what belongs to morality, to contemplation,
and to wisdom, thus also, O bhikkhus, &c.

7. `And
further, O bhikkhus, in case the person that has formerly belonged to a
titthiya school, becomes angry displeased, and dissatisfied, when people
speak against the Teacher, the belief, the opinions, the persuasion,
the creed of the school he formerly belonged to; and is pleased, glad,
and satisfied, when people speak against the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the
Saïgha; or he is pleased, glad, and satisfied, when people speak in
praise of the Teacher, &c.; And becomes angry, displeased,
dissatisfied, when people speak in praise of the Buddha, the [\q 190/]
Dhamma, and the Saïgha; this, O bhikkhus, is a decisive moment for the
failure of a person that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school (in
obtaining admission to the saïgha).

`Thus, O
bhikkhus, a person that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school,
fails in satisfying (the bhikkhus). When a person comes, O bhikkhus,
that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school, and has thus failed in
satisfying (the bhikkhus), the upasampadà ordination should not be
conferred on him.

8-10. `And
what is the way O bhikkhus, in which a person that has formerly belonged
to a titthiya school, succeeds in satisfying (the bhikkhus)?

`In case, O
bhikkhus, the person that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school,
does not enter the village too early (&c., point by point the
contrary of the, preceding).

`When a person
comes, O bhikkhus, that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school, and
has thus succeeded in satisfying (the bhikkhus), the upasampadà
ordination ought to be conferred on him.

11. `If a
person, O bhikkhus, that has formerly belonged to a titthiya school,
comes (to the bhikkhus) naked, it is incumbent on his upajjhàya to get a
robe for him. If he comes with unshaven hair, the saïgha’s permission
ought to be asked for having his hair shaved
(152).

`If fire
worshippers and Jañilas come to you, O bhikkhus, they are to receive the
upasampadà ordination (directly), and no parivàsa is to be imposed on
them. And for what reason? These, O bhikkhus, hold the Doctrine that
actions receive their [\q 191/] reward, and that our deeds have their
result (according to their moral merit).

`If Sakya by
birth, O bhikkhus, who has belonged to a titthiya school comes to you,
he is to receive the upasampadà ordination (directly), and no parivàsa
is to be imposed on him. This exceptional privilege, O bhikkhus, I grant
to my kinsmen.’

Here Ends the Exposition on the Ordination of Persons

That Have Formerly Belonged to Titthiya Schools.

End of the Seventh Bhànavàra.


______________________


39.

1. At that
time these five diseases prevailed among the people of Magadha: leprosy,
boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits. The people who were affected
with these five diseases went to Jãvaka Komàrabhacca
(153) and said: `Pray, doctor, cure us.’

`I have too
many duties, Sirs, and am too occupied. I have to treat the Magadha King
Seniya Bimbisàra, and the royal seraglio, and the fraternity of
bhikkhus with the Buddha at their head. I cannot cure you.’

`All that we possess shall be yours, doctor, and we will be your slaves; pray, doctor, cure us,.’

`I have too many duties, Sirs, &c.; I cannot cure you.’

2. Now those
people thought: `Indeed the precepts which these Sakyaputtiya samaõas
keep and [\q 192/] the life they live are commodious; they have good
meals and lie down on beds protected from the wind. What if we were to
embrace the religious life among the Sakyaputtiya samaõas: then the
bhikkhus will nurse us, and Jãvaka Komàrabhacca will cure us.’

Thus these
persons went to the bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjà ordination;
the bhikkhus conferred on them the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations;
and the bhikkhus nursed them, and Jãvaka Komàrabhacca cured them.

3. At that
time the bhikkhus, who had to nurse many sick bhikkhus, began to solicit
(lay people) with many demands and many requests: `Give us food for the
sick; give us food for the tenders of the sick; give us medicine for
the sick.’ And also Jãvaka Komàrabhacca, who had to treat many sick
bhikkhus, neglected some of his duties to the king.

4. Now one day
a man who was affected with the five diseases went to Jãvaka
Komàrabhacca and said: `Pray, doctor, cure me.’ `I have too many duties,
Sir, and am too occupied; I have to treat the Magadha King Seniya
Bimbisàra, and the royal seraglio, and the fraternity of bhikkhus with
the Buddha at their head; I cannot cure you.

`All that I possess shall be yours, doctor and I will be your slave; pray doctor, cure me.’

`I have too many duties, Sir, &c.; I cannot cure you.’

5. Now that
man thought: `Indeed the precepts which these Sakyaputtiya samaõas keep
(&c., down to:) then the bhikkhus will nurse me, and Jãvaka
Komàrabhacca will cure me. When I have become free from sickness, then I
will return to the world.’ Thus that man went to the bhikkhus and asked
them for the pabbajjà ordination; the bhikkhus, [\q 193/] conferred on
him the pabbajjà and upasampadà ordinations; and the bhikkhus nursed
him, and Jãvaka Komàrabhacca cured him. When he had become free from
sickness, he returned to the world. Now Jãvaka Komàrabhacca saw this
person that had returned to the world; and when he saw him he asked that
person: `Had you not embraced the religious life, Sir, among the
bhikkhus?’ `Yes, doctor.’

`And why have you adopted such a course, Sir?’ Then that man told Jãvaka Komàrabhacca the whole matter.

6. Then Jãvaka
Komàrabhacca was annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the
Venerable brethren confer the pabbajjà ordination on a person affected
with the five diseases?’

And Jãvaka
Komàrabhacca went to the place where the Blessed One was; having
approached Him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat
down near Him. Sitting near Him, Jãvaka Komàrabhacca said to the Blessed
One: `Pray, Lord, let their reverences not confer the pabbajjà
ordination on persons affected with the five diseases.’

7. Then the
Blessed One taught, incited, animated and gladdened Jãvaka Komàrabhacca
by religious discourse; and Jãvaka Komàrabhacca, having been taught . . .
and gladdened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his
seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing round Him with
his right side towards Him, went away.

In consequence
of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a
religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus.. `Let no one, [\q
194/] O bhikkhus, who is affected with the, five diseases receive the
pabbajjà ordination. He who confers the pabbajjà ordination (on such a
person), is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________


40.

1. At that
time the border provinces (of the kingdom) of the Magadha King Seniya
Bimbisàra were agitated. Then the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra gave
order to the officers who were at the head of the army: `Well now, go
and search through the border provinces
(154).’
The officers who were at the head of the army accepted the order of the
Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra (by saying), `Yes, your majesty.’

2. Now many
distinguished warriors thought: `We who go (to war) and find our delight
in fighting, do evil and produce great demerit. Now what shall we do
that we may desist from evil-doing and may do good?’

Then these
warriors thought: `These Sakyaputtiya samaõas lead indeed a virtuous,
tranquil, holy life; they speak the Truth; they keep the precepts of
morality and are endowed with all virtues. If we could obtain pabbajjà
with the Sakyaputtiya samaõas, we should desist from evil-doing and do
good.’

Thus these
warriors went to the bhikkhus and [\q 195/] asked them for the pabbajjà
ordination; the bhikkhus conferred on them the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations.

3. The
officers at the head of the army asked the royal soldiers: `Why, how is
it that the warriors N.N. and N.N. are nowhere to be seen?’

`The warriors N.N. and N.N., Lords, have embraced religious life among the bhikkhus.’

Then the
officers at the head of the army were annoyed, murmured, and became
angry: `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas ordain persons in the royal
service?’

The officers
who were at the head of the army told the thing to the Magadha King
Seniya Bimbisàra. And the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra asked the
officers of justice: `Tell me, my good Sirs, what punishment does he
deserve who ordains a person in the royal service?’

`The
upajjhàya, your majesty, should be beheaded; to him who recites (the
kammavàcà), the tongue should be torn out; to those who form the
chapter, half of their ribs should be broken.’

4. Then the
Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra went to the place where the Blessed One
was; having approached Him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed
One, he sat down near Him. Sitting near Him the Magadha King Seniya
Bimbisàra said to the Blessed One: `Lord, there are unbelieving kings
who are disinclined (to the faith); these might harass the bhikkhus even
on trifling occasions. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not confer the
pabbajjà ordination on persons in royal service.’

Then the
Blessed One taught (&c., see chap.39.7, [\q 196/] down to:) thus
addressed the bhikkhus: `Let no one, O bhikkhus, who is in the royal
service, receive the pabbajjà ordination. He who confers the pabbajjà
ordination (on such a person), is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________


41.

At that time the robber Aïgulimàla (155)
had embraced religious life among the bhikkhus. When the people saw
that, they became alarmed and terrified; they fled away, went elsewhere,
turned away their heads, and shut their doors. The people were annoyed,
murmured, and became angry: `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas ordain a
robber who openly wears the emblems (of his deeds)?’

Some bhikkhus
heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry;
these bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

The Blessed
One thus addressed the bhikkhus: `Let no robber, O bhikkhus, who wears
the emblems (of his deeds), receive the pabbajjà ordination. He who
confers the pabbajjà ordination (on such a person), is guilty of a
dukkaña offence.’

[\q 197/]


______________________


42.

1. At that
time the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra had issued the following decree:
`No one is to do any harm to those who are ordained among the
Sakyaputtiya samaõas; well taught is their Doctrine; let them lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.

Now At that
time a certain person who had committed robbery was imprisoned in the
jail. He broke out of the jail, ran away, and received the pabbajjà
ordination with the bhikkhus.

2. The people
who saw him, said: `Here is the robber who has broken out of jail; come,
let us bring him (before the authorities).’

But some
people replied: `Do not say so, Sirs. A decree has been issued by the
Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra: `No one is to do any harm to those who
are ordained, &c.’

People were
annoyed, murmured, and became angry, thinking: `Indeed these
Sakyaputtiya samaõas are secure from anything; it is not allowed to do
any harm to them. How can they ordain a robber who has broken out of
jail?’

They told this
thing to the Blessed One. `Let no robber, O bhikkhus, who has broken
out of jail, receive the pabbajjà ordination. He who confers the
pabbajjà ordination (on such a person), is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________

[\q 198/]

43.

At that time a
certain person who had committed robbery had run away and had become
ordained with the bhikkhus. At the royal palace a proclamation was
written: `Wherever he is seen he is to be killed.’

The people who saw him, said: `Here is the proclaimed robber; come, let us kill him’ (&c., as in chap.42).

`Let no
proclaimed robber, O bhikkhus, receive the pabbajjà ordination. He who
confers the pabbajjà ordination (on such a robber), is guilty of a
dukkaña offence’


______________________


44.

At that time a
certain person who had been punished by scourging had been ordained
with the bhikkhus. People were annoyed, &c.: `How can these
Sakyaputtiya samaõas ordain a person that has been punished by
scourging?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, who has been punished by scourging, receive the pabbajjà
ordination. He who confers the pabbajjà ordination (on such a person),
is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________


45.

At that time a certain person who had been punished by branding (&c., as in chap.44, down to the end).

[\q 199/]


______________________


46.

At that time a
certain person who was in debt, ran away and was ordained with the
bhikkhus. When his creditors saw him, they said: `There is our debtor;
come, let us lead him (to prison).’ But some people replied: `Do not say
so, Sirs. A decree has been issued by the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra
: `No one is to do any harm to those who are ordained with the
Sakyaputtiya samaõas; well taught is their Doctrine; let them lead a
holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.’

People were
annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `Indeed these Sakyaputtiya samaõas
are secure from anything; it is not allowed to do anything to them. How
can they ordain a debtor?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no
debtor, O bhikkhus receive the pabbajjà ordination. He who confers the
pabbajjà ordination (on a debtor) is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________


47.

At that time a
slave ran away and was ordained, with the bhikkhus. When his masters
saw him they said: `There is our slave; come, let us lead him away (back
to our house),’ (&c., as in chap.46).

`Let no slave,
O bhikkhus, receive the pabbajjà ordination. He who confers the
pabbajjà ordination (on a slave) is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________

[\q 200/]

48.

1. At that time a certain smith (156)
who was bald headed, having had a quarrel with his father and mother,
had gone to the aràma and received pabbajjà with the bhikkhus. Now the
father and mother of that bald-headed smith, searching after that
bald-headed smith, came to the aràma and asked the bhikkhus: `Pray,
Reverend Sirs, have you seen such and such a boy?’

The bhikkhus, who did not know him, said: `We do not know him;’ having not seen him, they said: `We have not seen him.’

2. Now the
father and mother of that bald-headed smith, searching after that
bald-headed smith, found him ordained with the bhikkhus; they were
annoyed, &c.: `These Sakyaputtiya samaõas are shameless, wicked, and
liars. They knew him and said: “We do not know him;” they had seen him
and said: `We have not seen him.” This boy has been ordained with the
bhikkhus.’

Now some
bhikkhus heard the father and mother of that bald-headed smith, who were
annoyed, &c. Those bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that the saïgha’s permission is asked for having (the new coming bhikkhus) shaved.’


_______________________

[\q 201/]

49.

1. At that time there was in Ràjagaha a company of seventeen boys, friends of each other; young Upàli (157)
was first among them. Now Upàli’s father and mother thought: `How will
Upàli after our death live a life of ease and without pain?’ Then
Upàli’s father and mother said to themselves: `If Upàli could learn
writing, he would after our death live a life of ease and without pain.’
But then Upàli’s father and mother thought again: `If Upàli learns
writing, his fingers will become sore. But if Upàli could learn
arithmetic, he would after our death live a life of ease and without
pain.’

2. But then Upàli’s father and mother thought again:`If Upàli learns arithmetic, his breast will become diseased (158). But if Upàli could learn money changing (159),
he would after our death live a life of ease and comfort, and without
pain.’ But then Upàli’s father and mother said to themselves: `If Upàli
learns money-changing, his eyes will suffer. Now here are the
Sakyaputtiya samaõas, who keep commodious precepts and live a commodious
life; they have good meals and lie down on beds protected from the
wind. If Upàli could be ordained with the [\q 202/] Sakyaputtiya
samaõas, he would after our death live a life of ease and without pain.’

3. Now young
Upàli heard his father and mother talking thus. Then young Upàli went to
the other boys; having approached them, he said to those boys: `Come,
Sirs, let us get ordained with the Sakyaputtiya samaõas.’ (They
replied): `If you will get ordained, Sir, we will be ordained also.’
Then those boys went each to his father and mother and said to them:
`Give me your consent for leaving the world and going forth into the
houseless state.’ Then the parents of those boys, who thought, `It is a
good thing what all these boys are wishing so unanimously for,’ gave
their consent. They went to the bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjà
ordination. The bhikkhus conferred the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations on them.

4. In the
night at dawn, they rose and began to cry: `Give us rice-milk, give us
soft food, give us hard food!’ The bhikkhus said: `Wait, friends, till
day-time. If there is rice-milk, you shall drink; if there is food, soft
or hard, you shall eat; if there is no rice-milk and no food, soft or
hard, you must go out for alms, and then you will eat.’

But those
bhikkhus, when they were thus spoken to by the other bhikkhus, threw
their bedding about and made it wet, calling out: `Give us rice-milk,
give us soft food, give us hard food!’

5. Then the
Blessed One, having arisen in the night, at dawn, heard the noise which
those boys made; hearing it He said to the Venerable ânanda: `Now,
ânanda, what noise of boys is that?’

Then the Venerable ânanda told the thing to the Blessed One. [\q 203/]

`Is it true, O bhikkhus, that the bhikkhus knowingly confer the upasampadà ordination on persons under twenty years of age?’

`It is true, Lord.’

Then the,
Blessed One rebuked those bhikkhus: `How can those foolish persons, O
bhikkhus, knowingly confer the upasampadà ordination on persons under
twenty years of age?’

6. `A person
under twenty years, O bhikkhus, cannot endure coldness and heat, hunger
and thirst, vexation by gadflies and gnats, by storms an heat of the
sun, and by reptiles; (he cannot endure) abusive, offensive language; he
is not able to bear bodily pains which are severe, sharp, grievous,
disagreeable, unpleasant, and destructive to life; whilst a person that
has twenty years of age, O bhikkhus, can endure coldness, &c. This
will not do, O bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted and for
augmenting the number of the converted.’

Having rebuked
those bhikkhus and delivered a religious discourse, He thus addressed
the bhikkhus: `Let no one, O bhikkhus, knowingly confer the upasampadà
ordination on a person under twenty years of age. He who does, is to be
treated according to the law
(160)


______________________

[\q 204/]

50.

At that time a certain family had died of pestilence (161);
only a father and his son were left; they received the pabbajjà
ordination with the bhikkhus and went together on their rounds for alms.
Now that boy, when food was given to his father, ran up to him and
said: `Give some to me too father give some to me too, father.’

People were annoyed, &c.: `These Sakyaputtiya samaõas live an impure life; this boy is a bhikkhu’s son.

Some bhikkhus heard, &c.

They told this thing to she Blessed One, &t.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, confer the pabbajjà ordination on a boy under fifteen years
of age. He who does is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’


______________________


51.

At that time a
believing, pious family, who devoted themselves to the (especial)
service of the Venerable ânanda, had died of pestilence, only two boys
were left; these, when seeing bhikkhu’s, ran up to them according to
their old custom, but the bhikkhus turned them away. When they were
turned away by the bhikkhus, they cried. Now the Venerable ânanda
thought: `The Blessed One has forbidden us to confer the pabbajjà
ordination [\q 205/] on a boy under fifteen years of age, and these boys
are under fifteen years of age. What can be done in order that these
boys may not perish?’ And the Venerable ânanda told this thing to the
Blessed One.

`Are these boys able, ânanda, to scare crows?’ `They are, Lord.’

In consequence
of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a
religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I allow you, O
bhikkhus, to confer the pabbajjà ordination on crow-keeper boys even
under fifteen years of age.’

______________________


52.

At that time the Venerable Upananda,
of the Sakya tribe, had two novices, Kandakà and Mihama; these committed
sodomy with each other. The bhikkhus were annoyed, &c.: `How can
novices abandon themselves to such bad conduct

They told this thing to the Blessed One, &c.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, ordain two novices. He who does, is guilty of a dukkaña offence (162).’


______________________


53.

1. At that
time the Blessed One dwelt at Ràjagaha during the rainy season, and
remained at the same place during winter and summer. The people were
annoyed, &c.: `The (four) regions are
(163).
. . and [\q 206/] covered by darkness to the Sakyaputtiya samaõas; they
cannot discern the (four) regions. Some bhikkhus heard, &c.

2. Then the
Blessed One said to the Venerable ânanda: `Go, ânanda, take a key and
tell the bhikkhus in every cell: “Friends, the Blessed One wishes to go
forth to Dakkhinàgiri. Let any one of the Venerable brethren who thinks
fit, come to him.”`

The Venerable
ânanda accepted this order of the Blessed One (by saying), `Yes, Lord,’
took a key and said to the bhikkhus in every cell: `Friends, the Blessed
One,’ &c.

3. The bhikkhus replied: `Friend ânanda, the Blessed One has prescribed (164)
that bhikkhus are to live (the first) ten years in dependence (on their
àcariyas and upajjhàyas), and that he who has completed his tenth year,
may give a nissaya himself now if we go there, we shall be obliged to
take a nissaya there ; then we shall stay there for a short time, then
we must go back again and take a new nissaya. If our àcariyas and
upajjhàyas go, we will go also; if our àcariyas and upajjhàyas do not
go, we will not go either. Otherwise our light-mindedness, friend
ânanda, will become manifest!

4. Thus the
Blessed One went forth to Dakkhinàgiri followed only by a few bhikkhus.
And the Blessed One after having dwelt at Dakkhinàgiri as long as He
thought fit, went back to Ràjagaha again.

Then the
Blessed One said to the Venerable ânanda: `How is it, ânanda, that the
Perfect [\q 207/] One has gone forth to Dakkhinàgiri with so few
bhikkhus?’

Then the Venerable ânanda told the thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence
of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a
religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that a learned, competent bhikkhu lives five years in
dependence (on his àcariya and upajjhàya), an unlearned one all his
life.

5. `In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not live without a nissaya (i.e.
independent of àcariya and upajjhàya): when he does not possess full
perfection in what belongs to moral practices (&c., as in chap.6.2).
In these five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu should not live without a
nissaya.

`In five
cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may live without a nissaya: when he
possesses full perfection in what belongs to moral practices (&c.,
as in chap.36.3) in these five cases, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu may live
without a nissaya.

6-13. `And also in other five cases, &c. (165)

End of the Eighth Bhànavàra, Which is Called the

Abhayåvara Bhànavàra (166).

______________________


54.

1. Then the Blessed One, after having
resided at Ràjagaha as long as He thought fit, went forth to [\q 208/]
Kapilavatthu. Wandering from place to place He came to Kapilavatthu.
There the Blessed One dwelt in the Sakka country, near Kapilavatthu, in
the nigrodhàràma (Banyan grove).

And in the
forenoon the Blessed One, having put on His robes, took His alms-bowl
and with His civara on went to the residence of the Sakka Suddhodana
(His father). Having gone there, He sat down on a seat laid out for Him.

Then the princess, who was the mother of Ràhula (167) said to young Ràhula: `This is your father, Ràhula; go and ask Him for your inheritance.’

2. Then young
Ràhula went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached
Him, he stationed himself before the Blessed One (and said): your
shadow, samaõa, is a place of bliss.’ Then the Blessed One rose from His
seat and went away, and young Ràhula followed the Blessed One from
behind and said: `Give me my inheritance, samaõa; give me my
inheritance, samaõa.’ Then the Blessed One said to the Venerable
Sàriputta: `Well, Sàriputta, confer the pabbajjà ordination on young
Ràhula.’

(Sàriputta replied): `How shall I confer, Lord, the pabbajjà ordination on young

Ràhula?

3. In
consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having
delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I
prescribe, [\q 209/] O bhikkhus, the pabbajjà ordination of novices by
the threefold declaration of taking refuge.

`And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to confer the pabbajjà ordination (on a novice) in
this way: let him first have his hair and beard cut off; let him put on
yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute
the feet of the bhikkhus (with his head), and sit down squatting; then
let him raise his joined hands and tell him to say: “I take my refuge in
the Buddha, I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the
Saïgha. And for the second time, &c. And for the third time,
&c.”

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, the pabbajjà ordination of novices by this threefold declaration of taking refuge.’

Thus the Venerable Sàriputta conferred the pabbajjà ordination on young Ràhula.

4. Then the
Sakka Suddhodana went to the place where the Blessed One was; having
approached Him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat
down near Him. Sitting near Him the Sakka Suddhodana said to the Blessed
One: `Lord, I ask one boon of the Blessed One.’ (The Buddha replied):
`The perfect ones, Gotama, are above granting boons (before they know
what they are
(168)).’ (Suddhodana said): `Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable demand.’ `Speak, Gotama.’

5. Lord, when the Blessed One gave up the [\q 210/] world, it was a great pain to me; so it was when Nanda (169)
did the same; my pain was excessive when Ràhula too did so. The love
for a son, Lord, cuts into the skin; having cut into the skin, it cuts
into the hide; having cut into the hide, it cuts into the flesh . . .
the ligaments . . . the bones; having cut into the bones, it reaches the
marrow and dwells in the marrow. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not
confer the pabbajjà ordination on a son without his father’s and
mother’s permission.’

Then the Blessed One taught the Sakka Suddhodana (&c., see chap.39.7).

`Let no son, O
bhikkhus, receive the pabbajjà ordination without his father’s and
mother’s permission. He who confers the pabbajjà ordination (on a son
without that permission), is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


55.

Then the Blessed One, after having
resided at Kapilavatthu as long as He thought fit, went forth to
Sàvatthi. Wandering from place to place He came to Sàvatthi. There the
Blessed One dwelt at Sàvatthi, in the Jetavana, the aràma of
Anàthapindika.

At that time a
family who devoted themselves to the (especial) service of the
Venerable Sàriputta sent a boy to the Venerable Sàriputta (with this
message): [\q 211/] might the thera confer the pabbajjà ordination on
this boy.’ Now the Venerable Sàriputta thought: `The Blessed One has
established the rule
(170),
that no one may ordain two novices, and I have already one novice,
Ràhula. Now what am I to do?’ He told the thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O
bhikkhus, a learned, competent bhikkhu to ordain two novices, or to
ordain as many novices as he is able to administer exhortation and
instruction to.’

______________________


56.

Now the novices thought: `How many precepts (171) are there for us, and in what (precepts) are we to exercise ourselves

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, ten precepts for the novices, and the exercise of the novices
in these (ten precepts), viz. abstinence from destroying life;
abstinence from stealing; abstinence from impurity; abstinence from
lying; abstinence from arrack and strong drink and intoxicating liquors,
which cause indifference (to religion); abstinence from eating at
forbidden times; abstinence from dancing, singing, music, and seeing
spectacles; abstinence from garlands, scents, unguents, ornaments, and
finery; abstinence from (the use of) high or broad beds; abstinence from
accepting gold or silver. I prescribe, [\q 212/] O bhikkhus, these ten
precepts for the novices, and the exercise of the novices in these (ten
precepts).’

______________________


57.

1. At that time novices did not show
reverence and confidence towards the bhikkhus, and did not live in
harmony with them. The bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became
angry: `How can the novices not show reverence and confidence towards
the bhikkhus, and not live in harmony with them?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you inflict punishment upon a novice in five cases: when
he is intent on the bhikkhus receiving no alms; when he is intent on
the bhikkhus’ meeting with misfortune; when he is intent on the
bhikkhus’ finding no residence; when he abuses and reviles the bhikkhus;
when he causes divisions between bhikkhus and bhikkhus. I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that in these five cases you inflict punishment upon a novice.

2. Now the bhikkhus thought: `What punishment are we to inflict?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you forbid them (certain places, for instance, their own residences).’

At that time
bhikkhus forbade novices the whole Saõghàràma. The novices, who were not
admitted to the Saõghàràma, went away, or returned to the world, or
went over to titthiya schools.

They told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 213/]

`Let them not,
O bhikkhus, forbid (novices) the whole Saõghàràma. He who does so,
commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that (the bhikkhus)
forbid (a novice) the place where he lives or which he uses to
frequent.’

3. At that
time bhikkhus forbade the novices the use of (certain kinds of) food
that is taken with the mouth. People, when they prepared rice-milk to
drink or meals for the saïgha, said to the novices: `Come, Reverend
Sirs, drink rice-milk, come, Reverend Sirs, take food.’ The novices
replied: `It is impossible, friends; the bhikkhus have issued a
forewarning (against us).’ The people were annoyed, murmured, and became
angry, thinking: `How can their reverences forbid novices the use of
all food that is taken with the mouth?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let them not, O bhikkhus, forbid (novices) food that is taken with the mouth. He who does so, commits a dukkaña offence.’

End of the Section About Punishment (of Novices).

______________________


58.

At that time the chabbaggiyà (172)
bhikkhus laid a ban upon novices without the consent of the upajjhàyas
(of those novices). The upajjhàyas [\q 214/] searched after them,
thinking: `How is it that our novices have disappeared?’ The bhikkhus
said: ,the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, friends have laid a ban upon them.’ The
upajjhàyas were annoyed, &c.: `How can the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus lay
a ban upon our novices without having obtained our consent?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, lay a ban (upon novices) without consent of the upajjhàyas. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


59.

At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus
drew the novices of senior bhikkhus over (to themselves). The theras,
who were obliged to get themselves teeth-cleansers and water to rinse
their mouths with, became tired.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, draw the followers of another bhikkhu over to himself. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


60.

At that time a novice, Kandakà by
name, who was a follower of the Venerable Upananda Sakyaputta, had
sexual intercourse with a bhikkhuni Kandakà by name. The bhikkhus were
annoyed, &c.: `How can a novice abandon himself to such conduct?’
[\q 215/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you expel a novice (from the fraternity) in the
following ten cases: when he destroys life; when he commits theft; when
he commits impurity; when he is a liar; when he drinks strong drinks;
when he speaks against the Buddha; when he speaks against the Dhamma;
when he speaks against the saïgha; when he holds false Doctrines; when
he has sexual intercourse with bhikkhunis
(173). In these ten cases I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you expel the novice (from the fraternity).’

______________________


61.

At that time, &c. (174)

`Let a eunuch,
O bhikkhus, who has not received the upasampadà ordination, not receive
it; if he has received it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).’


______________________


[\q 216/]

62.

1. At that
time there was a certain person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died
away; he was delicately nurtured. Now this person of an old family,
whose kinsmen had died away, thought: I am delicately nurtured; I am not
able to acquire new riches or to augment the riches which I possess.
What shall I do in order that I may live a life of ease and without
pain?’

Then this
person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, gave himself the
following answer: `There are the Sakyaputtiya samaõas, who keep
commodious precepts and live a commodious life; they have good meals and
lie down on beds protected from wind. What if I were to procure myself
an alms-bowl and robes on my own account, and were to have my hair and
beard cut off, to put on yellow robes, to go to the aràma, and to live
there with the bhikkhus.’

2. Then that
person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, procured himself
an almsbowl and robes on his own account, had his hair and beard cut
off, put on yellow robes, went to the aràma, and respectfully saluted
the bhikkhus. The [\q 217/] bhikkhus said to him: `How many years,
friend, have elapsed since your upasampadà?’

`What does that mean, friends, “Years elapsed since the upasampadà?”‘

`And who is
your upajjhàya, friend?’ `What does that word “upajjhàya” mean friends?’
The bhikkhus said to the Venerable Upàli: `Pray, friend Upàli, examine
this ascetic.’

3. Then that
person of an old family, whose kinsmen had died away, when being
examined by the Venerable Upàli, told him the whole matter. The
Venerable Upàli told this thing to the bhikkhus; the bhikkhus told this
thing to the Blessed One.

`Let a person,
O bhikkhus, who has furtively attached himself to the saïgha, if he has
not received the upasampadà ordination, not receive it; if he has
received it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).

`Let a person, O bhikkhus, who has gone over to the titthiyas’ (&c., as in chap.61).

______________________


63.

1. At that time there was a serpent
who was aggrieved at, ashamed of, and conceived aversion for his having
been born as a serpent. Now this serpent thought: `What am I to do in
order to become released from being a serpent, and quickly to obtain
human nature?’ Then this serpent gave himself the following answer:
`These Sakyaputtiya samaõas lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy life;
they speak the Truth; they keep the precepts of morality, and are
endowed with all virtues. If [\q 218/] I could obtain pabbajjà with the
Sakyaputtiya samaõas, I should be released from being a serpent and
quickly obtain human nature.

2. Then that
serpent, in the shape of a youth, went to the bhikkhus, and asked them
for the pabbajjà ordination; the bhikkhus conferred on him the pabbajjà
and upasampadà ordinations.

At that time
that serpent dwelt together with a certain bhikkhu in the last vihàra
(near the boundary wall of the Jetavana). Now that bhikkhu, having
arisen in the night, at dawn, was walking up and down in the open air.
When that bhikkhu had left (the vihàra), that serpent, who thought
himself safe (from discovery), fell asleep (in his natural shape). The
whole vihàra was filled with the snake’s body; his windings jutted out
of the window.

3. Then that
bhikkhu thought: `I will go back to the vihàra,’ opened the door, and
saw the whole vihàra filled with the snake’s body, the windings jutting
out of the window. Seeing that he was terrified and cried out. The
bhikkhus ran up, and said to that bhikkhu : `Why did you cry out,
friend?’ `This whole vihàra, friends, is filled with a snake’s body; the
windings jut out of the window.’

Then that
serpent awoke from that noise and sat down on his seat. The bhikkhus
said to him `Who are you, friend?’ `I am a serpent, Reverend Sirs.’ `And
why have you done such a thing, friend?’ Then that nàga told the whole
matter to the bhikkhus; the bhikkhus, told it to the Blessed One.

4. In
consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One having ordered
the fraternity of [\q 219/] bhikkhus to assemble, said to that serpent:
`You serpents are not capable of (spiritual) growth in this Doctrine and
discipline. However, serpent, go and observe fast on the fourteenth,
fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month; thus will you be released
from being a serpent and quickly obtain human nature:

Then, that
serpent, who thought, `I am not capable of (spiritual) growth in this
Doctrine and discipline,’ became sad and sorrowful, shed tears, made an
outcry, and went away.

5. Then the
Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: `There are two occasions,: O bhikkhus,
on which a serpent (who has assumed human shape) manifests his true
nature: when he has sexual intercourse with a female of his species, and
if he thinks himself safe (from discovery) and falls asleep. These, O
bhikkhus, are the two occasions on which a serpent manifests his true
nature.

`Let an
animal, O bhikkhus, that has not received the upasampadà ordination, not
receive it; if it has received it, let it be expelled (from the
fraternity).’

______________________


64.

1. At that time a certain young man
deprived his mother of life. He was grieved, ashamed, and loathed this
sinful deed. Now this young man thought: `What am I to do to get rid of
my sinful deed?’ Then this young man gave himself this answer: `These
Sakyaputtiya samaõas lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy life,
&c. If I could obtain [\q 220/] pabbajjà with the Sakyaputtiya
samaõas I might get rid of my sinful deed.’

2. Then that
young man went to the bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjà
ordination. The bhikkhus said to the Venerable Upàli: `Formerly, friend
Upàli, a serpent in the shape of a youth received the pabbajjà
ordination with the bhikkhus; pray, friend Upàli, examine this young
man.’ Then that young man, when examined by the, Venerable Upàli, told
him the whole matter. The Venerable Upàli told it to the bhikkhus; the
bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One.

`Let a person,
O bhikkhus, that is guilty of matricide, if he has not received the
upasampadà ordination, not receive it; if he has received it. Let him be
expelled (from the fraternity).’

______________________


65.

At that time a certain young man deprived his father of life (&c., as in chap.64).

`Let a person, O bhikkhus, that is guilty of parricide, &c.’

______________________


66.

1. At that time a number of bhikkhus
were travelling on the road from Sàketa to Sàvatthi. On the road robbers
broke forth, robbed some of the bhikkhus, and killed some of them. Then
royal soldiers came from Sàvatthi and caught some of the robbers;
others of them escaped. Those who had escaped, received pabbajjà with
the bhikkhus; those who had been caught, were led to death. [\q 221/]

2. Then those
who had been ordained, saw those robbers who were being led to death;
seeing them they said: `It is well that we have escaped; had we been
caught, we should also be killed thus. The bhikkhus said to them: `Why,
what have you done, friends? Then those (robbers) who had been ordained,
told the whole matter to the bhikkhus. The bhikkhus told this thing to
the Blessed One.

Those
bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, were arahats. Let a person, O bhikkhus, that has
murdered a arahat, if this person has not received the upasampadà
ordination, not receive it; if he has received it, let him be expelled
(from the fraternity).’

______________________


67.

At that time a number of bhikkhunis
were travelling on the road from Sàketa to Sàvatthi. On the road robbers
broke forth, robbed some of the bhikkhunis, and violated some of them.
Then royal soldiers: (&c., as in chap.66).

The bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let a person,
O bhikkhus, that has violated a bhikkhuni (or, that has had sexual
intercourse with a bhikkhuni), (&c., as in chap.66).

`Let a person, O bhikkhus, that has caused a schism among the Saïgha, &c.

`Let a person, O bhikkhus, that has shed (a Buddha’s) blood;’ &c.


______________________


[\q 222/]

68.

At that time a certain hermaphrodite had received pabbajjà with the bhikkhus; so karoti pikàrapeti pi.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let a hermaphrodite, O bhikkhus,’ &c.

______________________


69.

At that time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination on a person that had no upajjhàya.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus; who has no upajjhàya, receive the upasampadà ordination. He
who confers the upasampadà ordination (on such a person), commits a
dukkaña offence.’

2. At that time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination with the saïgha as upajjhàya.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one
receive the upasampadà ordination with the saïgha as upajjhàya. He who
confers the upasampadà ordination (in such a way), commits a dukkaña
offence.’

3. At that time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination with a number of bhikkhus (175) as upajjhàya (&c., as before).

4. At that
time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà [\q 223/] ordination with a
eunuch as upajjhàya, &c,; with a person that had furtively attached
himself (to the saïgha) as upajjhàya; with a person that was gone over
to the titthiyas as upajjhàya; with an animal as upajjhàya; with a
person that was guilty of matricide as upajjhàya; with a person that was
guilty of parricide as upajjhàya; with a person that had murdered an
arahat as upajjhàya; with a person that had violated a bhikkhuni as
upajjhàya; with a person that had caused a schism among the Saïgha as
upajjhàya; with a person that had shed (a Buddha’s) blood as upajjhàya;
with a hermaphrodite, as upajjhàya.

They told this thing to the Blessed One. `Let no one,’ &c. (as in the first clause).

______________________


70.

1. At that time the bhikkhus conferred
the upasampadà ordination on persons that had no almsbowl. They
received alms with their hands. People were annoyed, murmured, and
became angry, saying, `Like the titthiyas.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, receive the upasampadà ordination without having an
alms-bowl. He who confers the upasampadà ordination (on a person that
has not), commits a dukkaña offence.’

2 . At that
time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination on persons that
had no robes. They went out for alms naked. People were annoyed
(&c., as in sect.1).

3. At that
time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà [\q 224/] ordination on
persons that had neither alms-bowl nor robes. They went out for alms
naked and (received alms) with their hands. People were annoyed
(&c., as in sect.1).

4. At that
time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination on persons that
had borrowed alms-bowls. After the ordination (the owners) took their
alms-bowls back; (the bhikkhus) received alms with their hands. People
were annoyed (&c. down to): `Like the titthiyas.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, receive the upasampadà ordination who has borrowed the
alms-bowl. He who confers,’ &c. (as in the first clause).

5. At that
time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination on persons that
had borrowed robes. After the ordination (the owners) took their robes
back; (the bhikkhus) went out for alms naked. People were annoyed
(&c., as in sect.1 to the end).

6. At that time the bhikkhus conferred the upasampadà ordination on persons that had borrowed alms-howls and robes, &c.

Here end the twenty cases in which upasampadà is forbidden.

______________________


71.

1. At that time the bhikkhus conferred
the pabbajjà ordination on a person whose hands were cut off, on a
person whose feet were cut off, whose hands and feet were cut off, whose
ears were cut off, whose nose was cut off, whose ears and nose were cut
off, whose fingers were cut off, whose [\q 225/] thumbs were cut off,
whose tendons (of the feet) were cut, who had hands like a snake’s hood
(176),
who was a hump-back, or a dwarf, or a person that had a goitre, that
had been branded, that had been scourged, on a proclaimed robber, on a
person that had elephantiasis, that was afflicted with bad illness, that
gave offence (by any deformity) to those who saw him, on a one-eyed
person, on a person with a crooked limb, on a lame person, on a person
that was paralysed on one side, on a cripple
(177),
on a person weak from age, on a blind man, on a dumb man, on a deaf
man, on a blind and dumb man, on a blind and deaf man, on a deaf and
dumb man, on a blind, deaf and dumb man.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no
person, O bhikkhus, whose hands are cut off receive the pabbajjà
ordination. Let no person whose feet are cut off, receive the pabbajjà
ordination, &c. (each of the above cases being here repeated). He
who confers the pabbajjà ordination (on such persons), is guilty of a
dukkaña offence.’

Here End the Thirty-Two Cases in Which Pabbajjà

Is Forbidden.

End of the Ninth Bhànavàra.


______________________

[\q 226/]

72.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus gave a nissaya to shameless bhikkhus.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, give a nissaya to shameless bhikkhus. He who does, is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’

At that time
some bhikkhus lived in dependence on shameless bhikkhus (i.e. they
received a nissaya from them, they chose them for their upajjhàyas or
àcariyas); ere long they became also shameless, bad bhikkhus.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, live in dependence on shameless bhikkhus. He who does, is guilty of a dukkaña offence.’

2. Now the
bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that we shall not give
a nissaya to shameless bhikkhus, nor live in dependence on shameless
bhikkhus. Now how are we to discern modest and shameless persons?.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you wait first four or five days until you have seen how a bhikkhu behaves to the other bhikkhus.’

______________________


73.

At that time a certain bhikkhu was
travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Now this bhikkhu thought:
`The Blessed One has prescribed that we shall not live without a nissaya
(of an àcariya and [\q 227/] an upajjhàya); now I want a nissaya, but I
am travelling. What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O bhikkhus, a travelling bhikkhu who can get no nissaya, to live without a nissaya.’

2. At that
time two bhikkhus were travelling on the road in the Kosala country.
They came to a certain residence; there one of the two bhikkhus was
taken ill. Now that sick bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One has
prescribed that we shall not live without a nissaya; now I want a
nissaya, but I am sick. What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O bhikkhus, a sick bhikkhu who can get no nissaya, to live without a nissaya.’

3. Now the
other bhikkhu, who nursed that sick bhikkhu, thought: `The Blessed One
has prescribed, &c.; Now I want a nissaya, but this bhikkhu is sick.
What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

` I allow, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is nursing a sick bhikkhu, if he can get no
nissaya and the sick asks him (to remain with him), to live without a
nissaya.’

4. At that
time a certain bhikkhu lived in the forest; he had a dwelling-place
where he lived pleasantly. Now this bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One
has prescribed, &c.; Now I want a nissaya, but I live in the forest
and have a dwelling-place where I live pleasantly. What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu living in the forest who finds a place where he may
live pleasantly, [\q 228/] and who can get (there) no nissaya, to live
without a nissaya (saying to himself): “If a proper person to give me
nissaya comes hither, I will take nissaya of that person.”‘

______________________


74.

1. At that time there was a person
that desired to receive the upasampadà ordination from the Venerable
Mahà Kassapa. Then the Venerable Mahà Kassapa sent a messenger to the
Venerable ânanda: `Come, ânanda, and recite the upasampadà proclamation
for this person.’ The Venerable ânanda said: `I cannot pronounce the
thera’s (i.e. Mahà Kassapa’s) name; the thera is too venerable compared
with me.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to use also the family name (of the upajjhàya, instead of his proper name) in the proclamation.’

2. At that
time there were two persons that desired to receive the upasampadà
ordination from the Venerable Mahà Kassapa. They quarrelled with each
other. (One said) `I will receive the upasampadà ordination first.’ (The
other said):`Nay, I will receive it first.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to ordain two persons by one proclamation.’

3. At that
time there were persons who desired to receive the upasampadà ordination
from different theras. They quarrelled with each other. (One said): `I
will receive the upasampadà ordination [\q 229/] first.’ (The other
said): `Nay, I will receive it first.’ The theras said : `Well, friends,
let us ordain them altogether by one proclamation’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O
bhikkhus, to ordain two or three persons by one proclamation, provided
they have the same upajjhàya, but not if they have different
upajjhàyas.’

______________________


75.

At that time the Venerable Kumàra
Kassapa had received the upasampadà ordination when he had completed the
twentieth year from his conception (but not from his birth). Now the
Venerable Kumàra Kassapa thought: `The Blessed One has forbidden us to
confer the upasampadà ordination on persons under twenty years of age
(178),
and I have completed my twentieth year (only) from my conception. Have
I, therefore, received the upasampadà ordination, or have I not received
it?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`When, O
bhikkhus, in the womb the first thought rises up (in the nascent being),
the first consciousness manifests itself, according to this the (true)
birth should be reckoned. I allow you, O bhikkhus, to confer the
upasampadà ordination on persons that have completed the twentieth year
from their conception (only).’ [\q 230/]

______________________


76.

1. At that time ordained bhikkhus were seen who were afflicted with leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that he who confers the upasampadà ordination, ask (the
person to be ordained) about the disqualifications (for receiving the
ordination). And let him ask, O bhikkhus, in this way:

`Are you afflicted with the following diseases, leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits?

`Are you a man?

`Are you a male?

`Are you a freeman?

`Have you no debts?

`Are you not in the royal service?

` Have your father and mother given their consent?

`Are you full twenty years old?

`Are your alms-bowl and your robes in due state?

`What is your name?

`What is your upajjhàya’s name?’

2. At that
time the bhikkhus asked the persons who desired to receive the
upasampadà ordination about the disqualifications, without having them
instructed beforehand (how to answer). The persons that desired to be
ordained, became disconcerted, perplexed, and could not answer.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you first instruct (the persons desirous of being
ordained), and then ask them about the disqualifications.’ [\q 231/]

3. Then they
instructed (the candidates) in the midst of the assembly; the persons
desirous of being ordained became disconcerted, perplexed, and could not
answer nevertheless.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you instruct them aside, and ask them about the
disqualifications before the assembly. And you ought, O bhikkhus, to
instruct them in this way: you ought first to cause them to choose an
upajjhàya; when they have chosen an upajjhàya, their alms-bowl and robes
must be shown to them, “This is your almsbowl, this is your saïghati,
this is your upper robe, this is your under garment; come and place
yourself here.”‘

4. Ignorant,
unlearned bhikkhus instructed them; the persons desirous of being
ordained, Though they had been instructed, became disconcerted,
perplexed, and could not answer.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no
ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, instruct them. If they do,
they commit a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that a learned,
competent bhikkhu instruct them.’

5. At that time persons instructed them who were not appointed thereto.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, instruct them without being appointed thereto. He who so
instructs, commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that an
appointed bhikkhu is to instruct them. And (this bhikkhu), O bhikkhus,
is to be appointed in this way: one may either appoint himself, or one
may appoint another person. And how is (a bhikkhu) to [\q 232/] appoint
himself? Let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following
¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear
me. N.N. desires to receive the upasampadà ordination from the
Venerable N.N. If the saïgha is ready, I will instruct N.N.” Thus one
may appoint himself.

6. `And how is
(a bhikkhu) to appoint another person? Let a learned, competent bhikkhu
proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the
saïgha, &c. N.N. desires to receive the upasampadà ordination from
the Venerable N.N. If the saïgha is ready, let N.N. instruct N.N.” Thus
one may appoint another person.

7. `Then let
that appointed bhikkhu go to the person who desires to be ordained, and
thus address him: “Do you hear, N.N.? This is the time for you to speak
the truth, and to say that which is. When I ask you before the assembly
about that which is, you ought, if it is so, to answer: `It is;’ if it
is not so, you ought to answer: `It is not.’ Be not disconcerted, be not
perplexed. I shall ask you thus: `Are you afflicted with the following
diseases, &c?”‘

8. (After the instruction, the instructor and the candidate) appeared together before the assembly.

`Let them not
appear together. Let the instructor come first and proclaim the
following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend
Sirs, hear me. N.N. desires to receive the upasampadà ordination from
the Venerable N.N.; he has been instructed by me. If the saïgha is
ready, let N.N. come.” Then let him be told: “Come on.” Let him be told
to adjust his upper robe (&c., see chap.29.2), to raise his joined
hands, and to ask (the saïgha) for the upasampadà ordination (by
saying), [\q 233/] “I ask the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, for the upasampadà
ordination; might the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, draw me out (of the sinful
world) out of compassion towards me. And for the second time, Reverend
Sirs, I ask, &c. And for the third time, Reverend Sirs, I ask,
&c.”

9. `Then let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person
N.N. desires to receive the upasampadà ordination from the Venerable
N.N. If the saïgha is ready, let me ask N.N. about the
disqualifications.

`”Do you hear, N.N.? This is the time for you (&c., see 7, down to:) you ought to answer: `It is not.’

`”Are you afflicted with the following diseases, &c.?”

10. `Then let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha, “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This person
N.N. desires to receive the upasampadà ordination from the Venerable
N.N.; He is free from the disqualifications; his alms-bowl and robes are
in due state. N.N. asks the saïgha for the upasampadà ordination with
N.N. as upajjhàya. If the saïgha is ready, &c.
(179)“‘

End of the Regulations for the Upasampadà

Ordination (180).


______________________

[\q 234/]

77.

`Then let them
measure the shadow, tell (the newly-ordained bhikkhu) what season and
what date it is, tell him what part of the day it is, tell him the whole
formula
(181),
and tell him the four resources: “The religious life has the morsels of
food given in alms for its resource (&c, as in chap.30.4).”‘

End of the Four Resources.

______________________


78.

1. At that time the bhikkhus, after
having conferred the upasampadà ordination on a certain bhikkhu, left
him alone and went away. Afterwards, as he went alone (to the àràma), he
met on the way his former wife. She said to him: `Have you now embraced
the religious life?’ (He replied): `Yes, I have embraced the religious
life.’ `It is difficult for persons who have embraced religious fife, to
obtain sexual intercourse; come, let us have intercourse.’ He practised
intercourse with her, and in consequence, came late (to the àràma). The
bhikkhus said: `How is it, friend, that you are so late?’

2. Then that bhikkhu told the whole matter to the bhikkhus. The bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One. [\q 235/]

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you give a companion to a newly-ordained bhikkhu, and that you tell him the four interdictions:

`”A bhikkhu
who has received the upasampadà ordination, ought to abstain from all
sexual intercourse even with an animal. A bhikkhu who practises sexual
intercourse is no samaõa and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a man
whose head is cut off, cannot live any longer with his trunk alone, thus
a bhikkhu who practises sexual intercourse is no samaõa and no follower
of the Sakyaputta. Abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts.

3. `”A bhikkhu
who has received the upasampadà ordination, ought to abstain from
taking what is not given to him and from theft, even of a blade of
grass. A bhikkhu who takes what is not given to him, or steals it, if it
is a pàda (i.e. a quarter of a kàrshàpana), or of the value of a pàda,
or worth more than a pàda, is no samaõa, and no follower of the
Sakyaputta. As a sear leaf loosed from its stalk cannot become green
again, thus a bhikkhu who takes, &c. abstain from doing so as long
your life lasts.

4. `”A bhikkhu
who has received the upasampadà ordination, ought not intentionally to
destroy the life of any being down to a worm or an ant. A bhikkhu who
intentionally kills a human being, down to procuring abortion, is no
samaõa and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a great stone which is
broken in two, cannot be reunited, thus a bhikkhu who intentionally,
&c. abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts.

5. `”A bhikkhu
who has received the upasampadà ordination, ought not to attribute to
[\q 236/] himself any superhuman condition and not to say even: `I find
delight in sojourning in an empty place.’ A bhikkhu who with bad
intention and out of covetousness attributes to himself a superhuman
condition, which he has not, and which he is not possessed of, a state
of jhàna (mystic meditation),or one of the vimokkhas
(182),
or one of the samàdhis (states of self-concentration), or one of the
samàpattis (the attainment of the four jhànas and four of the eight
vimokkhas), or one of the paths, (of sanctification), or one of the
fruits thereof, is no samaõa and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a
palm tree of which the top sprout has been cut off cannot grow again,
thus a bhikkhu who with bad intention, &c. abstain from doing so as
long as your life lasts.”‘

End of the Four Interdicts.

______________________


79.

1. At that time a certain bhikkhu against whom expulsion (183)
had been pronounced for his refusal to see an offence (committed by
himself), returned to [\q 237/] the world. Afterwards he came back to
the bhikkhus and asked them for the upasampadà ordination.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu against whom expulsion has been pronounced for
his refusal to see an offence (committed by himself), returns to the
world, and afterwards comes back to the bhikkhus and asks thera for the
upasampadà ordination, let them say to him: “Will you see that offence?”
If he replies: “I will see it,” let him be admitted to the pabbajjà
ordination; if he replies: “I will not see it,” let him not be admitted
to the pabbajjà ordination.

2. `When he
has received the pabbajjà ordination let them say to him: “Will you see
that offence?” If he says: “I will see it,” let him be admitted to the
upasampadà ordination; if he says: “I will not see it,” let him not be
admitted to the upasampadà ordination.

`When he has received the upasampadà ordination (&c., as before). If he says: “I will see it,” let him be restored (184); if he says: ” I will not see it,” let him not be restored.

`When he has
been restored, let them say to him: “Do you see that offence?” If he
sees it, well and good; if he does not see it, let them expel him again,
if it is possible to bring about unanimity (of the fraternity for the
sentence of expulsion); if that is impossible, it is no offence to live
and to dwell together (with such a bhikkhu).

3. `In case, O
bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu against whom expulsion has been pronounced for
his refusal [\q 238/] to atone for an offence (committed, by himself),
&c.
(185) When he has been restored, let them say to him. “Atone now for that offence.” If he atones for it, well and good, &c.

4. `In case, O
bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu against whom expulsion has been pronounced for
his refusal to renounce a false Doctrine, &c.
(186)
When he has been restored, let them say to him: “Renounce now, that
false Doctrine.” If he renounces it, well and good, &c.’

______________________

End of the First Khandhaka, Which is Called the

Great Khandhaka (187)


======================



1. Translated by I. B. Horner as `monk’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

2. To this book is prefixed, as introduction, an account of the first events after Gotama’s attaining Buddhahood,
down to the conversion of his two chief disciples, Sàriputta and
Moggallàna (chaps. 1-24). Among the elements of historical or legendary
character with which, in the Vinaya Piñaka, the discussion of the
monastic discipline is interwoven, this account occupies by far the
first place, both in extent and in importance. For it contains the
oldest version accessible to us now and, most probably, forever, of what
the Buddhist fraternity deemed to be the history of their master’s life
in its most important period.

The connection in which this legendary narration stands with the main
subject of the first Khandhaka is not difficult to account for. The
regulations regarding the admission to the fraternity, which are
discussed in this Khandhaka, could not but present themselves to the
redactors of the Piñaka as being the very basis of their religious
discipline and monastic life. It was possible to fancy the existence of
the Saïgha without the Pàtimokkha rules, or without the regulations
about the pavàranà festival, but it was impossible to realise the idea
of a saïgha without rules showing who was to be regarded as a duly
admitted member of the fraternity, and who was not. It is quite natural,
therefore, that the stories or legends concerning, the ordination of
bhikkhus were put in connection with the record of the very first events
of the history of the Saïgha.

Nor is it difficult to account for the theory formulated by the
historians of the Buddhist ecclesiastical law, of different successive
forms in which the ordination of bhikkhus had been performed. In the
beginning, of course, there was nobody but the Buddha himself who could
ordain bhikkhus; to him those who desired to be received, expressed.
Their wish, and he conferred on them the pabbajjà and upasampadà
ordinations by the formula: ` ehi bhikkhu,’ &c.(see
i,6,32,34,&c.) It was a very natural conception that afterwards, as
the saïgha grew larger, the Buddha should have transferred the power of
admitting new members to the bhikkhus themselves, and should have
instituted that form of ordination which the redactors of the Piñaka
found valid at their own time.

The transition, however, from the supposed oldest form of ordination
(the so-called ehi-bhikkhu-upasampadà) to that latter form is in the
Vinaya legends not represented as immediate. There is described an
intermediate stage between the two, the ordination by the three
saranagamanas, or by the candidate’s three times repeated declaration of
his taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saïgha (see
Mahàvagga I, 12). The reason which has led the redactors of the Vinaya
Piñaka to this construction, was most probably the important part which
in the upasampadà service of the later time devolved upon the preceptor
(upajjhàya) of the candidate. As only learned bhikkhus, who had
completed the tenth year after their own upasampadà, could perform the
function of upajjhàya at the upasampadà ordination of other bhikkhus
(Mahàvagga 1, 31, 8) , it was natural that the redactors of the Vinaya
found it impossible to ascribe this form of upasampadà service to the
first times of Buddha’s teaching. For these times, therefore, they
recorded another form, the upasampadà by the three saranagamanas, the
introduction of which they assigned, very naturally, to the time soon
after the conversion of Yasa’s friends, by which event the number of
bhikkhus had been augmented at once from seven to sixty-one.

3. The Lilayan or Phalgu river in Behar; see General Cunningham’s map, archaeological reports, vol. I. plate iii.

4.After having reached the Sambodhi and before
preaching to the world the Truth he has acquired, the Buddha remains,
according to the tradition, during some weeks at Uruvelà, (enjoying the
bliss of emancipation). The Mahàvagga, which contains these legends in
their oldest forms, assigns to this stay a period of four times seven
days; the later tradition is unanimous in extending it to seven times
seven days (Buddhaghosa in the commentary on the Mahàvagga; Jàtaka
Atthav. vol.i. p.77 seq.; Dãpavaüsa I, 29, 30; Lalita Vistara, p. 488
seq.; Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 236 seq., &c.)

5. The chain of causation, or the doctrine of the
twelve nidànas (causes of existence), contains, as has often been
observed, in a more developed form an answer to the same problem to
which the second and third of the four noble Truths (ariyasacca) also
try to give a solution, viz. The problem of the origin and destruction
of suffering. The noble Truths simply reduce the origin of suffering to
thirst, or desire (tanhà), in its threefold form, thirst for pleasure,
thirst for existence, thirst for prosperity (see I, 6, 20). In the
system of the twelve nidànas thirst also has found its place among the
causes of suffering, but it is not considered as the immediate cause. A
concatenation of other categories is inserted between tanhà and its
ultimate effect; and on the other hand, the investigation of causes is
carried on further beyond tanhà. The question is here asked, what does
tanhà come from? And thus the series of causes and effects is led back
to avijjà (ignorance), as its deepest root. We may add that the
redactors of the Piñakas, who of course could not but observe this
parallelity between the second and third ariyasakkas and the system of
the twelve nidànas, go so far, in one instance (Anguttara Nikàya,
Tika-Nipàta, fol. ke of the Phayre MS.), As to directly replace, in
giving the text of the four ariyasakkas, the second and third of them by
the twelve nidànas, in direct and reverse order respectively. Professor
Childers has furnished a valuable note on the nidànas; see Colebrooke,
miscellaneous essays (second edition), ii, 453 seq.

6. In the Sammàditthisuttanta (Majjhima-Nikàya,
fol. khå of Turnour’s MS.) We find the following explanation of what
ignorance is: ` not to know suffering, not to know the cause of
suffering, not to know the cessation of suffering, not to know the path
which leads to the cessation of suffering, this is called ignorance.’
the same is repeated in the explanation or the nidàna formula, which is
given in the Vibhaïga (Abhidhamma Piñaka, Paticcasamuppadavibhaïga fol.
ki of the Phayre MS.), And we must accept it, therefore, as the
authentic expression of Buddhistical belief. It is obvious, however,
that this explanation leaves room for another question. Ignorance, we
are told, is the source of all evil and of all suffering, and the
subject ignored is stated to be the four Truths. But who is the subject
that ignores them? All attributes (as the vi¤¤àna,
&c.), That constitute sentient beings and enable them to know or to
ignore, are said to be first produced by ignorance, and we should
conclude, therefore, that they cannot exist before ignorance has begun
to act. Or are we to understand that it is the ignorance incurred by a
sentient being in a preceding existence, that causes the saïkharas and
consciousness, the connecting links between the different existences, to
act and to bring about the birth of a new being?

As is well-known, this ignorance (avijjà) plays a great part also in
the Brahmanical philosophy of the Upanishads; and the Buddhist belief
is, no doubt, founded to a considerable extent on older theories. But we
cannot venture in a note to touch upon one of the most difficult and
interesting questions which await the research of Indianists.

7. It is very frequently stated that there are
three saïkharas or productions: kàyasaïkhàra, vacãsaïkhàra, and
cittasaïkhàra, or, productions of body, of speech, and of thought (see,
for instance, the Sammàditthisuttanta, Majjhima Nikàya, fol. khå of
Turnour’s MS.) The kàyasaïkhàra consists, according to the Saïkhàra
Yamaka (Abhidhamma Piñaka), in inhalation and expiration
(assàsapassàsà); the vacãsaïkhàra in attention and investigation
(vitakkavicàrà); the cittasaïkhàra in ideas, sensations, and all
attributes of mind except attention and investigation
(sa¤¤à ca vedanà ca thapetvà vitakkavikàre sabbe
pi cittasampayuttakà dhammà). The Vibhaïga (Abhidhamma Piñaka,
Paticcasamuppadavibhaïga, 1.1.) Gives, when discussing the saïkharas,
six categories instead of the three: ` now which are the saïkharas that
are produced by ignorance? Saïkharas (or, productions) that lead to
righteousness, saïkharas that lead to sinfulness, saïkharas that lead to
immovability, productions of body, of speech, and of thought.’ the Pàli
words are: `Tattha katame avijjà paccayà saïkhàrà?
Pu¤¤àbhisaïkhàro
apu¤¤àbhisaïkhàro àõa¤gàbhisaïkhàro
kàyasaïkhàro vacãsaïkharo cittasaïkhàro.’ the list of fifty-five
categories belonging to the saïkhàra khandha, which sp. Hardy gives in
his Manual (p. 404 seq.; Comp. Also Rh. D., `Buddhism,’ p. 91 seq., And
`Buddhist suttas from the Pàli,’ p. 242), is not founded, as far as we
know, on the authority of the Piñakas themselves, but on later compendia
and commentaries.

8. I.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body(or the faculty of touch) and mind.

9. Buddhaghosa: `The goat-herds used to go to
theshadow of that Banyan tree and tosit there; therefore it was
calledthe Banyan tree of the goat-herds.’ the northern Buddhists say
that this tree had been planted by a shepherd boy, during the
Bodhisatta`s six years’ penance, in order to shelter him; see Beal, Rom.
Legend, pp. 192, 238, and the Mahàvastu.

10. `Huhuïkajàtiko.’ Buddhaghosa: `Because he was
diññhamaïgalika, he becamefilled with haughtiness and wrath, and went
about uttering the sound “Huhuü.”‘ Diññhamaïgalika (having seen
something auspicious?) is obscure to us.

11 Buddhaghosa says that ràjàyatana (lit. A royal
apartment) was the name of a tree. It is the same tree which in the
Lalita Vistara (p. 493, ed. Calcutta) is called tàràyaõa, and in the
Dãpavaüsa (II, 50) khãrapàla. The place where the two merchants met
Buddha, is thus described in the Mahàvastu: kshãrikàvanashaõóe
bahudevatake cetiye.

12. The term Tathàgata is, in the Buddhistical
literature, exclusively applied to Sammàsambuddhas, and it is more
especially used in the Piñakas when the Buddha is represented as
speaking of himself in the third person as `The Tathàgata’. The meaning
`Sentient being,’ which is given to the word in the Abhidhànappadãpikà,
and in Childers’s dictionary, is not confirmed, as far as we know, by
any passage of the Piñakas. This translation of the word is very
possibly based merely on a misunderstanding of the phrase often repeated
in the Sutta Piñaka: hoti Tathàgata par Màra, which means, of course, `
does a Buddha exist after death?’ in the Jaina books we sometimes find
the term tatthagaya (tatragata), `he who has attained that world, i.e.
emancipation,’ applied to the jinas as opposed to other beings who are
called Inageya (idhagata), living in this world.’ see, for instance, the
Jinacaritra, #16. Considering the close relation in which most of the
dogmatical terms of the Jainas stand to those of the Bauddhas, it is
difficult to believe that Tathàgata and tatthagaya should not originally
have conveyed very similar ideas. We think that on the long way from
the original Màgadhã to the Pàli and Sanskrit, the term tatthagata or
tatthàgata (tatra+agata), `He who has arrived there, i.e. At
emancipation,’ may very easily have undergone the change into Tathàgata,
which would have made it unintelligible, were we not able to compare
its unaltered form as preserved by the Jainas.

13. The four guardian gods of the quarters of the
world; see Hardy’s Manual, p. 24. Their Pàli names, as given in the
Abhidhànappadãpikà, vv. 31, 32. The Dãpavaüsa XVI, 12, &c., were,
Dhataraññha, Virålþaka, Viråpakkha, and Vessavaõa or Kuvera.

14. Onitapattapàni, which is said very frequently
of a person who has finished his meal, is translated by Childers, `
whose hand is removed from the bowl’ (comp. Also Trenckner, Pàli
miscellany, p. 66). We do not think this explanation right, though it
agrees with, or probably is based on, a note of Buddhaghosa (’pattato ca
apanãtapàõiü’). Onita, i.e. avanãta, is not apanãta, and the end of the
dinner was marked, not by the bhikkhu’s removing his hand from the
bowl, but by his washing the bowl (see Cullavagga VIII, 4,. 6), and, of
course, his hands. In Sanskrit the, meaning of ava-nã is, to pour
(water) upon something; see the Petersburg dictionary. We have
translated, therefore, onãtapattapàõi accordingly.

15. Because there was no Saïgha at that time,
their declaration of taking refuge, by which they became upàsakas, could
refer only to the dyad (the Buddha and the Dhamma), instead of to the
of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saïgha.

16. The upadhis (substrata of existence) are
specified in the commentary on the Sutta-Nipàta, ap. Dhammapada, p. 433;
`Sabbåpadhinaü parikkhayà’ti sabbesaü
khandhakàmaguõakilesàbhisaïkhàrabhedànaü upadhinaü parikkhiõattà`.
Probably abhisaïkhàra is not co-ordinate with the other members of the
compound, but is determined by them, comp. pabbajjàbhisaïkhàra,
iddhàbhisaïkhàra, gamikàbhisaïkhàra. The upadhis, therefore, according
to this passage, consist: firstly, in the actions of mind that are
directed towards the khandhas (i.e. That have the effect of propagating.
And augmenting the dominion of the khandhas); secondly, in the actions
tending to the fivefold pleasures of sense ; and thirdly, in those
connected with kilesa (evil passion).

17. Buddhaghosa explains anacchariya by
anuacchariya which is alike unintelligible to us. The Lalita Vistara
(p.515,ed.Calcutta) has abhãkshõam (’repeatedly’).

18. It is difficult to believe that the Pàli name
of Brahma Sahampati, the ruler of the Brahma worlds (see Spence Hardy’s
Manual, pp. 43, 56), is not connected with the Brahman svayambhå of the
Brahmanical literature. Perhaps the Sanskrit equivalent of sahampati
might be svayampati.

19. Amata, an epithet of arahatship, which may perhaps mean simply ambrosia. Seerh.d.,buddhism,pp.6oiii, 184.

20. See 3 with our note for this omitted word.

21. Alara Kàlàma and Uddaka Ràmaputta were the
twoteachersto whom Gotama had attached himself first after his pabbajjà
see Fausboll’s Jàtaka, vol. I. p. 66; Rh. D., Buddhism, p. 34.

22. See about the five companions of Buddha’s
self-mortification, in the time before the Sambodhi, the Jàtaka, vol. I.
p. 67; Hardy, Manual, p. 165; Rh.D., Buddhism, p. 35. The names of the
five bhikkhus were, Konda¤¤a, Vappa, Bhaddiya,
Mahànàma, Assaji.

23. Perhaps instead of kho’me (=kho ime) we should read kho me.

24. The mrigadàwa, or deer park, is represented
by a fine wood, which still covers an area of about half a mile, and
extends from the great tower of Dhamek on the north, to the Chaukundi
mound on the south.’ Cunningham, arch. Reports, I, p. 107.

25. Jina, or The Victorious One, is one of the many appellations common to the founders of the Bauddha and Jaina sects.

26. Sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance (kàma, bhava, diññhi, and avijjà).

27. Buddhaghosa, in a note on Cullavagga ii, 1,
1, says that pàdapãñþa is a stool to put the washed foot on,
pàdakathalika (or pàdakathalikà?), a stool to put the unwashed foot on,
or a cloth to rub the feet with (pàdaghaüsana).

28. As they had done before when they underwent austerities together with the Bodhisatta at Uruvelà.

29. Of the literature that exists referring to
the discourse which follows now (the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta), it
will suffice to quote M. Feer’s Etudes Bouddhiques, 1, p. 189 seq., And
Rh. D., `Buddhist suttas from the Pàli,’ pp. 137-i55, and in the
fortnightly review for December 1879.

30. Clinging to the five elements of existence, rupa, vedanà, sanna, saïkhàra, vi¤¤àna. See 38 seq.

31. I.e. the thirst (tanhà), which is declared in this noble Truth to be the cause of suffering, must be abandoned.

32. The three modifications and twelve constituent parts are those specified in sects. 23-26.

33. The thirty-three devas of the Vedic
mythology. This enumeration gives the gods who reside in the different
worlds, beginning from the lowest (the Bhummà devà, who inhabit the
earth), and gradually ascending to the higher devalokas. See Hardy,
Manual, p. 2 5.

34. Those three bhikkhus of the five, who had
been converted went about for alms; while the Buddha remained with their
two companions, and instructed them.

35. This is shown exactly in the same way and
with the same words that are used in sect. 38 with regard to the body.
Body, sensations, perceptions, saïkharas, and consciousness are the
well-known five classes (khandha) of bodily and mental parts and powers;
see Rh. D., `Buddhism,’ p. Go seq. The self (attà), which, if it exists
at all, must be permanent and imperishable, is not to be found in any
one of these five classes, which are all subject to origin and decay.
This discourse of the Buddha’s, which is frequently called the
Anattalakkhaõa Sutta (sutta of the not having the signs of self, shows
the perishable nature of the five khandhas, and that the khandhas are
not the self. But it does not deal with the question, whether the self
exists or not, in any other way.

36. See the note on chap. 1. 2.

37. This is shown exactly in the same way and
with the same words that are used in sect. 38 with regard to the body.
Body, sensations, perceptions, saïkharas, and consciousness are the
well-known five classes (khandha) of bodily and mental parts and powers;
see Rh. D., `Buddhism,’ p. Go seq. The self (attà), which, if it exists
at all, must be permanent and imperishable, is not to be found in any
one of these five classes, which are all subject to origin and decay.
This discourse of the Buddha’s, which is frequently called the
Anattalakkhaõa sutta (sutta of the not having the signs of self, shows
the perishable nature of the five khandhas, and that the khandhas are
not the self. But it does not deal with the question, whether the self
exists or not, in any other way.

38. Here follow the same questions, answers, and
rejoinders, with regard to sensation, perception, the saïkharas, and
consciousness.

39. The same with regard to the other four khandhas.

40. Compare Burnouf, ` Lotus de la Bonne Loi,’ p. 481.

41. See the note on sect.9.

42. A well-known scene in the life of the
Bodhisatta has evidently been represented after the model of this story.
See Jàtaka I, p. 61; Lalita Vistara, p. 251; Bigandet Life of Gaudama,
p. 55. Nowhere in the Pàli Piñakas is the story told about the
Bodhisatta himself.

43. This was a position of honour among the
merchants. In the later literature we hear of an office of seññþi
(seññþi-ññþana) in a city, to which any one with the requisite wealth
and talent was eligible (Jàtaka I, 120-122); and, according to the
Mahàvaüsa, the king appointed to an office called seññþita, apparently
at his court(Mah.p.69). The gahapati, or treasurer, one of the seven
jewels of a king, is explained by Buddhaghosa to be seññþigahapati (see
Rh. D.’s note on Mahàsudassana Sutta I, 41). `The seññþi,’ standing
alone, or `the mahà-seññþi,’ means Anàthapiõóika (Jàtaka I, 95, 227-230;
Dhammapada commentary, p. 395). Below, in chapter 9, sect. x, it would
seem that the rank of seññþi was hereditary, and this is confirmed by
the later literature; but this applies to the social rank only, and not
to the office.

44. Pleasures of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch.

45. Hatthappattaü susànaü
ma¤¤e, literally, `one would think a cemetery had
(suddenly) come to one’s hand.’

46. Nekkhamma is neither naishkramya nor
naishkarmya, but naishkàmya. Itivuttaka, fol. khi (Phayre MS.): kàmànaü
etaü nissaraõaü yad idaü nekkhammaü, råpànam etaü nissaraõaü yad idaü
aruppaü.

47. The stage of a sekha, i.e. a person who has
attained to any stage in the noble eightfold path (such as
sotàpattiphala, &c.) inferior to the highest (arahatship).

48. The rules about the dress of a bhikkhu who is
going to the village are given in theCullavagga viii, 4, 3; 5, 2.
Compare Rh. D.’s note on theMahà-parinibbana Sutta v,45. Vin. Texts,
Rh.D. & H.O. says her: `under-robes’.

49. According to Subhåti (in Childers’s
dictionary) sampavàreti means that the host hands dishes to the guest
until the latter says, I have had enough.’ Childers accordingly
translates sampavàreti, `To cause to refuse.’ but as pavàreti means, `To
cause to accept,’ it is impossible that sampavàreti should have exactly
the opposite meaning. We prefer, therefore, to take it as an emphatic
synonym of pavàreti.

50. This cannot be understood as a general rule,
for it is repeated nowhere whereprecepts for wandering bhikkhus are
given, and on the contrary, numerous instances occur in the sacred texts
in which two or more bhikkhus are mentioned as wandering together,
without any expression of disapproval being added. The precept given
here evidently is intended to refer only to the earliest period in the
spread of the new Doctrine; just as in chap. 12 a form of upasampadà is
introduced by Buddha which was regarded as inadmissible in later times.

51. The correct spelling of this name appears to
be Senàninigama (’The general’s town’), and not Senànigama (`the army’s
town’); the Jàtaka Atthavaõõanà (vol. i. p. 68) and the Paris MS. Of the
Mahàvagga (manu secunda) read Senàninigama. The Lalita Vistara has
Senàpatigràma.

52. On this ceremony, which is still gone through before the regular ordination, see the remarks in the note on chapter 1,# 1..

53. See about the vassa residence the rules given
in book iii. Term is translated as `rains’ by I. B. Horner, Book of the
Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

54. The Jañilas (i.e. ascetics wearing matted
hair) are Brahmanical vànaprasthas. The description of their ascetic
life given in many passages of the Jàtaka Atthavaõõanà and of the
Apadàna exactly agrees with the picture of the forest life of the which
so frequently occurs in the Mahàbhàrata. In the Mahàvagga (vi, 35, 2) it
is expressly stated that the Jañilas recognised the authority of the
veda, and it is in keeping with this that the usual term for adopting
the state of a Jañila is isipabbajjam pabbajati’ (frequently in the Jàt.
Atth.), i.e. leaving the world and becoming a çishi.

55. Iddhi. Compare the passages referred to by
Rh. D. in ` Buddhist suttas from the Pàli,’ pp. 2, 40, 259; and further
Mahàvagga VI, 15, 8, and Cullavagga VII, I p.4, and VII, 2, 1.

56. Satiü upaññþàpetvà. Sati is here a more precise idea than memory.

57. Buddhaghosa explains makkha by kodha

58. Compare Cullavagga iv, 4, 4, where Dabba also tejodhàtuü samàpajjati, that is, his finger is on fire.

59. Compare the editor’s corrections at Cullavagga, p. 363.

60. In sects. 6, 7 (excepting the last clause of
sect. 7) the story related, in 1-5 is repeated in a more popular style.
This appears to us to be a more archaic redaction than the preceding. We
do not know any other instance in the Pàli Piñakas of a similar
repetition, excepting a short passage at the end of chap. 24. 3; and one
other in the Mahàpadhàna sutta.

61. Literally, ` the snake among, men,’ or the elephant among men (manussanàgo).

62. According to Vedic tradition the Gautamas, as is well-known, belong to the âïgirasa tribe.

63. See chap. 4. 4.

64. One of the supposed seven great lakes in the Himavant.

65. See about this jambu tree, which grows in the forest of Himavant, Hardy’s Manual, p. 18 seq.

66. Very probably it is this story in which a
similar legend has originated that the Ceylonese tell about Mahinda, the
converter of their island; see Dãpavaüsa XII, 75.

67. Bigandet (Life of Gaudama, p. 135) translates
this passage from the Burmese version: Gaudama split it in a moment, in
five hundred pieces.’ doubtless the true meaning is, that there were
five hundred pieces of wood, one for each of the five hundred Jañilas
over whom was Kassapa chief. In the following two stories (sects. 13,
14) we have five hundred sacred fires.

68. The Ashñakà festivals, about which accurate
details are given in the Gçãhya Såtras, were celebrated about the wane
of the moon of the winter months Màrgaùãrsha, Taisha, and Màgha; see
Weber, Die Vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, p. 331, and H.0.’s
note on the Sàhkhàyana Gçãhya),, 3, 12, ap. Indische Studien, XV, p.
145.

69. Buddhaghosa explains mandhàmukhiyo by aggibhàjanàni.

70. Which they had cut, off in order to receive the pabbajjà ordination, see chap. 12. 3.

71. We are extremely doubtful about the meaning
of khàrikàja, which Buddhaghosa explains by khàribhhàra. Perhaps it may
mean provisions of any description of which each Jañila used to keep one
khàri (a certain dry measure).

72. This is evidently a remark added to the text by a reader or commentator.

73. According to General Cunningham, Gayàsisa (`the head ofGayà’) is the mountain of Brahmàyoni near Gayà. Arch. Rep.111, 07.

74. Here the same exposition which has been given
relating to the eye, its objects, the sensations produced by its
contact with objects, &c., Is repeated with reference to the ear and
the other organs of sense.

75. Lacchivana (Sank. yashñivana), literally,
`stick forest,’ means a forest consisting of bambus. General Cunningham
has the following note about this bamboo forest: `In 1862, when I was at
Ràjgir (i.e. Ràjagaha), I heard the bambu forest always spoken of as
jaktiban; . . . I fixed the position of the bambu forest to the
south-west of Ràjgir on the hill lying between the hot-springs of
Tapoban and old Ràjagçãha.’ Reports, III, 140.

The word we have rendered sacred shrine is cetiya.

76.

 The word householder (gahapat1) is used here, as is the case not
infrequently, to denote householders of the third caste. Compare Rh.
D.’s note on Mahàsudassana Sutta, p. 260.

77. Literally, `who is known as emaciate.’ this
is said with reference to the mortifications practised by the Jañilas or
Vànaprasthas. The Mahàbhàrata (ill, 1499) uses the same adjective
(kçãùa) of a Jañila. Vadàno we take for a participle, but it is possible
also to read vadà no, `Tell us,’ which professor Jacobi (Zeitschrift
der Deutschen Morg. Ges., XXXIV, p. 187) prefers. Buddhaghosa takes
kisakovadàno for a compound of kisaka and ovadàna : tàpasànaü ovàdako
anusàsako.

78. The meaning is: the mantras which are recited
at the sacrifices contain praises of visible things, &c., And the
rewards that are promised to him who offers such sacrifices do not
extend beyond that same sphere.

79. The Pàli word is upadhi, which is translated
by Childers, `Substratum of being.’ see our note on chap. 5. 2. In this
passage upadhi is said to refer to the khandhas (Buddhaghosa).

80. Here we have the Vedic distinction of greater
and smaller sacrifices (yajatayas and juhotayas). The Pàli word is
upadhi, which is translated by Childers, `Substratum of being.’ see our
note on chap. 5. 2. In this passage upadhi is said to refer to the
khandhas (Buddhaghosa).

81. The words `said the Blessed One’ (ti Bhagavà
avoca) are probably interpolated from a gloss, as they destroy the
metre. The Pàli word is upadhi, which is translated by Childers,
`Substratum of being.’ see our note on chap. 5. 2. In this passage
upadhi is said to refer to the khandhas (Buddhaghosa).

82. Doubtless Buddhaghosa is right in explaining ko by kva.

83.

 The Pàli word is upadhi, which is translated by Childers,
`Substratum of being.’ see our note on chap. 5.2. In this passage upadhi
is said to refer to the khandhas (Buddhaghosa).

84. Aki¤cana here, and elsewhere, used
as an epithet of arahatship, refers to the state of mind in which the
ki¤canas, that is, lust, malice, and delusion (so in the
Saïgiti Sutta of the Dãgha Nikàya),have ceased to be. It is literally
`being without the somethings,’ which are the things that stand in the
way, the obstacles to Buddhist perfection; and Buddhaghosa (in the
Sumaïgala Vilàsinã on the passage in the Saïgiti Sutta) explains
accordingly ki¤cana by paëibodha.

85. Gold colour is one (the 17th) of the thirty-two lakkhaõa which form the characteristics of Buddha as a mahàpurisa.

86. The ten ariyavàsas. Buddhaghosa says: dasasu
ariyavàsesu vutthavàso. The Saïgiti Sutta gives the ten noble states, as
follows: 1. Being free from the five bad qualities (païcaïga), 2. Being
possessed of the six good qualities (chalaïga), 3. Being guarded in the
one thing (ekàrakkha), 4. Observing four things (caturàpassena), 5.
Rejecting each of the four false Truths (panunna pacceka-sacca), 6.
Seeking right things (samavayasa- dhesana),,7. Having pure aims
(anàvila-saïkappa), 8. Being full of ease (passaddhakàya-saïkhàra), 9.
Being emancipated in heart (suvimuttacitta), 10. Being emancipated in
ideas (suvimuttapa¤¤a). The Saïgiti then further
enlarges on the meaning of each of these ten.

87. The ten balas, which are ten kinds of
knowledge (¤àõa); see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 781 and following,
and compare Jàtaka I, 78.

88. Buddhaghosa explains dasadhammavidå by dasakammapathavidå.

89. Buddhaghosa explains dasabhi c’åpeto by
supplying asekhehi dhammehi. The first eight of the ten asekhà dhamma
consist in the full perfection of sammàditthi (right belief and the
other categories enumerated in the formula of the noble eightfold path;
the ninth and tenth are the perfection of sammà¤àna (right
knowledge) and sammàvimutti (right emancipation).

90. The site of the Veluvana (`bambu forest’)
near Ràjagaha has not yet been discovered. `It must have occupied about
the position where the ancient basements, marked K.K.K. And G. in
Cunningham’s map of Ràjagçãha (pl. xiv, Reports, vol. i), were found by
him’ (Rh. D., `Buddhism,’ p. 62 note).

91. This seems to us the meaning of atthikehi
upa¤¤àtaü maggaü. Sàriputta followed Assaji as
suppliants are accustomed to follow their proposed benefactor till a
convenient season arrives for preferring their request.

92. The same words as are put in the mouth of
Upaka, when addressing the Buddha, above, chap. 6, sect. 7 (and see
below, sect. 6).

93. This famous stanza doubtless alludes to the
formula of the twelve nidànas (see chap. 1. 2) which explains the
origination and cessation of what are called here ` dhammà
hetuppabbavà.’ Hetu and paccaya (the word so frequently used in the
formula of the nidànas) are nearly synonymous. Colebrooke (Life and
Essays, vol. ii. p. 419) says that the Bauddhas distinguish between
hetu, `proximate cause,’ and paccaya (pratyaya), concurrent occasion;’
but, in practical use, this slight difference of meaning, if it really
existed, has but little weight attached to it.

94. See sects. 2-4. Instead of `The paribbàjaka
Sàriputta,’ of course, the pronoun of the first person is to be read;
instead of `The Venerable Assaji’ read, ` The bhikkhu Assaji;’ and
further, the vocative friend’ (àvuso), addressed to Moggallàna, is
inserted three or four times in the course of this narration.

95. The later Burmese and Chinese works
translated by Bigandet (Life of Gaudama, p. 152 and by Beal (Romantic
Legend, p. 330) add that he died. This is not in the Pàli text, and the
Sinhalese account given by Hardy (Manual, p. 97) is directly opposed to
that statement.

96. Upatissa was called Sàriputta after his
mother (’The son of Sàri’); Kolita had the family name Moggallàna
(compare Beal, Romantic Legend, pp. 324, 331). The name Upatissa occurs
in Asoka’s well-known edict which has been found at Barite. The king
there quotes `The Question of Upatissa’ among the texts, the study of
which he recommends to the brethren and sisters of the fraternity and to
the laymen of either sex. This very probably refers to the dialogue
between Assaji and Sàriputta.

97. As to this repetition of what had been
related before, comp. The note on chap. 15. 6, 7. The words from
gambhãre down to upadhisaïkhaye form a ùloka. This is one of several
instances where an older passage in verse, and probably first composed
in some nearly related dialect, appears in the Pàli Piñakas in prose. It
is this which explains the extraordinary grammatical construction of
the first seven words. Compare Rh. D.’s note on the similar instance at
Mahàparinibbàna sutta V, 62. The exclamation put into the mouth of
Sàriputta, and afterwards of Moggallàna (above, chap. 23, sects. 5, 10),
ought also, perhaps, to be included in the same category.

98. The chief object of the first book being to
discuss the regulations for the upasampadà ordination, at which the
preceptor (upajjhàya) of the candidate has a principal part, the text
now goes on to relate the institution of the office and upajjhàyas, and
to explain the mutual duties incumbent on upajjhàyas and pupils
(saddhivihàrikas).

99. Buddhaghosa has the following note on
uttiññhapatta: `uttiññhapatta ti piõóàya caraõakapattaü, tasmiü hi
manussà ucciññhasa¤¤ino (this word is spelt so in
the Paris MS. As well as in the Berlin MS. of the Samanta Pàsàdikà; the
usual spelling is ucchiññha), tasmà uttiññþapattan ti vuttaü. athavà
uññhahitvà pattaü upanàmentiti evam ettha attho daññþabbo.’ we take the
word, as the former of Buddhaghosa’s two explanations implies, for a
composition of ucchiññha. For the conversion of palatal consonants into
dentals, see e. Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pàli-Grammatik, p. 36, and on the use
of the word compare Trenckner’s Milinda Pa¤ho, pp. 213, 214.

100.

 Translated by I. B. Horner as `one who shares his cell’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

101. If he had put on shoes for having a walk early in the morning or for keeping his feet clean (Buddhaghosa).

102. Buddhaghosa explains saguõaü katvà by ekato katvà.

103. According to Buddhaghosa the meaning of
these words is: if the alms-bowl of the upajjhàya has become too heavy
or hot by the food put into it, the saddhivihàrika ought to take it and
give his own bowl to the upajjhàya.

104. See chap. 6.11, with the note.

105. I.e. in order that the folds might not fall
upon the same place every day, and the robe might be worn out at that
place (Buddhaghosa).

106. The Pàli text is: `Obhoge kàyabandhanaü
kàtabbaü.’ Buddhaghosa’s note runs as follows: `Kàyabandhanaü
saõgharitvà(read saõharitvà) civarabhoge pakkhipitvà ñþapetabbaü.’ we do
not venture to offer any conjectures as to the meaning of this passage.

107. See chap. 6.11, with the note.

108. A gantàghara (Sank. yantragçãha according
to Dr. Båhler’s conjecture) is a bathing-place for hot sitting baths.
See Cullavagga V, 14, 3 ; VIII, 8; Kuhn`s Zeitschrift fur vergleichende
Sprat., XXV, 325.

109. It is first moistened by water and then
kneaded into lumps (Buddhaghosa),-no doubt to be rubbed over the person
who is bathing.

110. The face was besmeared with moistened clay in order to protect it from the heat. See Cullavagga V, 14, 3.

111. I.e. if he is not prevented by indisposition (Buddhaghosa).

112. See chap. 6. 11, with the note.

113. See VIII, 16, 3. 4.

114. The bedstead rested on movable supporters. See Cullavagga vi 2,5

115. See Cullavagga vi, 20, 2.

116. See the Samanta Pàsàdikà, ap. Minayeff, Pràtimoksha p. 87.

117. As in the preceding clause,

118. The same for North and South.

119. Literally, make it (the discontentedness)
clear. Buddhaghosa reads våpakàsetabbo våpakàsàpetabbo, which he
explains thus: `våpakàsetabbo means, “Let (the saddhivihàrika) lead him
to another place;” våpakàsàpetabbo means, “Let him tell another bhikkhu
to take the thera and go with him elsewhere.”‘

120. The second and third books of the
Cullavagga contain a detailed explanation of parivàsa and of the other
technical term contained in this paragraph. The term is by I. B. Horner
translated as `probation’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

121.

 Translated by I. B. Horner as `order’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

122. The discussion about the tajjaniyakamma and
the other disciplinary proceedings alluded to in this paragraph is
given the first book of the Cullavagga.

123.

 Translated by I. B. Horner as `dependence’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

124. Instead of, ` follow the upajjhàya from behind’ (chap. 25. 12), read here,’ go (with the saddhivihàrika).’

125. We believe that; the words the moderate
bhikkhus’ are, intended here and throughout the whole work as an
abbreviation of the fuller phrase, `Those bhikkhus who were moderate
frugal, modest, conscientious, anxious for training’ (chap. 25. 3).

126. All this is an abbreviation of what has been given at full length in chap. 2 5. 4-6.

127. Those slight offences which were not
embodied in the Pàtimokkha are called dukkaña offences. They range, as
to their gravity, with, the Pàcittiya offences of the Pàtimokkha. For
him who had committed a dukkaña offence, no further penance was required
than a simple confession of his fault. See Cullavagga XL. 1,10.
Translated as `wrong-doing’ by I. B. Horner, Book of the Discipline,
Vol. IV, p. vi

128. See chap. 12 and the note on chap. 1,1.

129. The form for bringing a formal motion
before the order is the following: the mover first announces to the
assembled bhikkhus what resolution he is going to propose; this
announcement is called ¤atti (see, for instance, sect. 4).
After the ¤atti follows the question put to the bhikkhus
present if they approve the resolution. This question is put either once
or three times; in the first case we leave a ¤attidutiya
kamma (see, for instance, ii chap. 6); in the second case, a
¤atticatuttha kamma:( as in this chapter). ¥atti is
by I. B. Horner translated as `motion’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV,
p. vi

130. With this and the following chapters should be compared the corresponding ordinance laid down in chapters 74-76.

131. Here follows the complete formula of a
¤atticatuttha kamma, as in chap. 28. 4-6. The only difference
is, that here in the ¤atti, as well as in the three
questions, the words `N.N. asks the saïgha for the upasampadà ordination
with N.N. as upajjhàya’ are inserted after the words I desires to
receive the upasampadà ordination from the Venerable N.N.’

132. On this curious expression, compare Cullavagga IV, 4, 8. It is frequently repeated below.

133. These are the five kinds of dwellings
(pa¤ca lenàni) which are declared to be allowable, Cullavagga
VI, 1, 2. The single expressions are explained by Buddhaghosa in his
note on Cullavagga 11 as follows: ` aóóþayogo’ti suvaõõavaïgagehaü,
pàsàdo’ti dãghapàsàdo, hammiyan ti upariàkàsatale patiññþitakåñàgàro
pàsàdo yeva, guhà’ti iññhakaguhà silàguhà dàruguhà paüsuguhà’ i.e.
aóóþàyoga is a gold-coloured Bengal house. Pàsàda is a long, storied
mansion (or, the whole of an upper storey). Hammiya, is a pàsàda. Which
has an upper chamber placed on the topmost storey. Guhà is a hut made of
brick or in a rock, or of wood.’

134. Compare Mahàvagga vi, 14, 6.

135. This story recurs in the Jàtaka commentary 11, 449.

136.

 Translated by I. B. Horner as `other sects’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

137. See the conclusion of this in chapter 38.

138. Buddhaghosa can scarcely be right in explaining pakkhasaïkanta by titthiyapakkhasaïkanta.

139. âcariya as well as upajjhàya means
`Teacher,’ or preceptor.’ it is very difficult or rather impossible to
draw a sharp line of distinction between àcariya and upajjhàya. The
duties of an àcariya towards his antevàsika, and of an antevàsika
towards his àcariya, as indicated in chaps. 32, 33 (Cullavagga VIII, 13,
14), are exactly the same as those of an upajjhàya towards his
saddhivihàrika and vice versa (chaps. 25, 26 Cullavagga VIII, 11, 1 2).
The position of an upajjhàya however was considered as the more
important of the two; at the upasampadà service the upajjhàya had a more
prominent part than the àcariya, as we may infer from chaps. 28, 29,
and from the explanations on the 65th pàcittiya rule which are given in
the Sutta Vibhaïga. There it is said that, if the upasampadà ordination
had been conferred, against the rule, on a person that has not yet
attained his twentieth year, the upajjhàya has made himself guilty of a
pàcittiya offence, the àcariya and the other present bhikkhus only of a
dukkaña offence. We may add that the succession of Vinaya teachers from
Upàli down to Mahinda, which is given in the Dãpavaüsa (Bhànavàra iv and
v), is a succession of upajjhàyas and saddhivihàrikas (see iv, 36, 42,
43, &c.), Not of àcariyas and antevàsikas; the duty of instructing
the young bhikkhus in the holy doctrines and ordinances seems,
therefore, to belong to the upajjhàya rather than to the àcariya;
compare also Dãpavaüsa vii, 26. So among the bràhmaõas, on the contrary,
the àcariya is estimated higher than the upajjhàya; see Manu II, 145;
Yàj¤avalkya I, 35. Compare also chap. 36,1 (end of the
paragraph), and Buddhaghosa’s explanation of that passage.

140. Nissaya (i.e. dependence) is the relation
between àcariya and antevàsika. The antevàsika lives `nissàya’ with
regard to the àcariya, i.e. dependent on him; the àcariya gives his
nissaya to the antevàsika, i.e. he receives him into his protection and
care. At chap. 36. 1, `Nissaya’ is said also of the relation between
upajjhàya and saddhivihàrika.

141. That is, ` did not know how to decide whether their nissaya was destroyed, or not.’

142. This refers, according to Buddhaghosa, to the paõàmanà (turning away of the saddhivihàrika); see chap. 27. 2.

143. Buddhaghosa: `Coming together maybe
understood either by seeing or by hearing. If a saddhivihàrika who lives
in dependence (nissàya) on his àcariya sees his upajjhàya paying homage
to a sacred shrine in the same vihàra, or going on his rounds in the
same village, cessation of the nissaya (towards the àcariya) is the
consequence. If he hears the voice of his upajjhàya, who preaches the
Dhamma or gladdens (lay-people by religious discourse), in the vihàra or
in the interior of a house, and if he recognises that it is his
upajjhàya’s voice, cessation of the nissaya (towards the àcariya) is the
consequence.’

144.

 About the ordination of novices, see chap. 54. 3.

145. According to Buddhaghosa, moral
transgression (adhisãla) is said with regard to offences against the
pàràjika and saïghàdisesa rules, while transgressions in
conduct(ajjhàcàra) consist in offences against the minor rules of the
Pàtimokkha. Buddhaghosa’s explanation is confirmed by the Mahàvagga iv,
16, 12.

146. According to Buddhaghosa, this refers to
instruction in the khandhakavatta (i.e. in the rules contained in the
Khandhaka texts, Mahàvagga and Cullavagga?). See also Spence Hardy,
Manual, p. 492.

147. This means instructing him in the
sekhapa¤¤atti (Buddhaghosa). We cannot say what is
the accurate meaning of the last term, which apparently, as its verbal
meaning seems to imply, refers to ordinances for those bhikkhus who have
entered the path of sanctification, but have not yet attained
arahatship. Spence Hardy (Manual, p. 493) gives the term sekha-sãla,
which he explains as the observance of precepts in order to become a
sekha. See also Hardy’s note on àdibrahmacariya-sila, 1.1.p.492.

148. Chap. 37 is exactly identical with chap.
36. 2-15, but for the sixth case, which, throughout chap. 37, is added
each time at the end of the five cases given in chap. 36, when he has
not completed the tenth year (after his upasampadà);’ and respectively,
`when he has completed ten years or more than ten years (after his
upasampadà).’

149. It should be, `fourteen times.’

150. See chap. 31, sect. 6.

151.

 Translated by I. B. Horner as `nuns’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

152. Compare chap. 48.

153. Jãvaka was physician to King Bimbisàra and
one of the chief partisans of Buddha at the court of Ràjagaha. See viii,
1, the introduction of the Sàma¤¤aphala Sutta,
&c.

154. On uccinatha, compare the use of
ucchecchàmi at Mahàparinibbàna Sutta I, 1 (p. 1), which Buddhaghosa
rightly explains by ucchindissàmi. But we think it better to adhere here
to the reading uccinatha, in accordance with the MSS.

155. The robber Aïgulimàla (i.e. he who wears a
necklace of fingers), whose original name was Ahiüsaka, had received
this surname from his habit of cutting of the fingers of his victims and
wearing them as a necklace. See Spence Hardy, Manual. 249 seq.

156. Buddhaghosa explains kammàrabhaõóu by
tulàtaramuõóako (read tulàdhàram.) suvaõõakàraputto. At Dhammapada, v.
239, Kmart is said of a silversmith. There was probably no distinction
in these early times between gold, silver, copper, and iron smiths;, the
same man being an artificer in all kinds of metal.

157. This Upàli is different from the famous
Upàli who belonged to the chief disciples of Buddha; the latter came not
from Ràjagaha, but from the Sakya country.

158. Buddhaghosa: ` he who learns arithmetic, must think much; therefore his breast will become diseased.’

159. We prefer this translation of råpa to
translating it by ` painting,’ on account of Buddhaghosa’s note : ` he
who learns the råpa-sutta must turn over and over many kàrshàpaõas and
look at them.’

160. The law alluded to is the 65th pàcittiya
rule. Generally in the khandhakas which presuppose as we have stated in
our preface, the existence of the Pàtimokkha, direct repetition of the
rules laid down there has been avoided. If nevertheless, in the
khandhakas a transgression alluded to in the Pàtimokkha had to be
mentioned again, then in most cases the khandhakas, instead of directly
indicating the penance incurred thereby, use of the guilty bhikkhu the
expression, `yathàdhammo kàretabbo,’ i.e. he is to be treated according
to the law.’ see h 0.’s introduction to his edition of the Mahàvagga, p.
XX note.

161. Buddhaghosa explains ahivàtakaroga by
màribyàdhi, and says: `When this plague befalls a house, men and beasts
in that house die ; but he who breaks through wall or roof, or is “
rogà màdigato(?),” May be saved.’

162. This seems very unpractical and the rule is accordingly practically abrogated again by chapter 55.

163. We must leave `àhundarikà’ untranslated; Buddhaghosa says nothing about this obscure word.

164. See chap. 32. 1.

165. Supply these pentads and hexads, respectively, from chaps. 36. 6, 7; 8, 9; 14, 15 ; 16, 17; 37. 1, 2; 5, 6; 7, 8; 13, 14.

166. Abhayåvara means, `secure from anything.’ this refers to the expression used in chap. 42, sect. 2.

167. The Buddha’s former wife. This is, as far
as we know, the only passage in the Pàli Piñakas which mentions this
lady, and it deserves notice that her name is not mentioned. Probably
this name was unknown to the Buddhists in early times, and thus we may
best account for the difference of the simply invented names given to
this lady by later writers. Compare Rh. D. Buddhism, p. 5o seq.

168. Granting a boon is a constant phrase used of princes when making an open promise to give to any one whatever they should
ask. See, for instance, the Jàtaka story, no. 9, where the person to
whom the boon was given laid it by for a convenient season; and then
asked the king to make her son heir-apparent, in violation of all
ancient law and custom.

169. Nanda was a son of
Mahàpajapati, a half-brother of the Buddha. See the story of his
conversion in Rh. D.’s Buddhist Birth Stories, p. 128 (later and fuller
accounts can be seen in Hardy, Manual, p. 204 seq.; Beal, Romantic
Legend, p. 369 seq.)

170. See chap. 52.

171. Sikkhàpadàni, literally, ` paths of training.’ compare chap. 60.

172. Here first appear the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus
(the company of the six bhikkhus’, with their attendants), the constant
and indefatigable evil-doers throughout the whole Vinaya-Piñaka.
Buddhaghosa (on Cullavagga I, 1) says that Paõóuka and Lohitaka belonged
to this company, and also Assaji and Punabbasu are mentioned as
chabbaggiyas (see Childers s. V. chabbaggiyà).

173. The case of the novice’s committing sexual
intercourse with a bhikkhuni can have found its place here only by a
negligence of the redactor, as it is comprised already in the third of
the ten cases (the novice’s committing impurity). Buddhaghosa (who of
course never admits anything like an inadvertence of the holy theras by
whom the Vinaya is compiled) says that the third case and the tenth are
distinguished here, because a person that has simply committed an
impurity may receive the ordination, if he is willing to refrain himself
in future; whilst a bhikkhunãdåsaka cannot be ordained in any case (see
chap. 67).

174. Tena kho pana samayena
a¤¤atàro paõóako bhikkhåsu pabbajito hoti, so
dahare dahare bhikkhå upasaïkamitvà evaü vadeti: etha maü àyasmanto
dåsethà’ti. Bhikkhå apasàdenti: nassa paõóaka, vinassa paõóaka, ko tayà
attho’ti. So bhikkhåhi apasàdito mahante mahante moligalle (Buddhaghosa:
thålasarãre) samaõere upasaïkamitva evaü vadeti: etha maü àvuso
dåsethà’ti. Sàmaõerà apasàdenti: nassa paõóaka, vinassa paõóaka, ko tayà
attho’ti. So sàmaõerehi apasàdito hatthibhaõóe assabhaõóe upasaïkamitvà
evaü vadeti: etha maü àvuso dåsethà`ti. Hatthibhaõóà assabhaõóà
dåsesuü. Te ujjþàyanti khiyanti vipàcenti: paõóaka ime Samanà
Sakyaputtiyà, ye pi imesaü na paõóakà te pi paõóake dåsenti, evaü ime
sabbeva abrahmacàrino’ti. Assosuü kho bhikkhå hatthibhaõóànaü
assabhaõóànaü ujjïàyantànaü khiyantànaü, vipàcentànaü. Atha kho te
bhikkhå bhagavato etam attham àrocesuü.

175. I.e. not with the whole fraternity residing at that place, but with a part of it.

176. Whose fingers are grown together, like bats’ wings’(Buddhaghosa).

177. Buddhaghosa (Berlin MS.) Explains
chinniriyàpatha’ by pidhasappi.’ we ought to read, no doubt piñþasappã,
which is Sanskrit pãthasarpin, a cripple who is in a wheel-chair.

178. See chap. 49. 6.

179. Here follows the usual complete formula of a ¤atticatuttha kamma; see chaps. 28. 4-6; 29. 3, &c.

180. With these sections compare the previous
chapters 12, 28 and following, 36 and following. The ¤attis
prescribed in this chapter, together with the Three Refuges formula
prescribed in chap. 12, sect. 4,the whole of chapter 77, and the four
interdictions form together the current ceremony of ordination (the
upasampadà-kamma-vàcà) as now still in use in the order. , see the
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, VII, p. 1.

181. I.e. according to Buddhaghosa, repeat to
him all the data specified before together, in order that he might be
able to give a correct answer when asked about his spiritual age.

182. The vimokkhas (literally, deliverances) are
eight stages of meditation different from the four jhànas. The
characteristics of the different vimokkhas are specified by Childers
s.v.

183. This temporary expulsion (ukkhepaniyakamma)
which is pronounced against bhikkhus who refuse to see an offence
committed by them selves (àpattiyà adassane), or to atone for such an
offence (àpattiyà appañikamme), or to renounce a false doctrine
(pàpikàya diññhiyà appañinissagge), must be distinguished from the
definitive and permanent expulsion (nàsanà) which is pronounced against
bhikkhus who have committed a pàràjika offence, or in cases like those
treated of in chapters 61 seq.

184. I.e. The sentence of expulsion is abolished; compare the Samanta Pàsàdikà, ap. Minayeff, Pràtimoksha, p. 92.

185. As in sects.1, 2. Instead of ` will you see
that offence?’ and, `I will see it,’ read here: `will you atone for
that offence?’ And, `I will atone for it.’

186. As above. Read here: ` will you renounce that false Doctrine?’ and, ` I will renounce it.’

187. Here follow some úlokas, probably written
in Ceylon, and an elaborate table of contents, both of which we leave
untranslated. The úlokas are introductory to the table of contents
(uddàna) and belong to it. A similar table of contents is found in the
MSS. Nearly after all the other khandhakas.







  • SUFFERINGS OF SARVA SAMAJ


    Day after elections: Power tariff hike gives first shock

    BANGALORE: Power bill is set to shock you this time. The Karnataka Electricity Regulatory Commission (KERC) on Monday announced a tariff hike
    of up to 20 paise per unit for domestic consumers and 24 paise per unit
    for commercial and industrial consumers across the state.

    The
    new rates are effective from May 1. The average hike works to about 23
    paise per unit. Electricity supply companies (Escoms) had demanded a
    hike of 70 paise per unit for all consumers, barring irrigation pump-set
    users , Bhagya Jyothi and Kuteera Jyothi beneficiaries.

    For
    domestic consumers, the hike for the first 100 units is 20 paise per
    unit and and 15 paise per unit after that. For residential apartments
    under the high-tension category, the new tariff will be Rs 4.90 per
    unit, up from Rs 4.70.

    Hike harsher as electricity usage goes up

    A Bangalorean paying a monthly power bill of Rs 400 will now cough up
    nearly Rs 450 from May. The increase is higher as the bill amount goes
    up.

    According to the new tariff structure, domestic consumers
    in Bangalore city will have to pay for the first 30 units Rs2.50 per
    unit as against the earlier Rs 2.30 and Rs 3.70 per unit as against Rs
    3.50 for next 70 units. The new tariff for the next slab of 100 units
    will be Rs 4.85 per unit. Beyond 200 units, the tariff will be Rs 5.85
    per unit. In Bangalore Rural jurisdiction and the outlying areas of the
    city, the new tariff will be Rs2.40 per unit for the first 30 units,
    Rs3.40 per unit for the next 70 units, Rs4.55 per unit between 100 and
    200 units and Rs5.35 per unit beyond 200 units. KERC
    tried to sugarcoat the tariff hike by claiming that the Escoms will
    guarantee consumers 24 hours of uninterrupted power supply in the city
    and 22 hours in towns.

    The tariff hike announcement was delayed
    as the KERC was directed by the chief electoral officer, Karnataka not
    to announce the new tariff order when the assembly poll code of conduct
    was in place.

    The KERC said there are 158 lakh domestic
    consumers across state, of which 134.5 lakh are not beneficiaries of any
    subsidy schemes.






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