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05/08/13
914 LESSON 09-05-2013 THURSDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Mahavagga 40 Vassåpanàyikakkhandhakaü. Pali English Sinhala The Election Commission will meet all recognised political parties on May 10 to seek their consent for the new voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered. Appearing for the Centre, Attorney General GE Vahanvati informed a Bench of Justices P Sathasivam and Ranjan Gogoi that the process of amendment was “underway”. In response to a letter written by EC on March 28, 2013, the Legislative Department of the Law Ministry had begun the work of preparing amendments to the Rules, which would be placed before the Parliament. The Bench exclaimed, “We are happy that it has finally materialised. Now what remains is when we are to implement it.” All parties were in support of introducing the VVPT machines. 274531 + 85691 = 360222 Awakened Voters with awareness voted in the concluded Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 aware of the above fact. They will in turn educate the masses on the importance of VVPT along with its Open Source Code to clear doubts that it could be tampered.
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 4:31 pm

914 LESSON 09-05-2013 THURSDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Mahavagga

 40

 Vassåpanàyikakkhandhakaü.

  Pali

 English

 Sinhala









The Election
Commission will meet all recognised political parties on May 10 to seek
their consent for the new voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines
to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.

Appearing for the Centre, Attorney General GE Vahanvati informed a
Bench of Justices P Sathasivam and Ranjan Gogoi that the process of
amendment was “underway”. In response to a letter written by EC on March
28, 2013, the Legislative Department of the Law Ministry had begun the
work of preparing amendments to the Rules, which would be placed before
the Parliament.

The Bench exclaimed, “We are happy that it has finally materialised.
Now what remains is when we are to implement it.” All parties were in support of
introducing the VVPT machines.

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Recommended Resources


Third Khandhaka


(Residence During the Rainy Season, Vassa.)

1.

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Ràjagaha, in the Veluvana, in the Kalandakanivàpa (1).
At that time the retreat during the rainy season had not yet been
instituted by the Blessed One for the bhikkhus. Thus the bhikkhus went
on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season.


2. People were annoyed, murmured, and
became angry, saying, `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their
travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season? They crush
the green herbs, they hurt vegetable life
(2),
they destroy the life of many small living things. Shall the ascetics
who belong to titthiya schools, whose Doctrine is ill preached, retire
during the rainy season and arrange places for themselves to live in
(3)?
Shall the birds make their nests on the summits of the trees, and
retire during [\q 299/] the rainy season, and arrange themselves places
to live in; and yet the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their travels alike
during winter, summer, and the rainy season, crushing the green herbs,
hunting vegetable life, and destroying the life of many small things?’

3. Now some bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry.

These bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus:

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you enter upon vassa (4).’

______________________

2.

1. Now the bhikkhus thought: `When are we to enter upon vassa?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you enter upon vassa in the rainy season.’

2. Then the bhikkhus thought: `How many periods are there for entering upon vassa

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are two periods, O bhikkhus,
for entering upon vassa, the earlier and the later. The earlier time for
entering (upon vassa) is the day after the [\q 300/] full moon of
Asàlha (June-July); the later, a month after the full moon of Asàlha
(5). These, O bhikkhus, are the two periods for entering upon vassa.’

______________________

3.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, having entered upon vassa,
went on their travels during the period of vassa. People were annoyed,
murmured, and became angry (saying), `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas
go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season
(&c., as in chap.1.2, down to:) and destroy the life of many small
living things?’

2. Now some bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured,
and had become angry. The moderate bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and
became angry (saying), `How can the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, having entered
upon vassa, go on their travels during the period of vassa?’

These bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 301/]

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One after
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, who has entered upon vassa, go on his
travels before he has kept vassa during the earlier or during the later
three months. He who does so, commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________

4.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus were not willing to enter upon vassa.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, forbear to enter upon vassa. He who does not enter upon vassa, commits a dukkaña offence.’

2. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, who were not willing to
enter upon vassa on the prescribed day, purposely left the district
(where they were living).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, purposely leave the district (where he is
living), because he is not willing to enter upon vassa on the prescribed
day. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

3. At that time the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra, who wished that
the vassa period might be postponed, sent a messenger to the bhikkhus:
`What if their reverences were to enter upon vassa on the next full moon
day?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you obey kings.’

______________________


[\q 302/]

5.

1. And the Blessed One, after having resided at Ràjagaha as long as
He thought fit, went forth to Sàvatthi. Wandering from place to place He
came to Sàvatthi. There, at Sàvatthi, the Blessed One dwelt in the
Jetavana, the garden of Anàthapindika.

At that time an upàsaka (lay devotee) named Udena, in the Kosala
country, had a vihàra built for the saïgha. He sent a messenger to the
bhikkhus (saying), `Might their reverences come hither; I desire to
bestow gifts (on the saïgha) and to hear the Dhamma and to see the
bhikkhus.’

2. The bhikkhus replied: `The Blessed One has prescribed, friend,
that no one who has entered upon vassa, may go on a journey before he
has kept vassa during the earlier or during the later three months. Let
the upàsaka Udena wait so long as the bhikkhus keep their vassa
residence; when they have finished vassa, they will go. But if there is
any urgent necessity, let him dedicate the vihàra in presence of the
bhikkhus who reside there.’

3. The upàsaka Udena was annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can their reverences, when I send for them, refuse to
come? I am a giver and a doer (of good works), and do service to the
fraternity.’ Some bhikkhus heard the upàsaka Udena, who was annoyed,
&c. These bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

4. In consequence of that the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus:

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go (even
during [\q 303/] the rainy season), if the affair for which you go can
be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, but not if you
are not sent for, by a person of one of the following seven classes:
bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, sikkhamànàs
(6),
sàmaneras, sàmaneris, lay devotees, female lay devotees. I allow you, O
bhikkhus, to go, if the thing (you go for) can be accomplished in seven
days, and if you are sent for, but not if you are not sent for, by a
person of one of these seven classes. Within seven days you ought to
return.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built a vihàra for the
saïgha. If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (saying), “Might their
reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts (on them) and to hear
the Dhamma and to see the bhikkhus,” you ought to go, O bhikkhus, if the
affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, and if he
sends for you, but not if he does not send for you. Within seven days
you ought to return.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built for the saïgha an addhayoga (7),
has built a storied house, has built an attic, has constructed a cave, a
cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a warehouse
(8), a privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantàghara (9), a gantàghara room (10),
a lotus-pond, a pavilion,, a park; or [\q 304/] has prepared the site
for a park. If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (&c., as in down
to the end of the section).

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built for a number of
bhikkhus an addhayoga . . . (as in sect.6 to the end of the section) . .
. or one bhikkhu a vihàra, an addhayoga, a storied house (&c., as
in sect.6 to the end).

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka
has built for the sisterhood of bhikkhunis, &c., for a number of
bhikkhunis, for one bhikkhuni, for a number of sikkhamànàs, for one
sikkhamànà, for a number of sàmaneras, for one sàmanera, for a number of
sàmaneris, for one sàmaneri, a vihàra &c.
(11) If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus &c.


9. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built for his own use a residence, a sleeping room, a stable (12) , a tower, a one-peaked building (13),
a shop, a boutique, a storied house, an attic, a cave, a cell, a
store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a kitchen, a privy, a place to
walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantàghara, a
gantàghara room, a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or has prepared the
site for a park; or that his son is to choose a consort; or that his
daughter is to choose a consort; or that he is sick; or that he knows
how [\q 305/] to recite a celebrated stunt. If he sends a messenger to
the bhikkhus (saying), “Might their reverences come and learn this
suttanta; otherwise this suttanta will fall into oblivion;” or if he has
any other business or any work to be done; and if he sends a messenger
to the bhikkhus (saying), “Might their reverences come hither” (&c.)
then you ought to go (&c., as in sect.5, down to:) you ought to
return.


10-12. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsikà has built a vihàra for the saïgha (&c., as in sects. 5-9 (14)).

13. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has built, &c., a bhikkhuni, a
sikkhamànà, a sàmanera, a sàmaneri has built for the saïgha, for a
number of bhikkhus, for one bhikkhu, for the sisterhood of bhikkhunis .
For one sàmaneri, for his own use, a vihàra (&c., as in sect.8).’

______________________

6.

At that time a certain bhikkhu was sick. He sent a messenger to the
bhikkhus (saying), `I am sick; might the bhikkhus come to me; I long for
the bhikkhus coming.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go (even during the rainy season), if
the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even if
you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a [\q 306/]
person of one of the following five classes: bhikkhus, `Bhikkhunis,
sikkhamànàs, sàmaneras, and sàmaneris. I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go,
if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even
if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person
of one of these five classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

2. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is sick. If he sends a messenger
to the bhikkhus (saying), “I am sick; might the bhikkhus come to me; I
long for the bhikkhus’ coming,” you ought to go, O bhikkhus, if the
thing can be accomplished in seven days, even if he had not sent for
you, much more when he has sent (saying to yourselves): “I will try to
get food for the sick, or food for the tender of the sick, or medicine
for the sick, or I will ask him (questions referring to the Dhamma), or
nurse him.” Within seven days you ought to return.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, inward struggles have befallen a bhikkhu. If
he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus : “Inward struggles have befallen
me; might the bhikkhus come to me; I long for the bhikkhus’ coming,” you
ought to go (&c., as in sect.2, down to): (saying to yourselves):
“I will try to appease those struggles, or cause them to be appeased (by
another), or compose him by religious conversation.” Within seven days
you ought to return.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu in whose mind doubts of conscience
have arisen sends (&c., as in sect.3, down to): (saying to
yourselves): “I will try to dispel those doubts, or cause [\q 307/] them
to be dispelled, or compose him by religious conversation.” Within
seven days you ought to return.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu takes to a false Doctrine. If he
sends (&c., down to): (saying to yourselves): “I will discuss that
false Doctrine, or cause another to discuss it, or compose (that
bhikkhu) by religious conversation.” Within seven days you ought to
return.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is guilty of a grave offence and
ought to be sentenced to parivàsa discipline. If he sends (&c., down
to): (saying to yourselves): “I will take care that he may be sentenced
to parivàsa discipline, or I will propose the resolution (to the
assembly), or I will help to complete the quorum (required for passing
the sentence of parivàsa).” Within seven days you ought to return.

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu ought to be sentenced to
recommence penal discipline. If he sends (&c., as in sect.6, down to
the end of the section).

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu ought to have the mànatta
discipline imposed upon him. If he sends (&c., as in sect.6, down to
the end of the section).

9. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu (having duly undergone penal
discipline) ought to be rehabilitated. If he sends (&c., as in
sect.6).

10. `In case, O bhikkhus, the saïgha is going to proceed against a
bhikkhu by the tajjaniyakarnma, or the nissaya, or the pabbàjaniya
kamma, or the patisàraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma. If that
bhikkhu sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (saying), “The saïgha [\q
308/] is going to proceed against me; might the bhikkhus come to me; I
long for the bhikkhus’ coming,” you ought to go (&c., as in sect.2,
down to): (saying to yourselves): “What can be done in order that the
saïgha may not proceed (against that bhikkhu) or may mitigate the
proceeding?” Within seven days you ought to return.

11. `Or the saïgha has instituted a proceeding against him, the
tajjaniyakamma (&c., down to): or the ukkhepaniyakamma; if he sends a
messenger to the bhikkhus: “The saïgha has instituted a proceeding
against me; might the bhikkhus come to me; I long for the bhikkhus’
coming,” you ought to go (&c., as in sect.3, down to): (saying to
yourselves): “What can be done in order that this bhikkhu may behave
himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance,
and that the saïgha may revoke its sentence?” Within seven days you
ought to return.

12-15. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni is sick, &c. (15)

16. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni is guilty of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to mànatta discipline (16).
If she sends . . . (as in sect.3, down to):(saying to yourselves): “I
will take care that she may be sentenced to mànatta discipline
(17).” Within seven days you ought to return. [\q 309/]

17. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni ought to be sentenced to recommence penal discipline (&c., as in sect.7).

18. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni who is to be rehabilitated (&c., as in sect.9).

19. `In case, O bhikkhus, the saïgha is going to proceed against a bhikkhuni by the tajjaniyakamma (&c., as in sect.10).

20. `Or the saïgha has instituted a proceeding against her (&c., as in sect.11).

21, 22. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sikkhamànà is sick (&c., see sects. 2-5).

`In case, O bhikkhus, a sikkhamànàhas violated (18)
the precepts (in which she is trained). If she sends (&c., as in
sect.3, down to): (saying to yourselves): “I will take care that she may
take upon herself the precepts, (again).” Within seven days you ought
to return.

23. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sikkhamànà desires to receive the
upasampadà ordination. If she sends, &c. you ought to go (saying to
yourselves): “I will take care that she may receive the upasampadà
ordination, or I will proclaim the formula (of ordination before the
assembly), or I will help to complete the quorum.” Within seven days you
ought to return.

24, 25. `In case, O bhikkhus, a
sàmanera is sick (&c., as in sects. 2-5) a sàmanera desires [\q
310/] to ask concerning vassa
(19). If he sends . . . . (saying to yourselves): “I will ask him or I will tell it to him.” Within seven days you ought to return.

26. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sàmanera who desires to receive the upasampadà ordination (&c., see sect.23).

27, 28. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sàmaneri is sick (&c., see sects. 24-25).

29. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sàmaneri desires to take upon herself the
precepts. If she sends &c., you should go (saying to yourselves):
“I will take care that she may take upon herself the precepts.” Within
seven days you ought to return.’

______________________

7.

1. At that time the mother of a bhikkhu was sick. She sent a
messenger to her son (saying), `I am sick; might my son come to me; I
long for my son’s coming.’ Now that bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One
has allowed (a bhikkhu) to go, if the affair for, which he goes can be
accomplished within seven days, and if he is sent for, but not if he is
not sent for, by a person of any one of the seven classes; (and he has
also allowed to go), if the thing he goes for can be accomplished within
seven days, even if he is not sent for, and much more if he is sent
for, by a person of any one of the five classes. Now my mother is sick;
she is not a lay-devotee (upàsikà). What am I, therefore, to do.?’ [\q
311/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go (even during the rainy season), if
the thing you go for can be accomplished within seven days, even if you
are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of any
one of the following seven classes: bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, sikkhamànàs,
sàmaneras, sàmaneris, the mother, and the father. I allow your O
bhikkhus, to go, if the thing you go for can be accomplished within
seven days, even if you are not sent for and much more if you are sent
for by a person of any one of these seven classes. Within seven days you
ought to return.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s mother is sick. If she sends a
messenger to her son (saying), “I am sick; might my son come to me; I
long for my son’s coming (&c., See chap.6.2).”

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s father is sick (&c., as in sect.3).

5, `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s brother is sick. If he sends a
messenger to his brother (saying), “I am sick; might my brother come to
me; I long for my brother’s coming,” he ought to go, O bhikkhus, if the
affair can be accomplished within seven days, and if he sends for him,
but not if he does not send for him. Within seven days he ought to
return.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s sister is sick (&c., see sect.5).

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a relation of a bhikkhu is sick. If he sends
a messenger to that bhikkhu (saying), “I am sick; might his reverence
come to me”(&c., as in sect.5).

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, a person that used to [\q 312/] live with the bhikkhus (20) is sick. If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (saying), “I am sick; might the bhikkhus come to me” ( &c, as in sect.5).’

______________________

8.

At that time a vihàra belonging to the saïgha went to ruin. A certain
upàsaka had a quantity of wood cut in the forest. He sent a messenger
to the bhikkhus (saying), `If their reverences will fetch that wood, I
will give it to them.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go out on the saïgha’s business. Within seven days you ought to return.’

End of the First Bhànavàra About the Vassa

Residence.

______________________

9.

1. At that time the bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala country who had entered upon vassa, were troubled (21) by beasts of prey; the beasts carried them off and killed them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa are
troubled by beasts of prey, and the beasts carry them off and kill them :
this is [\q 313/] to be considered as a case of danger, and they ought
to leave that residence. They are not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are
infested by snakes; they bite them and kill them. This is to be
considered as a case of danger (&c., as in sect.1, down to) vassa.

2. `In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa,
are troubled by robbers; the robbers plunder them and beat them. This is
to be considered (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are
troubled by demons the demons enter into them and take their power from
them. This is to be considered (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, the village near which the bhikkhus have
entered upon vassa, is destroyed by fire; the bhikkhus suffer from want
of food. This is to be considered (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the places of rest of the bhikkhus who have
entered upon vassa, are destroyed by fire; the bhikkhus suffer from
having no place of rest. This is to be considered (&c., as in
sect.1) vassa.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, the village near which the bhikkhus have
entered upon vassa, is destroyed by water; the bhikkhus suffer from want
of food (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the places of rest of the bhikkhus who have
entered upon vassa, are destroyed by water; the bhikkhus suffer from
having no place of rest (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.’

______________________

[\q 314/]

10.

At that time the village near which the bhikkhus of a certain
district had entered upon vassa, was transferred to another place
through (fear of) robbers.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you go where the village is.’

The village (people) divided themselves in two parts.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you go where the greater part is.’

The greater part were unbelieving, unconverted people.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you go where the believing, converted people are.’

______________________

11.

1. At that time the bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala
country who had entered upon vassa, could get (there) neither coarse nor
fine food sufficiently as required.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, can
get neither coarse nor fine food sufficiently as required. This is to be
considered as a case of danger, and they ought to leave that residence.
They are not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, get
food coarse or fine sufficiently [\q 315/] as required, but they cannot
get sustaining food. This is to be considered (&c., as in sect.1)
vassa.

2. `In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa,
get food coarse or fine sufficiently as required, they get sustaining
food, but they cannot get proper medicine. This is to be considered
(&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus (&c., as sect.1, down to)
sustaining food, and they can get profitable medicine, but they cannot
find suitable laymen to do service to them. This is to be considered
(&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, to a bhikkhu
who has entered upon vassa, a woman makes an offer (in these words):
“Come, Venerable Sir, I give you gold, or I give you bullion
(22),
or I give you a field, or I give you a site (for a house or a garden),
or I give you an ox, or I give you a cow, or I give you a slave, or I
give you a female slave, or I give you my daughter as your wife, or I
will be your wife, or I get another wife for you.” In that case, if the
bhikkhu thinks: “The Blessed One has said that the mind of men is easily
changeable; danger might arise to the purity of my life.,” he ought to
go away from that place. He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, to a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, a
harlot makes an offer, &d., An adult girl makes an offer, &c., a
eunuch makes an offer, &c., relations make an offer, &c., kings
make [\q 316/] an offer, &c., robbers make an offer, &c.,
rascals make an offer (in these words): “Come., Venerable Sir, we give
you gold (&c., down to) or we give you our daughter as your wife, or
we get another wife for you.” In that case (&c., as in sect.3, down
to) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, finds an
ownerless treasure. In that case (&c., as in sect.3, down to) vassa.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, sees a
number of bhikkhus who strive to cause divisions in the saïgha. In that
case, if that bhikkhu thinks: “The Blessed One has said that it is a
grievous sin to cause divisions in the saïgha; may no division arise in
the saïgha in my presence,” let him go away. He is not guilty of
interruption of vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears: “A
number of bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the saïgha.” In
that case (&c., as in sect.5, down to) vassa.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears:
“In such and such a district a number of bhikkhus are striving to cause
divisions in the saïgha.” If that bhikkhu thinks: “Those bhikkhus are
friends of mine; I will say to them: `The Blessed One, my friends, has
said that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the saïgha; let not
divisions in the saïgha please you, Sirs;’ then they will do what I
say, they will obey me and give ear,” in that case let him go (to that
place). He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa,’
hears: “In such and such a [\q 317/] district a number of bhikkhus are
striving to cause divisions in the, saïgha.” If that bhikkhu thinks:
“Those bhikkhus are not friends of mine, but their friends are friends
of mine; to these I will say, and they will say to their friends: `The
Blessed One (&c., as in sect.6, down to) vassa.

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears:
“In such and such a district divisions in the saïgha have been caused
by a number of bhikkhus.” If that bhikkhu (&c., as in sect.6, down
to) vassa.

9. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears:
“In such and such a district divisions in the saïgha have been caused
by a number of bhikkhus.” If that bhikkhu (&c., as in sect.7) vassa.

10-13. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
who has entered upon vassa, hears “In such and such a district a number
of bhikkhunis strive to cause divisions in the saïgha (&c.
(23))”‘

______________________

12.

1. At that time a bhikkhu desired to enter upon vassa in a cattle-pen.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a cattle-pen.’

The cattle-pen was moved from its place. [\q 318/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go with the cattle-pen.’

2. At that time a bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon vassa approached, desired to go on a journey with a caravan.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a caravan.’

At that time a bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon vassa approached, desired to go on a journey in a ship.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a ship.’

3. At that time some bhikkhus entered
upon vassa in a hollow tree. People were annoyed, murmured, and became
angry: `(These bhikkhus behave) like goblins
(24).’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa in a hollow tree. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

4. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa on a branch of a
tree. People were annoyed, &c.: `(These bhikkhus behave) like
huntsmen.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa on a branch of a tree. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

5. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa in the open air.
When it began to rain, [\q 319/] they ran up to the foot of a tree, or
to the hollow of a nimba tree.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa in the open air. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence:

6. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa without having a place of rest. They suffered from coldness and heat.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa without having a place of rest. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

7. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa in a house for
keeping dead bodies in. People were annoyed, &c.: `(These bhikkhus
are) like those who burn corpses.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

8. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa under a sun-shade. People were annoyed, &c.: `Like cowherds.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa under a sun-shade. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

9. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa under an earthenware vessel. People were annoyed, &c.: `Like titthiyas.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa under an earthenware vessel. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

_______________________

[\q 320/]

13.

1. At that time the saïgha at Sàvatthi
had made an agreement that nobody should receive the pabbajjà
ordination during the rainy season. A grandson of Visàkhà Migàramàtà
(25)
went to the bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjà ordination. The
bhikkhus said to him: `The saïgha, friend, has made an agreement that
nobody shall receive the pabbajjà ordination during the rainy season.
Wait, friend, as long as the bhikkhus keep vassa; when they have
concluded the vassa residence, they will confer on you the pabbajjà
ordination.’

When those bhikkhus had concluded the vassa residence, they said to
the grandson of Visàkhà Migàramàtà: `Come now, friend, you may receive
the pabbajjà ordination.’ He replied: `If I had received the pabbajjà
ordination before, Reverend Sirs, I should remain (in the religious
life), but now, Reverend Sirs, I will not receive the pabbajjà
ordination.’

2. Visàkhà Migàramàtà was annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can the noble ones make such an agreement that nobody
shall receive the pabbajjà ordination during the rainy season? At what
time ought the duties of the Dhamma not to be performed?’

Some bhikkhus heard Visàkhà Migàramàtà, who was annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. [\q 321/]

Those bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

`Such an agreement, O bhikkhus, ought not to be made — that nobody
shall receive the pabbajjà ordination during the rainy season. He who
makes (an agreement like this), commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________

14.

1. At that time the Venerable Upananda
Sakyaputta had promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala to take up his vassa
residence (with him) at the earlier period
(26).
When he was going to the district (where he had consented to go to), he
saw on his way two districts in which there were plenty of robes, and
he thought: `What if I were to keep vassa in these two districts; thus
shall I obtain many robes.’ And he kept vassa in those two districts.

King Pasenadi of Kosala was annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can the noble Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised
us to take up his vassa residence (with us), break his word? Has not
falsehood been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by
the Blessed One in many ways?’

2. Some bhikkhus heard King Pasenadi of Kosala, who was annoyed,
&c. The moderate bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can the Venerable Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has
promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala, &c.? Has not falsehood
(&c., as in sect.1)?’

Those bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. [\q 322/]

In consequence of that, the Blessed One, after having ordered the
fraternity of bhikkhus to assemble, asked the Venerable Upananda
Sakyaputta: `Is it true, Upananda, that you have broken your word,
having promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala to take up your vassa
residence (with him)?’

`It is true, Lord’

Then the Blessed Buddha rebuked him: `How can you, O foolish one,
break your word, having promised, &c.? Has not falsehood, O foolish
one, been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by me in
many ways? This will not do, O foolish one, for converting the
unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted, but it will
result, O foolish one, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the
faith) and many of the converted being estranged.’

Having reproved him and delivered a religious discourse He thus addressed the bhikkhus:

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to
take up his vassa residence (with him) at the earlier period, and when
he goes to that district, he sees on his way two districts in which
there are plenty of robes, and he thinks: “What if I were to keep vassa
in these two districts ; thus shall I obtain many robes;” and he keeps
vassa in those two districts. This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa), O
bhikkhus, (at the) earlier period is not valid, and as to his promise he
has committed a dukkaña offence.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to
take up his vassa residence with him) at the earlier period, and when
going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside (on the last [\q 323/]
day of the half month), and on the first day (of the next half month)
he goes to the vihàra, prepares himself a place of rest, gets (water to)
drink and food, sweeps the cell, and goes away that same day without
having any business. This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa) (&c., as
in sect.4, down to) offence.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (&c., as in the
preceding case, down to:) and goes away that same day having business.
This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa) (&c., as in sect.4, down to)
offence.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised, &c., and having
resided there two or three days, he goes away without having any
business, &c.; he goes away having business. This bhikkhu’s
(entering upon vassa)(&c., as in sect.4, down to) offence.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has
promised, &c., And having resided there two or three days, he goes
away having a business which can be accomplished within seven days
(27); he is absent above those seven days. This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa)(&c., as in sect.4, down to) offence.

`In case, O bhikkhus, &c., he returns within those seven days.
This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa), O bhikkhus, (at the) earlier
period is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no offence.

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised, ,&c., and goes away seven days before the pavàranà (28)
having business. No matter, O bhikkhus, whether that bhikkhu comes back
to that district or [\q 324/] does not come back, this bhikkhu’s
entering, &c., is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no
offence.


8-10. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
has promised, &c., and having gone to that district, he holds
Uposatha there (on the last day of the half month), and on the first day
(of the next half month) he goes to the vihàra, &c.
(29)

11. `In case, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to take up his
vassa residence (with him) at the later period, and when going to that
district, he holds Uposatha outside, &c.
(30)

______________________

End of the Third Khandhaka, Which Treats of

Entering Upon Vassa.

======================

[\q 298/]


Third Khandhaka.


(Residence During the Rainy Season, Vassa.)

1.

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Ràjagaha, in the Veluvana, in the Kalandakanivàpa (31).
At that time the retreat during the rainy season had not yet been
instituted by the Blessed One for the bhikkhus. Thus the bhikkhus went
on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season.


2. People were annoyed, murmured, and
became angry, saying, `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their
travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season? They crush
the green herbs, they hurt vegetable life
(32),
they destroy the life of many small living things. Shall the ascetics
who belong to titthiya schools, whose Doctrine is ill preached, retire
during the rainy season and arrange places for themselves to live in
(33)?
Shall the birds make their nests on the summits of the trees, and
retire during [\q 299/] the rainy season, and arrange themselves places
to live in; and yet the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their travels alike
during winter, summer, and the rainy season, crushing the green herbs,
hunting vegetable life, and destroying the life of many small things?’

3. Now some bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry.

These bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus:

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you enter upon vassa (34).’

______________________

2.

1. Now the bhikkhus thought: `When are we to enter upon vassa?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you enter upon vassa in the rainy season.’

2. Then the bhikkhus thought: `How many periods are there for entering upon vassa

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are two periods, O bhikkhus,
for entering upon vassa, the earlier and the later. The earlier time for
entering (upon vassa) is the day after the [\q 300/] full moon of
Asàlha (June-July); the later, a month after the full moon of Asàlha
(35). These, O bhikkhus, are the two periods for entering upon vassa.’

______________________

3.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, having entered upon vassa,
went on their travels during the period of vassa. People were annoyed,
murmured, and became angry (saying), `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas
go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season
(&c., as in chap.1.2, down to:) and destroy the life of many small
living things?’

2. Now some bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured,
and had become angry. The moderate bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and
became angry (saying), `How can the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, having entered
upon vassa, go on their travels during the period of vassa?’

These bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 301/]

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One after
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, who has entered upon vassa, go on his
travels before he has kept vassa during the earlier or during the later
three months. He who does so, commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________

4.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus were not willing to enter upon vassa.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, forbear to enter upon vassa. He who does not enter upon vassa, commits a dukkaña offence.’

2. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, who were not willing to
enter upon vassa on the prescribed day, purposely left the district
(where they were living).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, purposely leave the district (where he is
living), because he is not willing to enter upon vassa on the prescribed
day. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

3. At that time the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra, who wished that
the vassa period might be postponed, sent a messenger to the bhikkhus:
`What if their reverences were to enter upon vassa on the next full moon
day?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you obey kings.’

______________________


[\q 302/]

5.

1. And the Blessed One, after having resided at Ràjagaha as long as
He thought fit, went forth to Sàvatthi. Wandering from place to place He
came to Sàvatthi. There, at Sàvatthi, the Blessed One dwelt in the
Jetavana, the garden of Anàthapindika.

At that time an upàsaka (lay devotee) named Udena, in the Kosala
country, had a vihàra built for the saïgha. He sent a messenger to the
bhikkhus (saying), `Might their reverences come hither; I desire to
bestow gifts (on the saïgha) and to hear the Dhamma and to see the
bhikkhus.’

2. The bhikkhus replied: `The Blessed One has prescribed, friend,
that no one who has entered upon vassa, may go on a journey before he
has kept vassa during the earlier or during the later three months. Let
the upàsaka Udena wait so long as the bhikkhus keep their vassa
residence; when they have finished vassa, they will go. But if there is
any urgent necessity, let him dedicate the vihàra in presence of the
bhikkhus who reside there.’

3. The upàsaka Udena was annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can their reverences, when I send for them, refuse to
come? I am a giver and a doer (of good works), and do service to the
fraternity.’ Some bhikkhus heard the upàsaka Udena, who was annoyed,
&c. These bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

4. In consequence of that the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus:

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go (even
during [\q 303/] the rainy season), if the affair for which you go can
be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, but not if you
are not sent for, by a person of one of the following seven classes:
bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, sikkhamànàs
(36),
sàmaneras, sàmaneris, lay devotees, female lay devotees. I allow you, O
bhikkhus, to go, if the thing (you go for) can be accomplished in seven
days, and if you are sent for, but not if you are not sent for, by a
person of one of these seven classes. Within seven days you ought to
return.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built a vihàra for the
saïgha. If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (saying), “Might their
reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts (on them) and to hear
the Dhamma and to see the bhikkhus,” you ought to go, O bhikkhus, if the
affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, and if he
sends for you, but not if he does not send for you. Within seven days
you ought to return.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built for the saïgha an addhayoga (37),
has built a storied house, has built an attic, has constructed a cave, a
cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a warehouse
(38), a privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantàghara (39), a gantàghara room (40),
a lotus-pond, a pavilion,, a park; or [\q 304/] has prepared the site
for a park. If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (&c., as in down
to the end of the section).

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built for a number of
bhikkhus an addhayoga . . . (as in sect.6 to the end of the section) . .
. or one bhikkhu a vihàra, an addhayoga, a storied house (&c., as
in sect.6 to the end).

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka
has built for the sisterhood of bhikkhunis, &c., for a number of
bhikkhunis, for one bhikkhuni, for a number of sikkhamànàs, for one
sikkhamànà, for a number of sàmaneras, for one sàmanera, for a number of
sàmaneris, for one sàmaneri, a vihàra &c.
(41) If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus &c.


9. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsaka has built for his own use a residence, a sleeping room, a stable (42) , a tower, a one-peaked building (43),
a shop, a boutique, a storied house, an attic, a cave, a cell, a
store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a kitchen, a privy, a place to
walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantàghara, a
gantàghara room, a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or has prepared the
site for a park; or that his son is to choose a consort; or that his
daughter is to choose a consort; or that he is sick; or that he knows
how [\q 305/] to recite a celebrated stunt. If he sends a messenger to
the bhikkhus (saying), “Might their reverences come and learn this
suttanta; otherwise this suttanta will fall into oblivion;” or if he has
any other business or any work to be done; and if he sends a messenger
to the bhikkhus (saying), “Might their reverences come hither” (&c.)
then you ought to go (&c., as in sect.5, down to:) you ought to
return.


10-12. `In case, O bhikkhus, an upàsikà has built a vihàra for the saïgha (&c., as in sects. 5-9 (44)).

13. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has built, &c., a bhikkhuni, a
sikkhamànà, a sàmanera, a sàmaneri has built for the saïgha, for a
number of bhikkhus, for one bhikkhu, for the sisterhood of bhikkhunis .
For one sàmaneri, for his own use, a vihàra (&c., as in sect.8).’

______________________

6.

At that time a certain bhikkhu was sick. He sent a messenger to the
bhikkhus (saying), `I am sick; might the bhikkhus come to me; I long for
the bhikkhus coming.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go (even during the rainy season), if
the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even if
you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a [\q 306/]
person of one of the following five classes: bhikkhus, `Bhikkhunis,
sikkhamànàs, sàmaneras, and sàmaneris. I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go,
if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even
if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person
of one of these five classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

2. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is sick. If he sends a messenger
to the bhikkhus (saying), “I am sick; might the bhikkhus come to me; I
long for the bhikkhus’ coming,” you ought to go, O bhikkhus, if the
thing can be accomplished in seven days, even if he had not sent for
you, much more when he has sent (saying to yourselves): “I will try to
get food for the sick, or food for the tender of the sick, or medicine
for the sick, or I will ask him (questions referring to the Dhamma), or
nurse him.” Within seven days you ought to return.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, inward struggles have befallen a bhikkhu. If
he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus : “Inward struggles have befallen
me; might the bhikkhus come to me; I long for the bhikkhus’ coming,” you
ought to go (&c., as in sect.2, down to): (saying to yourselves):
“I will try to appease those struggles, or cause them to be appeased (by
another), or compose him by religious conversation.” Within seven days
you ought to return.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu in whose mind doubts of conscience
have arisen sends (&c., as in sect.3, down to): (saying to
yourselves): “I will try to dispel those doubts, or cause [\q 307/] them
to be dispelled, or compose him by religious conversation.” Within
seven days you ought to return.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu takes to a false Doctrine. If he
sends (&c., down to): (saying to yourselves): “I will discuss that
false Doctrine, or cause another to discuss it, or compose (that
bhikkhu) by religious conversation.” Within seven days you ought to
return.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is guilty of a grave offence and
ought to be sentenced to parivàsa discipline. If he sends (&c., down
to): (saying to yourselves): “I will take care that he may be sentenced
to parivàsa discipline, or I will propose the resolution (to the
assembly), or I will help to complete the quorum (required for passing
the sentence of parivàsa).” Within seven days you ought to return.

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu ought to be sentenced to
recommence penal discipline. If he sends (&c., as in sect.6, down to
the end of the section).

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu ought to have the mànatta
discipline imposed upon him. If he sends (&c., as in sect.6, down to
the end of the section).

9. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu (having duly undergone penal
discipline) ought to be rehabilitated. If he sends (&c., as in
sect.6).

10. `In case, O bhikkhus, the saïgha is going to proceed against a
bhikkhu by the tajjaniyakarnma, or the nissaya, or the pabbàjaniya
kamma, or the patisàraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma. If that
bhikkhu sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (saying), “The saïgha [\q
308/] is going to proceed against me; might the bhikkhus come to me; I
long for the bhikkhus’ coming,” you ought to go (&c., as in sect.2,
down to): (saying to yourselves): “What can be done in order that the
saïgha may not proceed (against that bhikkhu) or may mitigate the
proceeding?” Within seven days you ought to return.

11. `Or the saïgha has instituted a proceeding against him, the
tajjaniyakamma (&c., down to): or the ukkhepaniyakamma; if he sends a
messenger to the bhikkhus: “The saïgha has instituted a proceeding
against me; might the bhikkhus come to me; I long for the bhikkhus’
coming,” you ought to go (&c., as in sect.3, down to): (saying to
yourselves): “What can be done in order that this bhikkhu may behave
himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance,
and that the saïgha may revoke its sentence?” Within seven days you
ought to return.

12-15. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni is sick, &c. (45)

16. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni is guilty of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to mànatta discipline (46).
If she sends . . . (as in sect.3, down to):(saying to yourselves): “I
will take care that she may be sentenced to mànatta discipline
(47).” Within seven days you ought to return. [\q 309/]

17. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni ought to be sentenced to recommence penal discipline (&c., as in sect.7).

18. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhuni who is to be rehabilitated (&c., as in sect.9).

19. `In case, O bhikkhus, the saïgha is going to proceed against a bhikkhuni by the tajjaniyakamma (&c., as in sect.10).

20. `Or the saïgha has instituted a proceeding against her (&c., as in sect.11).

21, 22. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sikkhamànà is sick (&c., see sects. 2-5).

`In case, O bhikkhus, a sikkhamànàhas violated (48)
the precepts (in which she is trained). If she sends (&c., as in
sect.3, down to): (saying to yourselves): “I will take care that she may
take upon herself the precepts, (again).” Within seven days you ought
to return.

23. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sikkhamànà desires to receive the
upasampadà ordination. If she sends, &c. you ought to go (saying to
yourselves): “I will take care that she may receive the upasampadà
ordination, or I will proclaim the formula (of ordination before the
assembly), or I will help to complete the quorum.” Within seven days you
ought to return.

24, 25. `In case, O bhikkhus, a
sàmanera is sick (&c., as in sects. 2-5) a sàmanera desires [\q
310/] to ask concerning vassa
(49). If he sends . . . . (saying to yourselves): “I will ask him or I will tell it to him.” Within seven days you ought to return.

26. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sàmanera who desires to receive the upasampadà ordination (&c., see sect.23).

27, 28. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sàmaneri is sick (&c., see sects. 24-25).

29. `In case, O bhikkhus, a sàmaneri desires to take upon herself the
precepts. If she sends &c., you should go (saying to yourselves):
“I will take care that she may take upon herself the precepts.” Within
seven days you ought to return.’

______________________

7.

1. At that time the mother of a bhikkhu was sick. She sent a
messenger to her son (saying), `I am sick; might my son come to me; I
long for my son’s coming.’ Now that bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One
has allowed (a bhikkhu) to go, if the affair for, which he goes can be
accomplished within seven days, and if he is sent for, but not if he is
not sent for, by a person of any one of the seven classes; (and he has
also allowed to go), if the thing he goes for can be accomplished within
seven days, even if he is not sent for, and much more if he is sent
for, by a person of any one of the five classes. Now my mother is sick;
she is not a lay-devotee (upàsikà). What am I, therefore, to do.?’ [\q
311/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go (even during the rainy season), if
the thing you go for can be accomplished within seven days, even if you
are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of any
one of the following seven classes: bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, sikkhamànàs,
sàmaneras, sàmaneris, the mother, and the father. I allow your O
bhikkhus, to go, if the thing you go for can be accomplished within
seven days, even if you are not sent for and much more if you are sent
for by a person of any one of these seven classes. Within seven days you
ought to return.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s mother is sick. If she sends a
messenger to her son (saying), “I am sick; might my son come to me; I
long for my son’s coming (&c., See chap.6.2).”

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s father is sick (&c., as in sect.3).

5, `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s brother is sick. If he sends a
messenger to his brother (saying), “I am sick; might my brother come to
me; I long for my brother’s coming,” he ought to go, O bhikkhus, if the
affair can be accomplished within seven days, and if he sends for him,
but not if he does not send for him. Within seven days he ought to
return.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s sister is sick (&c., see sect.5).

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a relation of a bhikkhu is sick. If he sends
a messenger to that bhikkhu (saying), “I am sick; might his reverence
come to me”(&c., as in sect.5).

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, a person that used to [\q 312/] live with the bhikkhus (50) is sick. If he sends a messenger to the bhikkhus (saying), “I am sick; might the bhikkhus come to me” ( &c, as in sect.5).’

______________________

8.

At that time a vihàra belonging to the saïgha went to ruin. A certain
upàsaka had a quantity of wood cut in the forest. He sent a messenger
to the bhikkhus (saying), `If their reverences will fetch that wood, I
will give it to them.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go out on the saïgha’s business. Within seven days you ought to return.’

End of the First Bhànavàra About the Vassa

Residence.

______________________

9.

1. At that time the bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala country who had entered upon vassa, were troubled (51) by beasts of prey; the beasts carried them off and killed them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa are
troubled by beasts of prey, and the beasts carry them off and kill them :
this is [\q 313/] to be considered as a case of danger, and they ought
to leave that residence. They are not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are
infested by snakes; they bite them and kill them. This is to be
considered as a case of danger (&c., as in sect.1, down to) vassa.

2. `In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa,
are troubled by robbers; the robbers plunder them and beat them. This is
to be considered (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are
troubled by demons the demons enter into them and take their power from
them. This is to be considered (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, the village near which the bhikkhus have
entered upon vassa, is destroyed by fire; the bhikkhus suffer from want
of food. This is to be considered (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the places of rest of the bhikkhus who have
entered upon vassa, are destroyed by fire; the bhikkhus suffer from
having no place of rest. This is to be considered (&c., as in
sect.1) vassa.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, the village near which the bhikkhus have
entered upon vassa, is destroyed by water; the bhikkhus suffer from want
of food (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the places of rest of the bhikkhus who have
entered upon vassa, are destroyed by water; the bhikkhus suffer from
having no place of rest (&c., as in sect.1) vassa.’

______________________

[\q 314/]

10.

At that time the village near which the bhikkhus of a certain
district had entered upon vassa, was transferred to another place
through (fear of) robbers.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you go where the village is.’

The village (people) divided themselves in two parts.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you go where the greater part is.’

The greater part were unbelieving, unconverted people.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you go where the believing, converted people are.’

______________________

11.

1. At that time the bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala
country who had entered upon vassa, could get (there) neither coarse nor
fine food sufficiently as required.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, can
get neither coarse nor fine food sufficiently as required. This is to be
considered as a case of danger, and they ought to leave that residence.
They are not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, get
food coarse or fine sufficiently [\q 315/] as required, but they cannot
get sustaining food. This is to be considered (&c., as in sect.1)
vassa.

2. `In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa,
get food coarse or fine sufficiently as required, they get sustaining
food, but they cannot get proper medicine. This is to be considered
(&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, the bhikkhus (&c., as sect.1, down to)
sustaining food, and they can get profitable medicine, but they cannot
find suitable laymen to do service to them. This is to be considered
(&c., as in sect.1) vassa.

3. `In case, O bhikkhus, to a bhikkhu
who has entered upon vassa, a woman makes an offer (in these words):
“Come, Venerable Sir, I give you gold, or I give you bullion
(52),
or I give you a field, or I give you a site (for a house or a garden),
or I give you an ox, or I give you a cow, or I give you a slave, or I
give you a female slave, or I give you my daughter as your wife, or I
will be your wife, or I get another wife for you.” In that case, if the
bhikkhu thinks: “The Blessed One has said that the mind of men is easily
changeable; danger might arise to the purity of my life.,” he ought to
go away from that place. He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, to a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, a
harlot makes an offer, &d., An adult girl makes an offer, &c., a
eunuch makes an offer, &c., relations make an offer, &c., kings
make [\q 316/] an offer, &c., robbers make an offer, &c.,
rascals make an offer (in these words): “Come., Venerable Sir, we give
you gold (&c., down to) or we give you our daughter as your wife, or
we get another wife for you.” In that case (&c., as in sect.3, down
to) vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, finds an
ownerless treasure. In that case (&c., as in sect.3, down to) vassa.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, sees a
number of bhikkhus who strive to cause divisions in the saïgha. In that
case, if that bhikkhu thinks: “The Blessed One has said that it is a
grievous sin to cause divisions in the saïgha; may no division arise in
the saïgha in my presence,” let him go away. He is not guilty of
interruption of vassa.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears: “A
number of bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the saïgha.” In
that case (&c., as in sect.5, down to) vassa.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears:
“In such and such a district a number of bhikkhus are striving to cause
divisions in the saïgha.” If that bhikkhu thinks: “Those bhikkhus are
friends of mine; I will say to them: `The Blessed One, my friends, has
said that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the saïgha; let not
divisions in the saïgha please you, Sirs;’ then they will do what I
say, they will obey me and give ear,” in that case let him go (to that
place). He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa,’
hears: “In such and such a [\q 317/] district a number of bhikkhus are
striving to cause divisions in the, saïgha.” If that bhikkhu thinks:
“Those bhikkhus are not friends of mine, but their friends are friends
of mine; to these I will say, and they will say to their friends: `The
Blessed One (&c., as in sect.6, down to) vassa.

8. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears:
“In such and such a district divisions in the saïgha have been caused
by a number of bhikkhus.” If that bhikkhu (&c., as in sect.6, down
to) vassa.

9. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears:
“In such and such a district divisions in the saïgha have been caused
by a number of bhikkhus.” If that bhikkhu (&c., as in sect.7) vassa.

10-13. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
who has entered upon vassa, hears “In such and such a district a number
of bhikkhunis strive to cause divisions in the saïgha (&c.
(53))”‘

______________________

12.

1. At that time a bhikkhu desired to enter upon vassa in a cattle-pen.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a cattle-pen.’

The cattle-pen was moved from its place. [\q 318/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to go with the cattle-pen.’

2. At that time a bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon vassa approached, desired to go on a journey with a caravan.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a caravan.’

At that time a bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon vassa approached, desired to go on a journey in a ship.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a ship.’

3. At that time some bhikkhus entered
upon vassa in a hollow tree. People were annoyed, murmured, and became
angry: `(These bhikkhus behave) like goblins
(54).’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa in a hollow tree. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

4. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa on a branch of a
tree. People were annoyed, &c.: `(These bhikkhus behave) like
huntsmen.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa on a branch of a tree. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

5. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa in the open air.
When it began to rain, [\q 319/] they ran up to the foot of a tree, or
to the hollow of a nimba tree.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa in the open air. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence:

6. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa without having a place of rest. They suffered from coldness and heat.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa without having a place of rest. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

7. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa in a house for
keeping dead bodies in. People were annoyed, &c.: `(These bhikkhus
are) like those who burn corpses.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

8. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa under a sun-shade. People were annoyed, &c.: `Like cowherds.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa under a sun-shade. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

9. At that time some bhikkhus entered upon vassa under an earthenware vessel. People were annoyed, &c.: `Like titthiyas.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, enter upon vassa under an earthenware vessel. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

_______________________

[\q 320/]

13.

1. At that time the saïgha at Sàvatthi
had made an agreement that nobody should receive the pabbajjà
ordination during the rainy season. A grandson of Visàkhà Migàramàtà
(55)
went to the bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjà ordination. The
bhikkhus said to him: `The saïgha, friend, has made an agreement that
nobody shall receive the pabbajjà ordination during the rainy season.
Wait, friend, as long as the bhikkhus keep vassa; when they have
concluded the vassa residence, they will confer on you the pabbajjà
ordination.’

When those bhikkhus had concluded the vassa residence, they said to
the grandson of Visàkhà Migàramàtà: `Come now, friend, you may receive
the pabbajjà ordination.’ He replied: `If I had received the pabbajjà
ordination before, Reverend Sirs, I should remain (in the religious
life), but now, Reverend Sirs, I will not receive the pabbajjà
ordination.’

2. Visàkhà Migàramàtà was annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can the noble ones make such an agreement that nobody
shall receive the pabbajjà ordination during the rainy season? At what
time ought the duties of the Dhamma not to be performed?’

Some bhikkhus heard Visàkhà Migàramàtà, who was annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. [\q 321/]

Those bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

`Such an agreement, O bhikkhus, ought not to be made — that nobody
shall receive the pabbajjà ordination during the rainy season. He who
makes (an agreement like this), commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________

14.

1. At that time the Venerable Upananda
Sakyaputta had promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala to take up his vassa
residence (with him) at the earlier period
(56).
When he was going to the district (where he had consented to go to), he
saw on his way two districts in which there were plenty of robes, and
he thought: `What if I were to keep vassa in these two districts; thus
shall I obtain many robes.’ And he kept vassa in those two districts.

King Pasenadi of Kosala was annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can the noble Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised
us to take up his vassa residence (with us), break his word? Has not
falsehood been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by
the Blessed One in many ways?’

2. Some bhikkhus heard King Pasenadi of Kosala, who was annoyed,
&c. The moderate bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry
(saying), `How can the Venerable Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has
promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala, &c.? Has not falsehood
(&c., as in sect.1)?’

Those bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. [\q 322/]

In consequence of that, the Blessed One, after having ordered the
fraternity of bhikkhus to assemble, asked the Venerable Upananda
Sakyaputta: `Is it true, Upananda, that you have broken your word,
having promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala to take up your vassa
residence (with him)?’

`It is true, Lord’

Then the Blessed Buddha rebuked him: `How can you, O foolish one,
break your word, having promised, &c.? Has not falsehood, O foolish
one, been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by me in
many ways? This will not do, O foolish one, for converting the
unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted, but it will
result, O foolish one, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the
faith) and many of the converted being estranged.’

Having reproved him and delivered a religious discourse He thus addressed the bhikkhus:

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to
take up his vassa residence (with him) at the earlier period, and when
he goes to that district, he sees on his way two districts in which
there are plenty of robes, and he thinks: “What if I were to keep vassa
in these two districts ; thus shall I obtain many robes;” and he keeps
vassa in those two districts. This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa), O
bhikkhus, (at the) earlier period is not valid, and as to his promise he
has committed a dukkaña offence.

5. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to
take up his vassa residence with him) at the earlier period, and when
going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside (on the last [\q 323/]
day of the half month), and on the first day (of the next half month)
he goes to the vihàra, prepares himself a place of rest, gets (water to)
drink and food, sweeps the cell, and goes away that same day without
having any business. This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa) (&c., as
in sect.4, down to) offence.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (&c., as in the
preceding case, down to:) and goes away that same day having business.
This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa) (&c., as in sect.4, down to)
offence.

6. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised, &c., and having
resided there two or three days, he goes away without having any
business, &c.; he goes away having business. This bhikkhu’s
(entering upon vassa)(&c., as in sect.4, down to) offence.

`In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has
promised, &c., And having resided there two or three days, he goes
away having a business which can be accomplished within seven days
(57); he is absent above those seven days. This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa)(&c., as in sect.4, down to) offence.

`In case, O bhikkhus, &c., he returns within those seven days.
This bhikkhu’s (entering upon vassa), O bhikkhus, (at the) earlier
period is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no offence.

7. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised, ,&c., and goes away seven days before the pavàranà (58)
having business. No matter, O bhikkhus, whether that bhikkhu comes back
to that district or [\q 324/] does not come back, this bhikkhu’s
entering, &c., is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no
offence.


8-10. `In case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
has promised, &c., and having gone to that district, he holds
Uposatha there (on the last day of the half month), and on the first day
(of the next half month) he goes to the vihàra, &c.
(59)

11. `In case, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has promised (to a lay-devotee) to take up his
vassa residence (with him) at the later period, and when going to that
district, he holds Uposatha outside, &c.
(60)

______________________

End of the Third Khandhaka, Which Treats of

Entering Upon Vassa.



1.  See the note on I, 22,
17. About the name of Kalandakanivàpa (seeds of kalandaka? Feeding
ground for squirrels?), See the story related in Beal, Romantic Legend,
&c., p. 315, where this place is said to be the gift of a merchant
named kalandaka. A different account is given by Spence Hardy, Manual,
p. 194.

2. Literally, living creatures which have but one
organ of sense; that is, which have only the organ of feeling, viz. The
outward form (kàya).

3.  Saïkàpayissanti = saïkappayissanti? Buddhaghosa: appossukka-nibaddha-vàsaü vasissanti.

4.  I.e. enter upon the retreat prescribed for the
rainy season. Buddhaghosa: ` they are to look after their vihàra (if it
is in a proper state), to provide food and water for themselves, to
fulfil all due ceremonies, such as paying reverence to sacred shrines,
&c., And to say loudly once, or twice, or thrice: `I enter upon
vassa in this vihàra for these three months.” Thus they are to enter
upon vassa.’

5.  Very probably this double period stands in
connection with the double period prescribed in the Bràhmaõas and Såtras
for most of the Vedic festivals. Thus the sacrifice of the
varuõapràghàsàs, with which the Brahmans began the rainy season, was to
be held either on the full moon day of âshàdha or on the full moon day
of the following month, úràvaõa, quite in accordance with the
Buddhistical rules about the vassupanàyikà. The Bràhmaõa texts begin the
year with the full moon day of the (utter) Phàlgunã; the sutras
mention, besides the Phàlgunã, another new year’s day, the Caitrã
paurnamàsã, which falls one month later. It was in connection with this
dislocation of the beginning of the year that the annual festivals could
be postponed accordingly. See Weber, Die Vedischen Nachrichten von den
Naxatra, II, p. 329 seq.

6.  See the note on II, 36, 1.

7.  See the note on 1, 30, 4.

8.  This translation of kappiyakuñã is merely conjectural comp. kappiyabhåmi VI, 33.

9.  See the note on I, 25, 12.

10. See Cullavagga V, 16, 1.

11.  The enumeration of edifices is identical
with that given in sect.6, but in the cases beginning with that of the
sisterhood of bhikkhunis (according to Buddhaghosa; we believe that the
two cases referring to sàmaneras ought to be excepted) three of the
edifices are left viz. The privy the gantàghara and the gantàghara room,
the use of which is forbidden to nuns; see Cullavagga x, 27 3, 4,

12.  See Abhidhànapp. v. 213, and compare assabhaõóa hatthibhaõóa (Mahàvagga I, 61, 1).

13.  See Abhidhànapp. v. 209.

14.  Only it is said here of the bhikkhus, ayyà, `the noble ones,’ instead of bhaddantà, `their reverences.’

15.  See sects. 2-5. Read here and in all cases
where the messenger is sent by a woman: `Might the noble ones (ayyà)
come to me; I long for the noble ones’ coming.’

16.  There is no parivàsa discipline for the
bhikkhunis. When a bhikkhuni has committed a saïghàdisesa offence, no
matter whether she has concealed it or not she is sentenced to mànatta
discipline for a fortnight. See Cullavagga X, 1, 4; 25, 3.

17.  The phrases, `or I will propose the
resolution to the assembly, or I will help to complete the quorum’ (see
sect.6 seq.), Of course are omitted here, because, if the proceeding is
directed against a bhikkhuni, this is to be done. By a bhikkhuni and not
by a bhikkhu. See Cullavagga X, 6, 3.

18.  This translation of sikkhà kupità hoti is merely conjectural; Buddhaghosa has no note here. Comp. kuppa and akuppa.

19.  The technical meaning of vassaü pucchituü (to ask after vassa?) is unknown to us.

20.  Buddhaghosa: bhikkhugatika is a person that dwells in the same vihàra with the bhikkhus.

21.  Compare Jàtaka I, 300,

22.  See Rh. D.’s `Ancient coins and measures of Ceylon,’ p. 5 (`Numismata Orientalia,’ vol. 1).

23.  See sects. 6-9. Instead of `a number of
bhikkhus’ in these paragraphs, the subject is ` a number of bhikkhunis.’
instead of friends’ or ` Sirs,’ the address is ` Sisters.’ in sects.
11, 13 read: `those bhikkhunis are not friends of mine, but their
(female) or friends of mine, &c.’

24.  This must be about the sense of pisàcillika
(comp. Cullavagga V, 10, 2; 27, 5), Although we are not sure how -
illika ought to be explained.

25.  Visàkhà was the most distinguished among the
upàsikàs, and occupied a place among them similar to that which
Anàthapindika, with whom she is frequently mentioned together, did among
the upàsakas. See Dhammapada Aññhak. p. 78, &c.

26.  See chap, 2, sect. 2.

27.  See chap. 5 seq.

28.  I.e. before the concluding ceremony of vassa
; see IV, 1, 13. Translated by I. B. Horner as `invitation’, Book of
the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

29.  Here follows an exact repetition of all the
cases given in sects. 5-7 ; the only difference is, that in the former
cases it was said: `When going to that district, he holds Uposatha
outside,’ instead of which it is said now having gone to that district,
lie holds Uposatha there.’

30.  The cases given in sects. 5-10 are repeated
here ; instead of `earlier period,’ it is said here `later period;’
instead of before the pavàranà’ (sect. 7), `before the komudi
càtumàsinã.’ The komudi càtumàsinã is the full moon day in the month
Kattika, which is frequently called Kaumuda in the epic literature ; the
epithet càtumàsinã refers to the Vedic Càturmàsya festival, which falls
upon that day (Kàtyàyana, úrautasåtra V, 6, 1). For those who entered
upon vassa at the later period (in the úràvana month), the end of vassa
fell on the komudi day.

31.  See the note on I, 22, 17. About the name of
Kalandakanivàpa (seeds of kalandaka? Feeding ground for squirrels?),
See the story related in Beal, Romantic Legend, &c., p. 315, where
this place is said to be the gift of a merchant named kalandaka. A
different account is given by Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 194.

32.  Literally, living creatures which have but
one organ of sense; that is, which have only the organ of feeling, viz.
The outward form (kàya).

33.  Saïkàpayissanti = saïkappayissanti? Buddhaghosa: appossukka-nibaddha-vàsaü vasissanti.

34.  I.e. enter upon the retreat prescribed for
the rainy season. Buddhaghosa: ` they are to look after their vihàra (if
it is in a proper state), to provide food and water for themselves, to
fulfil all due ceremonies, such as paying reverence to sacred shrines,
&c., And to say loudly once, or twice, or thrice: `I enter upon
vassa in this vihàra for these three months.” Thus they are to enter
upon vassa.’

35.  Very probably this double period stands in
connection with the double period prescribed in the Bràhmaõas and Såtras
for most of the Vedic festivals. Thus the sacrifice of the
varuõapràghàsàs, with which the Brahmans began the rainy season, was to
be held either on the full moon day of âshàdha or on the full moon day
of the following month, úràvaõa, quite in accordance with the
Buddhistical rules about the vassupanàyikà. The Bràhmaõa texts begin the
year with the full moon day of the (utter) Phàlgunã; the sutras
mention, besides the Phàlgunã, another new year’s day, the Caitrã
paurnamàsã, which falls one month later. It was in connection with this
dislocation of the beginning of the year that the annual festivals could
be postponed accordingly. See Weber, Die Vedischen Nachrichten von den
Naxatra, II, p. 329 seq.

36.  See the note on II, 36, 1.

37.  See the note on 1, 30, 4.

38.  This translation of kappiyakuñã is merely conjectural comp. kappiyabhåmi VI, 33.

39.  See the note on I, 25, 12.

40.  See Cullavagga V, 16, 1.

41.  The enumeration of edifices is identical
with that given in sect.6, but in the cases beginning with that of the
sisterhood of bhikkhunis (according to Buddhaghosa; we believe that the
two cases referring to sàmaneras ought to be excepted) three of the
edifices are left viz. The privy the gantàghara and the gantàghara room,
the use of which is forbidden to nuns; see Cullavagga x, 27 3, 4,

42.  See Abhidhànapp. v. 213, and compare assabhaõóa hatthibhaõóa (Mahàvagga I, 61, 1).

43.  See Abhidhànapp. v. 209.

44.  Only it is said here of the bhikkhus, ayyà, `the noble ones,’ instead of bhaddantà, `their reverences.’

45.  See sects. 2-5. Read here and in all cases
where the messenger is sent by a woman: `Might the noble ones (ayyà)
come to me; I long for the noble ones’ coming.’

46.  There is no parivàsa discipline for the
bhikkhunis. When a bhikkhuni has committed a saïghàdisesa offence, no
matter whether she has concealed it or not she is sentenced to mànatta
discipline for a fortnight. See Cullavagga X, 1, 4; 25, 3.

47.  The phrases, `or I will propose the
resolution to the assembly, or I will help to complete the quorum’ (see
sect.6 seq.), Of course are omitted here, because, if the proceeding is
directed against a bhikkhuni, this is to be done. By a bhikkhuni and not
by a bhikkhu. See Cullavagga X, 6, 3.

48.  This translation of sikkhà kupità hoti is merely conjectural; Buddhaghosa has no note here. Comp. kuppa and akuppa.

49.  The technical meaning of vassaü pucchituü (to ask after vassa?) is unknown to us.

50.  Buddhaghosa: bhikkhugatika is a person that dwells in the same vihàra with the bhikkhus.

51.  Compare Jàtaka I, 300,

52.  See Rh. D.’s `Ancient coins and measures of Ceylon,’ p. 5 (`Numismata Orientalia,’ vol. 1).

53.  See sects. 6-9. Instead of `a number of
bhikkhus’ in these paragraphs, the subject is ` a number of bhikkhunis.’
instead of friends’ or ` Sirs,’ the address is ` Sisters.’ in sects.
11, 13 read: `those bhikkhunis are not friends of mine, but their
(female) or friends of mine, &c.’

54.  This must be about the sense of pisàcillika
(comp. Cullavagga V, 10, 2; 27, 5), Although we are not sure how -
illika ought to be explained.

55.  Visàkhà was the most distinguished among the
upàsikàs, and occupied a place among them similar to that which
Anàthapindika, with whom she is frequently mentioned together, did among
the upàsakas. See Dhammapada Aññhak. p. 78, &c.

56.  See chap, 2, sect. 2.

57.  See chap. 5 seq.

58.  I.e. before the concluding ceremony of vassa
; see IV, 1, 13. Translated by I. B. Horner as `invitation’, Book of
the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

59.  Here follows an exact repetition of all the
cases given in sects. 5-7 ; the only difference is, that in the former
cases it was said: `When going to that district, he holds Uposatha
outside,’ instead of which it is said now having gone to that district,
lie holds Uposatha there.’

60.  The cases given in sects. 5-10 are repeated
here ; instead of `earlier period,’ it is said here `later period;’
instead of before the pavàranà’ (sect. 7), `before the komudi
càtumàsinã.’ The komudi càtumàsinã is the full moon day in the month
Kattika, which is frequently called Kaumuda in the epic literature ; the
epithet càtumàsinã refers to the Vedic Càturmàsya festival, which falls
upon that day (Kàtyàyana, úrautasåtra V, 6, 1). For those who entered
upon vassa at the later period (in the úràvana month), the end of vassa
fell on the komudi day.

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan


a few seconds ago

The Election
Commission will meet all recognised political parties on May 10 to seek
their consent for the new voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines
to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.

Appearing for the Centre, Attorney General GE Vahanvati informed a
Bench of Justices P Sathasivam and Ranjan Gogoi that the process of
amendment was “underway”. In response to a letter written by EC on March
28, 2013, the Legislative Department of the Law Ministry had begun the
work of preparing amendments to the Rules, which would be placed before
the Parliament.

The Bench exclaimed, “We are happy that it has finally materialised.
Now what remains is when we are to implement it.” All parties were in support of
introducing the VVPT machines.


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