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915 LESSON 10-05-2013 FRIDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Mahavagga 41 Pavàraõakkhandhakaü Pali English Sinhala http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Organic-Lawn-Care-Small-Business-Idea.htm Organic Lawn Care Small Business Idea VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ RESEARCH on Misuse of EVM machines- BUDDHA JAYANTI – 2013
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:41 pm

915 LESSON 10-05-2013 FRIDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY


Mahavagga

41

 Pavàraõakkhandhakaü

  Pali

 English

 Sinhala






http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm
http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Organic-Lawn-Care-Small-Business-Idea.htm



Organic Lawn Care Small Business Idea

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ

RESEARCH on Misuse of EVM machines

1    New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips.

A Chip can be inserted that “Party A” should get +1 more vote than “Party B” no matter what may be the actual voting.

These are called “Overwriting Commands”. Computers are computers. They can be programmed and re-programmed.

Ruling Party and Election Commission of India disregards truth and insist on use of EVM machines in Elections. They are source of discriminative Caste bias.

In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so.

People and Other Election Candidates have some Constitutional Rights which are being violated by use of EVM machines. Open Source Code is not being made public. People have right under Art 21 to live a life of Dignity. You cannot live a life of Dignity without free and fair elections.

The Courts have to be further convinced that they have jurisdiction to pass orders which are being asked, and it is practicable and desirable to issue such prohibitory orders. It is DUTY of Court to uphold Constitution by passing such prohibitory orders. Election Commission is a Governmet body and hence if it acts arbitrarily it violates Art.14.

If Election Commission does not ADMIT that machines are capable of manipulation, it acts arbitrarily and its Decision Process is vitiated. The Decision is Liable to be struck down on ground that the important components are kept out from decision making process.

It is Duty of Court to protect Basic Structure of Constitution. If Fair Elections are replaced with Manipulatable Elections, the Basic Structure of Constitution is DESTROYED. So it is Duty of Court to ban EVM machines. The Superior Courts of Most democratic countries have already banned such use.

The Court can strike down such arbitrary policy and decisions of EC.

EC must first of all ADMIT that EVMs can be manipulated… Only thereafter it should further satisfy courts about what steps are taken by it to prevent manipulations.

Apart from Rights of People, there are Rights of Other Contesting Candidates to be considered. Where will they appeal for a re-count? How can it be done on same manipulated EVM machines?

Original method of ballot paper voting and counting in presence of representatives of Candidates, is still the best method as recognized by US, UK, Germany etc countries.

Are our Courts powerful enough to take call and ban EVM machines which are already banned in other countries?

We have to see. Laws of other countries not applicable to India.

Our courts and our democracy are passing through a process.

It is  hoped supporters succeed in their efforts to liberate country from Manipulative EVM machines.

OPEN SOURCE CODE OF EVM/VVPT MUST BE MADE PUBLIC for LEVEL PLAYING FIELD.

(To be Contd.)

Jagatheesan, you and your amazing network (91 connections and counting!)
are the heart and soul of LinkedIn. As we celebrate our 10th
anniversary, we want to say thank you by sharing some inspiration for
the next 10 years.

Organic Lawn Care Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting an Organic Lawn Care Business

The health risks that come with the chemicals used in traditional
lawn care products can be significant. This is why many earth-conscious
homeowners are starting to look into organic lawn care techniques.

The homeowner who wants to care for his lawn with organic products
but lacks the time and knowledge to do so is turning to organic lawn
care businesses for help.

Pros

If you have a green thumb and passion for organic and all-natural products, an organic lawn care business may be a good business idea for you. Here are some of the potential benefits:

  • It reduces the amount of chemicals being released into the ground and environment so it’s safer for humans and animals.
  • After the initial startup investment, the overhead expenses are low.
  • You can expand your products and services to include other lawn
    and home-related areas such as landscaping, outside lighting, holiday
    light installation, leaf removal, etc.
  • You can work your own hours, as much or as little as you choose.
  • There is a growing market for organic lawn care.
  • You can become an organic lawn care specialist and join forces with other lawn services that may not offer organic solutions.

Cons

Potential challenges of starting an organic lawn care business include:

  • Equipment can be expensive, especially if you’re using eco-friendly mowers, etc.
  • Competition is stiff, so you must offer something unique to differentiate yourself.
  • Your business may be seasonal, depending on your geographic location.
  • The work is very physical, so you need to be in good health.
  • You need good knowledge of organic products and how to use them.
  • You also need a general knowledge of lawn and garden plants, outside pests, etc.

Recommended Resources

Related Articles

Fourth Khandhaka.

(The Pavàranà Ceremony at the End of the

Rainy Season, Vassa).


1.

1. At that time the Blessed Buddha
dwelt at Sàvatthi, in the Jetavana, the garden of Anàthapindika. At that
time a number of bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other,
entered upon vassa in a certain district of the Kosala country. Now
those bhikkhus thought: `What shall we do in order that we may keep
vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and that we
may not suffer from want of food?’

2. Then those
bhikkhus thought: `If we do not speak to or converse with each other, if
he who comes back first from the village, from his alms pilgrimage,
prepares seats, gets water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, and a
towel
(1), cleans the slopbasin and gets it ready, and puts there (water to) drink and food,–

3 `And if he
who comes back last from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, eats, if
there is any food left (from the dinner of the other bhikkhus) and if
he desires to do so; and if he does not desire (to eat), throws it away
at a place free from grass, or pours it away into water in which no
living things are; puts away the water for washing the feet, the
foot-stool, and the towel
(2); cleans the slop-basin and [\q 326/] puts it away, puts the water and the food away, and sweeps the dining-room,–

4. `And if he
who sees a water-pot, or a bowl for food, or a vessel for evacuations,
empty and void, puts it (into its proper place), and if he is not able
to do so single-handed, calls some one else and puts it away with their
united effort
(3)
without uttering a word on that account, thus shall we keep vassa well,
in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and not suffer from want
of food
(4).’

5-7. And those
bhikkhus did not speak to or converse with each other. He who came back
from the village from his alms-pilgrimage first, prepared seats
(&c., as above, sect.4, down to) without uttering a word on that
account.

8. Now it is
the custom of the bhikkhus who have finished their vassa residence, to
go to see the Blessed One. Thus those bhikkhus, when they had finished
their vassa residence, and when the three months (of vassa) had elapsed,
set their places of rest in order, took their alms-bowls and robes, and
went on their way to Sàvatthi. Wandering from place to place, they came
to Sàvatthi, to the Jetavana, the garden of Anàthapindika, to the
Blessed One; having approached the Blessed One and respectfully saluted
Him, they sat down near Him.

9. Now it is
the custom of the Blessed Buddhas [\q 327/] to exchange greeting with
incoming bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to those bhikkhus: `Do
things go well with you, O bhikkhus? Do you get enough to support
yourselves with? Have you kept vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and
without quarrel? And have you not suffered from want of food?’

`Things go
tolerably well with us, Lord; we get enough, Lord, wherewith to support
ourselves; we have kept vassa well, in unity, in concord, and without
quarrel; and have not suffered from want of food.’

10. The
Tathàgatas sometimes ask about what they know; sometimes they do not ask
about what they know. They understand the right time when to ask, and
they understand the right time when not to ask. The Tathàgatas put
questions full of sense, not void of sense; to what is void of sense the
bridge is pulled down for the Tathàgatas. For two purposes the Blessed
Buddhas put questions to the bhikkhus, when they intend to preach the
Doctrine, or when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to their
disciples.

11. And the
Blessed One said to those bhikkhus: `In what way, O bhikkhus, have you
kept vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and not
suffered from want of food?’

`We have
entered upon vassa, Lord, a number of bhikkhus, companions and friends
of each other, in a certain district of the Kosala country. Now, Lord,
we thought: “What shall we do (&c., as in sect.1)?” Then we thought,
Lord: “If we do not speak (&c., as in sects.2-4).” Thus, Lord, we
did not speak to or converse with each other (&c., down to:) without
uttering a word on that account. In that [\q 328/] way, Lord, we have
kept vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel; and have
not suffered from want of food.’

12. Then the
Blessed One thus addressed the bhikkhus: `Indeed, O bhikkhus, these
foolish men who profess to have kept vassa well, have kept it badly;
indeed, O bhikkhus, these foolish men who profess to have kept vassa
well, have kept it like a herd of cattle; indeed . . . have kept it like
a herd of rams; indeed . . . have kept it like a company of indolent
people. How can these foolish persons, O bhikkhus, take upon themselves
the vow of silence, as the titthiyas do?

13. `This will
not do, O bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted (&c., as in book
111, chapter 14, sect.3).’ And when He had rebuked them and delivered a
religious discourse He thus addressed the bhikkhus:

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, take upon himself the vow of silence, as the titthiyas do. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that the bhikkhus, when they have finished their vassa residence, hold pavàranà with each other(5)
in these three ways: by what has been seen, or by what has been heard,
or by what is suspected. Hence it will result that you live in accord
with each other, that you atone for the offences (you have committed),
and that you keep the rules of discipline before your eyes.

14. `And you ought, O bhikkhus, to hold pavàranà in this way: [\q 329/]

Let a learned,
competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti before the
saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Today is the pavàranà
day. If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha hold pavàranà.”

`Then let the
senior bhikkhu adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit
down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: “I pronounce my
pavàranà, friends, before the saïgha, by what has been seen, or by what
has been heard, or by what is suspected
(6);
may you speak to me, Sirs, out of compassion towards me; if I see (an
offence), I will atone for it. And for the second time, &c. And for
the third time I pronounce my pavàranà (&c., down to) if I see (an
offence), I will atone for it.”

`Then let (each) younger bhikkhu adjust his upper robe (&c.)(7).’
 
 

______________________


2.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà
bhikkhus, while the senior bhikkhus were crouching down and were
performing their pavàranà, remained on their seats. The moderate
bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the
chabbaggiyà bhikkhus remain on their seats, while the senior [\q 330/]
bhikkhus crouch down, and perform their pavàranà?’

Those bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

`Is it true, O bhikkhus, that the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, &c.?’

`It is true, O Lord.’

Then the
Blessed Buddha rebuked them: `How can these foolish men, O bhikkhus,
remain on their seats (&c., as above)? This will not do, O bhikkhus,
for converting the unconverted (&c., as in chap.1, sect.13).’
Having rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, He thus
addressed the bhikkhus: `Let no one, O bhikkhus, remain on his seat,
while the senior bhikkhus crouch down, and perform their pavàranà. He
who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that all
of you crouch down while pavàranà is being performed.’

2. At that time a certain bhikkhu weak from age, who waited crouching till all had finished their pavàranà fell down fainting.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that (every bhikkhu) crouches down the whole while till he
has performed his pavàranà, and sits down on his seat when he has
performed it.’

 
 

______________________


3.

1. Now the bhikkhus thought: `How many pavàranà (days) are there?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

There are the two following pavàranà (days), [\q 331/] O bhikkhus: the fourteenth and the fifteenth (of the half month)(8); these are the two pavàranà (days), O bhikkhus.

2. Now the bhikkhus thought: `How many pavàranà services are there?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are the four following pavàranà services, O bhikkhus, &c.(9)

3. Then the
Blessed One thus addressed the bhikkhus: `Assemble, O bhikkhus, the
saïgha will hold pavàranà.’ When He had spoken thus,, a certain bhikkhu
said to the Blessed One: `There is a sick bhikkhu, Lord, who is not
present.’

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that a sick bhikkhu shall declare (lit. give) his pavàranà.
And let him declare it, O bhikkhus, in this way: let that sick bhikkhu
go to some bhikkhu, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder,
sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: “I declare my
pavàranà, take my pavàranà perform the pavàranà for me.” If he expresses
this by gesture, or by word, or by gesture and word, the pavàranà, has
been declared. If he does not express this by gesture &c., the
pavàranà has not been declared.

4-5. `If (the
sick bhikkhu) succeeds in doing so, well and good. If he does not
succeed, let them take that sick bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, on his bed or his
chair to the assembly, &c.
(10) [\q 332/]

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that on the day of pavàranà he who declares his pavàranà, is to declare also his consent(11)
(to acts to be performed eventually by the order), for (both
declarations) are required for the saïgha (and for the validity of its
acts)
(12).’

______________________


4.

At that time relations of a certain bhikkhu kept him back on the day of pavàranà, &c.(13)

______________________


5.

At that time five bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district (or, in a certain residence of bhikkhus) on the day of pavàranà.

Now these
bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed the holding of
pavàranà by the saïgha, and we are (only) five persons
(14). Well, how are we to hold pavàranà?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that five bhikkhus should hold pavàranà in a (regular) chapter(15).’

2. At that
time four bhikkhus dwelt in a certain [\q 333/] district on the day of
pavàranà. Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed
that five bhikkhus shall hold pavàranà in a (regular) chapter, and we
are (only) four persons. Well, how are we to hold pavàranà?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that four bhikkhus should hold pavàranà with each other.

3. `And let
them hold pavàraõà, O bhikkhus, in this way: let a learned, competent
bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti before those bhikkhus:
“Hear me, Sirs. Today is pavàranà day. If you are ready, Sirs, let us
hold pavàranà with each other.”

`Then let the
senior bhikkhu adjust his upper robe, &c., And say to those
bhikkhus: “I pronounce my pavàranà, friends, before you, by what has
been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what is suspected; may you
speak to me, Sirs, out of compassion towards me; if I see (an offence), I
will atone for it. And for the second time, &c.; And for the third
time, &c.”

`Then let each younger bhikkhu, &c.’

4. At that
time three bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district on the day of pavàranà.
Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that five
bhikkhus shall hold pavàranà, in a (regular) chapter, that four bhikkhus
shall hold pavàranà with each other, and we are (only) three persons.
Well, how are we to hold pavàranà

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that three bhikkhus should hold pavàranà with each other. And
let them hold pavàranà (&c., see sect.3).’

5. At that
time two bhikkhus dwelt in a certain [\q 334/] district on the day of
pavàranà. Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed
that five bhikkhus, &c., that four bhikkhus, &c., that three
bhikkhus, &c., and we are (only) two persons. Well, how are we to
hold pavàranà?’

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that two bhikkhus should hold pavàranà with each other.

6. `And let
them hold pavàranà, O bhikkhus, in this way: let the senior bhikkhu
adjust his upper robe, &c., and say to the junior bhikkhu: “I
pronounce my pavàranà friend, &c.”

`Then let the junior bhikkhu, &c.’

7. At that
time there dwelt a single bhikkhu in a certain district on the day of
pavàranà. Now this bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that
five bhikkhus, &c., and I am only one person. Well, how am I to
hold pavàranà’

8. `In case
there dwell, O bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of pavàranà, a
single bhikkhu : let that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, sweep the place which
the bhikkhus use to frequent,– the refectory, or hall, or place at the
foot of a tree; let him (then) provide water and food, prepare seats,
put a lamp there, and sit down. If other bhikkhus come, let him hold
pavàranà with them; if they do not come, let him fix his mind upon the
thought: “Today is my pavàranà.” If he does not fix his mind upon this
thought, he commits a dukkaña offence.

9. `Now, O bhikkhus, where five bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the pavàranà(16)
of one (to their assembly) and hold pavàranà by [\q 335/] four (as) in a
(regular) chapter. If they do, they commit a dukkaña offence.

`Now, O
bhikkhus, where four bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the
pavàranà of one (to their assembly) and hold pavàranà with each other
by three. If they do, they commit a dukkaña offence.

`Now, O bhikkhus, where three bhikkhus (&c., as in the last clause).

`Now, O
bhikkhus, where two bhikkhus dwell, one of them must. Not convey the
pavàranà of the other one, and fix (only) his thoughts (upon the
pavàranà). If he does, he commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


6.

1. At that time a certain bhikkhu was
guilty of an offence on the day of pavàranà. Now this bhikkhu thought:
`The Blessed One has prescribed: “Pavàranà is not to be held by a
bhikkhu who is guilty of an offence
(17).” Now I am guilty of an offence. What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

In case, O
bhikkhus, a certain bhikkhu be guilty of an offence on the day of
pavàranà (&c., as in II, 27.1, 2, down to:) “When I shall feel no
doubt, then I will atone for that offence.” Having spoken thus, let him
hold pavàranà. But in no case must there any hindrance arise to holding
pavàranà from such a cause.’

At that time a certain bhikkhu remembered [\q 336/] an offence, while pavàranà was being held (&c., see II, 27. 4-8).

______________________

End of the First Bhànavàra.

______________________


7-13.

7.I. At that time there assembled in a
certain residence (or district) on the day of pavàranà a number of
resident bhikkhus, five or more. They did not know that there were other
resident bhikkhus absent. Intending to act according to Dhamma and
Vinaya, thinking themselves to be complete while (really)incomplete they
held pavàranà while they were holding pavàranà, other resident
bhikkhus, a greater number (than the first ones), arrived.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `In case
there assemble, O bhikkhus, in a certain residence on the day of
pavàranà (&c., as in sect.1, down to) they hold pavàranà. While they
are holding pavàranà, other resident bhikkhus, a greater number,
arrive. Let (all) those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà again; they
who have held pavàranà, are free from guilt.

3. `In case
there assemble, &c. While they are holding pavàranà, other resident
bhikkhus, exactly the same number (as the first ones), arrive. Those who
have held pavàranà, have held it correctly; let the other ones hold
pavàranà; they who have held pavàranà, are free from guilt’.

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . (18)


______________________

[\q 337/]

14.

1-3. `Let no one, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà in a seated assembly (of bhikkhus) before a bhikkhuni (&c.(19))

4. `Let no one, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà by (accepting) the pavàranà declaration of a pàrivàsika(20)
, except if the assembly has not yet risen (at the time when the
pavàranà is declared). And let no one, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà on
another day than, the pavàranà day, except for the sake of (preserving)
concord among the saïgha
(21).’
 
 

______________________


15.

1. At that time a certain residence
(of bhikkhus) in the Kosala country was menaced on the day of pavàranà
by savage people. The bhikkhus were not able to perform pavàranà with
the threefold formula.

They told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 338/]

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to perform pavàranà with the twofold formula.’

The danger from savage people became still more urgent. The bhikkhus were not able to perform pavàranà with the twofold formula(22).’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to perform pavàranà with the onefold formula.’

The danger
from savage people became still more urgent. The bhikkhus were not able,
to perform pavàranà with the onefold formula.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O bhikkhus, that all the bhikkhus who have kept vassa together, perform pavàranà (by one common declaration).’

2. At that
time in a certain district on the day of pavàranà the greater part of
the night had passed away while (lay-)people were offering gifts (to the
bhikkhus). Now the bhikkhus thought: ,the greater part of the night has
passed away while the people were offering gifts. If the saïgha
performs pavàranà with the threefold formula, it will not have finished
the pavàranà when day breaks. Well, what are we to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

3. `In case, O
bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of pavàranà the greater part
of the night has passed away while people were offering gifts (to the
bhikkhus). Now if those bhikkhus think: “The greater part (&c., down
to:) when day breaks,” [\q 339/] let a learned, competent bhikkhu
proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the
saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. While people were offering gifts, the
greater part of the night has passed away. If the saïgha performs
pavàranà with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the
pavàranà when day breaks. If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha hold
pavàranà with the twofold formula, or with the onefold formula, or by
common declaration of all the bhikkhus who have kept vassa together.”

4. `In case, O
bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of pavàranà, the greater
part of the night has passed away while the bhikkhus were in confusion:
the bhikkhus were reciting the dhamma, those versed in the suttantas
were propounding the suttantas, those, versed in the Vinaya were
discussing the Vinaya, the Dhamma preachers were talking about the
Dhamma. Now if those bhikkhus think: “The greater part of the night has
passed away while the bhikkhus were in confusion. If the saïgha performs
pavàranà with the threefold formula, it will not have finished the
pavàranà when day breaks,” let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the
following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, &c.
The greater part of the night has passed away while the bhikkhus were in
confusion. If the saïgha performs pavàranà (&c. as in sect.3).”‘

5. At that
time in a certain district in the Kosala country a great assembly of
bhikkhus had come together on the day of pavàranà, and there was but a
small place protected from rain, and a great cloud was in the sky. Now
the bhikkhus thought: `A great assembly of bhikkhus has come together
[\q 340/] here, and there is but a small place protected from rain, and a
great cloud is in the sky. If the saïgha performs pavàranà with the
threefold formula, it will not have finished the pavàranà when this
cloud will begin to rain. Well, what are we to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

6. `In case, O
bhikkhus, in a certain district a great assembly of bhikkhus has come
together on the day of pavàranà, and there is but a small place
protected from rain, and a great cloud is in the sky. Now if those
bhikkhus think (&c., as in sect.3 to the end).

7. `In case, O
bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of pavàranà danger arises
from kings, danger from robbers, danger from fire, danger from water,
danger from human beings, danger from non-human beings, danger from
beasts of prey, danger from creeping things, danger of life, danger
against chastity. Now if those bhikkhus think: “Here is danger for our
chastity. If the saïgha performs pavàranà with the threefold formula, it
will not have finished the pavàranà when this danger for chastity will
arise,” let a learned, competent bhikkhu (&c., as in sect.3 to the
end).’

 
 

______________________


16.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus held pavàranà being guilty of an offence.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

Let no one, O
bhikkhus, hold pavàranà who is guilty of an offence. He who does,
commits a [\q 341/] dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you
ask a bhikkhu who holds pavàranà being guilty of an offence, for his
leave
(23) and reprove him for that offence.’

2. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, when asked for leave, were not willing to
give leave (to bhikkhus who were going to reprove them for an offence).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you inhibit the pavàranà of a bhikkhu who does not give
leave. And you ought to inhibit it, O bhikkhus, in this way: let (a
bhikkhu) say on the day of pavàranà., On the fourteenth or on the
fifteenth day (of the half month), in presence of that person, before
the assembled saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Such and
such a person is guilty of an offence; I inhibit his pavàranà; pavàranà
must not be held in his presence.” Thus his pavàranà is inhibited.’

3. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, who thought: `Otherwise good bhikkhus
might inhibit our pavàranà,’ themselves inhibited beforehand, without
object and reason, the pavàranà. Of pure bhikkhu who had committed no
offence, and they also inhibited the pavàranà of bhikkhus who had
already performed their pavàranà.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, inhibit, without object and reason, the pavàranà of pure
bhikkhus who have committed no offence. He who does, commits a dukkaña
offence. And further, O bhikkhus, let no [\q 342/] one inhibit the
pavàranà of bhikkhus who have already performed their pavàranà. He who
does, commits a dukkaña offence.

4. `And thus, O bhikkhus, (you may discern whether) the pavàranà is (duly) inhibited or not inhibited.

`In what cases
is the pavàranà, O bhikkhus, not inhibited? When pavàranà, O bhikkhus,
is pronounced, declared, and finished with the threefold formula, and if
(a bhikkhu then) inhibits the pavàranà (of another bhikkhu), the
pavàranà is not inhibited. When pavàranà, O bhikkhus, is pronounced,
declared, and finished with the twofold formula, with the onefold
formula, by common declaration of all bhikkhus who have kept vassa
together, and if (a bhikkhu then) inhibits (&c., as before). In
these cases, O bhikkhus, the pavàranà is not inhibited.

5. `And in
what cases, O bhikkhus, is the pavàranà inhibited? When pavàranà, O
bhikkhus, is pronounced, declared, but not finished
(24)
with the threefold formula, and if (a bhikkhu then) inhibits the
pavàranà (of another bhikkhu), the pavàranà is inhibited (&c.
(25)). In these cases, O bhikkhus, the pavàranà is inhibited.

6. `In case, O
bhikkhus, one bhikkhu, on the day of pavàranà, inhibits the pavàranà of
another bhikkhu: then if the other bhikkhus know with regard to that
(inhibiting) bhikkhu : “This Venerable [\q 343/] brother is not of a
pure conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as, regards his means
of livelihood, he is ignorant, unlearned, unable to give explanation
when he is questioned,” (let them say to him): “Nay, friend, let not
quarrel arise, nor strife, nor discord, nor dispute,” and having thus
put him to silence, let the saïgha hold pavàranà.

7-9. `In case, O bhikkhus, &c.(26)

10. `In case, O
bhikkhus, one bhikkhu on the day of pavàranà inhibits the pavàranà of
another bhikkhu: then if the other bhikkhus know with regard to that
(inhibiting) bhikkhu: “This Venerable brother is of a pure conduct in
his deeds and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood,
he is clever, learned, and able to give explanation when he is
questioned,” let them say to him: “If you inhibit, friend, the pavàranà
of this bhikkhu, on what account do you inhibit it, on account of a
moral transgression, or on account of a transgression against the rules
of conduct, or on account of heresy?”

11. `If he
replies: “I inhibit it on account of a moral transgression, I inhibit it
on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct, I inhibit
it on account of heresy,” let them say to him: “Well, do you know, Sir,
what a moral transgression is, what a transgression against the rules of
conduct is, what heresy is?” If he replies, “I [\q 344/] know, friends,
what a moral transgression is, &c.,” let them say to him: “And what
is, friend, a moral transgression, &c.?”

12. `If he
replies: “The four pàràjika offences and the thirteen saïghàdisesà
offences are the moral transgressions; thullaccaya offences, pàcittiya
offences, pàtidesaniya offences, dukkaña offences, and wicked language
are the transgressions against the rules of conduct; false doctrine and .
. . doctrine
(27)
are heresy,” let them say to him: “If you inhibit, friend, the pavàranà
of this bhikkhu, do you inhibit it on account of what you have seen, or
of what you have heard, or of what you suspect?”

13. `If he
replies: “I inhibit it on account of what I have seen, or on account of
what I have heard, or on account of what I suspect,” let them say to
him: “If you inhibit, friend, the pavàranà of this bhikkhu on account of
what you have seen, what have you seen? What is it that you have seen?
When have you seen it? Where have you seen it? Have you seen him
committing a pàràjika offence? Have you seen him committing a
saïghàdisesà offence? Have you seen him committing a thullaccaya
offence, a pàcittiya offence, a pàtidesaniya offence, a dukkaña offence,
or making himself guilty of wicked language? And where were you? And
where was this bhikkhu? And what did you do? And what did this bhikkhu
do?” [\q 345/]

14. `If he
then replies: “I do not inhibit, friends, the pavàranà of this bhikkhu
on account of what I have seen, but I inhibit it on account of what I
have heard,” let them say to him: “If you inhibit, friend, the pavàranà
of this bhikkhu on account of what you have heard, what have you heard?
What is it that you have heard? When have you beard it? Where have you
heard it? Have you heard that he has committed a pàràjika offence
(&c., down to) or that he has made himself guilty of wicked
language? Have you heard it from a bhikkhu? Have you heard it from a
bhikkhuni? Have you heard it from a sikkhamànà, from a sàmanera, from a
sàmaneri, from an upàsaka, from an upàsikà, from kings, from royal
officers, from titthiyas, from titthiya disciples?”

15. `If he
then replies: ‘I do not inhibit, friends, the pavàranà of this bhikkhu
on account of what I have heard, but I inhibit it on account of what I
suspect,” let them say to him: “If you inhibit, friend, the pavàranà of
this bhikkhu on account of what you suspect, what do you suspect? What
is it that you suspect? When do you suspect it? Where do you suspect it?
Do you suspect that he has committed a pàràjika offence (&c., down
to) wicked language? Does your suspicion come from what you have heard
from a bhikkhu (&c., down to) from titthiya disciples?”

16. `If he
then replies: “I do not inhibit, friends, the pavàranà of this bhikkhu
on account of what I suspect; I do not know the reason why I inhibit the
pavàranà of this bhikkhu,” and if that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, who
reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow
bhikkhus, is not able [\q 346/] to convince their minds, you are right
in saying that in such case the bhikkhu who has been reproved is
blameless. But if that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, who reproves (the other
one), being questioned by intelligent fellow bhikkhus, is able to
convince their minds, you are right in saying that in such case the
bhikkhu who has been reproved is blameable.

17. `If that
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has
charged him unfoundedly with a pàràjika offence, let the saïgha enter
upon the saïghàdisesà proceedings
(28) (against the accuser) and then hold pavàranà.

If that
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has
charged him unfoundedly with a saïghàdisesà offence, let the saïgha
treat (the accuser) according to the law
(29) and then hold pavàranà.

`If that
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has
charged him unfoundedly with a thullaccaya offence, or with a pàcittiya
offence, or with a pàtidesaniya offence, or with a dukkaña offence, or
with having used wicked language, let the saïgha treat (the accuser)
according to the law
(30) and then hold pavàranà.

18. `If that
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, who has been reproved, admits that he has committed
a pàràjika offence, let the saïgha expel him and then hold pavàranà.

`If that
bhikkhu, &c., admits that he has committed [\q 347/] a saïghàdisesà
offence, let the saïgha enter upon the saïghàdisesà proceedings (against
him) and then hold pavàranà.

`If that
bhikkhu, &c., admits that he has committed a thullaccaya offence, or
a pàcittiya offence (&c., down to) wicked language, let the saïgha
treat him according to the law and then hold pavàranà.

19. `In case, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu on the clay of pavàranà is guilty of a thullaccaya
offence. Some bhikkhus believe that it is a thullaccaya offence, other
bhikkhus believe that it is a saïghàdisesà offence. In that case, O
bhikkhus, let those bhikkhus who take it for a thullaccaya offence, take
that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, aside, treat him according to the law, go
back to the saïgha, and say: “The offence, friends, which this bhikkhu
has committed, he has atoned for according to the law. If the saïgha is
ready, let the saïgha hold pavàranà.”

20. `In case, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu on the day of pavàranà is guilty of a thullaccaya
offence. Some bhikkhus believe that it is a thullaccaya offence, other
bhikkhus believe that it is a pàcittiya offence. Some bhikkhus believe
that it is a thullaccaya offence, other bhikkhus believe that it is a
pàtidesaniya offence; a thullaccaya offence; a dukkaña offence; a
thullaccaya offence, an offence by wicked language. In that case
(&c., as in sect.19, down to the end).

21, 22. `In
case, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu on the day of pavàranà is guilty of a
pàcittiya offence, of a pàtidesaniya offence, of a dukkaña offence, of
an offence by wicked language. Some bhikkhus believe [\q 348/] that it
is an offence by wicked language, other bhikkhus believe that it is a
saïghàdisesà offence, &c. Some bhikkhus believe that it is an
offence by wicked language, other bhikkhus believe that it is a dukkaña
offence. In that case, O bhikkhus, let those bhikkhus who take it for an
offence by wicked language, take that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, aside
(&c., see sect.19).

23. `If, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of
pavàranà: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Here this deed is
known (to me), but not the (guilty) person. If the saïgha is ready, let
the saïgha hold pavàranà excluding this deed,” (the bhikkhus) ought to
reply: “The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold
pavàranà, ought to be pure. If a deed is known, but not the (guilty)
person, report it (to us) now.”

24. `If, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of
pavàranà: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a person is
known (to me as guilty), but not his deed. If the saïgha is ready, let
the saïgha hold pavàranà excluding this person,”(the bhikkhus) ought to
reply: “The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold
pavàranà, ought to be complete. If a person is known to you (as guilty),
but not his deed, report it (to us) now.”

25. ` If, O
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of
pavàranà : “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a deed is known
(to me) as well as the (guilty) person. If the saïgha is ready, let the
saïgha hold pavàranà excluding this deed and this person,” (the [\q
349/] bhikkhus) ought to reply, “The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed
that they who hold pavàranà, ought to be pure as well as complete. If
the deed and the (guilty) person are known to you, report it (to us)
now.”

26. `If, O
bhikkhus, a deed becomes known before the pavàranà, and the (guilty)
person afterwards (i.e. after the pavàranà), it is right to bring it
forward (then).

`If O
bhikkhus, the (guilty) person becomes known before the pavàranà and his
deed afterwards, it is right to bring it forward (then)
(31).

`If O
bhikkhus, the deed as well as the (guilty) person becomes known before
the pavàranà, and if (a bhikkhu) raises up that matter again after the
pavàranà he makes himself guilty of a pàcittiya offence for raising up
(a matter that has been settled)
(32).’
 
 

______________________


17.

1. At that time a number of bhikkhus,
companions and friends of each other, entered upon vassa in a certain
district of the Kosala country. In their neighbourhood other bhikkhus,
litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious persons, who used to
raise questions before the saïgha, entered upon vassa with the intention
of inhibiting, on the pavàranà day, the pavàranà of those bhikkhus when
[\q 350/] they should have finished their vassa residence. Now those
bhikkhus heard: `In our neighbourhood other bhikkhus, &c. Well, what
are we to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `In case, O
bhikkhus, a number of bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other,
enter upon vassa in a certain district. In their neighbourhood other
bhikkhus (&c., sect.1). I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that those bhikkhus
hold Uposatha twice or thrice on the fourteenth day (of the half-month)
(33)
in order that they may be able to hold pavàranà before those (other)
bhikkhus. If those litigious, contentious (&c., sect.1) bhikkhus
approach that district, let the resident bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, quickly
assemble and, hold pavàranà; having held pavàranà let them say to them:
“We have held our pavàranà friends; do you do, Sirs, as you think fit.”

3. `If those
litigious (&c., sect.1) bhikkhus come to that residence
unexpectedly, let the resident bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, prepare seats (for
them), get water for the washing of their feet, foot-stools, and towels
(34),
then let them go to meet them, take their bowls and their robes, and
offer them (water) to drink; having thus looked after those bhikkhus,
let them go outside the boundary and hold pavàranà; having held pavàranà
let [\q 351/] them say: “We have held our pavàranà, friends, do you do,
Sirs, as you think fit.”

4. `If they
succeed in this way, well and good; if they do not succeed,, let a
learned, competent, resident bhikkhu proclaim the following
¤atti before the resident bhikkhus: “Let the resident
bhikkhus hear me, Sirs. If you are ready, Sirs, let us now hold Uposatha
and recite the Pàtimokkha,. And let us hold pavàranà on the next
new-moon day.” If O bhikkhus, the litigious (&c., sect.1) bhikkhus
say to those bhikkhus: “Well, friends, hold pavàranà with us now,” let
them reply: “You are not masters, friends, of our pavàranà; we will not
hold pavàranà now.”

5. `If, O
bhikkhus, those litigious (&c., sect.1) bhikkhus stay there till
that new-moon day, let a learned, competent, resident bhikkhu . . . .
(35)

6. `If, O
bhikkhus, those litigious (&c., sect.1) bhikkhus stay there still
till that full-moon day those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, ought to hold
pavàranà all of them no matter whether they like it or not, on the next
full-moon day, on the day of the komudi càtumàsinã
(36).

7. `If those
bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà, and a sick bhikkhu inhibits the
pavàranà of a healthy bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting
bhikkhu):”You are sick, Sir, and the Blessed One has said that a sick
person cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until you have
recovered; [\q 352/] having recovered, you may reprove him, if you
like.” If they speak to him thus, and he reproves (that bhikkhu)
notwithstanding, he makes himself guilty of the pàcittiya offence of
disregard
(37).

8. `If those
bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà, and a healthy bhikkhu inhibits the
pavàranà of a sick bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting bhikkhu):
“This bhikkhu it sick, friend, and the Blessed One has said that a sick
person cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until this bhikkhu
has recovered; when he has recovered you may reprove him, if you like.”
If they speak to him thus (&c., as in sect.7).

9. `If those
bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà and a sick bhikkhu inhibits the
pavàranà of another sick bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting
bhikkhu): “You are sick, Sir, and the Blessed One has said that a sick
person cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until you have
recovered; when he has recovered
(38) you may reprove him, if you like.” If they speak to him thus (&c., as in sect.7).

10. `If those
bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, hold pavàranà, and a healthy bhikkhu inhibits the
pavàranà of another healthy bhikkhu, let the saïgha question and examine
them both and treat them according to the law, and then hold pavàranà.’

 
 


______________________

[\q 353/]

18.

1. At that
time a number of bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, entered
upon vassa in a certain district of the Kosala country. These bhikkhus,
living in unity, and concord, and without quarrel, had found a
comfortable place to dwell in. Now those bhikkhus thought: `Living in
unity, &c., We have found a comfortable place to dwell in. If we
hold pavàranà now, (other bhikkhus) might come on a journey, having held
their pavàranà, (and might occupy this place); thus we should lose this
place which is comfortable to dwell in. Well, what are we to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `In case O
bhikkhus, a number of bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other,
have entered upon vassa in a certain district. These bhikkhus, (&c.,
sect.1).

`If these
bhikkhus think: “Living in unity (&c., sect.1, down to:) thus we
should lose this place which is comfortable to dwell in,” I allow, O
bhikkhus, these bhikkhus to agree upon pavàranà saïgha
(39).

3. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to agree upon it in this way. Let them all assemble
together. When [\q 354/] they have assembled, let a learned, competent
bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let
the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Living in unity (&c., sect.1,
down to:) thus we should lose this place which is comfortable to dwell
in. If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha agree upon pavàranàsaïgaha;
let it now hold Uposatha and recite the Pàtimokkha, and let the saïgha
hold pavàranà on the next komudi càtumàsinã day. This is the
¤atti.”

4. `”Let the saïgha, &c.(40)

5. `If, O
bhikkhus, after those bhikkhus have agreed upon pavàranàsaïgaha, a
bhikkhu should say: “I wish, friends, to go on my travels through the
country; I have a business in the country,” let them reply to him:
“Good, friend, hold pavàranà and go.” If that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, when
holding pavàranà inhibits the pavàranà of another bhikkhu, let (that
other bhikkhu) say to him: “You are not master of my pavàranà, friend; I
will not hold pavàranà now.”

`If, O
bhikkhus, when that bhikkhu holds pavàranà, another bhikkhu inhibits his
pavàranà, let the saïgha question and examine them both and treat them
according to the law.

6. `If that
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, has finished that business in the country and comes
back to that district before the day of komudi càtumàsinã, and if a
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, when the bhikkhus hold pavàranà, inhibits the
pavàranà of that bhikkhu (who has been absent), let him say (to the [\q
355/] inhibiting bhikkhu): “You are not master of my pavàranà friend; I
have held my pavàranà;”

`If, O bhikkhus, when the bhikkhus hold
pavàranà, this bhikkhu inhibits the pavàranà of another bhikkhu, let the
saïgha question and examine them both and treat them according to the
law, and then hold pavàranà.’


________________________

End of the Pavàranà-Khandhaka.



1. See the note on I, 6, 11.

2. See the note on I, 6, 11.

3. We are not quite sure of the meaning of the
compounds hattha-vikàrena and hattha vilaïghakena. Buddhaghosa says
merely hatthavilaïghakenà’ti hatthukkhepakena.

4. For this whole passage, compare Cullavagga
viii, 5, 3. The single actions which these bhikkhus do, are quite
correct, except that they keep silence during the whole time of vassa,
and especially at the end of it, for which time Buddha, on this
occasion, prescribes the pavàranà ceremony.

5. Literally, invite each other; i.e. Every
bhikkhu present invites his companions to tell him if they believe him
guilty of an offence, having seen that offence, or having heard of it,
or suspecting it.

6.  I.e. I invite the saïgha to charge me with any
offence they think me guilty of which they have seen, or heard of, or
which they suspect.

7.  As in the preceding sentence, except that the younger bhikkhus do not address the Saïgha, `Friends,’ but, `Reverend Sirs.’

8.  Comp. II, 14, 1, and the note on II, 34, 1

9.  This passage is exactly identical with II, 14, 2. 3, replacing `Uposatha service’ by `pavàranà service.’

10.  This passage is a repetition of ii, 22, 2-4,
the words, hold Uposatha,’ declare the `pàrisuddhi,’ &c., being
replaced respectively by `hold pavàranà,’ `declare the pavàranà,’
&c.

11.  See ii , 23.

12.  Comp. The finishing clause of II, 23.

13.  This is a repetition of II, 24, but instead of `Uposatha’ and pàrisuddhi read `Pavàranà.’

14.  As a general rule five bhikkhus were
sufficient to form the quorum ; but for the performance of several among
the official acts of the order the presence of more than five members
was required; see ix 4,1 seq.

15.  See IX, 4, 1

16.  See chap. 3, sect. 3. Compare II, chap. 22, and chap. 26, sect. 10

17.  See chap. 16, sect.1.

18.  The following paragraphs and chapters
exactly follow the indicated by II, 28-35. The alterations to be made
are obvious and sufficiently indicated by sects. 1-3; instead of, `let
them proclaim their pàrisuddhi’ (II, 28, 4, &c.), read here, `let
them pronounce their pavàranà.’

19.  See II, 36, 1-3.

20.  Comp. II, 36, 4, with the note.

21.  See, for instance, the cases in chap. 17.
Buddhaghosa’s explanation is different; he says: `Concord among the
saïgha is to be understood of such cases as that of Kosambi’ it is said
in the account of the schism of Kosambi that, if concord has been
re-established, the reconciled parties hold Uposatha together X, 5, 14 ;
comp. II, 36, 4). Buddhaghosa apparently extends, this to holding
pavàranà also.

22.  This means apparently that the bhikkhus were
not obliged to pronounce the formula of pavàranà (chap.1, t4) thrice,
but twice or once respectively.

23.  Comp. II, 16, 1.

24.  Correct in the Pàli text pariyositàya into apariyositàya.

25.  The paragraph is repeated with the phrases,
`With the twofold formula,’ ` with the onefold formula,’ and by common
declaration of all the bhikkhus who have kept vassa together,’
respectively, instead of ` with the threefold formula.’

26.  As in sect..6. But instead of `Not of a pure
conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as regards his means of
livelihood,’ read respectively, of a pure conduct in his deeds, but not
in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood’ (sect. 7); `of a
pure conduct in his deeds and in ” words, but not with regard to his
means of: livelihood’ (sect. 8) ; of a pure conduct in his deeds and in
his words and with regard to his means of livelihood’(sect. 9).

27.  The meaning of antaggàhikà diññhi (Sanskrit
àntargrahikà dçãshñi? àntagrahikà dçãshñi?) is unknown to us;
Buddhaghosa gives no explanation. Perhaps it may, mean Doctrine partly
false and partly correct (eclectic).

28.  See the 8th saïghàdisesa rule.

29.  See the 76th pàcittiya rule.

30.  According to Buddhaghosa, the bhikkhu who
brings such an unfounded charge against a fellow bhikkhu, is guilty of a
dukkaña offence

31.  Because it had not been possible to decide the matter at the pavàranà (Buddhaghosa).

32.  See the 63rd pàcittiya rule.

33.  In this way, when the inimical bhikkhus are
arriving about the time of pavàranà the resident bhikkhus count the day
which is the thirteenth or fourteenth to the other bhikkhus, as the
fifteenth, and thus they are enabled to finish their pavàranà before
they can be prevented.

34.  See I, 6,11

35.  As, in sect. 4, down to the end of the
paragraph; instead of, on the next new-moon day, it is to be read here,
`On the next full-moon day.’

36.  See the note on iii, 14. 11.

37.  See the 64th pàcittiya rule.

38.  Probably we should read in the Pàli text
`àrogo àrogaü àkaïkhamàno codessasãti.’ then the translation would be:
when you have recovered and he has recovered &c.’

39.  Literally this word means, we believe,
keeping back one’s own pavàranà.’ Buddhaghosa says: `When the decree of
pavàranàsaïgaha has been issued, the bhikkhus (who have issued it) ought
to live as in the rainy season. Incoming bhikkhus are not allowed to
take possession of their places of rest. On the other side, they ought
not to interrupt their vassa residence.’

40.  Here follows the usual formula of a
¤attidutiya kamma as in Book II, chap. 6. Comp. the note in
book I, chap. 28, sect. 3.









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