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05/26/13
932 LESSON 27-05-2013 MONDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY (Adhikaraõasamathà) MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -14
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932 LESSON 27-05-2013 MONDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
(Adhikaraõasamathà)
 MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -14



http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/1Vinaya-Pitaka/index.html

animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha BUDDHA_BEADS_by_VISHNU108.gif

Wishing You All A Blessed Buddha Purnima


All fired up to break the world record: Thousands of
students release lanterns into night sky

By 
SARA SMYTH

PUBLISHED: 00:51 GMT, 25 May 2013 UPDATED: 00:51 GMT, 25 May 2013


Thousands
of lanterns filled the sky in a spectacular new World record. In what
could look like a sky-full of fireflies from a distance, thousands of
lanterns were released and floated into the sky to create a vision of
suspended lights.

More than 15,000 sky lanterns are believed to have been by 10,000 volunteers at the University of the Philippines Visayas- Miagao Campus, setting a new world record.


Sign of peace: The lanterns floated into the sky as 10,000 volunteers meditate to celebrate World Peace

Sign of peace: The
lanterns floated into the sky as 10,000 volunteers meditate to celebrate World Peace


Clear message: 10,000 volunteers gathered to celebrate the slogan of peace, calling for an end to international conflicts

Clear message: 10,000 volunteers gathered to celebrate the slogan of peace, calling for an end to international conflicts

The event aims to promote world peace while breaking a world record. It
is the first international event of its kind to be held in the country.
It’s slogan ‘World peace through inner peace’ was written on each
lantern, in an effort to create awareness around internatio
nal conflicts.

 

The breathtaking event topped Romania’s record of releasing 12,470 sky lanterns in 2012 during the opening of a shopping centre.

Uplifted: The volunteers look on in awe as they prepare to add their lantern to the thousands above. The spectacular images convey the meditative spirit of the event

Uplifted:
The volunteers look on in awe as they prepare to add their lantern to
the thousands above. The spectacular images convey the meditative spirit
of the event

Calming sight: Sky lanterns, also known as Chinese lanterns, are small hot air balloons made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended

Calming
sight: Sky lanterns, also known as Chinese lanterns, are small hot air
balloons made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire
is suspended

Message for all: Volunteers were taught the basics of meditation in preparation for the event, so<br />
 that they could enter celebrate its spiritual ethos. They were briefed on how to release the sky lanterns properly to ensure safety

Message for all: Volunteers were taught the basics of meditation in preparation for the event, so that they could
enter celebrate its spiritual ethos. They were briefed on how to release the sky lanterns properly to ensure safety

Dr.
Emiliano Bernardo III, who organised the event, said that if universal
inner peace can be achieved then there would be no major conflicts since
most conflicts can be traced from a lack of inner peace of the
individual.

He
said that a series of Inner Peace Previews were conducted to orient the
volunteers the basics of meditation and how to release the sky lanterns
properly to ensure safety.

Community spirit: The students hold a Guinness World record plaque in the air, celebrating their World Record

Community spirit: The students hold a Guinness World record plaque in the air, celebrating their World
Record

Illuminated: Sky lanterns are also known as sky candles or fire balloons. The volunteers were briefed in how to release them in the air safely

Illuminated:
Sky lanterns are also known as sky candles or fire balloons. The
volunteers were briefed in how to release them in the air safely




Benefits of walking bare foot

    •    MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -14
    •   
    •    New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     
    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.
9 Alternatives to Blanket Disclosure that Increase Transparency

Given what we have described as the “enclosure of transparency'’, that source code access is a key aspect of voting system evaluation and that there are clear risks to public source code disclosure, we now turn to examining alternatives to blanket disclosure of source code. Such alternatives include limited disclosure, increased public access at the Federal level, incentivized or coordinated disclosure and technological mechanisms that support or obviate access.


9.1 Limited Disclosure

It is clear that source code access is key part of effective evaluation. As in the California case,80 where a critical interface between the paper record and a non-sighted voter was mandated to be open, there are critical pieces of a computerized voting system where public oversight and comprehensibility of the technology is of great importance. The interfaces between ballot presentation and the storage of vote data as well as the myriad of input and output methods are such critical points where maintaining secrecy results in pushing trust from one part of a voting system to another. In the end, openness is a natural and highly efficient way to break this cycle of pushing trust from one system to another. Other areas of critical importance include vote storage, reading and writing. Limited disclosure of this code could achieve many of the benefits of source disclosure while minimizing risks.

Limited disclosure can be achieved by restricting the scope of code disclosed and the audience to which it is disclosed. That is, what in the code should be disclosed, critical systems (as argued for above) or all the code? Disclosing all the code has the benefit of ensuring that there is no place for malicious or erroneous code to hide. Allowing the public to view all the source code would have the benefits and risks discussed in §.
Once the decision as to what code is disclosed has been made, we need to decide who gets to see it. As in the federal open source and disclosed source bills discussed previously, do we allow all the public to acquire the voting systems code that will run our election or do we limit the pool to a select few or a subset of the public? On the contrary, if source code dissemination was controlled by application and contract,81 the goal of having third-party code review could be achieved without the exposure and intellectual property concerns associated with public dissemination. However, a critical piece of restricted dissemination would be a requirement that all output from such reviews would be publicly available and unredacted to balance the exclusivity of code availability.


9.2 Other Alternatives

A natural approach to increasing voting system transparency would be first to tackle the most obscure aspect of the current system. The Federal testing process (discussed in §) is the most mysterious and critically obscure step in ensuring voting systems perform according to the federal standards for voting systems. We can infer from increased state-level certification requirements and the fact that numerous vulnerabilities have slipped through federal certification over the past year that the federal evaluation process and the voting system standards do not ensure that a voting system can be used in elections free from serious flaws. A first step in increasing the quality of the federal certification process would be to make the testing plans and full evaluation reports public, perhaps in redacted form.

Incentivized disclosure is another option. State governments or a consortium of state governments could decide to hold a contest or post a prize for the first development team to produce a voting system, like the ACT’s eVACS, that would be released under a specified open source license. Another interesting model is that of “community source'’ where a consortium of government entities would agree to donate annual dues and full-time coders to a foundation that would develop, certify, market and support the consortium’s voting systems.82

Finally, there are technological mechanisms for increasing transparency of voting systems. For example, the move in many states to mandate that DRE voting systems produce a VVPAT is essentially public verification of a record independent of the larger system. This allows the customer to treat the larger voting system as a black box as there will always be a verified indelible record of each vote as cast. In this vein, there is a body of work being developed by researchers that narrows the scope and minimizes the amount of what has to be evaluated. Examples of this work include isolated vote storage systems83, voting systems with dramatically less trusted code84, and hardware isolation techniques for security verification85.


10 Conclusion

There has been an enclosure of transparency surrounding voting technology in the United States with recent efforts to halt the enclosure by increasing access to source code. It is clear that some source code access is needed to support transparency of voting systems. There are risks associated with public disclosure of source code and more substantial risks associated with mandated disclosure. The regulatory, financial, organizational and perceptional barriers to the entry of open source voting system software combine such that the open source business models that are now thriving in other sectors don’t easily translate to the voting systems market.
We conclude that disclosure of full system source code to qualified individuals will promote technical improvements in voting systems, while limiting some of the potential risks associated with full public disclosure. Considering the alternatives to blanket disclosure mentioned in §, such as increased access to the Federal process, incentives, collaborative models and technological solutions, we still have not explored all our options. We acknowledge that limited source code disclosure to experts does not support general public scrutiny of source code, and therefore does not fully promote the transparency goals of public oversight, comprehension, accuracy and accountability. However, in a public source code disclosure or open source code model most members of the public will be unable to engage in independent analysis of the source code and will need to rely on independent, hopefully trusted and trustworthy, experts. Given the potential risks posed by broad public disclosure of election system source code, we conclude that moving incrementally in this area is both a more realistic goal and the prudent course given that it will yield many benefits, greatly minimizes potential risks and provides an opportunity to fully evaluate the benefits and risks in this setting

11 Acknowledgments

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CNS-0524745.
A very special thanks to my legal supervisor and mentor, Deirdre K. Mulligan; without her advice and direction, this work would only be a shadow of itself. Discussions with the following people were important in the development of this work: Pam Samuelson, Eddan Katz, David Molnar, Ka-Ping Yee, Pam Smith, Naveen Sastry, Dan Wallach, Michael Shamos and Mitch Kapor.

About this document …

Transparency and Access to Source Code in Electronic Voting
This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 2002-2-1 (1.71)
Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds. 
Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999, Ross Moore, Mathematics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney.
The command line arguments were: 
latex2html -split 0 -show_section_numbers -local_icons jhall_evt06.tex
The translation was initiated by Joseph Hall on 2006-06-16

Footnotes
… transparency.1
See §.
… requirements,2
Source code escrow involves depositing the source code for a voting system with a third party and/or an election official and stipulating under what conditions the source code can be released. See the discussion of source code escrow in note .
… reviews,3
A state election official may reserve the right to ask an independent party to do source code review on top of what is done at the federal certification level.
… testing,4
Performance testing involves testing a system in conditions similar to those used on election day.
… code.5
A note on terminology: There are three important distinctions to make in this discussion. The difference between open source development and releasing commercially developed code under an open source license is important as these are two modes that we see clearly in voting systems (see discussion of eVACs in §). Open source software is software that is usually developed by a team of volunteers and released under generous licensing terms that allow users to exercise a number of rights, such as copying, modification and distribution, which traditional software licenses withhold. (The Open Source Initiative (OSI) issues and Open Source certification mark to software licenses that follow their Open Source Definition: http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.php.) In contrast to both open source development and releasing software under an open source license, disclosed source code allows a much more limited use of source code, usually for evaluation purposes only and without permissions to make further copies, modify works or distribute. For example, see VoteHere’s license agreement: http://www.votehere.net/VoteHere_Source_Code_License_2.htm.
… selling.6
Keller, A. M., Mertz, D., Hall, J. L., And Urken, A. Privacy issues in an electronic voting machine. In Privacy and Technologies of Identity: A Cross-Disciplinary Conversation, Katherine J. Strandburg and Daniela Stan Raicu, Eds. Springer Science+Business Media:New York, 2006.
… ballot7
The Australian ballot provides for a uniform ballot, free from bias in design and presentation, printed by the government and cast in secret.
… states.8
Id. note  at 2.
… Virginia9
West Virginia allows “open voting'’ whereby a citizen may choose to show their marked ballot to whomever they choose (W.V. CONST. ART. IV, § 4, cl. 2.). Interestingly, West Virginia also makes it a crime to sell or buy votes.
… elections.10
For example, in Cuyahoga County, Ohio — which is not required to provide ballots in non-English languages — there were over 6,000 ballot styles provided to voters in the 2006 primary election. See: Candice Hoke, post to the Election Law listserv, available at: http://majordomo.lls.edu/cgi-bin/lwgate/ELECTION-LAW_GL/archives/election-law_gl.archive.0605/date/article-63.html
… disabilities.11
Relevant authorities include the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Public Law 89-10 (VRA), The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Public Law 101-336 (ADA), Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, Public Law 98-435 and The Help America Vote Act of 2002 Public Law 107-252 (HAVA).
… system.12
Kohno, T., Stubblefield, A., Rubin, A. D., And Wallach, D. S. Analysis of an electronic voting system. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (2004), pp. 27.
… franchise.13
The “enclosure'’ metaphor has also been extended by legal scholars to apply to recent efforts to reduce the amount of material in the public domain. Boyle, J. The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain, 66 Law and Contemporary Problems 33-74, Winter-Spring 2003, available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=470983.
… applications.14
For a partial list of bug-finding tools, see: List of tools for static code analysis, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_tools_for_static_code_analysis&oldid=58643351 (last visited June 14, 2006).
… vulnerabilities.15
For an example of what can be done with automated source code analysis, see: Ashcraft, K., And Engler, D. Using programmer-written compiler extensions to catch security holes. In SP ‘02: Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Washington, DC, USA, 2002), IEEE Computer Society, p. 143.
… error.16
For an example of work that has used binary analysis techniques to uncover vulnerabilities in executable applications, see: Desclaux Fabrice, Skype uncovered: Security study of Skype, EADS CCR/STI/C, November 2005, available at: http://www.ossir.org/windows/supports/2005/2005-11-07/EADS-CCR_Fabrice_Skype.pdf
… components17
For early work in this area, see: Beizer, B. Wiley, J. Black Box Testing: Techniques for Functional Testing of Software and Systems, IEEE Software, 13:5, 98- (1996), available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=536464
… systems.18
See text in § and notes -.
… system.19
See the discussion of the Hursti II findings in Hall, note .
… testing,20
Penetration testing (sometimes called “Red team'’ or “tiger team'’ attacks) involve a simulated attack on a system where the attack team may know everything (“white box'’ testing) or very little (“black box'’ testing) about a system and attempt to compromise it in the same manner as would a malicious actor. These types of exercises are common in the testing and implementation of high-integrity systems. For more on penetration testing rationales and methodologies, see: Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual, available at: http://www.isecom.org/osstmm/.
… monitoring,21
Parallel monitoring, employed during each election now in the State of California, Washington and soon Maryland, involves randomly quarantining a subset of voting machines on election day and voting on them with fake voters and scripted votes to detect bugs, procedural flaws and evidence of possible malicious activity. For more, see: Douglas W. Jones, Testing Voting Systems: Parallel testing during an election, The University of Iowa, Department of Computer Science, available at: http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/testing.shtml.
… feedback.22
For example, Carnegie Mellon University’s Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a computer security incident tracking and response service, see: http://www.cert.org/. In response to a question asked by the author at the NIST Voting Systems Threats workshop, EAC commissioners Davisdson and DeGregorio expressed interest in setting up a similar service and process for computerized voting systems.
… out-of-date.23
ACCURATE. Public comment on the 2005 voluntary voting system guidelines, 2005, available at: http://accurate-voting.org/accurate/docs/2005_vvsg_comment.pdf
… day24
More Than 4,500 North Carolina Votes Lost Because of Mistake in Voting Machine Capacity, Associated Press / USA Today, November 5, 2004, available at: http://tinyurl.com/3nhfw.
… examined.25
NASED letter, “Voting System Memory Card Issues'’, March 22, 2006, available under “certification'’ at: http://www.nased.org/.
… guidelines.26
The set of federal standards that are in effect at the time of writing are the FEC’s 2002 Voting System Standards (2002 VSS). The EAC’s 2005 Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (2005 VVSG) have been approved by the EAC but will not go into effect until January 2008. See: http://guidelines.kennesaw.edu/vvsg/intro.asp.
… vendors.27
Kim Zetter, E-Voting Tests Get Failing Grade, Wired News, November 1, 2004, (article notes that ITAs cannot discuss specific systems due to NDAs with vendors) available at: http://www.wired.com/news/evote/0,65535-2.html.
… systems.28
ITAA letter to Assemblymember Tom Umberg, “OPPOSE: AB 2097′’, March 22, 2006, on file with author. Similar sentiments were expressed in written testimony to a California State Senate Committee on Elections hearing in February of 2006; see: http://tinyurl.com/rsk5e.
… discredited.29
Mercuri, R. T. and Neumann, P. G. Security by obscurity, Communications of the ACM 46:11, 160 (2003) available at: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/948383.948413; One of the best discussions of the notion of “security through obscurity'’ is available on the Wikipedia page for the term. See: Security through obscurity: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Security_through_obscurity&oldid=58172204 (last visited June 14, 2006). Full disclosure: the author is one of the many editors of this Wikipedia page.
… influence.30
Lipner, S. B. Security and source code access: Issues and realities. In SP Õ00: Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Washington, DC, USA, 2000), IEEE Computer Society, p. 124.
… standards.31
Joseph Lorenzo Hall, “Background on Recent Diebold Election Systems, Inc. (DESI) Vulnerabilities'’, National Committee for Voting Integrity Briefing for Congressmembers and Staff (2006), available at: http://josephhall.org/papers/DESI_vulns_background_briefing-20060607.pdf.
… experts.32
Security Analysis of the Diebold AccuBasic Interpreter, Voting Systems Technology Assessment Advisory Board (VSTAAB), February 14, 2006, available at: http://ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/security_analysis_of_the_diebold_accubasic_interpreter.pdf; Linda H. Lamone, Administrator for the Maryland State Board of Elections, letter to Diebold Election Systems, Inc. CEO, available at: http://truevotemd.org/images/stories//ll-diebold.pdf. (discussing official’s concern and reserving the right to hire an independent expert of their choice to review source code)
… form.33
There have also been movements to obviate the need for increased transparency, such as the move to require voter-verified paper records (VVPRs). At the time of writing, there are currently 26 states that have enacted legislation requiring Direct-Recording Electronic voting machines to produce a Voter Verified Paper Record to provide an independent check on the voting system’s recording functions. See VerifiedVoting.org’s Legislation Tracking page: http://verifiedvoting.org/article.php?list=type&type=13.
… review.34
Other provisions relevant to public scrutiny and expert evaluation include: Vendors must establish a California County User Group and hold one annual meeting where the system’s users are invited to review the system and give feedback and volume reliability testing of 100 individual voting machines under election-day conditions. See: California Secretary of State, “10 Voting System Certification Requirements'’, available at: http://ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/vs_factsheet.pdf.
… 2006.35
Id., California VSTAAB, note .
… systems.36
“[T]he Legislature hereby requests the Secretary of State to investigate and evaluate the use of open-source software in all voting machines in California and report his or her findings and recommendations to the Legislature.'’ See ACR 242, as chaptered, available here: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/03-04/bill/asm/ab_0201-0250/acr_242_bill_20040831_chaptered.html, Office of the California Secretary of State, “Open Source Software in Voting Systems'’, 31 January 2006, available at: http://ss.ca.gov/elections/open_source_report.pdf.
… 2097.37
See AB 2097, “An act to add Section 19213.5 to the Elections Code, relating to voting systems, and declaring the urgency thereof, to take effect immediately.'’, available at: http://leginfo.ca.gov/pub/bill/asm/ab_2051-2100/ab_2097_bill_20060217_introduced.html.
… issues.38
Id., note .
… system.39
See §163-165.7(c), available as passed by both houses of the NC Legislature here: http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/Sessions/2005/Bills/Senate/HTML/S223v7.html.
… enforced.40
Diebold Election Systems, Inc. was concerned that, among other things, it didn’t have the rights to provide access to the source code of third-party software components of its system. It sued the North Carolina Board of Elections to prevent this regulation from taking effect. The case was dismissed as the Court found that there was no dispute as to the language or interpretation of the statute. See: Diebold v. North Carolina Board of Elections, unpublished (NC. Super. November 30, 2005), available at: http://www.eff.org/Activism/E-voting/diebold_order_dismissal.pdf.
… cast.'’41
Wisconsin Assembly Bill 627, as introduced, available at: http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2005/data/AB-627.pdf.
… equipment'’.42
Wisconsin Act 92, available at: http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2005/data/acts/05Act92.pdf. The author knows of at least eight states with escrow requirements in regulation or statute (CA, CO, IL, MN, NC, UT, WI and WA). Unfortunately, it is unclear how many states actually escrow software; some states use the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) National Software Reference Library (NSRL) as a form of “escrow'’. However, the NSRL stores binary versions of software products, not source code. See: http://www.nsrl.nist.gov/. The conditions for when escrowed software can be accessed and by whom vary but generally protect proprietary information from public disclosure.
… software:43
There has been no federal electoral legislation since the passage of HAVA in 2002. At the time of writing, there are at least six bills — excluding companion bills — in the U.S. Congress that would substantially reform the conduct of elections on top of the reforms of HAVA. These six bills are: H.R. 550 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.00550:), H.R. 704/S. 330 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.704: and http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:S.330: respectively), H.R. 939/S. 450 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.00939: and http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:s.00450: respectively; note the two versions of these bills contain significant differences), H.R. 533/S. 17 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.00533: and http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:S.17: respectively; note the two versions of these bills contain significant differences), H.R. 278 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.278:) and H.R. 3910 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.3910:). VerifiedVoting.org maintains a comprehensive list of these bills and their differences here: http://www.verifiedvoting.org/article.php?list=type&type=13.
… HAVA.44
Congressman Bob Ney, former chair of the Committee on House Administration — which has federal election law jurisdiction — has expressed the sentiment that possible election reform should wait for past legislative action to run its course. See: Speech by Congressman Bob Ney, given at Cleveland State University, Center for Election Integrity on November 30, 2005, available at: http://cha.house.gov/MediaPages/PRArticle.aspx?NewsID=1146. This sentiment appears to be the main cause behind why none of the six bills in Congress have gained much traction. While wise in some respects, this mindset neglects the fact that the time cycles involved in development of computerized voting equipment are much quicker than the timeframes included as deadlines in the statutes.
… elections.45
The relevant language in both bills is: “No voting system shall at any time contain or use any undisclosed software.'’ See: H.R. 550 §247(c)(1) and H.R. 939/S. 450 §101(c). The one-word difference is that H.R. 550 would allow the disclosure to any “person'’ while H.R. 939/S. 450 only allows disclosure to “citizens'’.
… software.46
H.R. 533 §329(a) and §299G.
… terms.47
For an appreciation of the variety in open source licensing regimes, browse the Open Source Initiative’s (OSI) “Approved License'’ list http://www.opensource.org/licenses and the Free Software Foundation’s web page “Various Licenses and Comments about Them'’ http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/license-list.html. Open source licensing covers many licenses, some of which are incompatible with each other. Licenses span a spectrum of very simple — like the modified BSD license: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php — to the very intricate and complex — like the GNU General Public License: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html.
… licenses.48
Most open source licenses grant or withhold the exclusive rights, granted to creators under copyright law, of copying, modifying and distributing. For detailed inspection of the source code, inspectors would need at least the rights to copy and make modifications. That is, to properly test and debug a program, inspectors will need all source code necessary to build the binary application in a machine-readable format. They would then need to be able to transfer this code to their own build environment, verify that the source code behaves as it purports to, properly build the application and verify that the executable built behaves appropriately and matches the binaries on the target voting systems in the field. Transferring of code, compilation and modification necessary to test source routines implicates the right of reproduction and the right to prepare derivative works or modifications granted by copyright. The right to distribute the source code is not necessarily essential from this perspective as long as the inspecting parties get full access to the code.
… (AVVPAT).49
Kevin Shelley, Secretary of State of the State of California. Position Paper and Directives of Secretary of State Kevin Shelley Regarding the Deployment of DRE Voting Systems in California (Nov. 21, 2003). See: http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/ks_dre_papers/ks_ts_response_policy_paper.pdf.
… AVVPAT50
Kevin Shelley, Secretary of State of the State of California. Standards For Accessible Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail Systems In Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) Voting Systems (Jun. 15, 2004). See: http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/ks_dre_papers/avvpat_standards_6_15a_04.pdf.
… independently.51
Id., note , at 1, 4.
… California.52
Id., note , at 5.
… software.'’53
David Jefferson, Chair of the California Secretary of State’s Voting Technology Advisory Board, post to the Voting-Project mailing list. See: http://gnosis.python-hosting.com/voting-project/February.2004/0031.html.
… software.54
Minimal licensing criteria would be statements such as “The software source code is distributable to any member of the public.'’
… it.55
California Secretary of State Elections Division, Proposed Changes to Accessible Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (AVVPAT) Standards, January 14, 2005, available at: http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/012005_1b_s.pdf.
… systems.56
See Lipner, note ; “Fuzz testing'’ — where software products are bombarded with random input to test reliability — has found that source-available software utilizing open source development techniques is considerably more reliable than closed, proprietary products. See: B. Miller, D. Koski, C. Lee, V. Maganty, R. Murthy, A. Natarajan and J. Steidl. Fuzz revisited: A re-examination of the reliability of unix utilities and services. Technical report, Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin (1995), available at http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/miller95fuzz.html
… systems.57
Here are a few examples: In the Fall of 2004, Diebold sent cease-and-desist letters to a number of students who had published an internal email archive that exposed the fact that Diebold had been using uncertified software on their machines. OPG, Pavlosky & Smith v. Diebold, 72 U.S.P.Q.2d 1200 (N.D. Cal. Sept. 30, 2004) available at: http://www.eff.org/legal/ISP_liability/OPG_v_Diebold/20040930_Diebold_SJ_Order.pdf. Diebold has also sent letters and a “product use advisory'’ to Florida election officials warning them of intellectual property limitations on the testing of their voting systems in conjunction with other vendors systems. See Id., note , at 21. In North Carolina, in response to the new legislation discussed in §4.3.2, Diebold sued the State Board of Elections arguing that it could not provide source code to third-party software for the evaluation demanded by the new statute (see note ).
… defenders.58
Swire develops a model of when disclosing security vulnerabilities will help or hinder system defenders: Swire, P. P. A model for when disclosure helps security: What is different about computer and network security? 2 Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law 163 (2004).
… equipment.59
In the past, vendors have “updated'’ software on voting systems in the field without requesting recertification. After The California Attorney General settled a lawsuit against Diebold Election Systems, Inc. in the Winter of 2004, in part for fielding voting systems which were running uncertified software, this practice seems to have stopped. See: Press Release, California Office of the Attorney General, “Attorney General Lockyer Announces $2.6 Million Settlement with Diebold in Electronic Voting Lawsuit: Settlement Would Resolve False Claims Allegations, Strengthen Security of Equipment'’, November 10, 2004, available at: http://ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/release.php?id=843.
… election.60
There are unanswered questions about whether or not Presidential elections can be postponed without amending the Constitution. See: Congressional Research Service, “Postponement and Rescheduling of Elections to Federal Office'’, October 4, 2004: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL32623.pdf.
… secret.61
“A trade secret may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in one’s business, and which gives him an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it.'’ Restatement of Torts §757, comment b (1939).
… disclosed.62
Id. ITAA testimony, note , “Similarly, software source code, like many other written works (e.g., customer lists, secret formulas for products, strategic plans for future competition and an almost infinite variety of similar materials) can be protected against unauthorized disclosure under state trade secrets laws and with contractual non-disclosure agreements.'’
… damages.63
For patents and copyright, 28 USC 1498 provides that a patent or copyright holder can sue the government for “recovery of his reasonable and entire compensation'’ but cannot enjoin the work being “used by or for'’ the government. Disclosure of patented, copyrighted software would not correspond to large financial exposure for voting systems vendors; depending on the terms of distribution (limited or public), the availability of the source code for voting system software would not undermine their ability to sell software products or enforce and license their patents.
… information.64
State equivalents to FOIA in the form of public records acts typically have broad exemptions for confidential information and trade secrets. Exemption 4 of FOIA allows the government to withhold trade secrets under certain circumstances involving FOIA requests. See: Erisman, M. K. The never ending saga of unit prices: To disclose or not to disclose, that is the question. 2005 Army Law 138 (2005).
… Co.,65
Ruckelshaus, Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency v. Monsanto Co. 467 U.S. 986 (1984).
… property.66
Id., at 1003-1004.
… program.67
Id., at 1010-1014.
… property.68
See discussion accompanying note .
… code.69
The first quasi-open source software product to be used in U.S. elections was ChoicePlus by Voting Solutions. This software has been used to administer local-level ranked-ballot elections in Cambridge, MA since 1998 and Burlington, VT. It was planned to be released under the GNU GPL in November of 2003 but one small, proprietary piece of code has prohibited the full release of the software under the GNU GPL. Interview with Steve Willet of Voting Solutions, April 7, 2006, on file with author; Jay Lyman, Successful public election joins Diebold, free software, NewsForge, April 4, 2006, available at: http://trends.newsforge.com/article.pl?sid=06/03/23/2040258&tid=136&tid=132.
… efforts,70
The following nations have either posted or claim to have posted voting system software in publicly-accessible forums or to select organizations: Argentina, Venezuela, Estonia and Kazakhstan. See: “Publicación de Software y Documentación'’, available (in Spanish) here: http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar/dgelec/index.php?module=pruebaPiloto&file=publicacion, See: “Auditorías en Venezuela garantizan la integridad del voto'’, available (in Spanish) at: http://www.smartmatic.com/noticias_077_2005-18.htm, See (in Estonian): http://www.vvk.ee/elektr/docs/Yldkirjeldus-eng.pdf and documentation/software at: http://www.vvk.ee/elektr/dokumendid.htm, Kazakhstan claims to allow review of the source code used to power their voting systems; it is hard to find. The Kazakh elections website (in Cyrillic): http://election.kz/.
… election.71
Clive Boughton and Carol Boughton, “Credible Election Software — eVACSTM'’, white paper on file with author (2005).
… fix.72
Email interview with Carol Boughton of Software Improvements Pty Ltd. (on file with author).
… footing73
For example, under §68(1) of Australia’s Trade Practices Act of 1974, a disclaimer of warranty is void if it does not follow the particular conventions and wording of the Act. See: Fitzgerald, B., And Bassett, G. Legal issues relating to free and open source software. Essays in Technology Policy and Law (Queensland University of Technology School of Law) 1 (2003).
… property.74
Software Improvements stated two concerns with releasing code that they’ve written under the GPL: first, that they would loose any trade secrecy embodied in the code and second, that another firm could use software that they’ve developed to compete against them.
… eVACS.75
Email interview with Philip Greene of the ACT electoral commission. (on file with author).
… license.76
Of course, under U.S. copyright law, a copyright holder can license their works under as many licenses as they like.
… system.77
However, as this article goes to press, there are indications that Apple has closed pieces of its software in a strategy to prevent people from running their software on non-Apple hardware. See: Tom Yager, Apple closes down OS X, InfoWorld, May 17, 2006, available at: http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/05/17/78300_21OPcurve_1.html.
… system.78
Coggins, C. Independent testing of voting systems. Communications of the ACM 47:10, 34-38 (2004).
… certification.79
Vogue Election Products & Services, LLC. did just this recently when it teamed up with Election Systems and Software (ES&S) to certify and market the AutoMARK ballot marking device.
… case,80
See, supra, § .
… contract,81
For example, an individual or organization could have to submit an application attesting to certain competences and sign a legally binding agreement that forbid certain activities. Such pre-requisite competencies could be to have a PhD-level degree in an area such as computer science and experience in system evaluation. Examples of activities to forbid would be to distribute the code further, to compile code flaws that aren’t made available to the regulatory agency, to publish non-public reports and to transmit source-level information to a vendor’s competitors.
… systems.82
The SAKAI project uses this “community source'’ model, where a consortium of higher educational institutions have started to develop their own course management software instead of paying vendors . See: http://sakaiproject.org/.
… systems83
Molnar, D., Kohno, T., Sastry, N., And Wagner, D. Tamper-evident, history-independent, subliminal-free data structures on PROM storage -or - how to store ballots on a voting machine (extended abstract). In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (2006).
… code84
Yee, K.-P., Wagner, D., Hearst, M., And Bellovin, S. Prerendered user interfaces for higher-assurance electronic voting. In USENIX/ACCURATE Electronic Voting Technology Workshop (2006).
… verification85
Sastry, N., Kohno, T., And Wagner, D. Designing voting machines for verification. In Fifteenth USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 2006) (August 2006).

Swimming upstream

by lynnjkelly

One
thing that the article we’ve been looking at, “Nourishing the Roots”,
brings up is how re-framing our words and actions using the Buddha’s
teachings goes against the grain of our culture in the English-speaking
world. The evidence is all around us, and I offer an example below.

Excerpts from an Op Ed piece by David Brooks in the NY Times, 20 May, 2013:(http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/21/opinion/brooks-what-our-words-tell-us.html?hp&_r=0)

About
two years ago, the folks at Google released a database of 5.2 million
books published between 1500 and 2008. You can type a search word into
the database and find out how frequently different words were used at
different epochs…A study by Jean M. Twenge, W. Keith Campbell and
Brittany Gentile found that between 1960 and 2008 individualistic words
and phrases increasingly overshadowed communal words and phrases.

That
is to say, over those 48 years, words and phrases like “personalized,”
“self,” “standout,” “unique,” “I come first” and “I can do it myself”
were used more frequently. Communal words and phrases like “community,”
“collective,” “tribe,” “share,” “united,” “band together” and “common
good” receded.

…The
Kesebirs [in a different study, covering the 20th century] identified
50 words associated with moral virtue and found that 74 percent were
used less frequently as the century progressed. Certain types of virtues
were especially hard hit. Usage of courage words like “bravery” and
“fortitude” fell by 66 percent. Usage of gratitude words like
“thankfulness” and “appreciation” dropped by 49 percent.

Usage
of humility words like “modesty” and “humbleness” dropped by 52
percent. Usage of compassion words like “kindness” and “helpfulness”
dropped by 56 percent. Meanwhile, usage of words associated with the
ability to deliver, like “discipline” and “dependability” rose over the
century, as did the usage of words associated with fairness. The
Kesebirs point out that these sorts of virtues are most relevant to
economic production and exchange.

…So
the story [Brooks would] like to tell is this: Over the past
half-century, society has become more individualistic. As it has become
more individualistic, it has also become less morally aware, because
social and moral fabrics are inextricably linked. The atomization and
demoralization of society have led to certain forms of social breakdown,
which government has tried to address, sometimes successfully and often
impotently.

(end of excerpt)

This
essay describes part of a trend in which we come to think of ourselves
less as citizens and more as consumers. As the markets of exchange
become more global, the role of consumer may seem to be the only role we
all have in common. I don’t see any evil intent here, just the
evolution of our world culture. But an unfortunate by-product of this
change is that our self image can be swept up in these assumptions.

As
the society (as reflected in word usage) supports our moral aspirations
less, we end up carrying our moral framework with us individually. We
can seek out people who hold values similar to our own, who support our
wholesome intentions, but sometimes it may just seem easier to work and
rest and not bother building a network that intentionally supports our
moral life.

One
could get the sense that it’s hopeless to resist the tide of our
culture, but it may be that each of us, with our efforts to speak and
act from a clear, wholesome ethical framework, forms a little eddy of
countercultural force. As we find others who share our values, our
commitment is strengthened. Who knows? Our tiny minority, identifying
more as ethical beings than consumers, may start a small tide of our
own.



BHIKKHUNä PATIMOKKHA Ý ENGLISH.


The Four Preliminary Functions

Sweeping the place, lighting a lamp, administering water and spreading seats.

The Five Functioning Things

Interest, purity, the suitable time, the number of bhikkhunis and the advice.

The Four Features To Be Suitable

The day of the full moon, all the defeated bhikkhunis, those
excluded from the Community are not present and the bhikkhunis defeated
are at a distance.

The four preliminary functions, the five functions and the four
features of suitability completed, we invite the bhikkhunis who have got
the consent of the order of bhikkhunis to recite the rules of the
higher order.

The origin

Noble ladies listen, today is the fifteenth day of the full moon,
as suitable may the Community of bhikkhunis recite the rules of the
bhikkhunis

What are the functions? Noble ladies inform your purity. I will
recite the rules of the higher order. All present, listen carefully and
attentively. Those that have ecclesiastical offences should voice them.
Those who haven’t should be silent, by their silence I will know their
purity. In a gathering like this, it should be heard up to the third
time. When listening to it, up to the third time, if you recall any
offences, they should be declared. If a bhikkhuni listening to it, up to
the third time, were not to declare an offence that she recalls, it
amounts to telling a deliberate lie. The Blessed One has said that
telling a deliberate lie is an impediment. Therefore those recalling
their offences should declare them, it’s for their mental health.

Noble ladies, the origin is recited, how is your purity? For the
second and for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies
are pure, therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.

End of the original story.

Offences which merit excommunication

Now the eight offences are recited.

The training precept for sexual things

1.If a bhikkhuni interested in sexual things practice them in the
form of an animal, that is an offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The training precept, for stealing.

2. A bhikkhuni taking from village or forest, something not given
with a thievish mind and if it amounts to a robbery for which the king
would arrest, execute, imprison, or banish, she does an offence, fit to
be ex-communicated.

The training precept, for depriving human life.

3. If a bhikkhuni intentionally deprives human life by providing a
weapon or by praising death, or by inciting one to die, saying, `Good
man, what is the use of this evil unpleasant life, dying is better than
living.’ Praising death in various ways makes one to think and ponder
about dying, that is an offence, fit to be ex-communicated.

Training precept, for attainments above human.

4. A bhikkhuni impressing others about attainments above human,
without attaining them, would say, `I know and see noble attainments and
visions above human.’ Later, when cross questioned or even not cross
questioned, seeing her offence and seeking purity would say: `Noble
lady, not knowing or seeing I said I know and see, I said those useless
lies, out of conceit’. It’s an offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The training precept above the knee caps.

5 If a bhikkhuni with desire consents to a male person’s approach to
brush up or down, or massage, or take hold, or touch or press above the
knee caps, is an offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The training precept for hiding an offence.

6. A bhikkhuni knowing that another bhikkhuni had done an offence,
would not accuse her for it, nor inform the Community about it, while
she is present and alive Afterwards she would say: `Even earlier, I knew
that sister is of such behavior’. Not accusing the bhikkhuni herself,
nor informing the Community about it, is an offence fit to be
ex-communicated.

Training precept for associating an ex-communicated bhikkhu.

7. A bhikkhuni associating a bhikkhu, rightfully ex communicated by
the Teacher’s discipline as disrespectful and cannot be corrected,
should be advised by the bhikkhunis up to the third time: `Noble lady,
this bhikkhu is rightfully ex-communicated by the Teacher’s discipline
as disrespectful and cannot be corrected do not associate him.’ It’s
good if she gives up the association, if not, it is an offence fit to be
ex-communicated.

Training precept, for eight fold misbehavior

8. If a bhikkhuni with desires endures a male person’s approaches in
the form of holding hands, touching the edge of the robe, standing
close, talking or exchanging ideas, or follow him to enclosures, or
disclose the body with such intentions, this wrong behavior is an
offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The end of the offences, which merit excommunicating

Noble ladies, the eight offences for excommunication are recited. A
bhikkhuni fallen for one or the other of these offences is fit to be
ex-communicated. Noble ladies, I ask how is your purity? For the second
and for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are
pure, therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.


OFFENCES PARDONED BY A COMMUNITY
OF BHIKKHUS AND BHIKKHUNIS
OF MORE THAN TWENTY

Noble ladies, now the seventeen serious offences will be recited.

Precept for quarrelling

1. A bhikkhuni leading a quarrelsome life, quarrelling with a
householder, his son, a servant, a workman or at least a wandering
ascetic, falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for associating a deceitful woman.

2. A bhikkhuni knowing that a certain woman is deceitful, ignoring
the fact and without a suitable arrangement with the king, the
Community, a group, a guild, or an army, associates her and falls with
the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Precept for wandering alone in the village.

3. A bhikkhuni, wandering alone in the village, or crossing the river
alone, or spending the night alone, or leaving the Community of
bhikkhunis, falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for restoring an ex-communicated.

4. A bhikkhunã restoring another bhikkhunã, rightfully
ex-communicated by the Community of bhikkhunis, according to the
discipline of the dispensation of the Teacher, ignoring the decisions of
the working committee, and the ex-communication by a majority of votes,
falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious
offence.

Precept for accepting food.

5.A bhikkhuni accepting eatables and drinks from the hands of a male
with desire, falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

The second precept for accepting food.

6. A bhikkhuni saying: `Noble lady, what does it matter, whether this
male is with or without desire, you without desire, accept the eatables
and drinks with your own hands and partake them.’ Here she falls with
the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Training precept for acting as go-between.

7.A bhikkhuni conveying a woman’s intentions to a man or a man’s
intentions to a woman, or at least for a temporary communion falls with
the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Training precept for evil anger.

8. A bhikkhuni angry and displeased accuses another bhikkhuni saying
she merits complete ex-communication, `What is the use of this holy
life, give up robes.’ Later when questioned, or not, or after a complete
examination, the accusation proves to be wrong and is found that the
bhikkhuni had been angry. This bhikkhuni falls with the first offence
and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

For a precept, in another section.

9 A bhikkhuni angry and displeased accuses a bhikkhuni, with an
irrelevant category of offences, for a small reason and says she merits
complete ex-communication, `What is the use of this holy life, give up
robes.’ Later when questioned, or not or after a complete examination of
the other class of offences, the accusation proves to be wrong and is
found that the bhikkhuni had been angry. This bhikkhuni falls with the
first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Precept for giving up the training.

10. A bhikkhuni angry and displeased says, `I withdraw, from
enlightening myself, from the Teaching, from the Community and from the
training. I’m far behind the daughters of the Sakyas. There are other
bhikkhunis, bashful and scrupulous of the training, I will lead the holy
life under them.’ That bhikkhuni should be advised by the other
bhikkhunis thus: `Noble lady, angry and displeased, do not say, I
withdraw, from enlightening myself, from the Teaching, from the
Community and from the training. I’m far behind the daughters of the
Sakyas. There are other bhikkhunis, bashful and scrupulous of the
training, I will lead the holy life under them. The Teaching is well
proclaimed, live, the holy life, delight in it and make an end of
unpleasantness rightfully.’ If she holds on to this view when advised,
she should be advised up to the third time. It’s good if she gives it
up, if not she falls with an offence for not heeding admonition
repeatedly up to the third time and becomes helpless with a serious
offence.

Precept for being angry about a lawful decision

11. If a bhikkhuni angry and displeased over a lawful decision were
to say: `The bhikkhunis are led by interest, anger, delusion and fear.’
That bhikkhuni should be admoished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, angry
and displeased, over a lawful decision do not say the bhikkhunis are
led by interest, anger, delusion and fear. Noble lady, you may be led by
interest, anger, delusion and fear.’ The bhikkhunis should admonish her
up to the third time to give up that view. Good, if she gives it up, if
not she falls with an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up
to the third time and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

The first precept for evil behavior.

12. If bhikkhunis practice wrong behavior, wrong faith, wrong
virtues, worry the Community of bhikkhunis hiding each other’s faults.
The bhikkhunis should admonish them: `Sisters, you practice wrong
behavior, wrong faith, wrong virtues, worry the Community of bhikkhunis
hiding each other’s faults.

Noble ladies, the Community praises openness.’ If they persistently
practice wrong behavior, they should be admonished up to the third time.
If they give up their wrong behavior that’s good, if not they fall with
an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the third time
and becomes helpless with a serious offence. .

Second precept for evil behavior.

13.If a bhikkhuni says: `Noble ladies, live withdrawn, yet do not
live in various ways. There are other bhikkhunis in this Community with
this behavior, this faith, these virtues, worrying the Community of
bhikkhunis hiding each others’ faults. The Community of bhikkhunis said
nothing to them. Not liking you, gossiping about you and because you are
weak, they say: `Sisters, you practice wrong behavior, wrong faith,
wrong virtues, worry the Community of bhikkhunis hiding each others’
faults. Noble ladies, the Community praises openness.’ That bhikkhuni
should be admonished thus: ‘Noble lady, do not say: `Noble ladies, live
withdrawn, yet do not live in various ways. There are other bhikkhunis
in this Community with this behavior, this faith, these virtues,
worrying the Community of bhikkhunis hiding each others faults. The
Community of bhikkhunis said nothing to them. Not liking you, gossiping
about you and because you are weak, they say: `Sisters, you practice
wrong behavior, wrong faith, wrong virtues, worry the Community of
bhikkhunis hiding each others’ faults. Noble ladies, the Community
praises openness.’ If she persistently behaves in this manner, she
should be admonished up to the third time. It’s good if she gives up
that behavior, if not she falls with an offence for not heeding
admonition repeatedly, up to the third time and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for causing schism in the Community.

14. A bhikkhuni that causes a split in the Community that is in
concord, or one persisting with a litigation that needs settlement with a
split, should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, do not
cause a schism in the Community that is in concord, do not persist with a
litigation that needs settlement with a split. Noble lady, appreciate
the concord in the Community. A united pleasant Community that recites a
single recitation is good’ If she persists in her endeavor she should
be admonished up to the third time. Good if she gives it up, if not she
falls with an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the
third time and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Precept for associating schemers

15. The same bhikkhuni is reckoned by one, or two, or three
bhikkhunis saying: `Noble ladies, do not say anything to this bhikkhuni,
she says the rightful thing according to the discipline. I too agree
with her interests and liking. She knows what she says, I too agree with
her words. The bhikkhunis should admonish these bhikkhunis: `Noble
ladies, do not say so, this bhikkhuni does not say the rightful,
according to the discipline. You should not give your vote for a schism
in the Community. Noble ladies, live in concord with the Community. A
united pleasant Community that recites a single recitation is good’ If
they persist in their endeavor, they should be admonished up to the
third time. Good if they give it up, if not they fall with an offence
for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the third time and become
helpless with a serious offence.

The precept of training for unruliness.

16. A bhikkhuni of unruly nature would not listen, when the
bhikkhunis admonish her rightfully. She would say, `Noble ladies, do not
admonish me on what is good or bad. I too will refrain from admonishing
the noble ladies, on what is good or bad.’ The bhikkhunis should
admonish her: `Noble lady, do not be beyond admonition. Make yourself
available for admonition and you too admonish the bhikkhunis rightfully.
The gathering of the Blessed One grows by mutual admonition and
rehabilitation of each other. Admonished thus if she is not amendable,
should be admonished up to the third time. Good if she gives up her
unruly nature, if not she falls with an offence for not heeding
admonition repeatedly up to the third time and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for causing ill fame to a family.

17. A certain bhikkhuni lives dependent on a village or hamlet. She
is seen and heard to be visiting a certain family. That family too sees
and knows of her evil behavior. The bhikkhunis should admonish her:
`Noble lady, you are heard and seen to be always visiting a certain
family. That family too does not approve your evil behavior. Noble lady,
leave this dwelling, it is for your good.’ That bhikkhuni might retort:
`The bhikkhunis are led by interest, by anger, by delusion and fear, on
account of such an offence a certain one would be sent away and another
would not be sent away.’ The bhikkhunis should admonish that bhikkhuni:
`Noble lady, do not say the bhikkhunis are led by interest, anger,
delusion and fear. The noble lady is heard and seen to be visiting a
certain family and that family does not approve your behavior. You
should leave this dwelling, it’s for your own good.’ Admonished up to
the third time if she gives up the wrong behavior, it’s good, if not she
falls with an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the
third time and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Noble ladies, the seventeen serious offences consisting of the nine
primary offences and the eight offences for not heeding admonition given
up to the third time are recited. A bhikkhuni fallen for one or the
other of these offences has to beg pardon in the presence of both
Communities. To cut down her conceit the bhikkhuni should be
rehabilitated in a place where there is a Community of twenty
bhikkhunis. If it happens that the number is less than twenty, she is
not rehabilitated and those bhikkhunis are censurable. This is the
proper course. Noble ladies, I ask how is your purity? For the second
and for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are
pure, therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.

End of the offences pardoned by a major Community of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis of more than twenty.

 

ATONEMENT FOR OFFENCE.

Noble ladies, the thirty offences for which there’ll be atonement are recited.

Section on bowls.

Precept for accumulating bowls.

1.If a bhikkhuni accumulates bowls, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for untimely robe material

2. If a bhikkhuni determines robe material received at the wrong time
as `received at the right time’, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for exchanging robes.

3. If a bhikkhuni having exchanged robes with another bhikkhuni later
says: ‘Noble lady, this is your robe, take it and return my robe, that
is mine.’ And she tears away her robe, or instigates another to tear it
away, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for teaching others

4. If a bhikkhuni does not teach one and teaches another, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for exchanging things

5. If a bhikkhuni exchanges things, with one and not with another, it is an offence for atonement.

First precept for giving away things of the Community.

6. If a bhikkhuni gives away requisites of the Community, intended for some other purpose, it’s an offence for atonement.

Second precept for exchanging things of the Community.

7. If a bhikkhuni skillfully exchanges requisites of the Community,
intended for some other purpose for something else, it’s an offence for
atonement.

First precept for giving away things of the Community to people

8. If a bhikkhuni gives eatables of the Community, intended for some other purpose to people, it’s an offence for atonement.

Second precept for giving belongings of the Community to people

9. If a bhikkhuni skillfully exchanges eatables of the Community,
intended for some other purpose with people, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for exchanging belongings of the Community with a person

10. If a bhikkhuni skillfully exchanges eatables of the Community,
intended for some other purpose with a person, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Section one on the bowl

THE SECTION ON ROBES

The precept concerning the important robe*

11. A bhikkhuni bargaining on the important robe could do so to the
maximum of four copper coins, if she exceeds that, it’s an offence for
atonement.

*Important robe. `garupàvura,na’ It’s the robe offered after the
recitation of the `rules for the bhikkhunis’ to the bhikkhuni who
observed the rains, at the place of observing the rains.

Precept concerning an unimportant robe*

12. A bhikkhuni bargaining on an unimportant robe could do so to the
maximum of three and half copper coins, if she exceeds that, it’s an
offence for atonement.

*Unimportant robe. `lahupàvuraõa’ It’s any other robe offered after
the recitation of the `rules for bhikkhunis’ to the bhikkhunis who
observed the rains ceremony.

Precept for the robe material offered to make robes, for the rains ceremony.

13. At a time when robes are sewn, and the robe material is
distributed, a bhikkhuni could be in possession of extra robes for ten
days, if she exceeds that period, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept to leave no room for errors

14. At a time when robes are sewn, and the robe material is
distributed, a bhikkhuni should not put aside any one of her three robes
even for one night unless with the consent of the bhikkhunis otherwise,
it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for robes out of season.

15. At a time when robes are sewn, and the robe material is
distributed, the need of a robe may arise to a bhikkhuni. If she
desires, she could accept the robe material and quickly make the robe.
She should complete it within a month the most or even within another
week, if she exceeds that time limit, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for asking robe material from an unknown.

16. If a bhikkhuni asks for robe material from an unknown householder
or a householder’s wife, without a reason, it’s an offence for
atonement. The reason here is her robe is stolen or it is destroyed.

Further for the former precept.

17. If the aforesaid man or woman had offered much material for
robes, much more material than the necessary, that bhikkhuni could
prepare her robe with them, if she exceeds her needs, it’s an offence
for atonement.

First precept for favors.

18 For a certain bhikkhuni, an unknown householder, or an unknown
householder’s wife may collect some money and contemplate: `With the
collected money, I will buy some robes material, prepare the robe and
supply a robe to the bhikkhuni of such name.’ Before the rains ceremony
that bhikkhuni approaching that household would suggest an alternate
suggestion: `Sir, good if you buy this material with the collected money
and offer me a robe of this nature out of compassion’ it’s an offence
for atonement.

.

Second precept for favors.

19 For a certain bhikkhuni, two unknown householders, or two unknown
householder’s wives collect some money and individually contemplate:
`With the collected money, I will buy some robes material, prepare the
robe and supply a robe to the bhikkhuni of such name.’ Before the rains
ceremony that bhikkhuni approaching those households might suggest an
alternate suggestion: `Sirs, good if you buy this material with the
collected money and offer me one robe of this nature, both in concord
out of compassion.’ It’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the royalty.

20. To a certain bhikkhuni the king, a royal member, a brahmin, or a
householder sends a messenger saying: `With this money buy the necessary
robe material and supply the bhikkhuni of such name with a robe.’ That
messenger approaches the bhikkhuni and says: `Noble lady, accept this
money, it is sent to prepare a robe for you.’ If the bhikkhuni needs a
robe she should reply the messenger thus: `Good sir, I do not accept
money for the preparation of robes, I accept suitable robes, at the
correct time.’ The messenger then asks: `Has the noble lady a
stewardess?’ The bhikkhuni could name someone in the monastery or a
laywoman The messenger would approach the named stewardess give her the
money and the message and approaching the bhikkhuni would say: `Noble
lady, we informed the stewardess, at the suitable time approach her and
get the robe offered to you.’ For the preparation of the robe the
bhikkhuni should approach the stewardess two or three times and remind
her about it, saying: `Good one I need a robe.’ Good if the robe is
prepared when reminded two or three times. The fourth, fifth and up to
the sixth time a silent notification should be made. Good if the robe is
prepared by then and offered. If she makes any other endeavors to get
the robe, it is an offence for atonement. If the robe is not prepared,
either the bhikkhuni herself should go or a messenger should be sent to
those who sent the material for robes, saying: `Good sirs, out of the
money you sent for the material for robes the bhikkhuni did not get
anything. Do not pursue it, do not be angry over it.’ That is the course
of action there.

The section on robes is the second.

THE SECTION ON GOLD

Precept for gold.

21.If a bhikkhuni picks up, or makes another to pick up or puts away
carefully, gold, silver or coins, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for trafficking with money.

22. If a bhikkhuni engages herself in trafficking with money in various ways,

it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for buying and selling.

23. If a bhikkhuni engages in buying and selling various things, it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for less than five mends

24. If a bhikkhuni with a bowl that has less than five mends, buys a
new bowl it is an offence for atonement. That bhikkhuni should abandon
her new bowl in front of the Community of bhikkhunis, and be the
possessor of the last bowl after everyone chooses a bowl and she would
be told: `Bhikkhuni, this is your bowl until it breaks up.’ That is the
course of action there.

The precept for medicinal requisites

25. Sick bhikkhunis could accept and partake medicinal requisites
such as ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey and molasses, keeping them for a
period of seven days. If someone keeps them beyond that period, it is an
offence for atonement.

The precept for tearing away a robe.

26. If a bhikkhuni gives a robe to another bhikkhuni and later angry
and displeased would tear it away or make another tear it away from her,
it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for giving an order to make yarn.

27. If a bhikkhuni herself informs the weavers to make cloth and get a robe woven, it is an offence for atonement

The major precept for weavers

28.Should a certain householder or a householder’s wife, give orders
to the weavers to weave a special cloth for a certain bhikkhuni not
related, to them. And should the bhikkhuni before the rains ceremony,
approach the weaver and suggest: `Sir, is this cloth woven for me?. Good
if you make it tall and wide, weave the cloth well, give a good finish
and a brush. We will give you a small bonus for doing this work ` Should
that bhikkhuni later give the weaver a small bonus at least in the form
of something put in her bowl, it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for an extra robe

29. An extra robe is gained by the bhikkhuni who completes the three
months of the rains and the last ten days successfully. It should be
accepted by the bhikkhuni, aware of this fact and should be kept until
the ceremony is over. If she keeps it longer than that, it is an offence
for atonement.

The precept for one, thoroughly knowing

30. A bhikkhuni appropriating the gains of the Community for herself,
thoroughly knowing they are the gains of the Community does an offence
that merit atonement. .

The third section on gold

Noble ladies, the thirty offences that merit atonement, are recited,
now I ask how is your purity? For the second and for the third time I
ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they are
silent, and I record it as such.

The end of the offences that merit atonement

PURE ATONEMENTS

Noble ladies, now the one hundred and sixty six offences that need atonement will be recited.

Precept for eating garlic.

1. If a bhikkhuni eats garlic, it’s an offence that merits atonement.

Precept for removing obstructing hairs on the body

2.If a bhikkhuni shaves obstructing hairs on her body, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for slapping the palms

3. If a bhikkhuni slaps the palms, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for applying lacquer

4 If a bhikkhuni applies lacquer, it’s an offence that merit atonement.

Precept for purity with water

5. A bhikkhuni intending to wash should obtain water from the vessel
up to the height of two inches, if she exceeds that, it’s an offence
that merit atonement.

Precept on attendance

6. If a bhikkhuni offers water or fans a bhikkhu partaking food, it’s an offence that merit atonement.

Precept for accepting raw grains.

7. If a bhikkhuni begs for raw grains, roast it, pound it, or cook it
and eat it, or make another to do it for her and eat it, it’s an
offence that merit atonement.

Precept for throwing out excrement

8. If a bhikkhuni throws excrement, urine, rubbish or stale food,
over a wall or fence, or make another to do it for her, she does an
offence that merit atonement.

The second precept for throwing excrement

9. If a bhikkhuni throws excrement, urine, rubbish or stale food , on
vegetation or make another to do it for her, she does an offence that
merit atonement.

Precept for dancing and singing

10. If a bhikkhuni goes to see dancing, singing or musical displays, it’s an offence for atonement.

The first garlic section

2. SECTION FOR THE DARKNESS OF THE NIGHT


Precept for the darkness of the night

11. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to
him in the dark, without a light, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for being in an enclosure

12. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to him in an enclosure it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for talking in the open

13. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to him in open space, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for dismissing the attendant

14. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to
him, or whisper in the ear, on the public road, in an arranged place,
or at the crossroads or send away the accompanying bhikkhuni, it is an
offence for atonement.

Precept for going away without informing

15.If a bhikkhuni approach a family before the mid-day meal, take a
seat and leave that house without informing the mistress, it’s an
offence for atonement

Precept for taking a seat uninvited

16.If a bhikkhuni approaches a family after the mid-day meal, take a
seat uninvited, or dose off there, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for lying without informing

17 If a bhikkhuni approach a family untimely, spread a cover, and
either sit or sleep there, without the permission of the mistress, it’s
an offence for atonement.

Precept for belittling another

18. If a bhikkhuni belittle another owing to a misunderstanding, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for cursing another

19. If a bhikkhuni curse her self or another about the holy life or about hell, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for wailing

20. If a bhikkhuni repeatedly wail hurting her self, it’s an offence for atonement

The darkness of the night is the second.

SECTION ON NAKEDNESS

Precept for nakedness

21. If a bhikkhuni bathe naked, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for the bathing cloth

22. The bathing cloth of a bhikkhuni should be in length four spans
and breadth two spans, according to the measurements of the Well Gone
One.* If it exceeds, it’s an offence for atonement.

*The Well Gone One is a synonym for the Enlightened One.

Precept for sewing the robe.

23 If a bhikkhuni un -pick the sewn stitches of a robe and leave it
aside for four or five days without sewing it, and without making an
effort to get it sewn, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the upper robe

24. If a bhikkhuni fail to wear the upper robe for five succeeding days, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the borrowed upper robe

25.If a bhikkhuni wear the borrowed upper robe, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the gain of many upper robes

26. If a bhikkhuni obstruct the gain of robes by many, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for withholding robe material

27. If a bhikkhuni withhold a rightful section of the robe-material, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for offering robes

28. If a bhikkhuni offer the robe of a recluse, to a householder, a
wandering ascetic, or a female wandering ascetic, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for letting the robe season pass

29. If a bhikkhuni let the robe season pass owing to weak expectations of robe material, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the privileges of the robe season

30. If a bhikkhuni keep back from enjoying the rightful privileges of the robe season, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section for nakedness is the third.

THE SECTION ON SHARING

Precept for sharing one bed.

31 Two bhikkhunis sharing one bed, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for sharing one cover

32. If two bhikkhunis share one cover, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for causing discomfort

33. If a bhikkhuni intentionally cause discomfort to another bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for nursing

34. A bhikkhuni not attending or making another attend on an ailing woman living with her, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for turning out

35.Should a bhikkhuni giving lodgings to a bhikkhuni, when angry and displeased turn her out, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for associations

36. A bhikkhuni associating a householder, or a householder’s son,
should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, do not associate a
householder or the son of a householder. Live secluded. The Community of
bhikkhunis praise seclusion.’ If the bhikkhuni pursues that behavior
when admonished, she should be admonished up to the third time. Good, if
she give up the association, if not, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept within the country

37. A bhikkhuni going on a tour in a region considered dangerous and
fearful within the country unprotected, is an offence for atonement.

Precept outside the country

38. A bhikkhuni going on a tour out of the country if considered
dangerous, fearful and unprotected, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the rainy season

39. A bhikkhuni going on a tour within the period of observing the rains, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for not going on a tour

40. A bhikkhuni not going on a tour of at least thirty-five to
forty-two miles, when the observation of the rains end, is an offence
for atonement.

The section on sharing is the fourth

THE SECTION FOR GAILY COLOURED HOUSES

The precept for the royal palace

41. If a bhikkhuni go sight seeing to a royal palace, a decorated
house, a forest resort, an orchard, or a beautiful pond, it is an
offence for atonement.

The precept for using an easy chair

42. If a bhikkhuni usean easy chair or a sofa, it’s an offence for atonemenmt.

Precept for spinning yarn

43. If a bhikkhuni spin yarn, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for doing household work

44. If a bhikkhuni, do household work it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for settling a legal matter

45.A bhikkhuni told, Noble lady settle this legal matter, and the
bhikkhuni accepting to settle it, would not settle it, nor make an
effort to settle it through some other means, is an offence for
atonement.

Precept for distribution of food

46. A bhikkhuni distributing eatables to a householder, a wandering
ascetic or a female wandering ascetic with her own hands, is an offence
for atonement.

Precept for household robes

47.If a bhikkhuni without giving up her household robes, would use them, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept about the dwelling

48. .If a bhikkhuni without giving up her dwelling should go on a tour, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept about learning pseudo sciences

49. .If a bhikkhuni learn pseudo sciences, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for reciting pseudo sciences

50. .If a bhikkhuni recite pseudo sciences, it’s an offence for atonement.

SECTION ON MONASTERIES

Precept for entering a monastery

51. If a bhikkhuni knowing there are bhikkhus should enter a monastery without permission, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for scolding a bhikkhu

52. If a bhikkhuni revile and abuse a bhikkhu, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for abusing a group

53. If a bhikkhuni dare to abuse a group, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for satisfaction

54. Should a bhikkhuni who has eaten to her satisfaction partake eatables or nourishment again, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for being fond of the family

55.If a bhikkhuni is fond of her family, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the absence of bhikkhus

56. If a bhikkhuni observe the rains in a monastery where there are no bhikkhus, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for failing to satisfy

57. If a bhikkhuni completing the rains observance should not satisfy
the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis in the three ways of seeing them, hearing
from them and removing doubts, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for admonition

58. If a bhikkhuni does not visit bhikkhus, or get admonition from them, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for approaching for admonition

59 Every fort-night a bhikkhuni should meet the Community of bhikkhus
for two things, to inquire about the recitation of the rules and for
admonition. If she exceeds that, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for a boil in a minor limb

60. If a bhikkhuni with a boil in a minor limb, should get it treated by a male,

not informing the Community, or even a group of on looking people, it’s an offence for atonement.

The sixth section for monasteries

THE SECTION FOR CONFINEMENT

Precept for confinement

61. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman that is confined, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept when giving suck

62. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman, giving suck, it’s an offence for atonement.

First precept for a trainee

63. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman who has not spent two rains observing the six precepts, it’s an offence for atonement.

The second precept for a trainee

64. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman who has spent two rains observing
the six precepts, without the consent, it’s an offence for atonement.

The first precept for a woman gone with a man

65. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman gone with a man, before completing twelve years, it’s an offence for atonement.

Second precept for a woman gone with a man

66. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman gone with a man and spent the
complete twelve years, but not the two rains observing the six precepts,
it’s an offence for atonement.

The third precept for a woman gone with a man

67. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman gone with a man and has spent the
complete twelve years and the two rains observing the six precepts,
without the consent of the Community of bhikkhunis, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The first precept for one living with the bhikkhuni

68. A bhikkhuni having ordained a woman living with her, would not
see to her development or make another do it, is an offence for
atonement.

The precept for not following the Teacher

69. If a bhikkhuni would not follow the teacher that ordained her for two years, it’s an offence for atonement.

The second precept for one living with the bhikkhuni

70. A bhikkhuni having ordained a woman living with her, would not
leave her to herself and go away at least forty -two to thirty-five
miles, or make that arrangement for her, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section on confinement is the seventh

SECTION FOR GIRLS NOT OF AGE.

The first precept for girls not of age

71. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl less than twenty years of age, it’s an offence for atonement.

The second precept for girls not of age

72. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl who has completed twenty years but
has not lived two years observing the six precepts, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The third precept for girls not of age

73. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl who has completed twenty years has
lived two years observing the six precepts, without the consent of the
Community of bhikkhunis, it’s an offence for atonement

The precept for girls less than twelve years

74. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl less than twelve years, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for twelve year olds

75. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl of twelve years without the consent
of the Community of bhikkhunis it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for being angry.

76 Should a bhikkhuni be told, the ordinations she had already done
are enough, would first agree and later get angry, it’s an offence for
atonement

First precept for not ordaining a trainee

77.A bhikkhuni promising to ordain a trainee if she offer a robe,
later would neither ordain her nor make arrangements for her to be
ordained, it’s an offence for atonement

Second precept for not ordaining a trainee

78.A bhikkhuni promising to ordain a trainee if she would live with
her for two years, later would neither ordain her nor make arrangements
for her to be ordained, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for living grievously

79. If a bhikkhuni ordain a daring woman, that associate men and boys and live grief stricken, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept when permission is not given

80. If a bhikkhuni ordain a trainee without the permission of father and mother or husband, it’s an offence for atonement

The precept for probationers

81. If a bhikkhuni ordain a trainee under probation, showing favors, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for annual ordination

82. If a bhikkhuni ordain annually, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for ordaining in one year

83. If a bhikkhuni ordain two, in one year, it’s an offence for atonement.

Section for girls underage is the eighth

THE SECTION ON PARASOLS AND SANDALS

Precept for parasols and sandals

84. If a bhikkhuni not sick use a parasol and a pair of sandals, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for conveyances

85.If a bhikkhuni not sick use a means of conveyance, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for wearing a loin cloth

86. If a bhikkhuni wear a loin -cloth, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for wearing ornaments

87. If a bhikkhuni wear ornaments, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for bathing with perfumes and paints

88. If a bhikkhuni bathe with perfumes and paints, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for bathing with scented sesame

89. If a bhikkhuni bathe with scented sesame, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a bhikkhuni brush another bhikkhuni

90. If a bhikkhuni brush another bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a trainee brush a bhikkhuni

91. If a trainee brush a bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a novice brush a bhikkhuni

92. If a novice brush a bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a lay woman brush a bhikkhuni

93. If a lay woman brush a bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for sitting before a bhikkhu without permission

94. A bhikkhuni sitting before a bhikkhu without permission, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for quarrying a bhikkhu

95. If a bhikkhuni ask a question from a bhikkhu to make him uneasy, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for not wearing a vest

96. If a bhikkhuni fail to wear a vest when going out in the village, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section for parasols and sandals is the ninth

THE SECTION FOR TELLING LIES

Precept for telling lies.

97. Telling lies with awareness, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for abusing

98. Using abusive language, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for slandering

99. Slandering is an offence for atonement.

Precept for repeating the Teaching with one not fully ordained

100. A bhikkhuni repeating the Teaching with one not fully ordained, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for sleeping with one not fully ordained

101. A bhikkhuni sleeping with one not fully ordained, is an offence for atonement.

The second precept for sleeping with a man

102.A bhikkhuni sleeping with a man is an offence for atonement.

Precept for Teaching

103. A bhikkhuni teaching a man, more than five or six sentences
without an intelligent woman attending to the conversation, is an
offence for atonement.

Precept for informing attainments

104. If a bhikkhuni inform her attainments above human, to one not fully ordained, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for informing offences

105. If a bhikkhuni inform a bhikkhuni’s offences, to one not fully
ordained, without the consent of the Community, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for digging the earth

106. A bhikkhuni digging the earth or making another to dig the earth, is an offence for atonement.

The tenth section is for telling lies.

THE SECTION ON VEGETATION

Precept for vegetation

107. The destruction of vegetation, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for those with a different view

108.Annoying those with another view, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for stirring up

109. Stirring up and arousing anger, is an offence for atonement.

The first precept for a dwelling

110. If a bhikkhuni take out a bed, chair, cushion, or pillow
belonging to the Community, use it and go away without restoring it or
making another to do it or not informing about it, is an offence for
atonement.

The second precept for a dwelling

111. Should a bhikkhuni spread a bed belonging to the Community use
it and go away without restoring it or making another to do it nor
informing about it, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for encroaching

112. A bhikkhuni knowing that a bhikkhuni had arrived at the
monastery before her, make her bedding encroaching her bedding,
thinking, she will leave the place if it is troublesome to her, if that
be the only reason, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for driving away

113. Should a bhikkhuni angry and displeased drive away another
bhikkhuni from a monastery belonging to the Community, it’s an offence
for atonement.

Precept for the important room

114. Should a bhikkhuni sit or sleep obstructing the entrance to the
main room of a monastery belonging to the Community, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for a huge monastery

115. A bhikkhuni making a huge monastery should intend to clear the
vegetation for the purpose of protecting the entrance to the monastery
and for the purpose of bringing in light. If she intends to clear the
vegetation beyond that, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for living things

116. Should a bhikkhuni knowing there are living things in some
water, throw it on grass or clay, or make another do it, is an offence
for atonement.

Section for vegetation is the eleventh.

THE SECTION ON FOOD

The precept for parking alms food in houses

117. A bhikkhuni not sick should accept alms food at one house, if she exceeds that, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for partaking food in a company

118. Partaking food in a company, other than with a reason, is an
offence for atonement. The reasons are when ill, robes are offered,
going on a journey, embarking a ship or a huge sacrifice for ascetics.

Precept for the blind mother

119. A bhikkhuni gone to a family after being satisfied with rice
cakes or milk rice, if she desires could accept two bowls full of it,
exceeding that is an offence for atonement. Bringing it to the
monastery, she should distribute it among the other bhikkhunis. That
should be the course of action.

Precept for untimely food

120. A bhikkhuni partaking eatables or nourishment at untimely hours, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for accumulating

121. A bhikkhuni partaking accumulated eatables or nourishment is an offence for atonement.

Precept for tooth -picks

122. If a bhikkhuni carries to the mouth food not offered, other than water and a tooth -pick, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for dismissing

123. Should a bhikkhuni invite another bhikkhuni: `Come noble lady,
we will go the alms round in the village or hamlet.’ When going the alms
round without inquiring whether she got anything or not she is
dismissed saying: `Go noble lady, it is not pleasant to talk to you or
sit with you. It’s peaceful for me to be alone.’ Doing it for that
reason only, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for food

124. Should a bhikkhuni sit encroaching in a family where food is shared, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for sitting covered, secretly

125. Should a bhikkhuni sit with a man covered and in secrecy it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for sitting secretly

126. Should a bhikkhuni sit with a man away from the others secretly, it’s an offence for atonement.

The twelfth is the section on food

SECTION ON ETIQUETTE

Precept for etiquette

127. Should a bhikkhuni invited for alms, open up a conversation with
the members of that family before or after the meal, without informing
the other bhikkhunis, it’s an offence for atonement, unless there is a
reason.

The reasons are if it is the time of offering robes or the time of sewing robes.

The precept for Mahanama

128. A bhikkhuni not sick should satisfy the winding of the rains
ceremony at the end of four months, unless a winding ceremony is held
again or a winding ceremony held for good, if she prolongs the winding
of the rains ceremony, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the army in action

129. If a bhikkhuni goes to see the army in action, without a suitable reason,

it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for residing with the army

130. Should the bhikkhuni go to meet the army for some reason, she
could stay with the army for two or three nights if she exceeds that,
it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for seeing a combat

131. While the bhikkhuni is living with the army for two or three
nights, should she go to see a combat, the frontiers, the battle-field
or the army in action it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for taking intoxicants.

132. Taking intoxicants, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for poking with the finger

133. Poking anyone with the fingers, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for laughing

134. Sporting in water, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for being inconsiderate

135. Being inconsiderate is an offence for atonement.

Precept for frightening

136. Should a bhikkhuni frighten another bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

The thirteenth section on etiquette

THE SECTION ON FIRE

Precept for fire

137. If a bhikkhuni lights a fire, or make another light a fire to
warm up without a suitable reason, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for bathing

138.If a bhikkhuni bathe twice within the interval of two weeks without a suitable reason, it’s an offence for atonement.

The suitable reason is a period of hot weather, one and a half months
long, followed by the first month of the rainy season, which add up to a
period of two and a half months of hot weather with burning, or a
period of illness, or a period of working, or when embarked on a
journey, or a period of wind and rain

Precept for de coloring

139.A bhikkhuni with the gain of a new robe should mark it with one
of these colors, either blue, dark brown or black. If she uses the robe
without marking it, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for exchanging

140. Should a bhikkhuni who had offered her upper robe to a bhikkhu,
bhikkhuni, a male novice, or a female novice, use a rejected robe, it’s
an offence for atonement.

Precept for hiding

141. Should a bhikkhuni hide or make another hide a bhikkhuni’s bowl,
robe, sitting mat, needle case, or belt even for a joke, it’s an
offence for atonement.

Precept for awareness

142. Should a bhikkhuni take the life of a living thing with awareness, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for living things

143. Should a bhikkhuni knowing there are living things in the water, partake it, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for agitating

144. Should a bhikkhuni knowing that the rightful litigation is rendered, agitate further, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the caravan belonging to the thieves

145. If a bhikkhuni should arrange to go on a journey in a caravan
belonging to thieves at least between two villages, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The section on fire is the fourteenth

SECTION ON VIEWS

The precept of Ariññha

146. If a bhikkhuni says, as I understand the Teaching preached by
the Blessed One. `The things that are said to be obstructions by the
Blessed One are not real obstructions to one who indulges in them.’ She
should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, do not say that, do
not misinterpret the words of the Blessed One, it’s not good to
misinterpret the Teaching. The Blessed One did not say it. The Blessed
One has explained in various ways, that the obstructing things are
dangerous and indeed those who indulge in them fall into trouble.’ If
the bhikkhuni pursues with the view when admonished, she should be
admonished up to the third time. When admonished up to the third time,
good, if she gives up that view. If not, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for associating one with the above view and living together

147.Should a bhikkhuni knowing a bhikkhuni of that view, associate,
partake food and live with her, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept of a thorn

148. Even a novice says:’ The things that are said to be obstructions
by the Blessed One are not real obstructions to one who indulges in
them.’ The novice should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady,
the Blessed One did not say that, do not misinterpret the words of the
Blessed One.It’s not good to misinterpret the Teaching. The Blessed One
did not say it. The Blessed One has explained in various ways, that the
obstructing things are dangerous and indeed those who indulge in them
fall into trouble.’ If the novice pursues with the view when admonished
by the bhikkhunis this should be said: `Noble lady, from today, the
Blessed One is not your Teacher, I stand witness for that. Other novices
are favored and could live with the bhikkhunis

for two or three nights, that favor is not for you. Now go and
destroy your self. Should a bhikkhuni knowing the novice so destroyed,
speak with her, partake food and live with her, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The precept for rightfulness

149. Should a bhikkhuni say thus to something told rightfully by the
bhikkhunis: `Noble ladies, I will not observe this precept until I get
it explained by a learned disciplinarian.’ It’s an offence for
atonement.

Bhikkhus, a novice should learn, question and question again, from the bhikkhunis, that is the right course of action.

Expressing consternation for the precepts

150. When the rules of the higher order are recited, if a bhikkhuni
says: `What is the use of reciting these kindred precepts, they arouse
doubt, worry and consternation.’ Decrying the precepts is an offence for
atonement.

Precept for being deluded

151. When the rules of the higher order are recited fortnightly if a
bhikkhuni says:’ Noble ladies, now I know, this gets included in the
discourses.’ She had been seen by the other bnhikkhunis listening to the
recitation of the rules of the higher order, two or three times,
undoubtedly even more. It is not possible that she could get free
expressing not knowing. If she had done an offence, she should be dealt
accordingly for it and for hiding in delusion: `Noble lady, it is no
gain for you, it’s a rare chance you get to listen to the recitation of
the rules of the higher order attentively.’ That delusion is an offence
for atonement.

Precept for hitting.

152. If a bhikkhuni angry and displeased hit a bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for showing the gesture of hitting

153. If a bhikkhuni angry and displeased raises the palm with the gesture of hitting a bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for a false accusation

154. If a bhikkhuni accuses a bhikkhuni for a serious offence falsely, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for groundless accusation

155. If a bhikkhuni arouse doubts about a bhikkhuni, intending to
make her unhappy for a moment, when there is no other reason, it’s an
offence for atonement.

156. Should a bhikkhuni secretly listen to what the bhikkhunis say,
when they take sides, dispute and fight, with the purpose of eves
dropping, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section on views is the fifteenth

SECTION ON RIGHTEOUSNESS

The precept for bewilderment.

157. A bhikkhuni giving her proxy vote to settle a legitimate matter, later getting angry, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for going away without giving the vote.

158. At the moment of settling a legal matter, should a bhikkhuni get
up from her seat and go without giving her vote, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for lacking in power.

159. Should a bhikkhuni in concord with the Community of bhikkhunis
offer a robe to a certain bhikkhuni and later regret saying: `The
bhikkhunis offer the gains of the Community according to their whims.’
is an offence for atonement.

Precept for offering a robe

160. Should a bhikkhuni knowing it’s a gain of the Community, offer a robe to an aged person, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for gems

161. Should a bhikkhuni pick, or cause another to pick a gem, or
something worthy like a gem, it’s an offence for atonement. When a gem
or something worthy like a gem is picked, it should be put away,
thinking, `may it be found by the owner.’

Precept for the needle case

162. Should a bhikkhuni possess a needle case made out of bones,
teeth or horns, it’s an offence for atonement, when it breaks up.

Precept for beds and chairs

163. A bhikkhuni making a new, bed or chair, should make it to the
height of eight finger lengths of the Well Gone One, ignoring the stand
at the bottom. If the height exceeds, it’s an offence for atonement,
when it breaks up.

Precept for stuffing with cotton

164. Should a bhikkhuni stuff cotton to a bed or chair, it’s an offence for atonement, when it strips out.

Precept for concealing itch

165. A bhikkhuni making a cloth to conceal her skin disease should do
it adhering to the following measurements, for four lengths it should
be two breadths. If the measurements exceed, and if it’s torn, it is an
offence for atonement.

The precept for Nanda

166. A bhikkhuni making an upper robe to the measurements of the Well
Gone One, should cut it up, it’s an offence for atonement. The
measurements of the Well Gone One’s robe is nine lengths for six
breadths

The sixteenth is the section on views

Noble ladies, the one hundred and sixty six offences that merit
atonement, are recited, now I ask how is your purity? For the second and
for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure,
therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.

The end of the offences that merit atonement

.OFFENCES THAT SHOULD BE CONFESSED

Noble ladies, now the eight offences that should be confessed will be recited.

Precept of training for asking ghee

1. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for ghee and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking oil

2. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for oil and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking honey

3. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for honey and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking molasses

4. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for molasses and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking fish

5. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for fish and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking meat

  1. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for meat and partaking it, should
    confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
    and confess it

Precept of training for asking milk

7. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for milk and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking curd

8. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for curd and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable,
and confess it.’

Noble ladies, the eight offences that have to be confessed, are
recited, now I ask how is your purity? For the second and for the third
time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they
are silent, and I record it as such.

The end of the offences that have to be confessed

FOR TRAINEES

Now the training precepts for the venerable ones will be recited.

SECTION FOR COMPLETENESS

1. I train, to wear all round.

2 I train, to cover all round.

3. I train, shall enter a house well covered.

4. I train, shall sit inside a house well covered.

5. I train, shall enter a house well restrained

6. I train, shall sit inside a house well restrained

7.I train, shall enter a house with eyes turned down.

8 I train, shall sit inside a house with eyes turned down.

9 I train, shall not enter a house raising the body.

10. I train, shall not sit inside a house raising the body. .

11. I train, shall enter a house without a mocking gesture.

12. I train, shall sit inside a house without a mocking gesture. .

13. I train, shall enter a house without making a noise.

14. I train, shall sit inside a house without making a noise.

15 I train, shall enter a house without moving my body.

16. I train, shall sit inside a house without moving my body.

17. I train, shall enter a house without moving my shoulders.

18. I train, shall sit inside a house without moving my shoulders.

19. I train, shall enter a house without moving my head.

20. I train, shall sit inside a house without moving my head.

21 I train, shall not enter a house with my hands akimbo

22. I train, shall not sit inside a house with my hands akimbo.

23. I train, shall not enter a house covering my head.

24. I train, shall not sit inside a house covering my head.

25. I train, shall not enter a house squatting.

26. I train, shall not sit inside a house squatting.

These are the twenty-six proper things.

27. I train, shall accept alms food carefully.

28. I train, shall accept alms food with attention on the bowl.

29. I train, shall accept soups and curries in proportion to the rice.

30. I train, shall accept alms food according to the capacity of the bowl.

31. I train, shall partake the alms food carefully.

32. I train, shall partake the alms food with attention on the bowl.

33 I train, shall partake the alms food without choosing.

34. I train, shall partake soups and curries in proportion to the rice.

35. I train, shall not partake the food crushing down from the top.

36. I train, shall not cover the soups or curries with rice, to gain more soups and curries.

37. I train, shall not ask for soups or rice and partake them, when not sick.

38. I train, shall not look at another’s bowl irritably.

39. I train, shall not take in, large mouthfuls of rice

40. I train, shall make a round mouthful.

41. I train, shall not open the mouth before the mouthful is carried to it.

42. I train, shall not put all the fingers into the mouth, when taking the mouthful.

43. I train, shall not talk, with food in the mouth.

44. I train, shall not eat throwing food into the mouth.

45. I train, shall not eat chewing the food too much.

46. I train, shall not eat stuffing too much food in the mouth.

47. I train, shall not eat shaking the hand.

48. I train, shall not eat scattering food.

49. I train, shall not pull out the tongue to eat.

50. I train, shall not eat making a `capucapu’ sound.

51. I train, shall not eat making a `surusuru’ sound.

52. I train, shall not lick my fingers when eating.

53. I train, shall not eat scraping the bowl.

54. I train, shall not eat licking my lips.

55. I train, shall not accept drinking water with a soiled hand.

56. I train, shall not drop water with particles of food inside the house.

The thirty rules when partaking food.

57. I train, shall not teach someone with an umbrella in the hand, other than when sick.

58. I train, shall not teach someone with a stick in the hand, other than when sick.

59. I train, shall not teach someone with a knife in the hand, other than when sick.

60. I train, shall not teach someone with a weapon in the hand, other than when sick.

61 I train, shall not teach someone wearing shoes other than when sick.

62. I train, shall not teach someone in a vehicle, other than when sick.

63. I train, shall not teach someone going in a vehicle, other than when sick

64. I train, shall not teach someone in bed, other than when sick

65. I train, shall not teach someone in an easy chair, other than when sick

66. I train, shall not teach someone wearing a headdress, other than when sick

67. I train, shall not teach someone with a head cover, other than when sick

68. I train, shall not teach someone on a seat, seated on the ground, other than when sick

69. I train, shall not teach someone on a high seat, seated on a low seat, other than when sick.

70. I train, shall not teach someone seated, while standing other than when sick

71. I train, shall not teach someone going in front, other than when sick.

Sixteen rules connected with teaching.

73. I train, shall not evacuate or make water standing, other than when sick.

74. I train, shall not evacuate, make water or spit on vegetation, other than when sick.

75. I train, shall not evacuate, make water or spit, into water other than when sick.

The three miscellaneous rules

Noble ladies, the rules for the trainee are recited, now I ask how is
your purity? For the second and for the third time I ask how is your
purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they are silent, and I
record it as such.

End of the trainee rules.

Noble ladies, now the seven ways of settling an arisen legal matter will be recited.

1 Discipline should be established in confrontation.

2ôiscipline should be established by recalling memory.

3. Discipline should be established, by proving that the bhikkhuni was deranged mentally

4. By making to promise.

5. Settling the legal matter with a majority of votes.

6. Settling the legal matter by showing its evil nature.

7. By covering up the whole thing.

Noble ladies, the seven ways of establishing discipline are recited,
now I ask how is your purity? For the second and for the third time I
ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they are
silent, and I record it as such.

End of the seven ways of establishing discipline.

Noble ladies, the origin is recited. The eight serious offences, the
seventeen serious offences that merit excommunication, the thirty rules
that cause a fall and excommunication, the eight offences that have to
be confessed, the rules for the trainee and the seven ways of
establishing discipline are recited. These have come down from the
discourses of the Blessed One and are to be recited fortnightly. All
should train in them united and without a dispute.

End of the detailed exposition.

End of the rules of the higher order for bhikkhunis.


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