Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
May 2013
M T W T F S S
« Apr   Jun »
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031  
05/07/13
913 LESSON 08-05-2013 WEDNESDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Mahavagga 39 Uposathakkhandhakaü Pali English Sinhala The Election Commission will meet all recognised political parties on May 10 to seek their consent for the new voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered. Appearing for the Centre, Attorney General GE Vahanvati informed a Bench of Justices P Sathasivam and Ranjan Gogoi that the process of amendment was “underway”. In response to a letter written by EC on March 28, 2013, the Legislative Department of the Law Ministry had begun the work of preparing amendments to the Rules, which would be placed before the Parliament. The Bench exclaimed, “We are happy that it has finally materialised. Now what remains is when we are to implement it.” All parties were in support of introducing the VVPT machines. Final verdict 2013 will be out by 2 pm on Wednesday The state has recorded 71.29 per cent of voting. -கர்நாடகத்தில் இன்று வாக்கு எண்ணிக்கை
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:40 pm

913 LESSON 08-05-2013 WEDNESDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Mahavagga

 39

 Uposathakkhandhakaü

  Pali

 English

 Sinhala







The Election
Commission will meet all recognised political parties on May 10 to seek
their consent for the new voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines
to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.

Appearing for the Centre, Attorney General GE Vahanvati informed a
Bench of Justices P Sathasivam and Ranjan Gogoi that the process of
amendment was “underway”. In response to a letter written by EC on March
28, 2013, the Legislative Department of the Law Ministry had begun the
work of preparing amendments to the Rules, which would be placed before
the Parliament.

The Bench exclaimed, “We are happy that it has finally materialised.
Now what remains is when we are to implement it.” All parties were in support of
introducing the VVPT machines.

Final verdict  2013 will be out by 2 pm on Wednesday

The state has recorded 71.29 per cent of voting.

* Counting to begin at 8 am
* Initial trends expected by 10 am and complete results by 2 pm
* 36 counting centres set up, including five in B’lore
* Counting updates can be accessed on EC website – www.ceokarnataka.kar.nic.in
* EC to monitor counting exercise through webcasting
* 2,940 candidates in 223 constituencies
* Periyapatna poll to be held on May 29
* 113 seats is the simple majority

கர்நாடகத்தில் இன்று வாக்கு எண்ணிக்கை

கர்நாடக சட்டப்பேரவைக்கு கடந்த ஞாயிற்றுக்கிழமை நடந்த பொதுத் தேர்தல்
வாக்கு எண்ணிக்கை புதன்கிழமை காலை தொடங்குகிறது. மாலைக்குள் அனைத்து
முடிவுகளும் வெளியிடப்பட்டு விடும் என்று தேர்தல் ஆணைய வட்டாரங்கள்
தெரிவிக்கின்றன
.

மாநிலத்தில் மொத்தம் உள்ள 224 தொகுதிகளில் 223 தொகுதிகளுக்கு கடந்த
ஞாயிற்றுக்கிழமை வாக்குப்பதிவு நடைபெற்றது. மைசூர் மாவட்டம், பெரியபட்டினம்
தொகுதியில் பா.ஜ.க. வேட்பாளர் மறைவை அடுத்து அங்கு தேர்தல்
ஒத்திவைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. தேர்தலில் வாக்குப்பதிவு 71.29 சதவிகிதமாக
இருந்தது. கடந்த 1978-ம் ஆண்டுக்குப் பிறகு (71.90 சதவிகிதம்) இந்தத்
தேர்தலில்தான் வாக்கு சதவிகிதம் அதிகமாக உள்ளது.

வாக்கு எண்ணிக்கை காலை 8 மணிக்குத் தொடங்கி 36 மையங்களில் நடைபெறுகிறது.
பிற்பகலுக்குள் அனைத்து முடிவுகளும் தெரிந்துவிடும் என தேர்தல் ஆணைய
வட்டாரங்கள் தெரிவிக்கின்றன.

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ

The Indian Express

indiatvnews

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan


a few seconds ago

See Truth as Truth and Untruth as Untruth on 8-5-2013

Exit
polls by individual scribes point to their own likings as winners “I
can face two battalions but not two scribes” said Napolean.

The magic number to form the government is 113.Election in 223 Assembly Elections in Karnataka 2013
BSP + SDPI 58 26%
Congress 57 25.55%

JDS 41 18.38%

BJP 41 18.38%

KJP 17 7.62%

BSR Congress 5 2.24%

Independents 4 1.79%

One predicted a neck-and-neck fight between the BJP and the JD(S) for the second spot.
CNN-IBN scribe has predicted 100-116 seats for the Congress and 43-53 for the BJP and the JD(S).

Exit polls conducted by various television news channels scribes have predicted a comeback of their own liking parties.

Some scribes show that other parties would bag 16-24 seats.

An exit poll
conducted by Suvarna news channel scribe has placed
the Congress tally at 109 to 120 and that of the BJP at 49-60. The scribe also predicted
37 per cent of vote share for the Congress, 27 per cent for the BJP, 21
per cent for the JD(S), seven per cent for the KJP, eight per cent each
for the BSR Congress and others. Another study conducted by India TV
scribe and C-Voters scribe gave the Congress a tally of up to 118 while placing the
BJP’s maximum score at 59 and that of the JD(S) at 37. A survey by
Janashree channel scribe also predicted 111 seats for the Congress.

A Scribe of Creative
Centre for Political Studies predicted 110 seats for the Congress, 47
for the BJP and 32 for the JD(S) based on the opinions of people in
8,960 booths in 223 constituencies.They are all imaginations of individual scribes which are not true.


The Pioneer

the pioneer

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan


a few seconds ago

All recognised political parties
may also demand the the EC to make public the Open Source Code for the
new voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs.

2. EC must not practice Caste Discriminative source of bias by
draping the ELEPHANT symbol that too with the trunk raised above and
SC/ST/OBC leaders statues during UP Assembly elections and never draped
NATIONAL FLOWER LOTUS symbol and statues of BJP leaders during Karnataka
Election 2013. And during the coming general elections EC must drape
all the HAND symbol and Congress leaders statues for level playing
ground.

3. EC have allotted NATIONAL FLOWER LOTUS to BJP and sacred RELIGIOUS
HAND used by astrologers and Islam to Congress. Both must be frozen.

4. EC must take all the (VVPT) machines door to door along with the
agents of parties as it is done for collecting electricity and water
bill and also make provisions to cast votes online.

AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Medical-Transcription-Small-Business-Idea.htm

Medical Transcription Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Medical Transcription Business

Medical transcription involves taking taped reports from doctors and
medical professionals and transferring them into written documents. Here
are the pros and cons of starting a medical transcription business.

The Pros

Some of the reasons you might want to start a medical transcription business include:

  • It’s a home-based business with good income potential.
  • You can have a flexible work schedule, and work as much as you want.
  • You have the potential to create long-term relationships with your clients.
  • You get to put your organizational, detail-oriented qualities to work for you every day.
  • The more experienced you become, the quicker you will be able work and the more you can make.

The Cons

Some of the potential challenges you might experience when starting a medical transcription business include:

  • You’ll need to be licensed as a medical transcriptionist from a certified training program.
  • You need a broad understanding of basic medical terms and jargon.
  • You must be a proficient typist, with good grammar and research skills.
  • You need to meet deadlines and follow formatting requirements.
  • You need equipment, including a computer, printer, transcriber, reference books and specific software.
  • The work requires strict compliance with patient confidentiality requirements.
  • It’s all computer work, which can put a strain on your eyes, wrists and back.

  • There are some work-from-home scams in the medical transcription field you need to be aware of.

Recommended Resources



Second Khandhaka.

(The Uposatha Ceremony, and the Pàtimokkha.)

1.

1.
At that time the Blessed Buddha dwelt near Ràjagaha, on the Gigghakåña
mountain (`the vulture’s peak’). At that time the paribbàjakas belonging
to titthiya schools assembled or the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth
day of each half month
(1)
and recited their Dhamma. The people went to them in order to hear the
Dhamma. They were filled with favour towards, and were filled with faith
in the paribbàjakas belonging to titthiya schools; the paribbàjakas
belonging to titthiya schools gained adherents.

2.
Now when the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra was alone, and had retired
into solitude, the following consideration presented itself to his mind:
`The paribbàjakas belonging to titthiya schools assemble now on the
fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month and recite
their Dhamma. The people go to them in order to hear the Dhamma. They
are filled with favour towards, and are filled with faith in, the
paribbàjakas who belong to titthiya [\q 240/] schools; the paribbàjakas
who belong to titthiya schools gain adherents. What if the Reverend ones
(the Buddhist bhikkhus) were to assemble also on the fourteenth,
fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month.’

3.
Then the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra went to the place where the
Blessed One was; having approached Him and having respectfully saluted
the Blessed One, he sat down near Him. Sitting near Him the Magadha King
Seniya Bimbisàra said to the Blessed One: `Lord, when I was alone and
had retired into solitude the following, consideration presented itself
to my mind: “The paribbàjakas, &c.; what if the Reverend ones were
to assemble also on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each
half month.” Well, Lord, let the Reverend ones assemble also on the
fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month.’

4.
Then the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the
Magadha King Seniya Bimbisàra by religious discourse; and the Magadha
King Seniya Bimbisàra, having been taught . . . and gladdened by the
Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his seat, respectfully
saluted the Blessed One, passed round Him with his right side towards
Him, and went away.

In
consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having
delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I
prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you assemble on the fourteenth, fifteenth,
and eighth day of each month.


______________________

[\q 241/]

2.

At that time
the bhikkhus, considering that the Blessed One had ordered them to
assemble on the fourteenth &c. day of each half month, assembled on
the fourteenth &c. day of each half month and sat there silent. The
people went to them in order to hear the dhamma. They were annoyed,
murmured, and became angry: `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas, when they
have assembled on the fourteenth &c. day of each half month, sit
there silent, like the dumb, or like hogs? Ought they not, to recite the
Dhamma, when they have assembled?’ Some bhikkhus heard those people
that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry; these bhikkhus told
this thing to the Blessed One. In consequence of that and on this
occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse,
thus addressed the bhikkhus: `I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you recite
the Dhamma, when you have assembled on the fourteenth &c. day of
each half month.’

______________________


3.

1. Now when the Blessed One was alone
and had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented
itself to His mind: `What if I were to prescribe that the bhikkhus
recite as the Pàtimokkha
(2) the precepts which I have promulgated to [\q 242/] them; this will be their Uposatha service (service of the fast-day).’

2. And the
Blessed One, having left the solitude in the evening, in consequence of
that and on this occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse,
thus addressed the bhikkhus: `When I was alone, O bhikkhus, and had
retired into solitude, the following consideration, &c., This will
be their Uposatha service. I prescribe you, O bhikkhus, to recite the
Pàtimokkha.

3. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to recite it in this way: let a learned, competent
bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha : “Let
the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Today it is Uposatha, the fifteenth
(of the half month). If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha hold the
Uposatha service and recite the Pàtimokkha. What ought to be first done
by the saïgha? Proclaim the pàrisuddhi
(3), Sirs, I will recite the Pàtimokkha.”

`”We hear it well and fix well the mind on it all of us(4).”

`”He who has
committed an offence, may confess it; if there is no offence, you should
remain silent; from your being silent I shall understand that the
Reverend brethren are pure (from offences). As a single person that has
been asked a question, answers it, the same is the matter if before an
[\q 243/] assembly like this a question has been solemnly proclaimed
three times: if a bhikkhu, after a threefold proclamation, does not
confess an existing offence which he remembers, he commits an
intentional falsehood. Now, Reverend brethren, an intentional falsehood
has been declared an impediment
(5)
by the Blessed One. Therefore, by a bhikkhu who has committed (an
offence), and remembers it, and desires to become pure, an existing
offence should be confessed; for if it has been confessed, it is treated
duly.”‘

4.(6)
`Pàtimokkhaü:’ it is the beginning, it is the face (mukham), it is the
principal (pamukham) of good qualities; therefore it is called
`Pàtimokkhaü
(7).’

`âyasmanto:’
this word `àyasmanto’ is an expression of friendliness, an expression of
respect, an appellation that infers respectfulness and reverence.

`Uddisissàmi:’
I will pronounce, I will show, I will proclaim, I will establish, I
will unveil, I will distinguish, I will make evident, I will declare.

` Tam’ (it): this refers to the Pàtimokkha.

`Sabbe va
santà’ (all of us): as many as are present in that assembly, aged,
young, and middle-aged (bhikkhus), are denoted by `sabbe va santà
(8).’

`Sàdhukaü
suõoma’ (we hear it well): admitting [\q 244/] its authority, fixing our
minds on it, we repeat the whole of it in our thoughts.

`Manasikaroma’ (we fix our minds on it) : we listen to it with concentrated, not perplexed, not confused thoughts.

5. `Yassa siyà
àpatti’ (he who has committed an offence): he who, whether an aged or
young or middle-aged bhikkhu, has committed some offence belonging to
the five classes of offences or to the seven classes of offences
(9).

`So
àvikareyya:’ he may show it, unveil it, make it evident, declare it
before the saïgha (the full chapter of bhikkhus), or before a small
number, or before one person.

`Asanti àpatti’ (a non-existing offence): an offence which has not been committed, or which has been committed and atoned for.

`Tuõhi
bhavitabbam’ (he ought to remain silent): he ought to accept (the
recitation of the Pàtimokkha without any answer), he ought not to utter
anything.

`Parisuddhà’ti vedissàmi’(I shall understand that they are pure): I shall infer, I shall know.

6. `Yathà kho
pana paccekaputthassa veyyàkaranam hoti’(as a single person that has
been asked a question answers it) : as a single person that has been
asked a question by another one, would answer it, thus (those who are
present) in that assembly ought to understand: `He asks me.’ [\q 245/]

`Evaråtpà parisà’ (an assembly like this): this refers to the assembly of bhikkhus.

`Yàvatatiyam
anussàvitam hoti’ (it has been solemnly proclaimed three times): it has
been solemnly proclaimed once, and the second time, and the third time.

`Saramàno’ (remembering it): knowing it, being conscious of it.

`Santi àpatti’ (an existing offence): an offence which has been committed, or which has been committed and not been atoned for.

`Nàvikareyya:’
he does not show it, he does not unveil it, he does not make it
evident, he does not declare it before the saïgha, or before a small
chapter, or before one person.

7. `Sampajànamusàvàd’ assa hoti’ (he commits an intentional falsehood): what is intentional falsehood? It is a sin(10).

`Antaràyiko
dhammo vutto Bhagavatà’(it has been declared an impediment by the
Blessed One): an impediment to what? An impediment to the attainment of
the first jhàna, an impediment to the attainment of the second third
fourth jhàna, an impediment to the attainment of the jhànas, vimokkhas
(11),
samàdhis (states of self-concentration), samàpattis (the eight
attainments of the four jhànas and four of the eight vimokkhas), [\q
246/] the states of renunciation, of escape (from the world), of
seclusion, of (all) good qualities.

` Tasmà :’ for that reason.

`Saramànena’ (by him who remembers it): by him who knows it and is conscious of it.

`Visuddhàpekkhena’ (by him who desires to become pure): by him who wishes to atone for it and to make himself pure of it.

8. `Santa àpatti’ . . . (see sect.6).

`Avikàtabbà’ (it is to be confessed): it is to be confessed before the saïgha or before a small chapter, or before one person.

`Avikatà
hi’ssa phàsu hoti’ (for if it has been confessed, it is treated duly):
duly for what purpose? In the due way for the attainment of the first
jhàna (and so on, as in sect.7, down to) of (all) good qualities.’

 
 

______________________


4.

1. At that time the bhikkhus,
considering that the Pàtimokkha recitation had been instituted by the
Blessed One, recited the Pàtimokkha every day.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The
Pàtimokkha, O bhikkhus, is not to be recited every day. He who recites
it (every day), commits a dukkaña offence. I ordain, O bhikkhus, to
recite the Pàtimokkha on the Uposatha day.’

2. At that
time the bhikkhus, considering that it had been prescribed by the
Blessed One to recite the Pàtimokkha on the Uposatha, day, recited the
Pàtimokkha three times each half month, on the fourteenth, fifteenth,
and eighth day of each half month.

They told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 247/]

`The
Pàtimokkha, O bhikkhus, is not to be recited three times each half
month. He who recites it (three times), commits a dukkaña offence. I
prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you recite the Pàtimokkha once each half
month, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day.’

______________________


5.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà
bhikkhus recited the Pàtimokkha according as they lived together, every
one before his own companions.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The
Pàtimokkha, O bhikkhus, is not to be recited according as (the bhikkhus)
live together, by every one before his own companions. He who recites
it (in that way), commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus,
that the Uposatha service is to be held by the complete fraternity.’

2. Now the
bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that the Uposatha
service is to be held by the complete fraternity. How far does
completeness extend, as far as one residence (or one district), or all
over the earth?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that completeness is to extend as far as one residence.’

3. At that
time the Reverend Mahà Kappina dwelt near Ràjagaha, in, the deer park of
Maddakukkhi. Now (one day) when the Reverend Mahà Kappina was alone and
had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented itself
to his mind: `Shall I go to the Uposatha service or shall I not go?
Shall I go to the functions of the order [\q 248/] or shall I not go?
Indeed I have become pure by the highest purity (i.e. I have reached
arahatship or Nirvàna).’

4. Then the
Blessed One, understanding by the power of His mind the reflection which
had arisen in Mahà Kappina’s mind, disappeared from the Gigghakuta
mountain and appeared in the deer park of Maddakukkhi, before the
Reverend Mahà Kappina (as quickly) as a strong man might stretch his
bent arm out, or draw his outstretched arm back. The Blessed One sat
down on a seat laid out for Him, and the Reverend Mahà Kappina, after
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, sat down also near Him.

5. When the
Reverend Mahà Kappina was seated near Him, the Blessed One said to him:
`When you were alone, Kappina, and had retired into solitude, has not
the following consideration presented itself to your mind: “Shall I go
(&c., as in sect.3 down to:) by the highest purity?”‘

`Even so, Lord.’

`If you
bràhmaõas do not honour, do not regard, do not revere, do not pay
reverence to the Uposatha, who will then honour, regard, revere, pay
reverence to the Uposatha? Go to the Uposatha, O bràhmaõa, do not
neglect to go; go to the functions of the order, do not neglect to go.’
The Reverend Mahà Kappina promised the Blessed One to do so (by saying),
`Even so, Lord.’

6. Then,
having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Reverend Mahà
Kappina by a religious discourse, the Blessed One disappeared from the
deer park of Maddakukkhi, from the presence of the Reverend Mahà
Kappina, and appeared on the [\q 249/] Gigghakåña mountain (as quickly)
as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out, or draw his outstretched
arm back.

 
 

______________________


6.

Now the
bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that completeness (of
the assembled fraternity) is to extend as far as one residence
(12). Now how far does one residence extend?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you determine a boundary. And it ought to be determined,
O bhikkhus, in this way: first the landmarks are to be proclaimed: a
landmark consisting in a mountain, in a rock, in a wood, in a tree, in a
path, in an anthill, in a river in a piece of water. The landmarks
having been proclaimed, let a learned competent bhikkhu proclaim the
following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend
Sirs, hear me. If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha, as the landmarks
have been proclaimed all around, by these landmarks determine the
boundary for common residence and communion of Uposatha. This is the
¤atti. Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. The saïgha
determines the boundary,(&c, as above). Thus I understand.”‘

 
 


______________________

7.

1. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus considering that fixing of boundaries had
been [\q 250/] prescribed by the Blessed One, fixed boundaries of
excessive extension, of four yojanas, five yojanas, six yojanas. The
bhikkhus who came to the Uposatha, arrived when the Pàtimokkha was being
recited, or when it had just been recited, or they were obliged to stay
the night on the way.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, determine a boundary of excessive extension, of four, five,
or six yojanas. He who determines (such a boundary), commits a dukkaña
offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you determine boundaries of three
yojanas extent at most.’

2. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus determined a boundary which extended to
the opposite side of a river. The bhikkhus who came to the Uposatha,
were carried down (by the river), and their alms-bowls and robes were
carried away

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, determine a boundary which extends to the opposite side of a
river. He who determines (such a boundary), commits a dukkaña offence. I
allow you, O bhikkhus, if there is a regular communication by a ferry
boat or a dike, at such places to determine a boundary which extends
also to the opposite side of the river.’

 
 

______________________


8.

I. At that time the bhikkhus recited
the Pàtimokkha in their successive cells without appointing (a certain
place for doing so). The bhikkhus who [\q 251/] arrived (from distant
places), did not know where the Uposatha was to be held that day.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, recite the Pàtimokkha in the successive cells without
appointing a certain place for it. He who recites it (in this way),
commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus, the holding of
Uposatha after having fixed upon an Uposatha hall, wherever the saïgha
likes, a vihàra, or an addhayogas, or a storied building, or a house, or
a cave
(13). And you ought to appoint it in this way:

2. ` Let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the
saïgha is ready, let the saïgha appoint the vihàra called N.N. to be our
Uposatha hall. This is the ¤atti. Let the saïgha, Reverend
Sirs, hear me. The saïgha appoints, &c. Thus I understand.”‘

3. At that
time there were in a certain residence (or district) two Uposatha halls
fixed upon. The bhikkhus assembled in both places, because (some of
them) thought, `The Uposatha will be held here;’ (and some), `It will be
held there.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, fix upon two Uposatha halls in one district. He who does so,
commits a dukkaña offence. I ordain, O bhikkhus, the abolishing of one
of them
(14), and the holding of Uposatha (only) in one place.

4. `And you
ought to abolish it, O bhikkhus, in this way: let a learned, competent
bhikkhu proclaim [\q 252/] the following ¤atti before the
saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the saïgha is ready,
the saïgha may abolish the Uposatha hall called N.N. This is the
¤atti. Let the saïgha, &c. Thus I understand.”‘

 
 

______________________


9.

1. At that time in a certain district
too small an Uposatha hall had been appointed. On the day of Uposatha a
great assembly of bhikkhus met together. The bhikkhus heard the
Pàtimokkha sitting outside the site fixed upon. Now those bhikkhus
thought: `The Blessed One has promulgated the precept that Uposatha is
to be held after an Uposatha hall has been fixed upon, and we have heard
the Pàtimokkha sitting outside the site fixed upon. Have we therefore
(duly) held Uposatha or have we not held it?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Whether (a
bhikkhu) be seated inside or outside the site fixed upon, provided he
hears the Pàtimokkha, Uposatha has been duly held by him.

2. `Therefore, O bhikkhus, let the saïgha determine as large, an Uposatha-pamukha(15)
as it desires. And it ought to be determined, O bhikkhus, in this way:
first the landmarks to be proclaimed, the landmarks having been
proclaimed, let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following
¤atti [\q 253/] before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend
Sirs, hear me. If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha, as the landmarks
have been proclaimed all around, determine an Uposathapamukha by these
landmarks. This is the ¤atti. Let the saïgha, &c. Thus I
understand.”‘

 
 

______________________


10.

At that time in a certain district on
the day of Uposatha the young bhikkhus, who had assembled first,
thought: the theras do not come yet and went away. The Uposatha service
was held after the right time.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that on the Uposatha day the theras ought to assemble first.’
 
 

______________________


11.

At that time there were at Ràjagaha
several residences (of bhikkhus) within the same boundary. Now the
bhikkhus quarrelled: (some of them said), `The Uposatha shall be held in
our residence;’ (others said), `It shall be held in our residence.’
They told this thin to the Blessed One.

`There are, O
bhikkhus, several (bhikkhu) residences within the same boundary; now the
bhikkhus quarrel : (some of them say), “The Uposatha shall be held in
our residence;” (others say), “It shall be held in our residence.” Let
those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, assemble in one place all of them and hold
Uposatha there, or let them assemble where [\q 254/] the senior bhikkhu
dwells and hold Uposatha there. But in no case is Uposatha to be held by
an incomplete congregation. He who holds it (in that way), commits a
dukkaña offence.’

 
 

______________________


12.

1. At that time the Reverend Mahà
Kassapa, when going to the Uposatha from Andhakavinda to Ràjagaha, and
crossing a river on his way, was nearly
(16) being carried away (by the river)(17);
and his robes got wet. The bhikkhus said to the Reverend Mahà Kassapa:
`How have your robes got wet friend?’ (He replied): `As I was going,
friends, to the Uposatha from Andhakavinda to Ràjagaha, and crossing a
river on my way, I was nearly being carried away (by the river); thus my
robes have become wet.’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let the
saïgha, O bhikkhus, confer on the boundary which it has determined for
common [\q 255/] residence and for communion of Uposatha, the character
of ticivarena avippavàsa
(18).

2. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to confer on it this character in this way: let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the
saïgha is ready, let the saïgha confer on the boundary which the saïgha
has determined for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, the
character of ticivarena avippavàsa. This is the ¤atti. Let
the saïgha (&c., as above). Thus I understand.”‘

3. At that
time the bhikkhus, considering that the Blessed One had ordained the
conferring of the character of ticivarena avippavàsa (on the
boundaries), deposited their robes in a house. Those robes were lost,
burnt or eaten by rats; the bhikkhus were badly dressed and had coarse
robes. (Other) bhikkhus said: `How comes it that you are badly dressed,
friends, and that you have coarse robes?’ (They replied): `Considering,
friends, that the Blessed One had ordained the conferring (on the
boundaries) of the character of ticivarena avippavàsa, we deposited our
robes in a house; the robes have been lost, burnt, or eaten by rats; [\q
256/] therefore we are badly dressed and have coarse robes .

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let(19)
the saïgha, O bhikkhus, confer on the boundary which it has determined
for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, the character of
ticivarena avippavàsa, excepting villages and the neighbourhood of
villages
(20).

4. `And you ought, O bhikkhus, to confer on it this character in this way, &c.(21)

5. `Let him
who determines a boundary, O bhikkhus, first determine the boundary for
common residence and for communion of Uposatha, and afterwards decree
about the ticivarena avippavàsa. Let him who abolishes a boundary, O
bhikkhus, first abolish the decree about the ticivarena avippavàsa, and
afterwards abolish the boundary for common residence and for communion
of Uposatha.

`And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to abolish the [\q 257/] ticivarena avippavàsa in
this way: let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following
¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear
me. If the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha abolish the ticivarena
avippavàsa, which the saïgha has decreed. This is the ¤atti.
Let the saïgha, &c.”

6. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to abolish the boundary in this way: let a learned,
competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti before the
saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the saïgha is ready,
let the saïgha abolish the boundary for common residence and for
communion of Uposatha which it has determined. This is the
¤atti. Let the saïgha, &c.”

7. `If there
is no boundary determined nor fixed, O bhikkhus, the village boundary of
that village, or the Niigata boundary of that Niigata (market town)
near which village or Niigata (a bhikkhu) dwells, is to be considered as
boundary for common residence and for the communion of Uposatha. If (he
lives), O bhikkhus, in a forest where no villages are, community of
residence and Uposatha extends to a distance of seven abbhantaras
(22)
all around. A river, O bhikkhus, cannot be a boundary, a sea cannot be a
boundary, a natural lake cannot be a boundary. In a river, O bhikkhus,
or in a sea, or in a natural lake, community of residence and Uposatha
extends as far as an average man can sprit water all around.’


______________________

[\q 258/]

13.

1. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus made one boundary overlap another one
(which had been determined before by other bhikkhus).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The act of
those who have determined their boundary first is lawful,
unobjectionable, and valid. The act of those who have determined their
boundary afterwards is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. Let no one,
O bhikkhus, make one boundary overlap another one. He who does, commits
a dukkaña offence.’

2. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus made one boundary encompass another one
(which had been determined before by other bhikkhus).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The act of
those, &c. (see sect.1). Let no one, O bhikkhus, make one boundary
encompass another one. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I
prescribe O bhikkhus, that he who determines a boundary, is to determine
it so as to leave an interstice
(23) between the boundaries.’


______________________

14.

1. Now the bhikkhus thought: `How many Uposatha (days) are there?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 259/]

`There are the
following two Uposatha (days), O bhikkhus. The fourteenth and the
fifteenth (of the half month); these are the two Uposatha (days), O
bhikkhus.’

2. Now the bhikkhus thought: `How many Uposatha services are there?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are the
following four Uposatha services, O bhikkhus: the Uposatha service
which is held unlawfully (by an) incomplete (congregation)
(24),
the Uposatha service, which is held unlawfully (by a) complete
(congregation), the Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by an)
incomplete (congregation), the Uposatha service which is held lawfully
(by a) complete (congregation).

3. `Now, O
bhikkhus, the Uposatha service which is held unlawfully (by an)
incomplete (congregation), such an Uposatha service, O bhikkhus, ought
not to be held, nor is such an Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O
bhikkhus, the Uposatha service which is held unlawfully (by a) complete
(congregation), such an Uposatha service, O bhikkhus, ought not to be
held, nor is such an Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O bhikkhus,
the Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by an) incomplete
(congregation), such an Uposatha service, O bhikkhus, ought not to be
held, nor is such an Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O bhikkhus,
the Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by a) complete
(congregation), such an Uposatha service, O bhikkhus, ought to be held,
and such an Uposatha [\q 260/] service is allowed by me. Therefore, O
bhikkhus, you ought to train yourselves thus: “The Uposatha service
which is held lawfully (by a) complete (congregation), such an Uposatha
service will we hold.”‘

 
 

______________________


15.

1. Now the bhikkhus thought: `How many ways are there of reciting the Pàtimokkha?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are the following five ways of reciting the Pàtimokkha: the introduction(25) having been recited, as to the rest, it may be proclaimed: “Such and such rules are known (to the fraternity(26))
.” This is the first way of reciting the Pàtimokkha. The introduction
having been recited, the four pàràjika dhammà having been recited, as to
the rest, it may be proclaimed: “Such and such rules are known (to the
fraternity).” This is the second way of reciting the Pàtimokkha. The
introduction having been recited, the four pàràjika dhammà having been
recited, the thirteen saïghàdisesà dhammà having been recited . . . .
The introduction having been recited, the four pàràjika dhammà having
been recited, the thirteen saïghàdisesà dhammà having been recited, the
two aniyatà dhammà having been recited, as to the rest, it may be
proclaimed: [\q 261/] “Such and such rules are known (to the
fraternity).” This is the fourth way of reciting the Pàtimokkha. The
fifth way is (to recite it) in its full extent. These, O bhikkhus, are
the five ways of reciting the Pàtimokkha.’

2. At that
time the bhikkhus, considering that the Blessed One had allowed to
recite the Pàtimokkha abridged, always recited the Pàtimokkha abridged.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not, O bhikkhus, to recite the Pàtimokkha abridged. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

3. At that
time a certain residence (of bhikkhus) in the Kosala country was menaced
on the day of Uposatha by savage people. The bhikkhus were not able to
recite the Pàtimokkha in its full extent.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, in the case of danger to recite the Pàtimokkha abridged.’

4. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus recited the Pàtimokkha abridged also when there was no danger.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not
to recite the Pàtimokkha abridged, O bhikkhus, if there is no danger.
He who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I allow you, O bhikkhus, in the
case of danger only to recite the Pàtimokkha abridged. The cases of
danger are the following: danger from kings, from robbers, from fire,
from water, from human beings, from non-human beings, from beasts of
prey, from creeping things, danger of life, danger against chastity. I
ordain, O bhikkhus, the recitation in such cases of danger [\q 262/] of
the Pàtimokkha abridged; if there is no danger, in its full extent.’

5. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus preached the Dhamma before the saïgha without being called upon (by the thera).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, preach the Dhamma before the saïgha without being called
upon. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus,
that the thera is either to preach the dhamma himself or to call upon
another (bhikkhu to do so).’

6. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus put questions about the Vinaya before the saïgha without being appointed thereto.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, put questions about the Vinaya before the saïgha without
being appointed thereto. He who so questions, commits a dukkaña offence.
I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that an appointed (bhikkhu) is to put
questions about the Vinaya before the saïgha. And (this bhikkhu) is to
be. Appointed, O bhikkhus, in this way: one may either appoint himself,
or one may appoint another person.

7. `And how is
(a bhikkhu) to appoint himself? Let a learned, competent bhikkhu
proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the
saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the saïgha is ready, I will question
N.N. about the Vinaya.” Thus one may appoint himself. And how is (a
bhikkhu) to appoint another person? Let a learned, competent bhikkhu
proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the
saïgha, &c. If the saïgha is [\q 263/] ready, let N.N. question N.N.
about the Vinaya.”

Thus one may appoint another person.’

8. At that
time appointed, clever bhikkhus put questions about the Vinaya before
the saïgha. The chabbaggiyà bhikkhus conceived anger (towards those
bhikkhus), conceived discontent, and threatened them with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe
you, O bhikkhus, that even he who has been appointed shall (not) put
questions about the Vinaya before the saïgha (without) having looked at
the assembly and weighed (with the mind each) person (present).’

9, 10. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus answered questions about the Vinaya
before the saïgha without being appointed thereto.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, answer questions about the Vinaya before the saïgha without
being appointed thereto. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I
prescribe, O bhikkhus, that questions about the Vinaya are to be
answered before the saïgha (only) by an appointed (bhikkhu). And (this
bhikkhu) is to be appointed
(27), &c.’

11. At that time appointed, clever bhikkhus answered questions about the Vinaya before the saïgha. The chabbaggiyà bhikkhus(28), &c.
 
 


______________________

[\q 264/]

16.

1. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus reproved for an offence a bhikkhu who had not given them leave.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`No bhikkhu, O
bhikkhus, who has not given leave, may be reproved for an offence. He
who reproves, (such a bhikkhu), commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you reprove (bhikkhus) for an offence (only) after
having asked for leave (by saying), “Give me leave, Reverend brother, I
wish to speak to you.”‘

2. At that
time clever bhikkhus reproved the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus for an offence
after having asked for leave. The chabbaggiyà bhikkhus conceived anger
(towards those bhikkhus), conceived discontent, and threatened them with
blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you are (not) to reprove (a bhikkhu) for an offence,
even if he has given leave, (without) having weighed (with your mind)
the person (concerned).’

3. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, who thought: `Otherwise clever bhikkhus
might ask us for leave (and reprove us for an offence),’ themselves
asked beforehand pure bhikkhus who had committed no offence, for leave
without object and reason.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no pure
bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, who have committed no offence, be asked for leave
without object and reason. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I
prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you [\q 265/] are (not) to ask for leave
(without) having weighed (with your mind) the person (concerned).’

4. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus performed an unlawful official act before the saïgha.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O bhikkhus, perform unlawful acts before the saïgha. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

They performed an unlawful act nevertheless.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you should protest, if an unlawful act is being performed.’

5. At that
time clever bhikkhus protested at an unlawful act being performed by the
chabbaggiyà bhikkhus. The chabbaggiyà bhikkhus conceived anger,
conceived discontent, and threatened (those bhikkhus) with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

` I allow you, O bhikkhus, to express your opinion only (instead of protesting formally).’

They expressed
their opinion in the presence of the said (bhikkhus). The chabbaggiyà
bhikkhus conceived anger, conceived discontent, and threatened (them)
with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that four or five persons may protest, that two or three may
express their opinion, and that one person may determine (in his
mind):”I do not think this right.”‘

6. At that
time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus, when reciting the Pàtimokkha before the
saïgha, intentionally recited it so that it could not be heard.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let not him
who is to recite the Pàtimokkha, [\q 266/] O bhikkhus, intentionally
recite it so that it cannot be heard. He who does, commits a dukkaña
offence.’

7. At that
time the Reverend Udàyi, who had a crow’s voice, had the duty to recite
the Pàtimokkha before the saïgha. Now the Reverend Udàyi thought: `It
has been prescribed by the Blessed One that he who is to recite the
Pàtimokkha, ought to recite it so that it may be heard; but I have a
crow’s voice. Well, how am I to act?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

` I prescribe,
O bhikkhus, that he who is to recite the Pàtimokkha may endeavour to
make it audible. If he endeavours (to do so), he is free from offence.’

8. At that time Devadatta recited the Pàtimokkha before an assembly in which laymen were present.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, recite the Pàtimokkha before an assembly in which laymen are
present. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.’

9. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus recited the Pàtimokkha before the saïgha without being called upon (by the thera).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O
bhikkhus, recite the Pàtimokkha before the saïgha without being called
upon. He who does, commits a dukkaña offence. I prescribe, O bhikkhus,
that the thera is master of the Pàtimokkha
(29)

.’

______________________

End of the Bhànavàra of the A¤¤atitthiyas(30).


[\q 267/]

______________________


17.

1. Then the Blessed One, after having
dwelt near Ràjagaha as long as He thought fit, went forth on His
pilgrimage to Kodanàvatthu. Going from place to place on His pilgrimage,
He came to Kodanàvatthu. At that time there dwelt in a certain
residence many bhikkhus, the eldest of whom was an ignorant, unlearned
person, he neither knew Uposatha, nor the Uposatha service, nor the
Pàtimokkha, nor the recital of the Pàtimokkha.

2. Now those
bhikkhus thought: `It has been prescribed by the Blessed One that the
eldest bhikkhu is master of the Pàtimokkha, and here the eldest of us is
an ignorant, unlearned person : he neither knows Uposatha nor the
recital of the Pàtimokkha. Well, how are we to act?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that (in such a case) that bhikkhu who is (most) learned and
competent, is to be made master of the Pàtimokkha.’

3. At that
time there dwelt in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha many
ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus: they neither knew Uposatha . . . nor the
recital of the Pàtimokkha. They called upon the thera: `May it please
the thera, Reverend Sir, to recite the Pàtimokkha.’ He replied: `I am
not competent to do so.’ They called upon the next eldest, &c. He
also replied, &c. They called upon the third eldest, &c. In this
manner they called upon (all bhikkhus) down to the youngest one: `May
it please the Reverend brother to recite the Pàtimokkha.’ He also
replied: `I am not competent, Venerable Sirs, to do so’ [\q 268/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

4, 5. `When, O bhikkhus, in a certain residence, &c.(31);
In that case, O bhikkhus, these bhikkhus are instantly to send one
bhikkhu to the neighbouring residence (of bhikkhus): “Go, friend, and
come back when you have learnt the Pàtimokkha abridged or in its full
extent.”‘

6. Now the bhikkhus thought: `By whom is (this bhikkhu) to be sent?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that the thera is to give order to a young bhikkhu.’

The young bhikkhus, having received that order from the thera, did not go.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one who has been ordered by the thera forbear to go, unless he be sick. He who does not go, commits a dukkaña offence.’
 
 

______________________


18.

1. Then the Blessed One, after having
dwelt at Kodanàvatthu as long as He thought fit, went back again to
Ràjagaha. At that time the people asked the bhikkhus who went about for
alms: `What day of the half month is this, Reverend Sirs?’ The bhikkhus
replied: `We do not know, friends.’ The people were annoyed, murmured,
and became angry: `Those Sakyaputtiya samaõas do not even know how to
count (the days of) the half month; what good things else will they
know?’ [\q 269/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you learn how to count (the days of) the half month.’

2. Now the bhikkhus thought: `Who ought to learn to count (the days of) the half month?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you learn all of you to count (the days of) the half month.’

3. At that
time the people asked the bhikkhus who went about for alms: `How many
bhikkhus are there, Reverend Sirs?’ The bhikkhus replied: `We do not
know, friends.’ The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry:
`Those Sakyaputtiya samaõas do not even know each other; what good
things else will they know?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you count the bhikkhus.’

4. Now the bhikkhus thought: `At what time ought we to count the bhikkhus?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O
bhikkhus, that you count (the bhikkhus) on the day of Uposatha, either
by way of (counting the single) troops (of which the assembly is
composed)
(32), or that you take (each of you) a ticket (and count those tickets).’
 
 

______________________


19.

At that time bhikkhus who did not know that it was Uposatha day, went for alms to a distant village. [\q 270/]

They came back when the Pàtimokkha was being recited, or when it just had been recited.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you proclaim: “Today is Uposatha.”‘

Now the bhikkhus thought: `Who is to proclaim so?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that the thera is to proclaim (the day of Uposatha) in due time.’

At that time a certain thera did not think of it in due time.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O bhikkhus, to proclaim it also at meal time.’

(The thera) did not think of it at meal time either.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O bhikkhus, to proclaim it whenever (the thera) thinks of it.’
 
 

______________________


20.

1. At that time the Uposatha hall in a
certain residence was full of sweepings. The bhikkhus who arrived there
were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the bhikkhus neglect
to sweep the Uposatha hall?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you sweep the Uposatha hall.’

2. Now the bhikkhus thought: `Well, who is to sweep the Uposatha hall?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 271/]

I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that the thera is to order a young bhikkhu (to sweep the Uposatha hall).

The young bhikkhus, having received that order from the thera, did not sweep it.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`He who has
been ordered by the thera, ought not to forbear to sweep it, unless he
be sick. He who does not sweep it, commits a dukkaña offence.’

3. At that
time there were no seats prepared in the Uposatha hall. The bhikkhus sat
down on the ground. Their bodies and their robes became full of dust.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you, prepare seats in the Uposatha hall.’

Now the bhikkhus thought, &c. (see sect.2).

`He who does not prepare (seats), commits a dukkaña offence.’

4. At that time there was no lamp in the Uposatha hall. The bhikkhus in the darkness trod upon (each other’s) bodies and robes.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you light a lamp in the Uposatha hall.’

Now the bhikkhus thought, &c. (see sect.2).

`He who does not light (the lamp), commits a dukkaña offence.’

5. At that
time the resident bhikkhus in a certain residence did not provide drink
(i.e. water), nor did they provide food. The incoming bhikkhus were
annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the resident bhikkhus
neglect to provide for drink and to provide for food?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One. [\q 272/]

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that you provide drink and food.’

Now the bhikkhus thought, &c. (see sect.2).

`He who does not provide for it, commits a dukkaña offence.’
 
 

______________________


21.

1. At that time many ignorant,
unlearned bhikkhus who travelled to the (four) quarters (of the world)
did not ask leave of their àcariyas and upajjhàyas (when going away).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, there are many ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus who travel to the
(four) quarters without asking leave of their àcariyas and upajjhàyas;
such bhikkhus ought to be asked by their àcariyas and upajjhàyas: “Where
will you go? With whom will you go?” If those ignorant, unlearned
bhikkhus name other ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus, their àcariyas and
upajjhàyas ought not to allow them (to go); if they allow them, they
commit a dukkaña offence. If those ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus go
without the permission of their àcariyas and upajjhàyas, they commit a
dukkaña offence.

2. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there dwell in a certain residence many ignorant, unlearned
bhikkhus who neither know Uposatha, nor the Uposatha service, nor the
Pàtimokkha, nor the recital of the Pàtimokkha: now there arrives (at
that place) another bhikkhu who is erudite, who has studied the àgamas
(i.e. the collections of suttas), who knows [\q 273/] the Dhamma, the
Vinaya, the màtika
(33), who is wise, learned, intelligent, modest, conscientious(34),
anxious for training; let those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, kindly receive
that bhikkhu, let them show attention to him, exchange (friendly) words
with him, provide him with powder, clay
(35),
a tooth-cleanser, and water to rinse his mouth with. If they do not
receive him kindly, or show no attention to him, or do not exchange
(friendly) words with him, or do not provide him with powder, clay, a
tooth-cleanser, and water to rinse his mouth with, they commit a dukkaña
offence.

3. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there dwell in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha
many ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus who neither know Uposatha . . . nor
the recital of the Pàtimokkha; let those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, instantly
send one bhikkhu to the neighbouring residence (of bhikkhus, saying),
“Go, friend, and come back when you have learnt the Pàtimokkha abridged
or in its full extent.” If they succeed in this way, well and good. If
they do not succeed, those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, ought all to go to a
residence where they (the bhikkhus there) know Uposatha or the Uposatha
service or the Pàtimokkha or the recital of the Pàtimokkha. [\q 274/] If
they do not go, they commit a dukkaña offence.

4. `In case, O bhikkhus, many ignorant, unlearned bhikkhus keep vassa(36) in a certain residence who neither know, &c.(37)
If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed,
they ought to send away one bhikkhu for seven days time (saying), “Go,
friend, and come back when you have learnt the Pàtimokkha abridged or in
its full extent.” If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they
do not succeed, those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, ought not to keep vassa in
that residence. If they do, they commit a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


22.

1. Then the Blessed One thus addressed
the bhikkhus: `Assemble, O bhikkhus, the saïgha will hold Uposatha.’
When He had spoken thus, a certain bhikkhu said to the Blessed One:
`There is a sick bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.’

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that a sick bhikkhu is to declare (lit. to give) his pàrisuddhi(38).
And let it be declared, O bhikkhus, in this way: let that sick bhikkhu
go to one bhikkhu, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder,
sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: “I declare my
pàrisuddhi, take my pàrisuddhi, proclaim my pàrisuddhi (before the
fraternity).” Whether he [\q 275/] express this by gesture (lit. by his
body), or by word, or by gesture and word, the pàrisuddhi has been
declared. If he does not express this by gesture, &c. the pàrisuddhi
has not been declared.

2. `If (the
sick bhikkhu) succeeds in doing so, well and good. If he does not
succeed, let them take that sick bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, on his bed or his
chair to the assembly, and (then) let them hold Uposatha. If, O
bhikkhus, the bhikkhus who are nursing the sick, think: “If we move this
sick person from his place, the sickness will increase, or he will
die,” let them not move the sick, O bhikkhus, from his place; let the
saïgha go there and hold there Uposatha. But in no case are they to hold
Uposatha with an incomplete congregation. If (a bhikkhu) does so, he
commits a dukkaña offence.

3. `If he who
has been charged with the pàrisuddhi, O bhikkhus, leaves the place at
once, after the pàrisuddhi has been entrusted (to him), the pàrisuddhi
ought to be declared to another. If he who has been charged with the
pàrisuddhi, O bhikkhus, after the pàrisuddhi has been entrusted to him,
returns to the world
(39) at once(40) or dies; or admits that he is a sàmanera; or that he has abandoned the precepts(41); or that he has become [\q 276/] guilty of an extreme offence(42);
or that he is mad; or that his mind is unhinged; or that he suffers
(bodily) pain; or that expulsion has been pronounced against him for his
refusal to see an offence (committed by himself); or to atone for such
an offence; or to renounce a false Doctrine; or that he is a eunuch; or
that he has furtively attached himself (to the saïgha); or that he is
gone over to the titthiyas; or that he is an animal
(43);
or that he is guilty of matricide; or that he is guilt of parricide; or
that he has murdered an arahat; or that he has violated a bhikkhuni; or
that he has caused a schism among the saïgha; or that he has shed (a
Buddha’s) blood; or that he is a hermaphrodite : (in these cases) the
pàrisuddhi ought to be entrusted to another one.

4. `If he who
has been charged with the pàrisuddhi, O bhikkhus, after the pàrisuddhi
has been entrusted to him, and whilst he is on his way (to the
assembly), leaves the place, or returns to the world, or dies, or admits
that he is a sàmanera
(44),
&c. or admits that he is a hermaphrodite, the pàrisuddhi has not
been conveyed (to the saïgha). If he who has been charged with the
pàrisuddhi, O bhikkhus, after the pàrisuddhi has been entrusted to him,
having arrived with the fraternity, leaves the place, or dies, &c.
the pàrisuddhi has [\q 277/] been conveyed. If he who has been charged
with the pàrisuddhi, O bhikkhus, after the pàrisuddhi has been entrusted
to him, Though he reaches the assembly, does not proclaim (the
pàrisuddhi he is charged with) because he falls asleep, or by
carelessness, or because he attains (meditation), the pàrisuddhi has
been conveyed, and there is no offence on the part of him who has been
charged with the pàrisuddhi. If he who has been charged, &c.
intentionally omits to proclaim (the pàrisuddhi), the pàrisuddhi has
been conveyed, but he who has been charged with the pàrisuddhi is guilty
of a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


23.

Then the Blessed One thus addressed
the bhikkhus: `Assemble, O bhikkhus, the saïgha will perform an
(official) act.’ When He had spoken thus, a certain bhikkhu said to the
Blessed One: `There is a sick bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.’

` I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that a sick bhikkhu is to declare (lit. to give) his consent (to the act to be performed), &c.(45)
I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that on the day of Uposatha he who declares
his pàrisuddhi is to declare his consent (to official acts to be
performed eventually) also, for (both declarations) are required for the
saïgha (and for the validity of its acts).


______________________

[\q 278/]

24.

1. At that time relations of a certain bhikkhu seized him on the day of Uposatha.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, a certain bhikkhu is seized on the day of Uposatha by
relations of his, let the bhikkhus say to those relations: “Pray,
friends, let this bhikkhu free for a moment until this bhikkhu has held
Uposatha.”

2. `If they
succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, let the
bhikkhus say to those relations: “Pray, friends, stand apart for a
moment, until this bhikkhu has declared his pàrisuddhi.” If they
succeed, well and good. If they do not succeed, let the bhikkhus say to
those relations: “Pray, friends, take this bhikkhu for a moment outside
the boundary, until the saïgha has held Uposatha.” If they succeed, well
and good. If they do not succeed, in no case is Uposatha to be held by
an assembly that is incomplete. Should it be so held, (each bhikkhu in
the assembly) is guilty of a dukkaña offence.

3. `In case, O
bhikkhus, a certain bhikkhu is seized on the day of Uposatha by kings,
by robbers, by rascals, by hostile bhikkhus, &c.
(46)
 
 

______________________


25.

1. Then the Blessed One thus addressed
the bhikkhus: `Assemble, O bhikkhus, the saïgha [\q 279/] has duties
(official acts) to perform.’ When He had spoken thus, a certain bhikkhu
said to the Blessed One: `There is a mad bhikkhu, Lord, called Gagga,
who is not present.’ `There are, O bhikkhus, two sorts of madmen: there
is one mad bhikkhu who now remembers the Uposatha, now does not remember
it, who now remembers official acts (of the order), now does not
remember them, (and) there is (another mad bhikkhu) who does not
remember them; one who now goes to Uposatha, now does not go, who now
goes to official acts, now does not go, (and another) who does not go.

2. `Now, O
bhikkhus, that madman that now remembers, &c., that now goes to,
&c., to such a madman I prescribe that you grant ummattakasammuti
(i.e. the madman’s leave).

3. `And you
ought, O bhikkhus, to grant it in this way: let a learned, competent
bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti before the saïgha: “Let
the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Gagga, a mad bhikkhu, now remembers
the Uposatha, now does not remember, &c., now goes to, &c.; if
the saïgha is ready, let the saïgha grant ummattakasammuti to the mad
bhikkhu Gagga: let the bhikkhu Gagga remember or not remember Uposatha,
remember or not remember official acts (of the order), let him go to
Uposatha or not go, let him go to official acts or not go : (in every
case) it may be free to the saïgha to hold Uposatha and to perform
official acts with Gagga as well as without Gagga. This is the
¤atti.

4. `”Let the saïgha, &c. Gagga, a mad bhikkhu, &c.; the saïgha grants, &c. Thus I understand.”‘


______________________

[\q 280/]

26.

1. At that
time four bhikkhus dwelt in a certain residence (of bhikkhus) on the day
of Uposatha. Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has
prescribed the holding of Uposatha, and we are (only) four persons
(47). Well, how are we to hold Uposatha?’.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that four (bhikkhus) may recite the Pàtimokkha.’

2. At that
time three bhikkhus dwelt in a certain residence (of bhikkhus) at the
day of Uposatha. Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has
prescribed to four (bhikkhus) the reciting of the Pàtimokkha, and we are
(only) three persons,’ &c.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that three bhikkhus may hold pàrisuddhi-Uposatha(48).

3. `And it
ought to be held in this way: let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim
the following eat before those bhikkhus: “Let the Reverend brethren hear
me. Today is Uposatha, the fifteenth (day of the half month). If the
Reverend brethren are ready, let us hold pàrisuddhi-Uposatha with each
other.” Let the senior bhikkhu adjust his upper robe so as to cover one
shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say to those
bhikkhus: “I am pure, friends, understand that I am pure, &c.
(49)

4. `Let (each)
younger bhikkhu (in his turn) adjust [\q 281/] his upper robe so as to
cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say
to those bhikkhus: “I am pure Reverend Sirs.”‘

5. At that
time two bhikkhus dwelt in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha.
Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed to four
(bhikkhus) the reciting of the Pàtimokkha, to three (bhikkhus) the
holding of pàrisuddhi-Uposatha, and we are (only) two persons,’ &c.

`I prescribe, O bhikkhus, that two persons may hold pàrisuddhi-Uposatha.’

6, 7. `And it ought to be held in this way: let the senior bhikkhu, &c.(50)

8. At that time there dwelt a single bhikkhu in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha. Now this bhikkhu thought, &c.

9. `In case
there dwell, O bhikkhus, in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha a
single bhikkhu; let that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, sweep the place which the
bhikkhus used to frequent, the refectory, or hall, or place at the foot
of a tree; let him (then) provide water and food, prepare seats, put a
lamp there, and sit down. If other bhikkhus come, let him hold Uposatha
with them; if they do not come, let him fix his mind upon the thought:
“Today is my Uposatha.” If he does not fix his mind upon this thought,
he commits a dukkaña offence.

10. `Now, O bhikkhus, where four bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the pàrisuddhi(51) of one (to their assembly), and recite, the [\q 282/] Pàtimokkha by three. If they do, they commit a dukkaña offence.

`Now, O
bhikkhus, where three bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey
the pàrisuddhi of one (to their assembly), and hold pàrisuddhi Uposatha
by two. If they do, they commit a dukkaña offence.

`Now, O
bhikkhus, where two bhikkhus dwell, one of them must not convey the
pàrisuddhi of the other one, and fix (only) his thoughts (upon the
Uposatha). If he does, he commits a dukkaña offence.’

______________________


27.

1. At that time a certain bhikkhu was
guilty of an offence on the day of Uposatha. Now this bhikkhu thought:
`The Blessed One has prescribed: “Uposatha is not to be held by a
bhikkhu who is guilty of an offence
(52).” Now I am guilty of an offence. What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, a certain bhikkhu be guilty of an offence on the day of
Uposatha; let that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, go to one bhikkhu, adjust his
upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his
joined hands, and say: “I have committed, friend, such and such an
offence; I confess that offence.” Let the other say: “Do you see it?”
“Yes, I see it.” “Refrain from it in future.”

2 `In case, O
bhikkhus, there be a bhikkhu on the day of Uposatha who feels doubt with
regard [\q 283/] to an offence; let this bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, go to one
bhikkhu, &c. (sect.1), and say: “I feel doubt, friend, with regard
to such and such an offence. When I shall feel no doubt, then I will
atone for that offence.” Having spoken thus, let him hold Uposatha and
hear the Pàtimokkha. But in no case must there be any hindrance to
holding Uposatha from such a cause.’

3. At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus confessed in common an offence (shared by them all).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not, O bhikkhus, to confess an offence in common. He who does so, commits a dukkaña offence.’

At that time the chabbaggiyà bhikkhus accepted the common confession of an offence (shared by several bhikkhus).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not, O bhikkhus, to accept the common confession of an offence. He who does so, commits a dukkaña offence.’

4. At that
time a certain bhikkhu remembered an offence, while the Pàtimokkha was
being recited. Now this bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One has
prescribed: “Uposatha is not to be held by (a bhikkhu) who is guilty of
an offence.” Now I am guilty of an offence. What am I to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, there be a bhikkhu who remembers an offence, while the
Pàtimokkha is being recited; let this bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, say to his
neighbour bhikkhu: “I have committed such and such an offence, friend;
when I have arisen from this assembly), I will atone for that offence.”
Having spoken thus, &c. (sect.2). [\q 284/]

5. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there be a bhikkhu who feels doubt with regard to an offence,
while the Pàtimokkha is being recited, &c. (sects. 2, 4).’

6. At that
time the whole saïgha in a certain residence was guilty of a common
offence on the day of Uposatha. Now these bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed
One has prescribed that offences (shared by many bhikkhus) are not to
be confessed in common, and that the common confession of such offences
is not to be accepted. Now this whole saïgha is guilty of a common
offence. What are we to do?’

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, the whole saïgha in a certain residence is guilty of a common
offence on the day of Uposatha ; let those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus, send
instantly one bhikkhu to the neighbouring residence of bhikkhus
(saying), “Go, friend, and come back when you have atoned for that
offence (for yourself); we will (then) atone for the offence before
you.”

7. `If they
succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, let a
learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following ¤atti
before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This whole
saïgha is guilty of a common offence. When it shall see another pure
guiltless bhikkhu, it will atone for the offence before him.” (One of
the bhikkhus) having spoken thus, let them hold Uposatha and recite the
Pàtimokkha. But in no case must there be any hindrance to holding
Uposatha from such a cause.

8. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the whole saïgha in a certain residence feels doubt with
regard to a [\q 285/] common offence on the day of Uposatha; (in this
case) let a learned, competent bhikkhu proclaim the following
¤atti before the saïgha: “Let the saïgha, Reverend Sirs, hear
me. This whole saïgha feels doubt with regard to a common offence. When
it will feel no doubt, it will atone for that offence.” (One of the
bhikkhus) having spoken thus, &c.

9. `In case, O
bhikkhus, in a certain residence the saïgha that has entered (there)
upon vassa is guilty of a common offence. Those bhikkhus, O bhikkhus,
are instantly, &c. (sects. 6, 7). If they do not succeed, let them
send away one bhikkhu for seven days’ time: “Go, friend, and come back
when you have atoned for that offence (for yourself); we will (then)
atone for the offence before you.”‘

10. At that
time the whole saïgha in a certain residence was guilty of a common
offence, and did not know the name nor the class to which that offence
belonged. Now there arrived (at that place) another bhikkhu, &c.
(see chap.21.2), anxious for training. To that bhikkhu one of the
bhikkhus went, and having gone to him, he said to him: `He who does such
and such a thing, friend, what sort of offence does he commit?’

11. He
replied: `He who does such and such a thing, friend, commits such and
such an offence. If you have committed such an offence, friend, atone,
for that offence.’ The other replied: `Not I myself alone, friend, am
guilty of that offence; this whole saïgha is guilty of that offence’. He
said: `What is it to you, friend, whether another is guilty or
guiltless? Come, friend, atone for your own offence.’

12. Now this
bhikkhu, after having atoned for [\q 286/] that offence by the advice of
that bhikkhu, went to those bhikkhus (to his brethren who shared in the
same offence); having gone to them, he said to those bhikkhus: `He who
does such and such a thing, friends, commits such and such an offence.
As you have committed such an offence, friends, atone for that offence.’
Now those bhikkhus refused to atone for that offence by that bhikkhu’s
advice.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

13, 14. `In case, O bhikkhus, the whole saïgha in a certain residence is guilty of a common offence, (&c. 10,11)

15. `If this
bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, after having atoned for that offence by the advice
of that bhikkhu, goes to those bhikkhus, and having gone to them, says
to those bhikkhus: “He who does, &c.,” and if those bhikkhus, O
bhikkhus, atone for that, offence by that bhikkhu’s advice, well and
good; if they do not atone for it, that bhikkhu, O bhikkhus, need not
say anything (further) to those bhikkhus, if he does not like.’

______________________

End of the Bhànavàra on Kodanàvatthu.

______________________


28.

1. At that time there assembled in a
certain residence (of bhikkhus) at the day of Uposatha a number of
resident bhikkhus, four or more. They did not know that there were other
resident bhikkhus absent. Intending to act according to Dhamma and
Vinaya, thinking themselves to be complete while (really) incomplete,
they held Uposatha and [\q 287/] recited the Pàtimokkha. While they were
reciting the Pàtimokkha, other resident bhikkhus, a greater number
(than the first ones), arrived.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble in a certain residence at the day of Uposatha,
&c. (sect.1); while they are reciting the Pàtimokkha, other
resident bhikkhus, a greater number, arrive; let those bhikkhus, O
bhikkhus, recite the Pàtimokkha again; they who have recited it, are
free from guilt.

3. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; While they are reciting the
Pàtimokkha, other resident bhikkhus, exactly the same number; (as the
first ones), arrive ; in that case (the part of the Pàtimokkha) that has
been recited, has been correctly recited; let those (who have arrived
late), hear the rest; they who have recited it, are free from guilt.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; While they are reciting the
Pàtimokkha, other resident bhikkhus, a smaller number, arrive, &c.
(53)

4. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; When they have just finished the
recital of the Pàtimokkha, other resident bhikkhus, &c.
(54) [\q 288/]

5. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; When they have just finished the
recital of the Pàtimokkha, and the assembly has not yet risen, other
resident bhikkhus, &c.’

6. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; When they have just finished the
recital of the Pàtimokkha, and a part of the assembly has risen,
&c.’

7. `In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; When they have just finished the
recital of the Pàtimokkha, and the whole assembly has risen, &c.
(55)
 
 

End of the Fifteen Cases in Which There Is No Offence.

______________________


29.

`In case, O bhikkhus, there assemble
in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha a number of resident
bhikkhus, four or more; they know that there are other resident bhikkhus
absent; intending to act according to Dhamma and Vinaya, incomplete,
conscious of their incompleteness, they hold Uposatha and recite the
Pàtimokkha, &c.
(56)
 
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Incompletely

Assembled Bhikkhus Who Are Conscious

Of Their Incompleteness.


______________________

[\q 289/]

30.

`In case, O
bhikkhus, there assemble, &c.; They know that there are other
resident bhikkhus absent. Feeling doubt as to whether they are competent
to hold Uposatha or not competent, they hold Uposatha and recite the
Pàtimokkha, &c.’

 
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Bhikkhus Who

Feel Doubt.

______________________


31.

`In case, O bhikkhus, there assemble,
&c.; They know that there are other resident bhikkhus absent
(thinking): “We are competent to hold Uposatha, we are not incompetent,”
they abandon themselves to misbehaviour, hold Uposatha, and recite the
Pàtimokkha, &c.
(57)
 
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Bhikkhus Abandoning

Themselves to Misbehaviour.

______________________


32.

`In case, O bhikkhus, there assemble,
&c.; They know that there are other resident bhikkhus absent. They
perish and become ruined
(58),
saying, “What are those people to us?” And risking a schism [\q 290/]
(among the fraternity), they hold Uposatha and recite the Pàtimokkha,
&c.
(59)
 
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Bhikkhus Risking a Schism.

End of the Seventy-Five(60) Cases.

______________________


33.

`In case, O bhikkhus, there assemble
in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha a number of resident
bhikkhus, four or more; they know that other resident bhikkhus are about
to enter the boundary. They know that other resident bhikkhus have
entered within the boundary. They see other resident bhikkhus who are
about to enter, &c., who have entered, within the boundary. They
hear that other resident bhikkhus are about to enter, &c., have
entered within the boundary.’

Thus(61) a hundred and seventy-five systems of triads are produced which refer to resident and resident [\q 291/] bhikkhus(62).
(Then follow the same cases with regard to) resident and incoming
bhikkhus, incoming and resident bhikkhus, incoming and incoming
bhikkhus. By putting these words (successively) into the peyyàla
(63), seven hundred triads are produced.
 
 

______________________


34.

1. `In case, O bhikkhus, the resident
bhikkhus count the day as the fourteenth (of the pakkha), the incoming
bhikkhus as the fifteenth
(64);
if the number of the resident bhikkhus is greater, the incoming
bhikkhus ought to accommodate themselves to the resident bhikkhus. If
their number is equal, the incoming bhikkhus ought to accommodate
themselves to the resident bhikkhus. If the number of the incoming
bhikkhus is greater, the resident bhikkhus ought to accommodate
themselves to the incoming bhikkhus.

2. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus count the day as the fifteenth, the
incoming bhikkhus as the fourteenth; if, &c. (sect.1). [\q 292/]

3. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus count the day as the first (of the
pakkha), the incoming bhikkhus as the fifteenth (of the preceding
pakkha); if the number of the resident bhikkhus is greater, the resident
bhikkhus need not, if they do not like, admit the incoming ones to
their communion; let the incoming bhikkhus go outside the boundary and
hold (there) Uposatha. If their number is equal, &c. (as in the
preceding case). If the number of the incoming bhikkhus is greater, let
the resident bhikkhus either admit the incoming ones to their communion
or go outside the boundary.

4. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus count the day as the fifteenth, the
incoming bhikkhus as the first (of the following pakkha); if the number
of the resident bhikkhus is greater, let the incoming bhikkhus either
admit the resident bhikkhus to their communion or go outside the
boundary. If their number is equal, &c. (as in the preceding case).
If the number of the incoming bhikkhus is greater, the incoming bhikkhus
need not, if they do not like, admit the resident bhikkhus to their
communion; let the resident bhikkhus go outside the boundary and hold
Uposatha (there).

5. I in case, O
bhikkhus, the incoming bhikkhus see the signs, the tokens the marks,
the characteristics of (the presence of), resident bhikkhus, well
prepared beds and chairs and mats and pillows, food and water well
provided for, well swept cells; seeing this, they begin to doubt: “Are
there here any resident bhikkhus or are there not?”

6. `Being
doubtful they do not search, having not searched they hold Uposatha
,this is a dukkaña offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they
[\q 293/] do not see them, not seeing them they hold Uposatha: (in this
case) they are free from offence. Being doubtful they search, searching
they set them, seeing them they hold Uposatha together: (in this case)
they are free from offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they
see them, seeing them they hold Uposatha apart: this is a dukkaña
offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they see them, seeing
them they perish and become ruined
(65), saying,: “What are those people to us?” And risking a schism, they hold Uposatha: this is a thullaccaya (grave) offence.

7. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the incoming bhikkhus hear the signs &c. of (the presence
of) resident bhikkhus, the sound of their footsteps when they are
walking, the sound of their rehearsal (of the Dhamma), of their clearing
the throat and sneezing; hearing this they begin to doubt, &c.
(sects. 5, 6).

8. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus see the signs &c. of (the presence
of) incoming bhikkhus, unknown bowls, unknown robes, unknown seats, (the
traces of) foot-washing, water sprinkled about; seeing this they begin
to doubt, &c.

9. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus hear the signs &c. of (the presence
of) incoming bhikkhus, the sound of their footsteps when they are
arriving, the sound of their shaking out their shoes, clearing the
throat, and sneezing; hearing this, &c.

10. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the incoming bhikkhus see resident bhikkhus belonging to a
different district; they take them as belonging to the same district;
taking them as belonging to the same district [\q 294/] they do not
ask.. Having not asked, they hold Uposatha together: (in this case) they
are free from offence. They ask; having asked, they do not go through
the matter; having not gone through the matter, they hold Uposatha
together: this is a dukkaña offence. They ask, &c. (as in the last
case), they hold Uposatha apart: (in this case) they are free from
offence.

11. `In case, O
bhikkhus, the incoming bhikkhus see resident bhikkhus belonging to the
same district. They take them as belonging to a different district;
taking them, &c. They do not ask; having not asked, they hold
Uposatha together: this is a dukkaña offence. They ask; having asked,
they go through the matter; having gone through the matter, they hold
Uposatha apart: this is a dukkaña offence. They ask, &c. (as in the
last case), they hold Uposatha together: (in this case) they are free
from offence.

12. `In case, O bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus see incoming bhikkhus belonging to a different district, &c. (see sect.10).

13. `In case, O bhikkhus, the resident bhikkhus see incoming bhikkhus belonging to the same district, &c. (see sect.11).’

______________________


35.

1. `You ought not, O bhikkhus, to go
on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which bhikkhus are, to a
residence in which no bhikkhus are, except with a saïgha
(66) or in a case of danger(67).
You ought not, [\q 295/] O bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a
residence in which bhikkhus are, to a non-residence in which no
bhikkhus are, except, &c. You ought not, O bhikkhus, to go on the
day of Uposatha from a residence in which bhikkhus are, to a residence
or non-residence
(68) in which no bhikkhus are, except, &c.

2. `You ought
not, O bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a non-residence in
which bhikkhus are, to a residence, &c., to a non-residence,
&c., to a residence or non-residence in which no bhikkhus are,
except, &c.

3. `You ought
not, O bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence or
non-residence in which bhikkhus are, to a residence, &c., to a
non-residence, &c., to a residence or non-residence in which no
bhikkhus are, except, &c.

4. `You ought
not, O bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which
bhikkhus are, to a residence in which bhikkhus are, if these bhikkhus
belong to a different district, except, &c.
(69)

5. `You may
go, O bhikkhus, on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which
bhikkhus are, to a residence in which bhikkhus are, if these bhikkhus
belong to the same district, and if you know: “I can attain that place
today.” You may, &c.
(70)
 
 

______________________


36.

1. Let no one, O bhikkhus, recite the
Pàtimokkha in a seated assembly (of bhikkhus) before a bhikkhuni. He who
does, commits a dukkaña [\q 296/] offence. Let no one, O bhikkhus,
recite the Pàtimokkha in a seated assembly (of bhikkhus) before a
sikkhamànà
(71), a sàmanera, a sàmaneri, one who has abandoned the precepts(72), one who is guilty of an extreme offence(73). He who does, commits a dukkaña offence.

2. `Let no
one, O bhikkhus, recite the Pàtimokkha in a seated assembly (of
bhikkhus) before a (bhikkhu) against whom expulsion has been pronounced
for his refusal to see an offence (committed by himself), before a
(bhikkhu) against whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal to
atone for such an offence, or for his refusal to renounce a false
Doctrine. He who does, is to be treated according to the law
(74).

3. `Let no
one, O bhikkhus, recite the Pàtimokkha in a seated assembly (of
bhikkhus) before a eunuch, before one who has furtively attached himself
(to the saïgha), &c. (see chap.22.3), before a hermaphrodite. He
who does, commits a dukkaña offence. [\q 297/]

4. Let no one, O bhikkhus, hold Uposatha by (accepting) the pàrisuddhi declaration(75) of a pàrivàsika(76)
, except if the assembly has not yet risen (at the time when the
pàrisuddhi is declared). And let no one, O bhikkhus, hold Uposatha on
another day than the Uposatha day, except for the sake of (declaring the
re-establishment of) concord among the saïgha
(77) .’
 
 

_________________________

End of the Third Bhànavàra in the Uposathakhandhaka.


======================

1.
One should be inclined to understand that the paribbàjakas assembled
twice each half month, on the eighth day of the pakkha and on the
fourteenth or fifteenth day, according to the different length of the
pakkha. However, chap. 4 makes it probable that not two days in each
pakkha are to be understood, but three. Compare, however, the remark of
Buddhaghosa, quoted in the note on chap. 34. 1.

2. On the origin and the meaning of the title Pàtimokkha,’ see our introduction, p. xxvii.

3. 
See chap. 22. If a bhikkhu is prevented by disease from assisting to
the Pàtimokkha ceremony, he is to charge another bhikkhu with. His
pàrisuddhi, i.e. with the solemn declaration that he is pure from the
offences specified in the Pàtimokkha.

4.  These words are evidently the answer of the bhikkhus then present to the proclamation of the pàtimokkhuddesaka.

5.  See sect. 7.

6. 
sects. 4-8 contain an explanation, word by word, of the formula given
in sect. 3. This explanation is a portion of the ancient commentary on
the Pàtimokkha which at the time of the redaction of the Vinaya Piñaka
has been admitted into it in its full extent (see the introduction, p.
xv seq.).

7.  See p. 241, note 1

8.  See p. 1, note 5.

9. 
The five classes of offences are, the pàràjika, saïghàdisesa,
pàcittiya, pàtidesaniya, dukkaña offences; the seven classes, the
pàràjika, saïghàdisesa, thullaccaya, pàcittiya, pàtidesaniya, dukkaña,
dubbhàsita offences. See, for instance, Cullavagga ix, 3, 3.

10. 
The Pàli text has `dukkaña.’ we cannot interpret here dukkaña in the
technical sense of a dukkaña offence (see the introduction, p. xxiv),
for intentional falsehood belongs to the class of the pàcittiya
offences, among which it occupies the first place.

11.  See the note on I, 78, 5.

12.  See chap. 5. 2.

13.  See the note on 1, 30, 4.

14.  I.e. to abolish the character of uposathàgàra conferred on the vihàra-&c. By the act of sammuti.

15. 
Uposatha-pamukha (literally, that which has the Uposatha at its head,
or, that which is situated in front of the Uposatha evidently means the
place around the uposathàgàra, in which the Pàtimokkha recitation may be
heard as well as in the uposathàgàra itself

16.  Manaü vuëþo ahosi.’ Buddhaghosa: `ãsakam appattavuëþabhàvo ahosi.’ Manaü is evidently the equivalent of Sanskrit manàk.

17. 
Buddhaghosa’s note on this passage contains some details regarding the
way which Mahà Kassapa went. Andhakavinda is three gàvuta distant from
Ràjagaha. There were eighteen (?the MS. Reads: aññhàra mahàvihàra) great
vihàras around Ràjagaha included by the same boundary which Buddha
himself had consecrated. The Uposatha service for this whole district
was performed in the Veluvana monastery. The river which Mahà Kassapa
crossed on his way to the Veluvana was the Sappinã, which rises in the
Gijjhakåña mountain.

18. 
Ticãvarena avippavàsa means not parting with the three robes which
belong to the usual `parikkhàrà’ (requisites) of a bhikkhu. Bhikkhus
were not allowed to part with their civaras, excepting under special
circumstances and for a limited time (see the Pàtimokkha, 29th
nissaggiya dhamma). Conferring the character of ticivarena avippavàsa on
a boundary means, we believe, to determine that it should be free td
bhikkhus residing within this boundary, to keep a set of robes wherever
they liked within the same boundary (excepting in a village, sect. 3),
and that such an act should not be considered as parting with the robes.

19. 
Buddhaghosa observes that this rule applies to bhikkhus only and not to
bhikkhunis. For bhikkhunis reside only in villages; there would be no
civaraparihàra at all for bhikkhunis, if they were to use the kammavàcà
given in sect. 4. Buddhaghosa also observes at this occasion that the
boundaries of the bhikkhusaïgha and of the bhikkhunisaïgha are quite
independent from each other and that the rules given in chap. 13 do not
refer to boundaries the one of which belongs to the bhikkhusaïgha, the
other to the bhikkhunisaïgha.

20. 
As to the extent attributed to the `gàmåpacàra’ (neighbourhood of the
village), see the Vibhaïga, quoted by Minayeff, Pràtim. P. 66, 1. 1.

21.
This formula is identical with that given in sect. 2. The only
difference is that after the words `The character of ticivarena
avippavàsa,’ the words `Excepting villages and the neighbourhood of
villages’ are inserted.

22.  I abbhantara=28 hattha (Buddhaghosa and Abhidhànappadipikà,v.197). See Rh.D., `Coins and Measures,’ &c., p.15.

23. 
Buddhaghosa prescribes to leave an interstice of one hattha, and he
adds that the ancient Sinhalese commentaries differ as to the measure
required for this interstice: the Kurundi requires one vidatthi, the
mahàipaccari four aïgula.

24. 
For a definition of lawfulness and unlawfulness of the official
functions of the order as well as of completeness and incompleteness of
the congregation by which such acts are performed, see IX, 3.

25.  The introduction (nidàna) of the Pàtimokkha is the formula given above, chap. 3. 3.

26. 
`Avasesaü sutena sàvetabbaü,’ i.e. it is to be proclaimed: `The four
pàràjika dhammà, &c., Are known to the reverend brethren (literally,
have been heard by the reverend brethren).’

27.  See sects. 6, 7. Read: `. . . I will answer the questions of N.N. about the Vinaya.’ and,

`. . . Let N.N. answer the questions of N.N. about the Vinaya.’

28.  See sect. 8. Read . . . Shall (not) answer questions about the Vinaya . .

29.  I.e. of reciting the Pàtimokkha himself or causing another bhikkhu to do so.

30.  I.e. samaõas belonging to other schools. See chap. 1.

31.  Here follows an exact repetition of the story told in sect. 3, which is given here, of course, in the present tense.

32.  This appears to be the meaning of gaõamaggena gaõetuü; Buddhaghosa has no note on this passage.

33. 
Enumeration’s of terms indicating the different cases that come under a
Vinaya rule or a dogmatical proposition are called màtikà for instance,
in discussing the first pàràjika rule the Vibhaïga gives the following
màtikàpadàni: tisso itthiyo manussitthi amanussitthi tiracchànagatitthi,
tayo ubhatovya¤janakà manussubhatovya¤janako
amanussubh tiracchànagatubh., &c. Most of the works belonging to the
Abhidhamma Piñaka are based on and opened by such màtikà lists.

34.  Or scrupulous,’ in good sense.

35.  See I, 25, 12, with our note.

36.

 See III, 1 seq.

37.  See sect.3.

38. 
Pàrisuddhi, literally, means, purely. He declares that he is pure from
the offences specified in the, Pàtimokkha, and charges another bhikkhu
with proclaiming his declaration before the assembled chapter.

39. 
We have no doubt that this is the correct translation of vibbhamati
(see I, 39, 5). The difference between vibbhamati (he returns to the
world) and sikkhaü paccakkàti (he abandons the precepts) seems to be
that the former is an informal, and the latter a formal, renunciation of
the order.

40.  Literally, on the spot, i.e. without setting out on his way to the assembly.

41. 
The precepts are abandoned (sikkhà paccakkhàtà hoti) by declaring that
one abandons the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Saïgha, or the Vinaya,
&c. By such a declaration a bhikkhu who wishes to return to a
layman’s life, or to go over to a titthiya sect gives up his character
as a member of the Buddhist fraternity. The rules about the
sikkhàpaccakkhàna are given in the Vibhaïga, in the explanation of the
first pàràjika rule (chap. 8, sect. a).

42.  Most probably antimavatthu refers to the pàràjika offences which require excommunication.

43.  See the story given in I, 63.

44.

 Translated by I. B. Horner as `novice’, Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

45. 
The rules given here regarding the chanda (declaration of consent of an
absentee) that is required for the performance of official acts are
word for word the same as those set out in chap. 22. 1-4, regarding the
pàrisuddhi required at the Uposatha service.

46.  See sects. 1,2

47.  The quorum for several official acts of the order was five or more bhikkhus; see ix, 4.

48.  Uposatha by mutual declaration of purity from the offences specified in the Pàtimokkha; see sect. 3 seq.

49.  The same phrase is repeated twice more.

50.  See sects. 3, 4. The ¤atti prescribed in the preceding case does not apply to this case.

51.  See chap. 22.

52.  See Cullavagga ix, 2.

53. 
The decision given for the case of a smaller number of bhikkhus
arriving late, is here, and invariably throughout the following
exposition, identical with the decision of the case of the number of
bhikkhus being equal on the two sides.

54. 
The same three cases are distinguished here as in 3, according as the
number of bhikkhus who are late, is greater, the same, or smaller than
that of the other bhikkhus. The first case is decided by Buddha as
above; in the decision of the second and third cases, instead of `let
those (who have arrived late) hear the rest’ read: I let those (who have
arrived late) proclaim their pàrisuddhi in the presence (of the other
brethren)!

55.  The three triads of sects. 5, 6, 1 agree exactly with the triad of sect. 4.

56. 
Here follow fifteen cases which are arranged exactly as in chap. 28.
Instead of they who have recited it, are free from guilt, read: `They
who have recited it, have committed a dukkaña offence.’

57.  The decision of these fifteen cases is the same as in chap. 29.

58.  I.e. they destroy their own welfare by their wickedness.

59.  The decisions as in chap. 29; only read instead of `dukkaña offence,’ ` thullaccaya offence’ (grave sin).

60.  Five times fifteen cases, in chaps. 28-32.

61. 
Remarks like this, which indicate the rules for supplying abbreviated
passages, do not belong, strictly speaking, to the text of the Vinaya
itself, but form a posterior addition, as is shown also by grammatical
peculiarities. In chaps. 28-32 we have seventy-five cases, or
twenty-five triads ; all of these triads contain the words: `they know
that there are other resident bhikkhus absent.’ by successively varying
these words six times, as is indicated in chap. 33, we obtain a hundred
and seventy-five triads.

62.  I e. The assembled bhikkhus as well as the incoming reside in the same avis.

63. 
`Peyyàla’ is identical in meaning and, we believe, etymologically with
`pariyàya.’ see Childers s. v.; H.O.’s remarks in Kuhn’s Zeitschrift får
Vergleichende Sprachforschung, vol. xxv, 324; Trenckner, Pàli
Miscellany, p. 66.

64. 
Buddhaghosa: `They who count the day as the fifteenth, arrive from a
distant kingdom, or they have held the preceding Uposatha on the
fourteenth.’ it seems to follow from this remark of Buddhaghosa that
after an Uposatha on the fourteenth invariably an Uposatha on the
fifteenth must follow, i.e. the Uposatha may not he held on the
fourteenth ad libitum, but only in the second pakkha of the short
months. Compare chap. 4 and the note on chap. I. 1.

65.  See chap. 32.

66.  I.e. with a number of bhikkhus sufficient for holding Uposatha.

67.  See chap. 15.4.

68.  Probably this means a place the quality of which, whether residence or non-residence, is doubtful.

69.  Nine cases are distinguished here quite as in sects. 1-3.

70.  Nine cases are distinguished here quite as in sects. 1-3.

71. 
In the bhikkhunikhandhaka (Cullav. X, 1, 4) we are told that Buddha,
when admitting women to the order of mendicants, prescribed for them a
probationary course of instruction, which should last two years, after
which time they were to ask for the upasampadà ordination. During these
two years the candidates were called sikkhamànàs. Childers (Dict. s.v.
sikkhati) has misunderstood the Mahàvaüsa (p. 37), when he states that
in the case of Asoka’s daughter Samghamittà the training prescribed for
the sikkhamànàs was absolved in a single day.

72.

 See the note on chap. 22. 3.

73.  See the note on chap. 22. 3.

74. 
The law alluded to most probably is the 69th pàcittiya rule, which
expressly treats only of the conduct towards bhikkhus refusing to
renounce false Doctrines, but it may be extended by analogy also to the
two other categories of bhikkhus mentioned in our passage.

75.  See chap. 22.3.

76. 
I.e. a bhikkhu subject to the penal discipline of parivàsa, the rules
of which are discussed at length in the second and third books of the
Cullavagga.

77.  If a schism among the fraternity has been composed, the reconciled parties hold Uposatha together (X, 6, 14).




comments (0)