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917 LESSON 12-05-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE eN─ül─ünd─ü Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Mahavagga 43 Bhesajjakkhandhaka├╝ Pali English Sinhala Misuse of EVM machines- Part - 3 http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Pet-Couture-Small-Business-Idea.htm Pet Couture Small Business Idea The Pros and Cons of Starting a Pet Couture Business
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 3:52 pm

917 LESSON 12-05-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE  eN─ül─ünd─ü Research and Practice UNIVERSITY


Mahavagga

 43

 Bhesajjakkhandhaka├╝

  Pali

 English

 Sinhala














Misuse of EVM machines- Part   - 3

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm
http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Pet-Couture-Small-Business-Idea.htm


Pet Couture Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Pet Couture Business

Pet owners love spoiling their pets, and many do so through the
purchase of unique designer clothes, toys and accessories, also known as
pet couture.

A pet couture business allows you to design and produce your own
brand of pet clothes, toys and accessories, or you can operate as
distributor of ready-made products. Either way, if you know what pet
owners want for their animals and have a knack for selling those
products, a small business as a pet couture shop may be the perfect business idea for you.

The Pros

Some of the benefits of starting a pet couture business include:

  • Your business can be entirely home-based.
  • You can sell your products online.
  • Startup costs are low for virtual pet boutiques.
  • If you establish a brick-and-mortar pet boutique, you can expand to provide on-site grooming services.
  • A pet couture business is relatively easy to market to animal-loving pet owners.
  • You can expand your business to sell related pet products such as food and grooming supplies.

The Cons

Some of the challenges of starting a pet couture business include:

  • Startup costs can be significant for a physical storefront business.
  • It could take time to see a profit, depending on your initial investment.
  • You will be in competition with big companies such as Petco, Petsmart and Target.
  • You need a niche that differentiates you from your competition.
  • You may need a local permit to run the business out of your home.
  • You must have a love of pets and do extensive market research to understand what products pet owners want to buy.

Recommended Resources

Related Articles


Misuse of EVM machines- Part   - 3


New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so.
 
Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relavance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.

http://verifiedvoting.org/verifier/

Verified Voting

The Verifier


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Election Equipment 2012

See states’ use of:
Legend - Polling Place Equipment
     Paper Ballot
     Paper Ballot and Punch Card
     Mixed Paper Ballot and DREs with VVPAT
     DREs with VVPAT
     Mixed Paper Ballot and DREs with and without VVPAT
     Mixed Paper Ballot and DREs without VVPAT
     DREs without VVPAT
VVPAT = Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail Printers
DRE = Direct-recording Electronic
Customize your search for jurisdictions (counties and municipalities) that use different types and models of voting equipment:
(use alt/left click to select more than one choice)

Equipment Used for:


In Selected States:


Type of voting equipment:


Equipment vendor:


Model:


Paper record:


 
Results per page:

Please note: If you have any questions about the number of jurisdictions and registered voters using types and models of equipment please contact us directly.

http://www.verifiedvoting.org/resources/voting-equipment/


Voting Equipment in the United States


ÔÇťIn an age of electronic banking and
online college degrees, why hasnÔÇÖt the rest of the nation gone to voting
on touchscreen computers? The reason is simple and resonates with the
contentious debate that has yet to be resolved after at least 15 years
of wrangling over the issue of electronic voting. No one has yet figured
out a straightforward method of ensuring that one of the most revered
democratic institutionsÔÇöin this case, electing a U.S. presidentÔÇöcan be
double checked for fraud, particularly when paperless e-voting systems
are used.ÔÇŁ
 - Scientific American, Jan. 9, 2012

TodayÔÇÖs political climate is riven with discontent and mistrust of the institutions of government,
yet apart from public discourse, the vote is still how we make our will known. Mistrust in
lawmakers or institutions may be nearly endemic, but we still rely on the principle that they can
be voted out. When our voting systems fail though, voters lose trust in the electoral process,
and that is corrosive. Without that trust, our democracy could crumble. In such an environment,
it is of critical importance that we safeguard that most fundamental part of who we are as
Americans ÔÇô our democracy ÔÇô by ensuring voting systems work properly and that it is possible
for those responsible for operating our elections to demonstrate to the public that their votes
indeed are being captured and counted as they intended, and that the outcomes are correct.
The U.S. election system faces unprecedented tests this November, and beyond. Among
those tests are overt challenges to the full participation of all eligible voters. But there are also
serious fault lines in the landscape of democracy, some of which are not visible but which
threaten nonetheless. Many of these tests will become visible in the last yard of the voting
processÔÇöthe final step that occurs after other obstacles to voting are overcome, where the will of
the voters must be captured and counted. That last yard is where the voter actually has the
opportunity to mark and cast a ballot, and where the ballots are collected and counted, and
ideally, where the systems that tally our votes are checked to make sure they work as they
should. This is where the intersection of technology and democracy occurs. Challenges to
votersÔÇÖ rights in that last yard derive from problems caused by the deployment and use of
inadequate voting systems, and exacerbated by insufficient checks on the accuracy of the
outcome.

Far too many states use unreliable and insecure electronic voting machines, and many
states have made their situation worse by adding some forms of Internet voting for some voters,which cannot be checked for accuracy at all. Even in states where verifiable systems are used,
too often the check on the voting systemÔÇÖs function and accuracy is not done. In 2012, the
voting systems now in use are aging; resources are severely impacted by the state of the
economy over the past several years; shortages of both equipment and human resources are
likely. After all the effort necessary to overcome the other hurdles to casting a ballot, it is
patently unfair that once you get to the ballot box, that the ballot itself fails you. Taken together,
these problems threaten to silently disenfranchise voters, potentially in sufficient numbers to
alter outcomes.

Overview of Voting Equipment

Four basic types of voting equipment are used in US elections.
Optical Scan Paper Ballot Systems (including both marksense and digital image scanners), in
which voters mark paper ballots that are subsequently tabulated by scanning devices. On most
optical scan ballots voters indicate their selections by filling in an oval (on ES&S and
Premier/Diebold ballots), completing an arrow (Sequoia ballots), or filling in a box (Hart Intercivic
ballots.) Ballots may be either scanned on precinct-based optical scan systems in the polling
place (Precinct Count) or collected in a ballot box to be scanned at a central location (Central
Count.)

Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) Systems, in which using one of three basic interfaces
(pushbutton, touchscreen or dial) voters record their votes directly into computer memory. The
voter’s choices are stored in DREs via a memory cartridge, diskette or smart card and added to the choices of all other voters. An alphabetic keyboard is typically provided with the entry device
to allow for the possibility of write-in votes, though with older models this is still done manually.
DRE systems can be distinguished generally by the interface through which the voter indicate
her selections. The first generation of DREs used a push-button interface, while later systems
use a touchscreen interface. The Hart Intercivic eSlate uses a dial interface. Some DREs can
be equipped with Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) printers that allow the voter to
confirm their selections on an independent paper record before recording their votes into
computer memory. This paper record is preserved and, depending on State election codes,
made available in the event of an audit or recount.

Ballot Marking Devices and Systems provide an interface to assist voters with disabilities in
marking a paper ballot, which is then scanned or counted manually. Most ballot marking devices
provide a touchscreen interface together with audio and other accessibility features similar to
those provided with DREs, but rather than recording the vote directly into computer memory, the
voter’s selections are indicated through a marking a paper ballot, which is then scanned or
counted manually.

Punch Card Voting Systems Punchcard systems employ a card (or cards) and a small
clipboard-sized device for recording votes. Voters punch holes in the cards (with a supplied
punch device) opposite their candidate or ballot issue choice. After voting, the voter may place
the ballot in a ballot box, or the ballot may be fed into a computer vote-tabulating device at the
precinct. Four Idaho counties still use Votomatic Punch Card Voting System in the November
2012 election.

Mechanical Lever Voting Machines First introduced in the 1890s, mechanical lever machines
were used in many States during the 20th Century. As recently as 1996, mechanical lever
machines were used by 20.7% of registered voters in the United States. Since 2010, no
mechanical lever voting machines are used in US elections.

Hand Counted Paper Ballots A significant number of jurisdictions manually count paper ballots
cast in polling places by hand and even more count absentees and/or provisional ballots by
hand. While not a type of “voting equipment”, beyond the pen or pencil used by the voter to
mark the ballot, many of the issues of ballot design and voter intent that effect all voting systems
are relevant to hand counted paper ballots as well.
Voting Stages

Not all votes are cast in traditional polling places on Election Day - an increasing number of
voters vote absentee by mail or at in-person early voting facilities. All jurisdictions now provide
accessible equipment for voters with disabilities. Most jurisdictions use different voting systems for these different voting stages.

Polling Place Voting In American elections, the majority of votes are cast in polling places.
There are essentially two methods used to capture the voter’s selections: a paper ballot marked
by the voter, either physically or through the use of an assistive ballot-marking device, or a
software interface in which votes are recorded directly into computer memory. Most paper
ballots cast are tabulated by optical scanners, though there a significant number of jurisdictions
that count paper ballots cast at polling places manually.

Accessible Voting The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) required that every polling
place provide voting equipment with assistive features for voters with disabilities. Jurisdictions
have adopted different approches to meeting this requirement. Some have opted the exclusive
use of direct recording electronic (DRE) systems for all polling place voters. Others have chosen
to have “Mixed” systems, with both an optical scan paper ballot system and a DRE system
available in each polling place. Some such jurisdictions limit the use of the DRE primarily to
voters with disabilities while others allow all voters to choose between the two systems
available. A third approach to meeting the accessibility requirements of HAVA through the use
of Ballot Marking Devices or Systems. These systems allow voters with disabilities to mark a
paper ballot that is then counted along with the other paper ballots cast in the polling place.
Early Voting In recent years many, but not all, States provide for in-person Early Voting. For a
period a days or weeks prior to the official Election Day (the period varies from State to State)
voters have the option of visiting a central location (typically the county election officials office
or, in larger jurisdictions, satellite vote centers) to cast their vote. Most jurisdictions use the
same voting equipment for the early voting period that are used in polling places on election day
but not all.

Absentee Voting Absentee Voting is available in every State. In some States there are
restrictions on who can vote by mail and two States (Oregon and Washington) conduct elections
using only mail ballots. Most jurisdictions tabulate absentee ballots with optical scanners - either
high volume “Central Count” systems or smaller “Precinct Count” scanners. A small but
significant number of jurisdictions count absentee ballots manually. Some jurisdictions transfer
the votes cast by voters on absentee paper ballots onto DRE systems rather than tabulating the
ballot by scanning or manual counting.

Provisional Ballots The Help America Vote Act of 2002 established that a voter could cast a
provisional ballot if he or she believes that they are entitled to vote. A provisional ballot is cast
when: the voter refuses to show a photo ID if required, the voter’s name does not appear on the
voter roll for the given precinct, the voter’s registration contains inaccurate or out-dated
information such as the wrong address or a misspelled name. or the voter’s ballot has already
been recorded. Whether a provisional ballot is counted is contingent upon the verification of that
voter’s eligibility. Many voters do not realize that the provisional ballot is not counted until 7ÔÇô10
days after election so their vote does not affect the calling of the states to different candidates.
Once the provisional ballot is determined to be valid it is counted with a scanner or manually.

A Brief History Voting Machines in the US

(From Douglas Jones, Brief Illustrated History of Voting) The conduct of elections has changed
in many ways over the past 200 years. The extent of these changes is nicely illustrated by a
comparison of today’s voting practices with those illustrated in George Caleb Bingham’s
painting, The County Election (left - click to enlarge). In addition to being a noteworthy artist,
Bingham was a successful politician; this painting shows a polling place on the steps of the
courthouse in Saline County, Missouri, in 1846. In this painting, we see the judge (top center)
administering an oath to a voter. The voter (in red) is swearing, with his hand on the bible, that
he is entitled to vote and has not already done so. There was no system of voter registration, so
this oath and the possibility that the judge or someone else in the vicinity of the polls might
recognize him if he came back was all that prevented a voter from voting again and again.
There was no right to a secret ballot; having been sworn in, the voter simply called out his
choices to the election clerks who sit on the porch behind the judge tallying the vote. Each clerk
has a pollbook in which he writes the voter’s name and records his votes; multiple pollbooks
were a common defense against clerical error. There are several people in the painting holding
paper tickets in their hands. We know that these were not paper ballots because Missouri
continued to use voice voting until 1863. In a general election, however, many voters might
have wanted to bring their own notes to the polling place. Campaigning at the polling place was legal and common. The man in blue tipping his hat to the voter immediately behind the man
taking the oath is one of the candidates in this election, E. D. Sappington, who lost to Bingham
by one vote. He’s handing out his calling cards so that people can easily read off his name to
vote for him.

Voice votes offer modest protection against fraudulent vote counts: An observer can easily
maintain an independent tally of the votes, and since there is no ballot box, it cannot be stuffed.
On the other hand, the lack of privacy means that voters are open to bribery and intimidation; an
employer can easily demand, for example, that his employees vote as required, and a crook can
easily offer to pay a voter if he votes a certain way.

A Brief Illustrated History of Voting

Part of

the Voting and Elections web pages


by
Douglas W. Jones


THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA

Department of Computer Science

Copyright ┬ę
2001, updated 2003.
This work may be transmitted or stored in electronic form on any
computer attached to the Internet or World Wide Web so long as this
notice is included in the copy. Individuals may make single copies
for their own use. All other rights are reserved.

– Work in Progress –

Contents

  1. Before Ballots
  2. The First Ballots
  3. Paper Ballots
  4. The Chartist Demand for a Secret Ballot
  5. The Australian Paper Ballot
  6. Lever Voting Machines
  7. Punched Cards for Voting
  8. Optical Mark-Sense Scanners
  9. Direct Recording Voting Machines

Before Ballots

Nobody pretends that democracy is perfect or at all wise. Indeed,
it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government
except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.


(Winston Churchill, November 11, 1947)

Figure 1:  The County Election (detail)
by George Caleb Bingham.

 

 [painting of a crowded polling place]

The conduct of elections has changed in many ways over the past 200 years.
The extent of these changes is nicely illustrated by a comparison of
today’s voting practices with those illustrated in George Caleb Bingham’s
painting, The County Election (Figure 1).
In addition to being a noteworthy artist, Bingham was a successful
politician; this painting shows a polling place on the steps of the
courthouse in Saline County, Missouri, in 1846.

In this painting, we see the judge (top center) administering an oath to
a voter. The voter (in red) is swearing, with his hand on the bible, that
he is entitled to vote and has not already done so. There was no system
of voter registration, so this oath and the possibility that the judge or
someone else in the vicinity of the polls might recognize him if he
came back was all that prevented a voter from voting again and again.

There was no right to a secret ballot; having been sworn in, the voter
simply called out his choices to the election clerks who sit on
the porch behind the judge tallying the vote. Each clerk has a pollbook
in which he writes the voter’s name and records his votes; multiple pollbooks
were a common defense against clerical error.
There are several people in
the painting holding paper tickets in their hands. We know that these were
not paper ballots because Missouri continued to use voice voting until
1863. In a general election, however, many voters might have wanted to bring
their own notes to the polling place.

Campaigning at the polling place was legal and common. The
man in blue tipping his hat to the voter immediately behind the man taking
the oath is one of the candidates in this election, E. D. Sappington,
who lost to Bingham by one vote. He’s handing out his calling cards so that
people can easily read off his name to vote for him.

Voice votes offer modest protection against fraudulent vote counts: An
observer can easily maintain an independent tally of the votes,
and since there is no ballot box, it cannot be stuffed. On the other
hand, the lack of privacy means that voters are open to bribery and
intimidation; an employer can easily demand, for example, that his employees
vote as required, and a crook can easily offer to pay a voter if he votes
a certain way.

Kurt Hyde has sent me a
scan of a page
of a pollbooks in his collection from Bond County, Illinois;
this contains the clerical records of a viva-voce election of the type shown in
Bingham’s painting. Candidate names are written across the top of the page,
while voter names are written down the left hand side as the voters arrive to
vote. Instead of tick marks to record votes, the clerk has written in
the running vote total as each vote is cast. Kurt Hyde reports that most of
the pollbooks in his collection reflect this practice.


The First Ballots

One man shall have one vote.

(John Cartwright, 1780)

The word ballot has been described as being derived from the diminuitive form
of the word ball in
Italian, ballota, and in fact, many early ballots were small balls.
In classical Greek, however, the root is the verb for casting or throwing;
indeed, we cast ballots, but the Greeks did not read this word as requiring
that they be round balls.
In ancient Athens, votes were taken by issuing clay or metal tokens
to each voter, and the voter would vote by depositing the appropriate token
in the appropriate ballot box, or perhaps in a clay pot that served as a
ballot box.

Since the renessance, secret societies such as the Masons have used identical
round balls as ballots.
The phrase to blackball someone comes from this usage. In a vote to
admit someone to a secret society, each member was traditionally given a
white ball and a black ball. Depositing the white ball in the
ballot box was a vote for the candidate’s membership, while depositing the
black ball was a vote against the candidate. It follows that to blackball
someone meant to vote to exclude them from the organization or to campaign
for their exclusion in an upcoming vote.

In the late 19th century, many early developers of voting machines
continued to interpret laws requiring that election be by ballot as the
requirement that elections be carried out by the use of little balls, so many
early voting machines operated by depositing small balls in the appropriate
containers as each voter cast a vote. The purpose of the mechanism was to
prevent a voter from casting more than the allowed number of votes in each
race, and to maintain separate ballot containers for each of the many
candidates in each of the many races races in an election.

Paper Ballots

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice-President …; they shall name in their ballots
the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots, the person
voted for as Vice-President, …


(12th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution,
ratified June 15, 1804)

Figure 2:  Ballot from an 1839 general election
in Iowa Territory

 

 [photo of a general election ballot]

The first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been
in Rome in 139 BCE, and the first use of paper ballots in the United States
was in 1629 to select a pastor for the Salem Church.

By the time the 12th Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed,
it is clear that the term ballot was routinely taken to refer to a slip of
paper on which were written the names of candidates for office. The very
fact that the 12th amendment requires the use of separate ballots to elect
the President and Vice-President implies that the use of one ballot to elect
candidates to more than one office was understood at the time. Of course,
this amendment applied only to the electoral college and not to voting by
the electorate at large.

The Tennessee Acts of 1796, chapter IX section 3 gave the following
definition: “[A ballot is] a ticket or scroll of paper, purporting
to express the voter’s choice, given by the voter to the officer or person
holding an election, to be put into the ballot box.”

These early paper ballots were no more than slips of paper
provided by the voters themselves, although it was not long before
candidates or political parties began to provide preprinted ballots.
This innovation was not always welcome. It took a state supreme court
decision in Massachusetts (Henshaw v. Foster) in 1829 to legalize this
practice in that state. It took a constitutional amendment in Connecticut,
in 1844.

The example shown in Figure 2
was apparently provided by Francis Gehon, a candidate for nonvoting
territorial delegate to the United States Congress in the 1839 Iowa
territorial election; the torn edges suggest that this ballot may
have been printed as an advertisement in the newspaper. This ballot
includes write-in blanks for the other offices in the election,
the territorial house of representatives and various county offices.
The printer omitted the office of Sheriff from the ballot, so the voter
wrote this in at the very bottom.

This form of paper ballot makes it very difficult to reconcile several
requirements that we usually take for granted, the right to privacy, the
requirement that the voter not disclose his or her vote, and the requirement
that no voter deposit more than one ballot in the box.

To maintain voter privacy, we must allow voters the right to insert their
own ballots into the ballot box. Doing this, however, raises the possibility
that a voter might deposit a handful of ballots. If we require voters to give
their ballots to a polling place official, the official might read the
ballot in the process of unfolding it to determine if other ballots have
been cleverly concealed inside, or a dishonest official might add other
ballots to the box.

If a voter wants to disclose his votes, he may easily sign the ballot,
and if we disallow this with rules that require signed ballots to be rejected
in the count, the voter may simply arrange to use distinctive paper or a
distinctive style of writing in order to identify his ballot to someone
observing the count. Political parties quickly mastered the art of
printing ballots on distinctive paper so that all voters using a party’s
ballot could be easily identified.

Figure 3:  Ballot from an 1880 municipal election in Iowa
(partial)

 

 [photo of a partisan municipal ballot]

Despite these serious problems, this style of voting on paper ballots remained
the rule into the late 19th century. By the mid 19th century, it was standard
for each political party in the United States to print a party ticket
that listed all of the offices in the election, along with the candidates
endorsed by that party. The word ticket was used because they
resembled railroad tickets in size and printing style.
The municipal election ticket shown in
in Figure 3 was printed by a local Republican party.

Voters in this era were allowed to write out their own ballots, longhand,
but the parties encouraged them to use the party ticket as a ballot.
So long as a party representative got to a voter in advance to give him that
party’s ticket, voting a straight party ticket was easy. A voter who
wished to split his ticket, that is to vote for candidates from more than
one party, could write out the entire ballot longhand, or he could
could cross out the candidates he didn’t like on one party’s ticket and
write in the names of the candidates he preferred.

Figure 4:  Ballot from an 1888 general election in Iowa
(partial)

 

 [photo of a partisan general election ballot]

By the 1880’s, the parties had learned to format ballots to make it difficult
to vote a spit ticket. The idea is quite simple: arrange the layout of the
ticket so that a voter who crosses out a candidates name on the party
ticket will have no space left to write in the name of any other candidate.
Figure 4 illustrates a general election ticket formatted this way. Where the
example in Figure 3 had ample space under each candidate name to write in a
substitute name, this example has almost no space, except for the write-in
blank for county treasurer, where the party had no nominee.

A striking feature of the ballot in Figure 4 is that the
typography, below the ballot title, is deliberately difficult to read.
From the party’s perspective, printing a ballot that invited close reading
ammounted to an invitation to strike-out names and write in alternatives.
The parties wanted voters to be loyal to the party, not the specific
candidates, so the party name was always easy to pick out and read.

Of course, the typography of the ballot could not be arbitrarily unreadalbe,
the ballot had to be legible enough to tally. On the other hand, with
party tickets, it is not necessary to closely read each ballot; instead,
each ticket style need only be closely read once. The first step in the
tally is to sort the ballots by ticket style; then, all ballots of a
particular style would be counted, along with the number of strike-outs
for each office on that ticket. Candidates on that ticket would then be
credited with the number of tickets less the number of strikeouts. Finally,
all write-ins, manuscript ballots and handwritten additions to ballots
would be counted.

The examples shown here are all printed on inexpensive paper - generally
newsprint, but in large urban areas, it was very common for parties to
print their tickets on distinctive paper. This had only one purpose, to
make it very easy for a party observer at the polling place to note which
party’s ballot each voter was using. Ballot box stuffing was extremely
common in many jurisdictions, and to prevent this, it was common to
demand that ballot boxes be transparent, thus making it completely
impossible for a voter to hide the color of the ballot being deposited.

For an excellent discussion of the extent of vote fraud using such paper
ballots, see the paper
Harrison Count Methods: Election Fraud in Late 19th Century Texas
by Worth Robert Miller, Locus: Regional and Local History 7, 2
(Spring 1995), 111-28.

One of the best references on the pre-technological history of elections is
Election Administration in the United States by Joseph P. Harris,
published by the Brookings Institution in 1934. The book The American
Ballot
by Spencer D. Albright, published by the American Council on Public
Affairs in 1942 is a much shorter work filled with extremely useful history
but with very little of the critical content that makes Harris’ book so
valuable.

The Chartist Demand for a Secret Ballot

In 1838, the London Working Men’s Association published
The People’s Charter. The association represented the first
mass working class labor movement in the world, and its members can
be counted as radical revolutionaries. Today, however, the demands
of the chartists, as they came to be known, seem remarkably tame. They
are, in fact, at the very foundation of essentially all modern democracies,
as outlined in the full title for the charter:

The People’s Charter: Being the outline of an act to provide for
the just representation of the people of Great Britain in the Commons
house of Parliament; embracing the principles of universal suffrage,
no property qualification [for the right to vote], annual parliaments,
equal representation, payment of members [of parliament], and vote by
ballot, prepared by a committee of twelve persons, six members of
parliament and six members of the London Working Men’s Association, and
addressed to the United Kingdom.
– Quoted from an
1839
edition
of the People’s Charter

Figure 5:  The Chartist proposal for polling-place
organization and a voting machine from the
1839
edition
of the People’s Charter.

 
 [photo of a partisan general election ballot]

A remarkable feature of the Chartist demand was that one page of each
Chartist pamphlet was a diagram of a polling place that included use
of a voting machine, along with two schedules. Schedule A described the
features of the polling place, including a description of the rolls of
each of the people shown in the woodcut. Schedule B described the
voting machine, described as a ballot box. The Chartists attributed
their ballot box design to Benjamin Jolly of 19 York Street, Bath.

Voters using Jolly’s voting machine were to vote by dropping a brass ball
(the ballot)
into one of the holes in the top of the machine. Each hole was to be
marked with a candidate’s name. The ball, on passing through the machine,
would advance a clockwork counter one step before dropping into a tray
on the front of the machine, in clear view of the election judges. During
the election, the counters would be sealed behind a closed door, so
nobody could see the count until the polls closed, and the voter would
vote behind a partition, so nobody could see which hole the ball was
dropped into. If a voter brought an extra ball into the polling place,
the judges would see two balls falling into the tray.

The Australian Paper Ballot

It’s not the voting that’s democracy, it’s the counting.

(Tom Stoppard, British playwright, 1972)

You won the election, but I won the count.

(Anastasio Somoza, Dictator, 1977)

Figure 5:  Australian Ballot from an 1893 Iowa City
municipal election
(partial)

 

 [photo of a partisan general election ballot]

Concern about vote fraud and voter privacy was not restricted to England
and the United States.
One of the most important innovations in voting technology came
about in Australia. In 1858, an election was held in the state of
Victoria using
standardized paper ballots that listed all candidates for office. These
ballots were printed at government expense and distributed to the voters
at the polling place, one per voter. This system, while obvious in
retrospect, was sufficiently innovative that it came to be known as the
Australian secret ballot.

The Chartists had significant influence in Australia, and several of the
Australian states had been experimenting with how to reduce the Chartist
demand for secret ballots into practical form. All of the Australian
experiments substituted printed ballots and a simple ballot box for the
voting machine the Chartists proposed, but it is the Victorian model that
later came to be seen as definitive.

Today, the Australian ballot seems so natural that we take it for granted
as ancient technology, and in much of the world, it is so firmly entrenched
that replacing it with mechanical or electronic voting machines is unthinkable.
Nonetheless, the benefits of the Australian ballot were not
obvious at the time it was introduced. Use of this technology requires,
after all, a special print run at government expense, plus the cost of
secure ballot storage and transport.

In the United States, it is likely that the widespread fraud reported in
the general election of 1884 was the major impetus behind the first adoption
of new voting methods in 1888, but this level of fraud would probably have
gone unnoticed if it hadn’t been for the election upset of 1876. In that
year, Rutheford B. Hayes won an majority of the electoral vote with only
a minority of the popular vote, and just as with the 2000 general election,
this focused popular attention on the problems with the election methods
then in use. The hearings into Boss Tweed’s dealings in New York, published
in 1878 are likely to have been another contributing factor; there, Tweed
admitted quite openly to completely ignoring the ballots and having his
ward bosses simply announce the requested result.

So, it was in 1888 that the Australian ballot was first used in the United
States, in New York and Massachusetts, and it was also in 1888 that the
lever voting machine was first used. The example Australian ballot shown
in Figure 5 allows straight-party voting by a single X
in the circle by the party name at the top of the column, or a split ticket
vote by marking an X in the box by an individual candidate name.

Figure 6:  Australian Ballot from a 1916
Democratic primary in South Carolina.

 

 [photo of a scratch-out primary ballot]

The move to the Australian ballot was not instantaneous. Texas and
Connecticut moved by gradual reform of the partisan ballot, completing
their changes in 1905 and 1909.
Missouri experimented with the Australian ballot but reverted to
partisan ballots until 1921.
New Mexico finished a gradual migration from partisan ballots in 1927.
North Carolina only required that all counties use the Australian ballot
in 1929.
By 1940, Delaware still had a mixed system where partisan distribution
of ballots was still allowed outside the polling place, and South Carolina
was still voting on partisan ballots, although their size, color and
typography were strictly regulated.

While most Australian ballots ask the voter to mark an X or checkmark in
the voting target beside the candidate’s name, where the target is either
a box or a circle, the original form of this ballot asked the voter to scratch
out the names of all but the preferred candidates. The use of an X mark to vote
for a candidate was introduced in West Australia in 1877. The older pattern
persisted for many years in a number of Southern states, most
notably Arkansas. The example in Figure 6 illustrates this.

The scratch-out ballot variant would have appeared quite natural
to those accustomed to voting with party ticket ballots where
voters could scratch out the names of the party nominees they did not support.
There is nothing particularly wrong
with this variant, but when a juristiction changes from this rule to the
more common mark-in-target rule, there are special voter education problems.

Corrupt politicians and political machines have always been quick to search
out and exploit the weaknesses of new voting methods, and it was not long
before the weakness of the Australian ballot was uncovered. Properly
administered, the Australian ballot does indeed make it very difficult for
voters to cast multiple votes or for a dishonest election administration
to stuff the ballot box, but the greatest weakness of the Australian ballot
lies in how votes are counted.

This weakness was the focus of the Supreme Court decision that followed the
2000 general election. The Australian ballot requires a subjective
interpretation of each mark on the ballot, so if corrupt officials cannot
control the ballots that land in the ballot box, they may still try to
control how they are counted. Typical counting procedures attempt to prevent
this, first by allowing observers at the count so that any bias will be out
in the open, and second, by requiring that each tally team be composed of
representatives of opposing parties, each monitoring the other. Even with
these precautions, a corrupt election administration can introduce bias into
the count by manipulating the makeup of the tally teams and by instituting
carefully crafted objective standards governing what marks on
the ballot count as votes.

The Michigan law current today (2001, see MCL 168.803) provides an excellent
example of “an objective and uniform standard” that allows such a biased count.
This law requires that each vote be made with either an X or a checkmark, where
the intersection of the X or the corner of the checkmark is within or on the
border of the box provided on the ballot.

This standard seems excellent, but as a consequence, many marks a voter could
make on the ballot that express clear and obvious intent are disallowed.
A hurried checkmark where the vertex is rounded and not sharp, or an X or check
that is obviously intended to be in a particlar box but is just outside that
box may, under these rules, be discounted.

If an entrenched political machine wishes to remain in power even when their
support from the voters is questionable, all they need to do is assure that
their representatives on each tally team are well trained in the selective
exclusion of votes for the opposition using these rules, while the
representatives for the opposition selected for each tally team are relatively
niave and generally willing to accept the obvious intent of voters. By the
time the oppostion members of the tally team understand the game that is being
played, it is likely that they will have already lost the election.

The problems with the Australian Paper ballot can largely be overcome by
strict accounting requirements, specifically, by the requirement that the
official election canvass include not only the counts of the votes that all
agreed were acceptable votes for one or another candidate, but also counts
of the numbers of undervotes and votes not counted because of improper
marking. If the latter number exceeds the margin of victory of the winning
candidate, there is good reason to request a careful recount, and if these
numbers add up to a number in excess of the number of voters who came to
the polls, a ballot box has been stuffed.

A properly administered Australian paper ballot sets an extremely high
standard that any competing election technology must match, but in a general
election such as those in the United States, where a single ballot may
include over 50 individual candidates and questions on the ballot, hand
counting can be a very expensive proposition.

Lever Voting Machines

the right to vote today is far more than the right to pull that lever on
election day. It is the right to an equal and meaningful vote, which
includes the right to equal and meaningful participation.


(John C. Bonifaz to the House Judiciary Committee,
May 5, 1999)

The Myers Automatic Booth lever voting machines was first used in 1892
in Lockport, New York, and lever machines descended from this were slowly
adopted across the country. In the words of Jacob H. Myers, this machine
was designed to “protect mechanically the voter from rascaldom, and make
the process of casting the ballot perfectly plain, simple and secret.”

By the 1930’s, essentially all of
the nation’s larger urban centers had adopted lever voting machines,
and in the election of 1944, Automatic Voting Machine Corporation
advertising claimed that 12 million voters used their machines.
In states such as Iowa, smaller rural counties never abandoned
hand-counted Australian paper ballots.
In other states, particularly where there were serious charges
of election fraud in the first half of the 20th century, lever voting
machines were installed statewide. This happened in Louisiana, for example,
in the 1950’s.

In the 1890’s, lever voting machines were on the cutting edge of technology,
with more moving parts than almost anything else being made. As such, they
were as much of a high-tech solution to the problem of running an honest
election as computer-tabulated punched cards in the 1960’s or direct-recording
electronic voting machines in the 1990’s.

Figure 7:  Patent illustration for a lever voting
machine.

 

 [a lever voting machine and booth]

Two manufacturers split the market for lever voting machines,
Shoup
and AVM (Automatic Voting Machines); the latter company is the direct
descendant of Jacob H. Myers original company, organized in 1895.
Ransom F. Shoup made a number of improvements to lever voting machines
between 1929 and 1975. Figure 7 shows an early Shoup machine; like most
of its successors, this included a substantial voting booth, yet it could
be collapsed into a package that was relatively easy to transport and store.

The most visible difference between the AVM and Shoup machines
was in ballot layout: Both used a tabular ballot layout, with
the lever at the intersection of a particular row and column used to record
a vote for a particular party’s candidate for a particular office;
in the Shoup machine, one column is assigned to each party and one row to
each office, while in the AVM machine, the role of rows and columns is
reversed.

Lever voting machines were so pervasive by the mid 20th century that most
of us born in midcentury grew up assuming that all voting
machines were and would always be lever machines. Today, although they
have been out of production since 1982, these machines are still in
extremely widespread use. They completely eliminate most of the approaches
to manipulating the vote count that were endemic a century ago, and they
can easily be configured to handle a complex general election ballot.

A lever voting machine completely eliminates all questions of ballot
interpretation. At the time the voter opens the machine’s curtain to
leave the voting machine, it adds one to the counter behind each lever
that was pulled down by the voter, and then it resets all the levers.
The lever voting machines of the mid 20th century included interlocks
to prevent a voter from overvoting — that is, voting for more than one
candidate in a race, and the voting booths that were integral to the
machines offered what most voters considered excellent privacy.

Unfortunately, the mechanism of a lever voting machine maintains no
independent record of each voter’s ballot. Instead, the only record of
a vote is the count maintained on the mechanical register behind each
voting lever, where each register has a mechanism comparable to the
odometer in a car. Not only is this vulnerable to tampering by the
technicians who maintain the machine, but it means that the machine
has an immense number of moving parts that are subject to wear and very
difficult to completely test.

Roy G. Saltman has noted that the number 99 shows up in the vote totals
on lever machines significantly more frequently than would be expected
if vote totals were randomly distributed — that is, the number of 99’s
is noticably different from the number of 98’s or 100’s. The probable
explanation is that it takes more force to turn the vote counting wheels
in a lever machine from 99 to 100, and therefore, if the counter is going
to jam, it is more likely to jam at 99. The fact that this is a frequent
occurance in vote totals reported from lever machines is empirical evidence
that the lever machines that have been used in real elections are, in fact,
inadequately maintained and that this results in the loss of a significant
number of votes. Exhaustive pre-election testing would be expected to detect
these jams, but exhaustive testing of a mechanism as complex as a lever
voting machine is very time consuming, and performing such tests on every
voting machine prior to every election would be prohibitively expensive.

Punched Cards for Voting

… one card for every individual enumerated, in which holes are punched
according to various possible answers to questions contained in the schedule.

(F. H. Wines, The Census of 1900,
National Geographic Jan. 1900)

The standard punched card, originally invented by

Herman Hollerith
,
was first used for vital statistics tabulation by the Baltimore Board of
Health. After this trial use, punched cards were
adopted for use in the 1890 census. Hollerith wasn’t working in a vacuum.
His idea for using punched cards for data processing came after he’d seen
the punched cards used to control Jaquard looms.

IBM
developed pre-scored punched cards and the Port-A-Punch card punch.
In the early 1960’s, two professors at the University of California at Berkeley
adapted this for voting.
Joseph P. Harris
, from the political science department, had the
idea, and sought help from William Rouverol, of the mechanical engineering
department. They made several improvements to the Port-A-Punch,
patented them, and formed Harris Votomatic, Inc. to sell the result.
After a large-scale trial at the Oregon State Fair, the system was used
in primaries in Fulton and DeKalb Counties, Georgia;
By the general election that fall, several counties
in Oregon and California had moved to this new technology, and things
looked promising enough that, in 1965, IBM bought the company.

Figure 8:  A Votomatic Ballot, minus the ballot stub

 

 [235 position Votomatic ballot]

The Votomatic ballot shown in Figure 8 has 235 voting positions. Other
ballot layouts support 228 and 235 voting positons. No matter what the
layout, the preprinted information on the Votomatic ballot contains little
more than voting-position numbers. The actual names of candidates and
the text of ballot questions is not printed on these ballots, but rather,
must be provided elsewhere, either on the ballot label attached to the
Votomatic machine, or in a booklet provided with the ballot when it is used
for absentee voting.

Figure 9:  A Votomatic voting machine

 

 [photo of a Votomatic voting machine]

The Votomatic machine shown in Figure 9 is essentially the same as the original
IBM Portapunch, mounted vertically in a panel that is designed to
be integrated into a voting booth. The entire booth, consisting of
the machine itself, plus sides, back and legs. These booths are well
enough designed that many jurisdictions that have abandoned the Votomatic
ballot have retained the booths, replacing the Votomatic machine with a
tabletop that can be used with their newer voting system.

The Votomatic ballot is pre-scored at each voting position so that punching
with a stylus through that position into an appropriate backing will remove
a rectangle of chad, leaving a hole that is counted as a vote. The backing
used inside the Votomatic machine is a complex structure of elastomeric
strips, and the stylus has a relatively comfortable handle on it. When used
for absentee voting, a disposable styrofoam sheet is generally used as backing,
and in some jurisdictions, the stylus for absentee ballots is an unbent
paperclip.

The ballot card is held in proper alignment in the Votomatic machine by
holes in the ballot stub that fit over pins at the top of the machine.
When the ballot is inserted in the machine, the face of the machine
completely covers the ballot, with the exception of small holes over
those voting positions relevant to the current election. The pages of
the ballot label are hinged to the face of the machine; when the book
made up by the pages of the ballot label is open, one column of voting
positions on the ballot is exposed. The ballot label mounted on the
machine shown in Figure 9 is a replica of the first two pages of the
notorious “butterfly ballot” used in Palm Beach County Florida during
the 2000 general election.

Figure 10:  A Data Punch voting machine
with ballot.

 

 [photo of a Datapunch voting machine]

IBM got out of the Votomatic business in 1969, after problems with this
technology began coming to light. Later Votomatic machines (including the
one pictured) were made by Computer Election Services Inc. and several other
IBM licencees. CESI was later absorbed into Election Systems and Software.
Similar mechanisms were made under the Data-Punch trademark
by Election Data Corporation of St. Charles, Illinois.

The example Data-Punch machine shown in Figure 10 is far closer to the original
IBM Portapunch than the Votomatic machine in Figure 9. Unlike the latter, it
is not integrated into the voting booth, but rather, can be used loose on a
desktop. This machine in Figure 10 has has a full book of ballot labels
mounted on it, but they are generic pages with only the positon numbers
printed on them. Both the ballot cards and the hinged ballot label holders
used with this machine are completely compatible with those of the Votomatic
machine, and in some jurisdictions, both machines have been used
interchangably.

The Data-Punch machine in Figure 10 has a 228 position Votomatic ballot
inserted in it, and the punching stylus has been pushed through voting
position 72. Note how the alignment holes in the ballot stub fit
over the red alignment pins on the machine. The actual punched-card
portion of the ballot is entirely hidden inside the machine; only the
tear-off stub is visible. In addition to the alignment holes, the stub
also contains a blank for write-in votes, and when the stub is folded
over along the perforations that separate it from the ballot, it serves
as a privacy cover, hiding both the write-in votes, if any, and any holes
that have been punched.

At the far end of the ballot stub is a small tear-off tab.
The details of how this is used vary from one jurisdiction to
another, but the following is typical: the tear-off tab is
serial numbered; the number on the tab is recorded when the ballot is
issued to the voter, and after the voter has voted, the tab is checked
against the pollbook to see that the voter is returning the same ballot
that was issued. This is a defense agains chain voting, a vote buying
scheme in which a crook gives the voter a pre-voted ballot, the voter
votes that ballot, and then after leaving the polling place, sells his blank
ballot to the crook, who votes it and then gives it to the next willing
participant.

Once the tab has been used to verify that a voted ballot is legitimate,
it is torn off and the ballot, with the stub still folded over to hide
the votes, is deposited in the ballot box. When the time comes to count
the ballots, the stubs are unfolded and any ballots that contain write-in
votes are separated so that the write-ins can be hand-tabulated. The ballots
are then separated from the stubs and stacked for tabulation. The tabulation
may be done either by a computer equipped with a standard punched-card
reader or by an electromechanical punched-card tabulating machine.

Figure 11:  A Votomatic ballot seen from the back

 

 [close up of a Votomatic ballot]

Problems with Votomatic technology have been known since the late 1960’s.
It is common to notice a few pieces of chad accumulating in areas where
Votomatic ballots are being processed, and each of these may represent
a vote added to some candidates total by accident. Roy Saltman of the
National Bureau of Standards published several reports in the mid 1980’s
calling for the abandonment of Votomatic technology because of these and
other problems, but these reports were ignored by all but a few.

It was not until the general election of November 2000 that problems with
the Votomatic voting technology became the subject of widespread public
discussion. The focus of much of this discussion was dimpled chad;
Figure 11 shows a cleanly punched hole and a dimple in a 228 position
Votomatic ballot. It is noteworthy that 12 punch positions on the
228 position ballot are directly over internal braces inside the Votomatic
mechanism, and that these positions are particularly prone to the
development of chad jams that may prevent clean punching in those positions.

The problem with such dimples during a hand recount is that, unlike the case
with the classic Australian ballot, it is difficult for a human looking at
such a dimple to determine the voter’s intent. Every literate person has had
years of experience evaluating pencil marks on paper, but very few people have
had more than passing exposure to the problems of evaluating bits of chad.
It is possible but unlikely that a dimple could be caused by voter hesitation,
where the stylus was gently pushed against that voting position and then
withdrawn. It is also possible but unlikely that the voter pushed hard
enough to create a clean punch while there was something obstructing the hole.
It is possible to distinguish between these two cases by microscopic
examination using of the back of the dimple, but few have the expertise to
do this.

Figure 12:  A DataVote ballot

 

 [a datavote ballot]

There is another punched card voting technology that has proven to be far
less troublesome than the Votomatic. This is the DataVote system.
Unlike Votomatic ballots, DataVote ballots must be specially printed for
each election, with the candidate names printed by each punching position.
This limits Datavote ballots are punched in only two columns of punching
positions along the two edges of the ballot, with the remainder of the space
reserved for ballot text. Each ballot can hold, in theory, about 70
voting positions (35 per column) but to avoid cramped presentation, the normal
practice is to double or tripple space candidate names, so the effective
capacity of a single DataVote ballot is much smaller. In a typical
general election in the United States,

When used to cast absentee votes, DataVote ballots are prescored, just like
Votomatic ballots. When used in the polling place, DataVote ballots are
punched using an inexpensive formed sheet-metal punching fixture that
holds the ballot in alignment and cleanly punches a hole. Although voters
need some training to learn to align the punch properly, this system avoids
all of the chad problems of the Votomatic and has performed very well in the
small fraction of all jurisdictions that have used it.

Optical Mark-Sense Scanners

Mark-sense scanning has its roots in the world of standardized testing.
In
1937,
IBM
introduced the

Type 805 Test Scoring Machine
,
sensing graphite pencil marks on paper by their electrical conductivity.
These were used for the first generation of machine-scored educational
tests, most notably the SAT. This remained in use into the 1950’s.

Optical mark-sense scanning was developed as an alternative to IBM’s
electrical system. IBM had explored optical mark sensing in years earlier,
but Professor E. F. Lindquist of the University
of Iowa developed the ACT exam and directed the development of the first
practical optical mark-sense test scoring machines in the mid 1950’s.
The rights to this technology were sold to Westinghouse Learning Corporation
in 1968, and in 1974, Robert J. Urosevich of the Klopp Printing Company
visited the Westinghouse offices in Iowa City and initiated Westinghouse’s
experiments with using their mark-sense tabulators to scan ballots.

The first use of mark-sense ballots was in 1962, in Kern City, California,
using a mark-sense system developed by the Norden Division of United Aircraft
and the City of Los Angeles. Development of this 15,000 pound system began in
1958 and commercialized as the Coleman and later Gyrex Vote Tally System.
The system remained in use in Orange County for over a decade. The system
also saw use in Oregon, Ohio and North Carolina.

Another early development was the Votronic ballot tabulator, an optical
mark-sense voting system that was used in San Diego in 1964 and was used in
many California counties in 1968, and also approved for use in Ohio.
When compared to earlier scanners, the Votronic was small and easy to
operate. Although originally incorporated as Votronic Corporation, Cubic
Corporation adsorbed the company in 1964.
This was the first
vendor to sell reasonable numbers of mark-sense ballot tabulators.

The Westinghouse system, based on the Westinghouse Learning Corporation
M-600 page scanner, was developed in conjunction with Data Mark Systems and
was first used for an election in Douglas City Nebraska in 1976. In 1979,
American Information Systems emerged from the ashes of this venture and
in 1982, the AIS model 315 central-count ballot tabulator saw its first
official use in several Nebraska counties. In 1997, AIS was reorganized
as Election Systems and Software after merger with Business Records
Corporation.

 [photo]

ES&S 150 Central Count Scanner

The ballot scanner shown here, made by Election Systems and Software
is typical of central-count optical mark sense
systems. The model 150 and 550 differ in speed; the 150 is slower, suitable
for small counties and for processing absentee ballots that have been
folded for mailing, while the 550 and later 650 are faster, more appropriate
for large counties.

In use, ballots to be counted are loaded on the tray to the right
(shown with a few ballots in place) and then they are automatically fed
through the reader mechanism and ejected into the output tray on the left.
The scanner includes, within its body, a complete computer system, and
it sits on a wheeled cart that also holds a printer and supplies.

 [photo]

Optech Eagle (ES&S)

The Optech IIIP Eagle originally made Business Records Corporation and later
(as a result of merger and an antitrust decision) by both Sequoia Voting
Systems and by Election Systems and Software
is typical of modern precinct-count optical mark-sense
ballot scanning systems. The machine in the photo consists of two major
parts, the ballot box (blue) and the head (white). The box is just that, a
secure container for the ballots the machine has counted, while the head
contains the scanner and electronics.

The ballot box on the Eagle and most other precinct-count ballot tabulating
machines contains three compartments. One compartment holds ballots that
were not scanned by the machine. This compartment is considered an emergency
feature; it is intended that it be used only if the scanner does not work,
and in normal use, it is sealed shut. After the polls are closed, any ballots
deposited in this compartment are typically fed through a working scanner
by the precinct election workers or they are subject to a hand count.

Ballots are diverted into one or the other of the two remaining compartments
inside the ballot box by a software controlled diverter mechanism. One
compartment is for ballots that do not require human inspection, while the
other is for ballots that must be hand inspected, for example, those
containing write-in votes.

Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines

The first proposals for electrical vote recording date back to the mid
19th century. In 1850, Albert Henderson patented an electrochemical vote
recorder for legislative roll-call votes (U.S. Patent 7,521). This system
allowed legislators to vote by holding down either the aye or
nay telegraph key on their desk to remotely print their name
in either the aye or nay column on a piece of damp blotter
paper that served as the official record of the vote. Edison refined this
idea in his 1869 patent by adding electromechanical counters to count the
votes (U.S. Patent 90,646), and in 1898, Frank S. Wood proposed a push-button
paperless electrical voting machine for use in polling places
(U.S. Patent 616,174).

Occasional patents for such machinery continued to be filed over the next
70 years, but none of these appear to have come to anything until
McKay, Ziebold, Kirby et al developed their electronic voting machine
in 1974 (U.S. Patent 3,793,505). This machine, known commercially as the
Video Voter, was first used in real elections in 1975, in Streamwood and
Woodstock Illinois. Following these demonstrations, several Illinois counties
purchased the system and used it between 1976 and 1980, approximately.
This system was probably the first direct-recording electronic voting system
to be used in a real election.

 [photo]

Electrovote 2000 (Fidlar)

The Electrovote 2000 voting machine sold by Fidlar-Doubleday (formerly
Fidlar and Chambers) is a wedge shaped affair, basically
an IBM PC compatable with a touch screen, packaged for voting, with
a secure case that prevents keyboard or mouse from being plugged in while
it is in the polling place. The machine plugs into a network hub that
also includes a UPS (uninterruptable power supply, including battery pack),
and sits in a voting booth that is little more than a table with a corrugated
plastic privacy screen — this is a bare minimum voting booth, but the
flat panel display screen on the voting machine has very poor off axis
viewing, so the privacy is a bit better than the minimal booth suggests.
The machine in this photo was on when the picture was taken, with a ballot
displayed on the screen, black text on a white background.

The Global Election Systems Model 100 Electronic Ballot Station is quite
similar looking, with many of the same features. To the voter, the most
visible difference is that it incorporates a smartcard interface. With
the EV2000, the polling place worker enables the machine with an ID code
entered on the screen, while with the EBS100, each voter is given a smartcard
that is good for one use.

 [photo]

Microvote

The Microvote Electronic Voting Computer represents an older generation of
direct recording electronic voting machines. This uses push-buttons adjacent
to each ballot item to cast votes, with a light by each button giving
positive feedback that the vote has been registered. The ballot issues are
printed on a paper ballot label that is protected behind a window between the
rows of buttons, and the machine itself opens up and assembles into a voting
booth, just as the classic lever machines did - the side privacy panels
of the machine in the photo were folded into the lid at the time, in order
to allow greater visibility during a demonstration of the machine.

The Microvote machine has only 64 buttons, and many elections would require
significantly more than this if the full ballot were to be displayed at once.
Microvote has a patented “ballot paging system” that allows a ballot with
up to 512 candidates or positions on issues to be divided into 8 pages for
presentation. The ballot label is printed on a single scroll, with the pages
printed side-by-side, and the machine contains a motor drive that advances
the scroll to the left or right as the voter works through the issues on the
ballot.


I am indebted to Laura Rigal for her suggestion that Bingham’s County Election
(Figure 1) would be a good illustration. This painting was made in 1851-52,
and this particular version of the painting is from the St. Louis Art Museum;
Bingham produced a second version (without the dark figure directly under
the judge flipping a coin) and he commissioned an engraving that was sold
widly.

All of the 19th century ballots shown here are in the Special Collections
department of the Iowa State Historical Society Library in Iowa City.
The ballot in Figure 3 is from the Dolliver papersa the ballot in
Figure 4 is from the Larrabee papers.
The digital images were made by the author.

The ballot in Figure 6 is from the personal collection of
Jim Dowling of Sac City, IA; he purchased it in 1997 from an antique
dealer near Savanah GA. There are Richland Counties in several states,
but John Wolff Crews, 1890-1962, was a prominant
South Carolina Legislator and Jurist and almost certainly the John W. Crews
listed as a candidate on this ballot.
The digital images were made by the author.

The Data Punch and Votomatic ballots and voting systems shown here are
from the author’s collection. The digital image in Figure 7 was made
by the author; those in Figures 9, 10 and 11 were made by Ted Herman.

The DataVote ballot in Figure 12 is from the collection of Kurt Hyde.

I am indebted to Todd Urosevich of Election Systems and Software for
his help with the early history of mark-sense voting systems. Herb Deutsch
at ES&S has also been very helpful, particularly with regard to the early
history of DRE voting systems.


The History of Voting Machines
from
inventors.about.com
offers an interesting history of voting.

Elon Hasson’s paper,

How secret is your Vote?
is a useful survey of many related issues.
This was a student paper in
Lydia Loren’s fall 1999 course,
Cyberspace Law
at Lewis and Clark College.

Vinayapi├▒ake



Mah├ávaggap├á├źiy├á

Dutiyo bhàgo

6 Bhesajjakkhandhaka├╝


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.

1. Tena samayena buddho bhagavà sàvatthiyaü viharati jetavane
an├áthapi├Á├│ikassa ├ár├áme. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ąna├╝ s├áradikena
àbàdhena phuññhànaü yàgupi pãtà uggacchati. Bhattampi bhuttaü
uggacchati. Te tena kis├á honti l├ąkh├á dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á
dhamanisanthatagatt├á. Addas├á kho bhagav├á te bhikkh├ą kise l├ąkhe dubba├Á├Áe
uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├áte dhamanisanthatagatte. Disv├ána ├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝
├ámantesi: “kinnukho ├ánanda etarahi bhikkh├ą kis├á l├ąkh├á dubba├Á├Á├á
uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á dhamanisanthatagatt├á?” Ti.

2. Etarahi bhante bhikkh├ąna├╝ s├áradikena ├áb├ádhena phu├▒├▒h├ána├╝ y├águpi
p├út├á uggacchati. Bhattampi bhutta├╝ uggacchati. Te tena kis├á honti1 l├ąkh├á
dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á dhamanisanthatagatt├á”ti.

3. Atha kho bhagavato rahogatassa patisallãnassa evaü cetaso
parivitakko udap├ádi: “etarahi kho bhikkh├ąna├╝ s├áradikena ├áb├ádhena
phuññhànaü yàgupi pãtà uggacchati. Bhattampi bhuttaü uggacchati. Te tena
kis├á l├ąkh├á dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á dhamanisanthatagatt├á. Kinn├ą kho
aha├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ bhesajja├╝ anuj├áneyya├╝, ya├╝ bhesajja┬Ąceva assa
bhesajjasammata┬Ąca lokassa. ├óh├árattha┬Ąca phareyya. Na ca o├ź├áriko ├áh├áro
pa┬Ą┬Ą├áyeyy├á” ti.

1. “Honti” ├ąna├╝ s├ú mu.

[BJT Page 522] [\x 522/]

4. Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: “im├áni kho pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni.
Seyyath├úda├╝: sappi navan├úta├╝ tela├╝ madhu ph├á├Áita├╝ bhesajj├áni ceva
bhesajjasammat├áni ca lokassa. ├óh├árattha┬Ąca pharanti. Na ca o├ź├áriko ├áh├áro
pa┬Ą┬Ą├áyati. Yann├ąn├áha├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ im├áni pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni anuj├áneyya├╝
k├ále pa├▒iggahetv├á k├ále paribhu┬Ąjitu”nti.

5. Atha kho bhagav├á s├áya├Áhasamaya├╝ patisall├án├á vu├▒├▒hito etasmi├╝
nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “idha
mayhaü bhikkhave, rahogatassa patisallãnassa evaü cetaso parivitakko
udap├ádi: ‘etarahi kho bhikkh├ąna├╝ s├áradikena ├áb├ádhena phu├▒├▒h├ána├╝ y├águpi
p├út├á uggacchati. Bhattampi bhutta├╝ uggacchati. Te tena kis├á l├ąkh├á
dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á dhamanisanthatagatt├á. Kinnu kho aha├╝
bhikkh├ąna├╝ bhesajja├╝ anuj├áneyya├╝. Ya├╝ kho1 bhesajja├╝ ceva assa,
bhesajjasammata┬Ąca lokassa. ├óh├árattha┬Ąca phareyya. Na ca o├ź├áriko ├áh├áro
pa┬Ą┬Ą├áyeyy├á”ti.

6. Tassa mayha├╝ bhikkhave, etadahosi: “im├áni kho pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni.
[PTS Page 200] [\q 200/] seyyathãdaü: sappi navanãtaü telaü madhu
ph├á├Áita├╝ bhesajj├áni ceva bhesajjasammat├áni ca lokassa. ├óh├árattha┬Ąca
pharanti. Na ca o├ź├áriko ├áh├áro pa┬Ą┬Ą├áyati. Yann├ąn├áha├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ im├áni
pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni anuj├áneyya├╝ k├ále pa├▒iggahetv├á k├ále paribhu┬Ąjitu”nti.
“Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, t├áni pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni k├ále pa├▒iggahetv├á k├ále
paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

7. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą t├áni pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni k├ále
pa├▒iggahetv├á k├ále paribhu┬Ąjanti. Tesa├╝ y├ánipi t├áni p├ákatik├áni l├ąkh├áni
bhojanàni, tànipi nacchàdenti. Pageva senesikàni 2. Te tena ceva
sàradikena àbàdhena phuññhà iminà ca bhattacchàdakena 3 tadubhayena
bhiyosomatt├áya kis├á honti l├ąkh├á dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á
dhamanisanthatagattà.

8. Addas├á kho bhagav├á te bhikkh├ą bhiyyosomatt├áya kise l├ąkhe dubba├Á├Áe
uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├áte dhamanisanthatagatte. Disv├ána ├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝
├ámantesi: “kinnu kho ├ánanda, etarahi bhikkh├ą bhiyyosomatt├áya kis├á l├ąkh├á
dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á dhamanisanthatagatt├á?”Ti.

9. Etarahi bhante bhikkh├ą t├áni pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni k├ále pa├▒iggahetv├á
k├ále paribhu┬Ąjanti. Tesa├╝ y├ánipi t├áni p├ákatik├áni l├ąkh├áni bhojan├áni,
tànipi nacchàdenti. Pageva senesikàni 2. Te tena ceva sàradikena
àbàdhena phuññhà iminà ca bhattacchàdakena 3 tadubhayena bhiyyosomattàya
kis├á honti l├ąkh├á dubba├Á├Á├á uppa├Á├│uppa├Á├│ukaj├át├á dhamanisanthatagatt├á”ti.

1. “Kho” ├ąna├╝. Machasa├╝.

2. “Sinehik├áni” katthaci “sineyik├áni” machasa├╝. (Yojan├á)

3. “Bhatt├ácch├ádakena, machasa├╝. Bhatt├ácchantakena” itipi

[BJT Page 524] [\x 524/]

10. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, t├áni pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni
pa├▒iggahetv├á k├álepi vik├álepi paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

11. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ vasehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave vas├áni
bhesajj├áni: acchavasa├╝ macchavasa├╝ susuk├ávasa├╝ s├ąkaravasa├╝ gadrabhavasa├╝
kàle pañiggahitaü kàle nippakkaü1 kàle saüsattaü2 telaparibhogena
paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝. Vik├ále ce bhikkhave, pa├▒iggahita├╝ vik├ále nippakka├╝ vik├ále
sa├╝satta├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti ti├Á├Áa├╝ dukka├▒├ána├╝. K├ále ce
bhikkhave, pa├▒iggahita├╝ vik├ále nippakka├╝ vik├ále sa├╝satta├╝, ta┬Ące
paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dvinna├╝ dukka├▒├ána├╝. K├ále ce bhikkhave,
pa├▒iggahita├╝ k├ále nippakka├╝ vik├ále sa├╝satta├╝, ta├╝ ce paribhu┬Ąjeyya,
àpatti dukkañassa. Kàle ce bhikkhave, pañiggahitaü kàle nippakkaü kàle
sa├╝satta├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya, an├ápatt├ú” ti.

12. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ m├ąlehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. [PTS Page 201] [\q 201/]
“anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, m├ąl├áni bhesajj├áni: haliddi├╝ si├»givera├╝ vaca├╝
vacattha├╝ ativisa├╝ ka├▒ukarohi├Ái├╝ us├úra├╝ bhaddamuttaka├╝. Y├áni v├á
pana┬Ą┬Ą├ánipi atthi m├ąl├áni bhesajj├áni neva kh├ádan├úye kh├ádan├úyattha├╝
pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti, tàni pañiggahetvà
y├ávaj├úva├╝ pariharitu├╝, sati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝. Asati paccaye
paribhu┬Ąjantassa ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

13. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ m├ąlehi bhesajjehi
pi├▒├▒hehi attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, nisada├╝ nisadapotaka”nti3 .

14. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ kas├ávehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, kasàvàni
bhesajjàni: nimbakasàvaü kuñajakasàvaü pañolakasàvaü siggavakasàvaü
nattam├álakas├áva├╝. Y├áni v├á pana┬Ą┬Ą├ánipi atthi kas├áv├áni4 bhesajj├áni neva
khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti,
t├áni pa├▒iggahetv├á y├ávaj├úva├╝ pariharitu├╝, sati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝.
Asati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjantassa ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á’ ti.

15. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ pa├Á├Áehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, pa├Á├Á├áni
bhesajj├áni: nimbapa├Á├Áa├╝ ku├▒ajapa├Á├Áa├╝ pa├▒olapa├Á├Áa├╝ sulasipa├Á├Áa├╝
kapp├ásipa├Á├Áa├╝.5 Y├áni v├á pana┬Ą┬Ą├ánipi atthi pa├Á├Á├áni bhesajj├áni neva
khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti,
t├áni pa├▒iggahetv├á y├ávaj├úva├╝ pariharitu├╝, sati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝.
Asati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjantassa ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á’ ti.

1. “Nipakka├╝” itipi. 2. “Sa├╝sa├▒├▒ha├╝” ├▒├úk├á. 3. “Nisadapotanti” a. Vi.
To vi. [P T S.] Ja vi. 4. “Kas├áva” machasa├╝. 5. “Kapp├ásapa├Á├Áa├╝”
machasa├╝. 5. “Kapp├ásikapa├Á├Áa├╝” [PTS]

[BJT Page 526] [\x 526/]

16. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ phalehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, phal├áni
bhesajj├áni: vi├źa├»ga├╝ pipphali├╝ marica├╝ har├ú├▒aka├╝ vibh├ú├▒aka├╝ ├ámalaka├╝
go├▒├▒haphala├╝1, y├áni v├á pana┬Ą┬Ą├áni pi atthi phal├áni bhesajj├áni, neva
khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti,
t├áni pa├▒iggahetv├á y├ávaj├úva├╝ pariharitu├╝. Sati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝.
Asati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjantassa ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

17. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ jat├ąhi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, jat├ąni
bhesajjàni: hiügu giügujatu2 hiügusipàñikaü takaü takapattiü [PTS Page
202] [\q 202/] takapa├Á├Ái├╝ sajjulasa├╝, y├áni v├á pana┬Ą┬Ą├ánipi atthi jat├ąni
bhesajjàni neva khadanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye
bhojanãyatthaü pharanti, tàni pañiggahetvà yàvajãvaü pariharituü, sati
paccaye paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝. Asati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjantassa ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á”
ti.

18. Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ lo├Áehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, lo├Á├áni
bhesajj├áni: s├ámudda├╝ k├á├źalo├Áa├╝ sindhava├╝ ubbhida├╝ bi├ź├ála├╝3, y├áni v├á
pana┬Ą┬Ą├ánipi atthi lo├Á├áni bhesajj├áni, neva kh├ádan├úye kh├ádan├úyattha├╝
pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti, tàni pañiggahetvà
y├ávaj├úva├╝ pariharitu├╝, sati paccaye paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝. Asati paccaye
paribhu┬Ąjantassa ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

19. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato ànandassa upajjhàyassa àyasmato
belaññhisãsassa4 thullakacchàbàdho hoti. Tassa lasikàya cãvaràni kàye
lagganti. T├áni bhikkh├ą udakena temetv├á temetv├á apaka├│├│hanti.

20. Addas├á kho bhagav├á sen├ásanac├árika├╝ ├áhi├Á├│anto te bhikkh├ą t├áni
c├úvar├áni udakena temetv├á temetv├á apaka├│├│hante. Disv├ána yena te bhikkh├ą
tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á te bhikkh├ą etadavoca: “ki├╝ imassa
bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ├áb├ádho” ti. “Imassa bhante ├áyasmato
thullakacchàbàdho. Lasikàya cãvaràni kàye lagganti. Tàni mayaü udakena
temetv├á temetv├á apaka├│├│h├ám├á” ti.

21. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámanetasi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, yassa ka├Á├│u v├á pi├źak├á v├á
ass├ávo v├á thullakacchu v├á ├áb├ádho, k├áyo v├á duggandho, cu├Á├Á├áni bhesajj├áni.
Agil├ánassa chaka├Áa├╝ mattika├╝ rajananippakka├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
udukkhalamusala”nti.

1. Ko├▒├▒haphala├╝ itipi 2. “Hi├╝gu” “hi├╝gujatu├╝” machasa├╝.

3. “Bila├╝” ma ja sa├╝. 4. “Bela├▒├▒has├úsassa” ma ja sa├╝. [P T S.]

[BJT page 528 22.] Tena kho pana samayena gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝
cu├Á├Áehi bhesajjehi c├álitehi attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
“Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, cu├Á├Áac├álini”nti. Sa├Áhehi attho hoti. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, dussac├álini”nti.

23. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno amanussik├áb├ádho
hoti. Taü àcariyupajjhàyà upañañhahantà nàsakkhiüsu arogaü kàtuü. So
s├ąkaras├ąna├╝ gananv├á ├ámakama├╝sa┬Ąca 1 kh├ádi. ├ómakalohita┬Ąca2 pivi. Tassa
so amanussikàbàdho pañippassambhi. Bhagavato etamatthaü [PTS Page 203]
[\q 203/] ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, amanussik├áb├ádhe ├ámakama├╝sa├╝
├ámakalohita” nti.

24. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno cakkhurog├áb├ádho
hoti. Taü bhikkhu pariggahetvà uccàrampi passàvampi nikkhàmenti.

25. Addas├á kho bhagav├á sen├ásanac├árika├╝ ├áhi├Á├│anto te bhikkh├ą ta├╝
bhikkhuü pariggahetvà uccàrampi passàvampi nikkhàmente. Disvàna yena te
bhikkh├ą tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á te bhikkh├ą etadavoca: “ki├╝ imassa
bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ├áb├ádho” ti. “Imasasa bhaneta, ├áyasmato
cakkhurogàbàdho. Imaü mayaü pariggahetvà uccàrampi passàvampi
nikkh├ámem├á” ti.

26. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámanetasi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, a┬Ąjana├╝: k├á├źa┬Ąjana├╝
rasa┬Ąjana├╝ sota┬Ąjana├╝ geruka├╝ kapallaka”3 nti. A┬Ąjan├ąpapi├╝sanehi4 attho
hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, candana├╝
tagara├╝ k├á├ź├ánus├áriya├╝ t├ál├úsa├╝ bhaddamuttaka” nti.

27. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą pi├▒├▒h├áni a┬Ąjan├áni th├álakesupi5
sar├ávakesupi nikkhipanti. Ti├Áacu├Á├Áehipi pa├╝sukehipi okir├úyanti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, a┬Ąjani” nti.

28. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiy├á bhikkh├ą ucc├ávac├á a┬Ąjaniyo
dh├árenti: sova├Á├Áamaya├╝ r├ąp├úmaya├╝. Manuss├á ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti,
vip├ácenti: “seyyath├ápi gih├ú k├ámabhogino” ti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, ucc├ávac├á a┬Ąjaniyo6 dh├áretabb├á. Yo dh├áreyya,
àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, aññhimayaü dantamayaü
vis├á├Áamaya├╝ na├źamaya├╝ ve├źumaya├╝ ka├▒├▒hamaya├╝ jatumaya├╝ phalamaya├╝
lohamaya├╝ sa├»khan├ábhimaya”nti.

29. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ąjaniyo ap├árut├á honti. Ti├Áacu├Á├Áehipi
pa├╝sukehipi okir├úyanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, apidh├ána” nti. Apidh├ána├╝ patati 7. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
suttakena bandhitv├á a┬Ąjaniy├á bandhitu”nti. A┬Ąjan├ú phalati 8. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, suttakena sibbetu” nti.

1. “├ómakama├╝sa├╝” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “├ómakalohita├╝” machasa├╝. 3.
“Kapalla├╝” ma ja sa├╝ 4. “A┬Ąjan├ąpapisanehi” machasa├╝ [P T S. 5.]
“Carukesupi” ma cha sa├╝. 6. “A┬Ąjan├ú” machasa├╝. [P T S. 7.] “Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝” machasa├╝. 8. “Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝” [P T
S.]

[BJT Page 530] [\x 530/]

30. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą a├»guliy├á a┬Ąjanti. Akkh├úni dukkh├áni
honti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
a┬Ąjanisal├áka” nti.

31. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhu uccàvacà
a┬Ąjanisal├ák├áyo dh├árenti sova├Á├Áamaya├╝ r├ąp├úmaya├╝. 1 Manuss├á [PTS Page 204]
[\q 204/] ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti: “seyyath├ápi gih├ú
k├ámabhogino”ti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, ucc├ávac├á
a┬Ąjanisal├ák├á dh├áretabb├á. Yo dh├áreyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, a├▒├▒himaya├╝ dantamaya├╝ vis├á├Áamaya├╝ na├źamaya├╝ ve├źumaya├╝
ka├▒├▒hamaya├╝ jatumaya├╝ phalamaya├╝ lohamaya├╝ sa├»khan├ábhimaya” nti.

32. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ąjanisal├ák├á bh├ąmiya├╝ patit├á pharus├á hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, sal├ákodh├ániya”nti
2.

33. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą a┬Ąjanimpi a┬Ąjanisal├ákampi hatthena
pariharanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
a┬Ąjanitthavika” nti. A├╝sava├▒├▒ako 3 na hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, a├╝sava├▒├▒aka├╝4 bandhanasutta” nti.

34. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa 5 sãsàbhitàpo
hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, muddhani
telaka”nti. Nakkhama├Áiyo hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, natthukammanti. Natthu galati. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, natthukara├Ái” nti.

35. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiy├á bhikkh├ą ucc├ávac├á
natthukara├Áiyo dh├árenti: sova├Á├Áamaya├╝ r├ąp├úmaya├╝. Manuss├á ujjh├áyanti,
kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti: “seyyath├ápi gih├ú k├ámabhogino”ti. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, ucc├ávac├á natthukara├Á├ú dh├áretabb├á. Yo
dhàreyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, aññhimayaü dantamayaü
vis├á├Áamaya├╝ na├źamaya├╝ ve├źumaya├╝ ka├▒├▒hamaya├╝ chatumaya├╝ phalamaya├╝
lohamaya├╝ sa├»khan├ábhimaya”nti. Natthu├╝ visama├╝ ├ási┬Ąc├úyati 6. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, yamaka├╝ natthukara├Ái” nti. 7
Nakkhama├Á├úyo hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. ‘Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
dh├ąma├╝ p├átu” nti. Ta┬Ą┬Ąeva va├▒├▒i├╝ ├álimpetv├á pivanti. Ka├Á├▒ho8 ├│ahati.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, dh├ąmanetta” nti.

36. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhu uccàvacàni
dh├ąmanett├áni, dh├árenti sova├Á├Áamaya├╝ r├ąp├úmaya├╝. Manuss├á ujjh├áyanti.
Kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti: “seyyath├ápi gih├ú k├ámabhogino” ti. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, ucc├ávac├áni dh├ąmanett├áni
dh├áretabb├áni. Yo dh├áreyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
a├▒├▒himaya├╝ dantamaya├╝ vis├á├Áamaya├╝ na├źamaya├╝ ve├źumaya├╝ ka├▒├▒hamaya├╝
chatumaya├╝ phalamaya├╝ lohamaya├╝ sa├»khan├ábhimaya”nti.

37. Tena kho pana samayena dh├ąmanett├áni ap├árut├áni honti. P├á├Áak├á
pavisanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
apidh├ána”nti.

1. “R├ąp├úmaya├╝” machasa├╝. 2. “Sal├áka├▒h├ániyanti” machasa├╝.
“Sal├ák├ádh├ániyanti’ ma nu pa. 3. “A├╝sabaddhako” machasa├╝. [P T S. 4.]
“A├╝sabaddhaka├╝” machasa├╝. [P T S. 5.] “Pi├źindacacchassa” machasa├╝. [P T
S.] A vi. To vi. 6. “├ósi┬Ącanti” machasa├╝. [P T S. 7.] “Yamaka
natthukara├Áinti” ma cha sa├╝. [P T S. 8.] “Ka├Á├▒ha├╝” [P T S.]

[BJT Page 532] [\x 532/]

38. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą dh├ąmanett├áni hatthena pariharanti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
dh├ąmanettatthavika” nti. Ekato gha├╝s├úyanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, yamakatthavika” nti. A├╝sava├▒├▒ako na
hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, a├╝sava├▒├▒aka├╝
bandhanasutta” nti.

+++++++++ 39. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindicchavassa [PTS
Page 205] [\q 205/] v├át├áb├ádho hoti. Vejj├á evam├áha├╝su: “tela├╝ pacitabba”
nti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, telap├áka” nti.
Tasmiü kho pana telapàke majjaü pakkhipitabbaü hoti. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, telap├áke majja├╝ pakkhipitu”
nti.

40. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiy├á bhikkh├ą atipakkhittamajj├áni
tel├áni pacanti. T├áni pivitv├á majjanti bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. ”
Na bhikkhave, atipakkhittamajjaü telaü pàtabbaü. Yo piveyya, yathà
dhammo kàretabbo. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, yasmiü telapàke majjassa na ca
va├Á├Áo1 na ca gandho na ca raso pa┬Ą┬Ą├áyati, evar├ąpa├╝ majjapakkhitta├╝ tela├╝
p├átu” nti.

41. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ąna├╝ bahu├╝ atipakkhittamajja├╝ tela├╝
pakka├╝ hoti. Atha kho bhikkh├ąna├╝ etadahosi: “kathannu kho
atipakkhittamajje tele pa├▒ipajjitabba” nti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, abbha┬Ąjana├╝ adhi├▒├▒h├átu” nti.

42. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa bahuü telaü
pakkaü hoti. Telabhàjanaü na vijjati 2. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, t├úni tumb├áni: lohatumba├╝ ka├▒├▒hatumba├╝ phalatumba”
nti.

43. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa aïgavàto hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, sedakamma” nti.
Nakkhamanãyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
sambh├áraseda” nti. Nakkhakaman├úyo hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave mah├áseda” nti. Nakkhaman├úyo hoti. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave bha├»godaka” nti. Nakkhakaman├úyo
hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
udakako├▒├▒haka” nti.

44. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa pabbavàto hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, lohita├╝ mocetu”
nti. Nakkhaman├úyo hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, lohita├╝ mocetv├á vis├á├Áena gahetu”nti. 3

45. Tena kho pana samayena ayasmato pilindivacchassa pàdà phalità 4
honti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
p├ádabbha┬Ąjana” nti. Nakkhaman├úyo hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
“Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, pajja├╝ abhisa├»karitu” nti.

1. “Majjassa na va├Á├Áo” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “Sa├╝vijjati” ma nu pa.
[P T S. 3.] “G├áhetunti” machasa├╝. To vi. A vi. 4. “Ph├álit├á” s├ú mu.

[BJT Page 534] [\x 534/]

46. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno ga├Á├│├áb├ádho hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, satthakamma” nti.
Kas├ávodakena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave kas├ávodaka”nti. Tilakakkena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, tilakakka”nti. Kabalik├áya attho hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, kabalika”nti.
Va├Áabandhanacolakena1 attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, va├Áabandhanacolaka” nti. Va├Áo ka├Á├│uvati. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi, bhikkhave, s├ásapaku├Á├│ena2 phositu” nti.
Va├Áo kilijjittha 4. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. [PTS Page 206] [\q
206/] “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, dh├ąma├╝ k├átu” nti. Va├│├│hama├╝sa├╝ 5 vu├▒├▒h├áti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, lo├Áasakkharik├áya
chinditu” nti. Va├Áo na r├ąhati. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, va├Áatela” nti. Tela├╝ galati. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
“Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, vik├ásika├╝ sabba├╝ va├Áapa├▒ikamma” nti.

47. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąataro bhikkh├ą ahin├á da├▒├▒ho hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, catt├ári
mah├ávika├▒├áni d├átu├╝: gutha├╝ mutta├╝ ch├árika├╝ mattika” nti. Atha kho
bhikkh├ąna├╝ etadahosi: “apa├▒iggah├út├áni nu kho ud├áhu pa├▒iggahetabb├án├ú” ti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, sati kapp├úyak├árake
pa├▒iggah├ápetu├╝, asati kappiyak├árake s├áma├╝ gahetv├á paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

48. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarena bhikkhun├á visa├╝ p├úta├╝ hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, g├ątha├╝ p├áyetu” nti.
Atha kho bhikkh├ąna├╝ etadahosi: “apa├▒iggahito nu kho ud├áhu
pa├▒iggahetabb├á” ti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
ya├╝ karonto patiga├Áh├áti, sveva pa├▒iggaho kato hoti. Na puna
pa├▒iggah├ápetabbo” ti.

49. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno gharadinnak├áb├ádho
hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, s├út├á├źoli├╝
p├áyetu” nti.

50. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąataro bhikkhu du├▒├▒hagaha├Áiko hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, ├ámisakh├ára├╝ p├áyetu”
nti.

51. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno pa├Á├│urog├áb├ádho hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, muttahar├ú├▒aka├╝
p├áyetu” nti.

52. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno chavidos├áb├ádho hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, gandh├álepa├╝ k├átu”
nti. 1.

“Va├Áabandhanacolena” machasa├╝. [P T S.] A vi. Cha vi. 2.
“S├ásapaku├│├│ena” s├ú mu. “S├ásapaku├▒├▒hena” machasa├╝. [P T S] cha vi 3.
“Dhovitunti” ma nu pa. Cha vi. 4. “Kilijjattha” s├ú mu. 5. “Va├Áama├╝sa├╝”
[P T S. “.] “Positu├╝” s├ú. Mu. Phusitu├╝?

[BJT Page 536] [\x 536/]

53. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąataro bhikkhu abhisannak├áyo hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, virecana├╝ p├átu”
nti. Acchaka┬Ąjiy├á attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, acchaka┬Ąji” nti. Aka├▒ay├ąsena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave aka├▒ay├ąsa” nti. Ka├▒├áka├▒ena attho hoti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave ka├▒├áka├▒a” nti.
Pa├▒icch├ádan├úyena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, pa├▒icch├ádan├úya” nti.

54. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà pilindivaccho ràjagahe pabbhàraü
sodh├ápeti le├Áa├╝ kattuk├ámo. Atha kho r├áj├á m├ágadho seniyo bimbis├áro
yenàyasmà pilindivaccho tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü
pilindivacchaü [PTS Page 207] [\q 207/] abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinno kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àyasmantaü
pilindivaccha├╝ etadavoca: “ki├╝ bhante thero k├ár├ápet├ú” ti. “Pabbh├ára├╝
mah├ár├ája, sodh├ápemi le├Áa├╝ kattuk├ámo” ti. “Attho bhante, ayyassa
├ár├ámiken├á” ti. “Na kho mah├ár├ája, bhagavat├á ├ár├ámiko anu┬Ą┬Ą├áto” ti. “Tena
hi bhante, bhagavanta├╝ pa├▒ipucchitv├á mama ├ároceyy├áth├á” ti. “Eva├╝
mah├ár├ája” ti kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho ra┬Ą┬Ąo m├ágadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa paccassosi.

55. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho ràjànaü màgadhaü seniyaü bimbisàraü
dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi.
Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àyasmatà pilindivacchena dhammiyà
kathàya sandassito samàdapito samuttejito sampahaüsito uññhàyàsanà
├áyasmanta├╝ pilindivaccha├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakk├ámi.

56. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho bhagavato santike d├ąta├╝ p├áhesi:
“r├áj├á bhante, m├ágadho seniyo bimbis├áro ├ár├ámika├╝ d├átuk├ámo. Kathannu kho
bhante1 pa├▒ipajjitabba”nti. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝
pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
├ár├ámika” nti.

57. Dutiyampi kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro yenàyasmà
pilindivaccho tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü pilindivacchaü
abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ràjà màgadho seniyo
bimbis├áro ├áyasmanta├╝ pilindivaccha├╝ etadavoca: “anu┬Ą┬Ą├áto bhante,
bhagavat├á ├ár├ámiko” ti. “Eva├╝ mah├ár├áj├á” ti. “Tena hi bhante, ayyassa
├ár├ámika├╝ damm├ú” ti.

1. “Bhaneta may├á” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 538] [\x 538/]

58. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àyasmato pilindivacchassa
├ár├ámika├╝ pa├▒issutv├á vissaritv├á cirena sati├╝ pa├▒ilabhitv├á a┬Ą┬Ąatara├╝
sabbatthaka├╝ mah├ámatta├╝ ├ámanetasi: “yo may├á bha├Áe, ayyassa ├ár├ámiko
pa├▒issuto, dinno so ├ár├ámiko” ti. “Na kho deva ayyassa ├ár├ámiko dinno” ti.
“K├úva cirannu kho bha├Áe, ito hi 1 ta├╝ hoti” ti. Atha kho so mah├ámatto
rattiyo viga├Áetv├á 2 r├áj├ána├╝ m├ágadha├╝ seniya├╝ bimbis├ára├╝ etadavoca:
“pa┬Ąca deva rattisat├án├ú” ti. “Tena hi bha├Áe, ayyassa pa┬Ąca ├ár├ámikasat├áni
deh├ú” ti. 3 “Eva├╝ dev├á” ti kho so mah├ámatto ra┬Ą┬Ąo m├ágadhassa seniyassa
bimbis├árassa pa├▒issutv├á ├áyasmato pilindivacchassa pa┬Ąca ├ár├ámikasat├áni
pàdàsi. Pàñiyekko gàmo nivisi. âràmikagàmotipi4 naü àhaüsu.
Pilindigàmotipi5 naü àhaüsu.

59. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà pilindivaccho tasmiü gàmake
kul├ąpago hoti. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á
pattac├úvara├╝ ├ád├áya pilindig├áma├╝ pi├Á├│├áya p├ávisi.

60. Tena kho pana samayena tasmiü gàmake ussavo hoti. Dàrakà
ala├»kit├á6 m├ál├ákit├á k├ú├źanti. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho pilindig├ámake
sapad├ána├╝ pi├Á├│├áya caram├áno yena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa ├ár├ámikassa nivesana├╝
tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi.

61. Tena kho pana samayena tass├á ├ár├ámikiniy├á dh├út├á a┬Ą┬Ąe d├árake
ala├»kite m├ál├ákite passitv├á rodati: “m├ála├╝ me detha. Ala├╝k├ára├╝ me deth├á”
ti. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho ta├╝ ├ár├ámikini├╝ etadavoca: “kiss├áya
d├árik├á rodat├ú” ti. “Aya├╝ bhaneta, d├árik├á a┬Ą┬Ąe d├árake ala├»kite m├ál├ákite
passitv├á rodati: ‘m├ála├╝ me detha. Ala├»k├ára├╝ me deth├á’ ti. Kuto amh├áka├╝
duggat├ána├╝ m├ál├á. Kuto ala├»k├áro” ti.

62. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho a┬Ą┬Ąatara├╝ ti├Áa├Á├│upaka├╝ gahetv├á ta├╝
├ár├ámikini├╝ etadavoca: “handima├╝ ti├Áa├Á├│upaka├╝ tass├á d├árik├áya s├úse
pa├▒imu┬Ąc├á”ti. Atha kho s├á ├ár├ámikin├ú ta├╝ ti├Áa├Á├│upaka├╝ gahetv├á tass├á
d├árik├áya s├úse pa├▒imu┬Ąci. S├á ahosi suva├Á├Áam├ál├á abhir├ąp├á dassan├úy├á
p├ás├ádik├á. Natthi t├ádis├á ra┬Ą┬Ąopi antepure suva├Á├Áam├ál├á. Manuss├á ra┬Ą┬Ąo
m├ágadhassa seniyassa bimbis├árassa ├árocesu├╝: “amukassa deva, ├ár├ámikassa
seniyassa bimbis├árassa ├árocesu├╝: “amukassa deva, ├ár├ámikassa ghare
suva├Á├Áam├ál├á abhir├ąp├á dassan├úy├á p├ás├ádik├á. Natthi t├ádis├á devass├ápi
antepure suva├Á├Áam├ál├á. Kuto tassa duggatassa? Nissa├╝saya├╝ corik├áya
├ábhat├á” ti. Atha kho r├áj├á m├ágadho seniyo bimbis├áro ta├╝ ├ár├ámikakula├╝
bandhàpesi.

1. “Ito ratt├ú” si. . 2. “Ga├Áetv├á” machasa├╝. 3. “Deth├áti” s├úmu. 4.
“├ór├ám├úka g├ámakotipi” 5. “Pi├źindag├ámakotipi” machasa├╝. 6. “Ala├»kat├á”
machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 540] [\x 540/]

63. Dutiyampi kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á
pattac├úvara├╝ ├ád├áya pilindig├áma├╝ pi├Á├│├áya p├ávisi. Pilindig├ámake sapad├ána├╝
pi├Á├│├áya caram├áno yena tassa ├ár├ámikassa nivesana├╝ tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á pa├▒ivissake pucchi: “kaha├╝ ima├╝ ├ár├ámikakula├╝ gata” nti.
“Etiss├á bhante, suva├Á├Áam├ál├áya k├ára├Á├á ra┬Ą┬Ą├á bandh├ápita” nti.

64. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho yena ra┬Ą┬Ąo m├ágadhassa seniyassa
bimbis├árassa nivesana├╝ tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane
nisãdi. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro yenàyasmà pilindivaccho
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü pilindivacchaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü [PTS Page 209] [\q 209/] kho
ràjànaü màgadhaü seniyaü bimbisàraü àyasmà pilindivaccho etadavoca:
“kissa mah├ár├ája ├ár├ámikakula├╝ bandh├ápita” nti. “Tassa bhante, ├ár├ámikassa
ghare suva├Á├Áam├ál├á abhir├ąp├á dassan├úy├á p├ás├ádik├á. Natthi t├ádis├á amh├ákampi
antepure suva├Á├Áam├ál├á. Kuto tassa duggatassa? Nissa├╝saya├╝ corik├áya
├ábhat├á” ti.

65. Atha kho ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho ra┬Ą┬Ąo m├ágadhassa seniyassa
bimbis├árassa p├ás├áda├╝ suva├Á├Áanti adhimucci. So ahosi sabbasova├Á├Áamayo.
“Ida├╝ pana te mah├ár├ája, t├áva bahu├╝ suva├Á├Áa├╝ kuto” ti. “A┬Ą┬Ą├áta├╝ bhaneta,
ayyassa eso1 iddh├ánubh├ávo” ti ta├╝ ├ár├ámikakula├╝ mu┬Ąc├ápesi. Manuss├á
“ayyena kira pilindivacchena sar├ájik├áya paris├áya uttarimanussadhamm├á2
iddhip├á├▒ih├áriya├╝ dassita” nti attaman├á abhippasann├á ├áyasmato
pilindivacchassa pa┬Ąca bhesajj├áni abhihari├╝su. Seyyath├úda├╝: sappi3
navan├úta├╝ tela├╝ madhu4 ph├á├Áita” nti.

66. Pakatiy├ápi ca ├áyasm├á pilindivaccho l├ábh├ú hoti pa┬Ącanna├╝
bhesajjànaü. Laddhaü laddhaü parisàya vissajjeti. Parisà cassa hoti
b├áhulik├á5. Laddha├╝ laddha├╝ kolambepi gha├▒epi p├ąretv├á pa├▒is├ámeti6.
Pariss├ávan├ánipi thavik├áyopi p├ąretv├á v├átap├ánesu laggeti. T├áni
ol├únavil├ún├áni ti├▒├▒hanti. Und├ąrehipi vih├ár├á oki├Á├Á├á viki├Á├Á├á honti. Manuss├á
vih├árac├árika├╝ ├áhi├Á├│ant├á pass├útv├á ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti:
“anet├á ko├▒├▒h├ág├árik├á ime sama├Á├á sakyaputtiy├á seyyath├ápi r├áj├á m├ágadho
seniyo bimbis├áro” ti.

67. Assosuü kho bhikkhu tesaü manussànaü ujjhàyantànaü khãyantànaü
vip├ácent├ána├╝. Ye te bhikkh├ą appicch├á te ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti:
“katha├╝ hi n├áma bhikkh├ą evar├ąp├áya b├áhull├áya cetessant├ú” ti. Atha kho te
bhikkh├ą7 bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Sacca├╝ kira bhikkhave, bhikkh├ą
evar├ąp├áya b├áhull├áya cetent├ú”8ti. “Sacca├╝ bhagav├á” bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. Vigarahitv├á dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi. “Y├áni kho
pana t├áni gil├án├ána├╝ bhikkh├ąna├╝ pa├▒is├áyan├úy├áni bhesajj├áni, seyyath├úda├╝:
sappi navan├úta├╝ tela├╝ madhu ph├á├Áita├╝, t├áni pa├▒iggahetv├á satt├áhaparama├╝
sannidhik├áraka├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabb├áni. Ta├╝ atikk├ámayato yath├á dhammo
k├áretabbo” ti.

Bhesajjaanu┬Ą┬Ą├átabh├á├Áav├áro pa├▒hamo

1. “Ayyasseveso” machasa├╝. 2. “Uttarimanussa dhamma├╝” ma cha sa├╝. [P T
S. 3.] “Sappi├╝” machasa├╝. [P T S. 4.] “Madhu├╝” machasa├╝ 5. “B├áhullik├á”
machasa├╝. [P T S. 6.] “Pa├▒is├ámenti” a vi. Cha vi. 7. “Te anekapariy├áyena
vigarahitv├á” machasa├╝. 8. “Cetessant├úti” s├ú mu.

[BJT Page 542] [\x 542/]

1. Atha kho bhagavà sàvatthiyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà [PTS Page 210] [\q 210/] yena ràjagahaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi.

2. Addas├á kho ├áyasm├á ka├»kh├árevato antar├ámagge gu├źakara├Áa├╝ okkamitv├á
gu├źe pi├▒├▒hampi ch├árikampi pakkhipante. Disv├ána “akappiyo gu├źo. S├ámiso.
Na kappati gu├źo vik├ále paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti kukkucc├áyanto sapariso gu├źa├╝ na
paribhu┬Ąjati. Yepissa sotabba├╝ ma┬Ą┬Ąanti, tepi gu├źa├╝ na paribhu┬Ąjanti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Kimatth├áya1 bhikkhave, gu├źe pi├▒├▒hampi
ch├árikampi pakkhipant├ú” ti. “Bandhanatth├áya2 bhagav├á” ti. “Sace
bhikkhave, bandhanatth├áya3 gu├źe pi├▒├▒hampi ch├árikampi pakkhipanti, so ca
gu├źotveva sa├»kha├╝ gacchati. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, yath├ásukha├╝ gu├źa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

3. Addasà kho àyasmà kaïkhàrevato antaràmagge vacce muggaü jàtaü.
Passitv├á “akappiy├á mugg├á. Pakk├ápi mugg├á j├áyant├ú” ti kukkucc├áyanto
sapariso mugga├╝ na paribhu┬Ąjati. Yepissa sotabba├╝ ma┬Ą┬Ąanti tepi mugga├╝
na paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Sace bhikkhave,
pakkàpi muggà jàyanti, anujànàmi bhikkhave, yathàsukhaü muggaü
paribhu┬Ąjitu”nti.

4. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno udarav├át├áb├ádho hoti.
So lo├Áasov├úraka├╝ ap├áyi. Tassa so udarav├át├áb├ádho pa├▒ippassambh├ú.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, gil├ánassa
lo├Áasov├úraka├╝ agil├ánassa udakasambhinna├╝ p├ánaparibhogena paribhu┬Ąjitu”
nti.

5. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena ràjagahaü
tadavasari. Tatra suda├╝ bhagav├á r├ájagahe viharati ve├źuvane
kalandakanivàpe. Tena kho pana samayena bhagavato udaravàtàbàdho hoti.

6. Atha kho ├áyasm├á ├ánando “pubbepi bhagavato udarav├át├áb├ádho
teka├▒ul├áya4 y├águy├á ph├ásu hot├ú” ti s├áma├╝ tilampi ta├Á├│ulampi muggampi
vi┬Ą┬Ą├ápetv├á anto v├ásetv├á anto s├áma├╝ pacitv├á bhagavato upan├ámesi “pivatu
bhagav├á teka├▒ulay├águ” nti.

7. Jànantàpi tathàgatà pucchanti. Jànantàpi na pucchanti. Kàlaü
viditvà pucchanti. Kàlaü viditvà na pucchanti. Atthasaühitaü tathàgatà
pucchanti. No anatthasaühitaü. Anatthasaühite setughato tathàgatànaü.
Dv├úhi ├ák├árehi buddh├á bhagavanto bhikkh├ą pa├▒ipucchanti: “dhamma├╝ v├á
desiss├áma s├ávak├ána├╝ v├á sikkh├ápada├╝ pa┬Ą┬Ą├ápess├ám├á” ti.

8. Atha kho bhagav├á ├áyasmanta├╝ [PTS Page 211] [\q 211/] ├ánanda├╝ ├ámantesi “kuto ya├╝5 ├ánanda, y├ág├ą ti.

1. “Kimatthiy├á” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “Baddhatth├áya” ma cha sa├╝. ”
“Thaddhanatth├áya” [P T S. 3.] “Thaddhatth├áya” machasa├╝ s├úmu - kattha ci.
4. “Teka├▒ula” machasa├╝. 5. “Kut├áya├╝” ma cha sa├╝ [P T S.]

[BJT Page 544] [\x 544/]

9. Atha kho àyasmà ànando bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesi. Vigarahi
buddho bhagav├á “ananulomika├╝ appatir├ąpa├╝ ass├áma├Áaka├╝ akappiya├╝
akara├Á├úya├╝. Katha├╝ hi n├áma tva├╝ ├ánanda, evar├ąp├áya b├áhull├áya cetessasi?
Yadapi ànanda, anto vutthaü1, tadapi akappiyaü. Yadapi anto pakkaü,
tadapi akappiyaü. Yadapi sàmaü pakkaü, tadapi akappiyaü. Netaü ànanda,
appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya vigarahitvà dhammiü
katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “na bhikkhave, anto vuttha├╝ anto pakka├╝
s├áma├╝ pakka├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Anto
ce bhikkhave, vuttha├╝ anto pakka├╝ a┬Ą┬Ąehi pakka├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya,
àpatti dvinnaü dukkañànaü. Bahi ce bhikkhave, vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü
pakka├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dvinna├╝ dukka├▒├ána├╝. Anto ce
bhikkhave vuttha├╝ bahi pakka├╝ a┬Ą┬Ąehi pakka├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti
dukka├▒assa. Bahi ce bhikkhave, vuttha├╝ anto pakka├╝ a┬Ą┬Ąehi pakka├╝, ta┬Ące
paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Bahi ce bhikkhave, vuttha├╝ bahi
pakka├╝ s├áma├╝ pakka├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Bahi ce
bhikkhave, vuttha├╝ bahi pakka├╝ a┬Ą┬Ąehi pakka├╝, ta┬Ące paribhu┬Ąjeyya,
an├ápatt├ú” ti.

10. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą “bhagavato s├áma├╝p├áko pa├▒ikkhitto”
ti puna p├áke kukkucc├áyanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, puna p├áka├╝ pacitu” nti.

11. Tena kho pana samayena ràjagahaü dubbhikkhaü hoti. Manussà
lo├Áampi telampi ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi ├ár├áma├╝ ├áharanti. T├áni bhikkh├ą
bahi v├ásenti. Ukkapi├Á├│ik├ápi kh├ádanti. Cor├ápi haranti. Damak├ápi haranti.
Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, anto v├ásetu” nti.
Anto v├ásetv├á bahi p├ácenti. Damak├á pariv├árenti. Bhikkh├ą avissatth├á2
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, anto
pacitu” nti. Dubbhikkhe kappiyak├árak├á bahutar├á haranti. Appatara├╝
bhikkh├ąna├╝ denti. Bhagavato [PTS Page 212] [\q 212/] etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, s├áma├╝ pacitu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, anto
vuttha├╝3 anto pakka├╝ s├áma├╝ pakka├╝” nti.

12. Tena kho pana samayena sambahul├á bhikkh├ą k├ás├úsu vassa├╝ vutth├á4
ràjagahaü gacchantà bhagavantaü dassanàya antaràmagge na labhiüsu
l├ąkhassa v├á pa├Á├útassa v├á bhojanassa y├ávadattha├╝ p├árip├ąri├╝. Bahu┬Ąca
phalakh├ádan├úya├╝ ahosi. Kappiyak├árako ca na ahosi. Atha kho te bhikkh├ą
kilantar├ąp├á yena r├ájagaha├╝ ve├źuvana├╝ kalandakaniv├ápo yena bhagav├á
tenupasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdiüsu.

1. “Anto vu├▒├▒ha├╝” machasa├╝. 2. “Avisa├▒├▒h├á” machasa├╝. [P T S. 3.] “Antovu├▒├▒ha├╝” machasa├╝. ” “Avissatth├áya” to vi. Ma nu pa.

4. “Vassa├╝ vu├▒├▒h├á” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 546] [\x 546/]

13. ├óci├Á├Áa├╝ kho paneta├╝ buddh├ána├╝ bhagavanta├╝ ├ágantukehi bhikkh├ąhi
saddhi├╝ pa├▒isammoditu├╝. Atha kho bhagav├á te bhikkh├ą etadavoca: “kacci
bhikkhave, khamanãyaü? Kacci yàpanãyaü? Kaccittha appakilamathena
addh├ána├╝ ├ágat├á? Kuto ca tumhe bhikkhave, ├ágacchath├á?” Ti. “Khaman├úya├╝
bhagavà yàpanãyaü bhagavà. Idha mayaü bhante kàsãsu vassaü vutthà
ràjagahaü àgacchantà bhagavantaü dassanàya antaràmagge na labhimhà
l├ąkhassa v├á pa├Á├útassa v├á bhojanassa y├ávadattha├╝ p├árip├ąri├╝. Bahu┬Ąca
phalakh├ádan├úya├╝ ahosi. Kappiyak├árako ca na ahosi. Tena maya├╝ kilantar├ąp├á
addh├ána├╝ ├ágat├á” ti.

14. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakare├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, yattha phalakh├ádan├úya├╝
passati, kappiyakàrako ca na hoti, sàmaü gahetvà haritvà kappiyakàrakaü1
passitv├á bh├ąmiya├╝ nikkhipitv├á pa├▒iggah├ápetv├á paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave. Uggahitapa├▒iggahita” nti2.

15. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa br├áhma├Áassa nav├á ca til├á
nava┬Ąca madhu uppann├á honti. Atha kho tassa br├áhma├Áassa etadahosi:
“yann├ąn├áha├╝ nave ca tile nava├╝ ca madhu├╝ buddhapamukhassa
bhikkhusa├»ghassa dadeyya” nti. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo yena bhagav├á
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavatà saddhiü sammodi3. Sammodanãyaü
katha├╝ s├ár├á├Á├úya├╝ v├útis├áretv├á ekamanta├╝ a├▒├▒h├ási. Ekamanta├╝ ├▒hito kho so
br├áhma├Áo bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “adhiv├ásetu me bhava├╝ gotamo sv├átan├áya
bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á” ti. Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena.
[PTS Page 213] [\q 213/] atha kho so br├áhma├Áo bhagavato adhiv├ásana├╝
viditvà pakkàmi.

16. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo tass├á rattiy├á accayena pa├Á├úta├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝
bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo bho gotama,
ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á
pattac├úvara├╝ ├ád├áya yena tassa br├áhma├Áassa nivesana├╝ tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghena.

17. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinna├╝ kho ta├╝
br├áhma├Áa├╝ bhagav├á dhammiy├á kath├áya sandassetv├á sam├ádapetv├á samuttejetv├á
sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

18. Atha kho tassa br├áhma├Áassa acirapakkantassa bhagavato etadahosi:
“yesa├╝ kho may├á atth├áya buddhapamukho bhikkhusa├»gho nimantito nave ca
tile nava├╝ ca madhu├╝ dass├ám├ú” ti te may├á pammu├▒├▒h├á4 d├átu├╝. Yann├ąn├áha├╝
nave ca tile nava┬Ąca madhu├╝ kolambehi ca gha├▒ehi ca ├ár├áma├╝ ├áhar├ápeyya”
nti 5.

1. “Kappiyak├árake” ma ja sa├╝. 2. “Uggahita├╝ pa├▒iggahitunti” ma cha
sa├╝. 3. “Pa├▒isammodi” machasa├╝. 4. “Pamu├▒├▒h├á” machasa├╝. 5.
“Har├ápeyyanti”

[BJT Page 548] [\x 548/]

19. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo nave ca tile nava┬Ąca madhu├╝ kolambehi ca
ghañehi ca àràmaü àharàpetvà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
ekamanta├╝ a├▒├▒h├ási. Ekamanta├╝ ├▒hito kho so br├áhma├Áo bhagavanta├╝
etadavoca: “yesa├╝ kho may├á bho gotama, atth├áya buddhapamukho
bhikkhusa├╝gho nimantito ‘nace ca tile nava┬Ąca madhu├╝ dass├ám├ú’ ti, te
may├á pammu├▒├▒h├á d├átu├╝. Patiga├Áh├átu me bhava├╝ gotamo nave ca tile nava┬Ąca
madhu” nti. “Tena hi br├áhma├Áa, bhikkh├ąna├╝ deh├ú” ti.

20. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą dubbhikkhe appamattakepi
pavàrenti. Pañisaïkhàpi pañikkhipanti. Sabbo ca saïgho pavàrito hoti.
Bhikkh├ą kukkucc├áyant├á na patiga├Áhanti. “Patiga├Áh├átha1 bhikkhave,
paribhu┬Ąjatha. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, tato n├úha├▒a├╝ bhutt├ávin├á pav├áritena
anatiritta├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitu”nti.

21. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato upanandassa sakyaputtassa
upa├▒├▒h├ákakula├╝ sa├»ghassa atth├áya kh├ádan├úya├╝ p├áhesi: “ida├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝2
ayyassa upanandassa dassetv├á sa├»ghassa d├átabba” nti.

22 Tena kho pana samayena ├áyasm├á upanando [PTS Page 214] [\q 214/] sakyaputto g├áma├╝ pi├Á├│├áya pavi├▒├▒ho hoti.

23. Atha kho te manuss├á ├ár├áma├╝ gantv├á bhikkh├ą pucchi├╝su: “kaha├╝
bhante, ayyo upanando” ti. Es├ávuso ├áyasm├á upanando sakyaputto g├áma├╝
pi├Á├│├áya pavi├▒├▒ho”ti. Ida├╝ bhante kh├ádan├úya├╝ ayyassa upanandassa dassetv├á
sa├»ghassa d├átabba” nti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Tena hi
bhikkhave, pa├▒iggahetv├á nikkhipatha y├áva upanando ├ágacchat├ú” ti.

24. Atha kho àyasmà upanando sakyaputto purebhattaü kulàni payirupàsitvà divà àgacchati.

25. Tena kho pana samayane bhikkh├ą dubbhikkhe appamattakepi
pavàrenti. Pañisaïkhàpi pañikkhipanti. Sabbo ca saïgho pavàrito hoti.
Bhikkh├ą kukkucc├áyant├á na patiga├Áhanti. “Patiga├Áh├átha bhikkhave,
paribhu┬Ąjatha. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, purebhatta├╝ pa├▒iggahita├╝ bhutt├ávin├á
pav├áritena anatiritta├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

26. Atha kho bhagavà ràjagahe yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena sàvatthi
tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena sàvatthi
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà sàvatthiyaü viharati jetavane
an├áthapi├Á├│ikassa ├ár├áme.

27. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato sàriputtassa kàyaóàhàbàdho hoti.

1. “Pa├▒iga├Áhatha” machasa├╝. 2. “Ida├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝” iti marammakkharapotthake na dissate

[BJT Page 550] [\x 550/]

28. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno yenàyasmà sàriputto tenupasaïkami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á ├áyasmanta├╝ s├áriputta├╝ etadavoca: “pubbe te ├ávuso
s├áriputta, k├áya├│├áh├áb├ádho kena ph├ásu hot├ú” ti. “Bhisehi ca me ├ávuso
mu├ź├álik├áhi c├á” ti.

29. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno seyyathàpi nàma balavà puriso
sammi┬Ąjita├╝ v├á b├áha├╝ pas├áreyya, pas├árita├╝ v├á b├áha├╝ sammi┬Ąjeyya, evameva├╝
jetavane antarahito mand├ákiniy├á pokkhara├Áiy├á t├úre p├áturahosi.

30. Addas├á kho a┬Ą┬Ąataro n├ágo ├áyasmanta├╝ mah├ámoggall├ána├╝ d├ąratova
├ágacchanta├╝. Disv├ána ├áyasmanta├╝ mah├ámoggall├ána├╝ etadavoca: “etu kho
bhante ayyo mahàmoggallàno. Svàgataü bhante ayyassa mahàmoggallànassa.
Kena bhante, ayyassa attho? Ki├╝ damm├ú” ti. “Bhisehi ca me ├ávuso attho
mu├ź├álik├áhi c├á” ti.

31. Atha kho so n├ágo a┬Ą┬Ąatara├╝ n├ága├╝ ├á├Á├ápesi: “tena hi bha├Áe ayyassa
bhise ca mu├ź├álik├áyo ca y├ávadattha├╝ deh├ú” ti. Atha kho so n├ágo mand├ákini├╝
pokkhara├Ái├╝ og├áhetv├á so├Á├│├áya bhisa┬Ąca bhisamu├ź├álika┬Ąca1 abb├áhetv├á2
suvikkh├álita├╝ [PTS Page 215] [\q 215/] vikkh├áletv├á bha├Á├│ika├╝ bandhitv├á
yenàyasmà mahàmoggallàno tenupasaïkami.

32. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno seyyathàpi nàma balavà puriso
sammi┬Ąjita├╝ v├á b├áha├╝ pas├áreyya, pas├árita├╝ v├á b├áha├╝ sammi┬Ąjeyya, evameva├╝
mand├ákiniy├á pokkhara├Áiy├á t├úre antarahito jetavane p├áturahosi.

33. Sopi kho n├ágo mand├ákiniy├á pokkhara├Áiy├á t├úre antarahito jetavane
pàturahosi. Atha kho so nàgo àyasmato mahàmoggallànassa bhise ca
mu├ź├álik├áyo ca pa├▒iggah├ápetv├á jetavane antarahito mand├ákiniy├á
pokkhara├Áiy├á t├úre p├áturahosi.

34. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno àyasmato sàriputtassa bhise ca
mu├ź├álik├áyo ca upan├ámesi. Atha kho ├áyasmato s├áriputtassa bhise ca
mu├ź├álik├áyo ca paribhuttassa3 k├áya├│├áh├áb├ádho pa├▒ippassambhi. Bah├ą bhis├á ca
mu├ź├álik├áyo ca avasi├▒├▒h├á honti.

35. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ą dubbhikkhe appamattakepi
pavàrenti. Pañisaïkhàpi pañikkhipanti. Sabbo ca saïgho pavàrito hoti.
Bhikkh├ą kukkucc├áyant├á na patiga├Áhanti. “Patiga├Áh├átha bhikkhave,
paribhu┬Ąjatha. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, vana├▒├▒ha├╝ pokkhara├▒├▒ha├╝ bhutt├ávin├á
pav├áritena anatiritta├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

1. “Bhisa mu├ź├áli├╝” s├ú mu. 2. “Aggahetv├á’ ma nu pa. To vi. “Abb├áhitv├á” machasa├╝. 3. “Bhuttassa” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 552] [\x 552/]

36. Tena kho pana samayena sàvatthiyaü bahuü phalakhàdanãyaü
uppanna├╝1 hoti. Kappiyak├árako ca na hoti. Bhikkh├ą kukkucc├áyant├á phala├╝
na paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
ab├úja├╝ nibba├▒├▒ab├úja├╝2 akatakappa├╝ phala├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitu” nti.

37. Atha kho bhagavà sàvatthiyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
ràjagahaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena
r├ájagaha├╝ tadavasari. Tatra suda├╝ bhagav├á r├ájagahe viharati ve├źuvane
kalandakanivàpe.

38. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa bhikkhuno bhagandal├áb├ádho
hoti. âkàsagotto vejjo satthakammaü karoti. Atha kho bhagavà
sen├ásanac├árika├╝ ├áhi├Á├│anto yena tassa bhikkhuno vih├áro tenupasa├»kami.
Addas├á kho ├ák├ásagotto vejjo bhagavanta├╝ d├ąratova ├ágacchanta├╝. Disv├ána
bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “├ágacchatu bhava├╝ gotamo, imassa bhikkhuno
vaccamagga├╝ passatu seyyath├ápi godh├ámukha” nti.

39. [PTS Page 216] [\q 216/] atha kho bhagav├á “mama├╝3 khv├áya├╝
moghapuriso uppa├Á├│et├ú” ti tatova pa├▒inivattitv├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝
pakara├Áe bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ sannip├át├ápetv├á bhikkh├ą pa├▒ipucchi: “atthi4
bhikkhave, amukasmi├╝ vih├áre bhikkhu gil├áno?”Ti. “Atthi bhagav├á” ti. “Ki├╝
tassa bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ├áb├ádho?” Ti. “Tassa bhante ├áyasmato
bhagandal├áb├ádho. ├ók├ásagotto vejjo satthakamma├╝ karot├ú” ti. Vigarahi
buddho bhagav├á: “ananucchaviya├╝ bhikkhave, tassa moghapurisassa
ananulomika├╝ appatir├ąpa├╝ ass├áma├Áaka├╝ akappiya├╝ akara├Á├úya├╝. Katha├╝ hi
nàma so bhikkhave, moghapuriso sambàdhe satthakammaü kàràpessati.
Samb├ádhe bhikkhave, sukhum├á chavi. Duropayo va├Áo. Dupparih├ára├╝ sattha├╝
netaü bhikkhave, appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya
vigarahitv├á dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “na bhikkhave,
samb├ádhe satthakamma├╝ k├ár├ápetabba├╝. Yo k├ár├ápeyya, ├ápatti thullaccayass├á”
ti.

40. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiy├á bhikkh├ą “bhagavato
satthakamma├╝ pa├▒ikkhitta” nti vatthikamma├╝ k├ár├ápenti. Ye te bhikkh├ą
appicch├á te ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti: “katha├╝ hi n├áma chabbaggiy├á
bhikkh├ą vatthikamma├╝ k├ár├ápessant├ú” ti. Atha kho te bhikkh├ą bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü.

41. “Sacca├╝ kira bhikkhave, chabbaggiy├á bhikkh├ą vatthikamma├╝
k├ár├ápent├ú” ti. “Sacca├╝ bhagav├á”. Samb├ádhe bhikkhave, sukhum├á chavi.
Duropayo va├Áo. Dupparih├ára├╝ sattha├╝ neta├╝ bhikkhave, appasann├ána├╝ v├á
pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà
bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “na bhikkhave, samb├ádhassa s├ámant├á dva├»gul├á
satthakammaü và vatthikammaü và kàràpetabbaü. Yo kàràpeyya, àpatti
thullaccayass├á” ti.

1. “Ussanna├╝” s├ú mu. 2. “Nibbittab├úja├╝” machasa├╝.

3. “So ma├╝” machasa├╝. 4. “Atthi kira” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 554] [\x 554/]

42. Atha kho bhagav├á r├ájagahe yath├ábhiratta├╝ viharitv├á yena b├ár├á├Áas├ú
tena c├árika├╝ pakk├ámi. Anupubbena c├árika├╝ caram├áno yena b├ár├á├Áas├ú
tadavasari. Tatra suda├╝ bhagav├á b├ár├á├Áasiya├╝ viharati isipatane migad├áye.

43. Tena kho pana samayena b├ár├á├Áasiya├╝ suppiyo ca up├ásako suppiy├á ca
upàsikà ubho pasannà1 honti dàyakà kàrakà saïghupaññhàkà. Atha kho
suppiy├á up├ásik├á ├ár├áma├╝ gantv├á vih├árena vih├ára├╝ parive├Áena parive├Áa├╝
upasa├»kamitv├á bhikkh├ą pucchati: “ko bhaneta gil├áno, kassa ki├╝ ├áhar├úyat├ą”
ti.

44. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarena bhikkhun├á [PTS Page 217] [\q
217/] virecanaü pãtaü hoti. Atha kho so bhikkhu suppiyaü upàsikaü
etadavoca: “may├á kho bhagini, virecana├╝ p├úta├╝. Attho me
pa├▒icch├ádan├úyen├á” ti. “Su├▒├▒hu ayya, ├áhar├úyissat├ú”ti. Ghara├╝ gantv├á
antev├ási├╝ ├á├Á├ápesi: “gaccha bha├Áe, pavattama├╝sa├╝ j├án├áh├ú” ti. “Eva├╝ ayye”
ti kho so puriso suppiy├áya up├ásik├áya pa├▒issutv├á kevalakappa├╝ b├ár├á├Áasi├╝
├áhi├Á├│anto na addasa pavattama├╝sa├╝. Atha kho so puriso yena suppiy├á
upàsikà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà suppiyaü upàsikaü etadavoca:
“natthayye pavattama├╝sa├╝. M├ágh├áto ajj├á” ti.

45. Atha kho suppiy├áya up├ásik├áya etadahosi: “tassa kho gil├ánassa
bhikkhuno pañicchàdanãyaü alabhantassa àbàdho và abhivaóóhissati.
K├álakiriy├á v├á bhavissati. Na kho me ta├╝ patir├ąpa├╝, y├áha├╝ pa├▒issutv├á na
har├ápeyya”nti. Potthanika├╝ gahetv├á ├ąruma├╝sa├╝ ukkantitv├á d├ásiy├á ad├ási:
“bhanda je ima├╝ ma├╝sa├╝ samp├ádetv├á, amukasmi├╝ vih├áre bhikkhu gil├áno,
tassa dajjehi2. Yo ca ma├╝ pucchati, gil├án├áni pa├▒ivedeh├ú” ti.
Uttar├ása├»gena ├ąru├╝ pave├▒hetv├á3 ovaraka├╝ pavisitv├á ma┬Ącako nipajiji.

46. Atha kho suppiyo up├ásako ghara├╝ gantv├á d├ási├╝ pucchi: “kaha├╝
suppiy├á” ti. “Esayya4 ovarake nipann├á”ti. Atha kho suppiyo up├ásako yena
suppiyà upàsikà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà suppiyaü upàsikaü
etadavoca: “kissa nipann├ás├ú” ti. Gil├ánamh├ú”ti 5. “Kinte ├áb├ádho” ti. Atha
kho suppiyà upàsikà suppiyassa upàsakassa etamatthaü àrocesi.

47. Atha kho suppiyo up├ásako “acchariya├╝ vata bho! Abbhuta├╝ vata bho!
Yàvasaddhàyaü suppiyà pasannà, yatra hi nàma attanopi maüsàni
pariccatt├áni, kimpanim├áya6 a┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ ki┬Ąci adeyya├╝ bhavissat├ú” ti ha├▒├▒ho
udaggo yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdi.

1. “Ubhato pasann├á” machasa├╝. [P T S.] A vi. To vi. 2. “Dajj├áhi”
machasa├╝. 3. “Ve├▒hetv├á” machasa├╝. 4. “Es├áyya” machasa├╝. 5.
“Gil├án├ámbh├úti” machasa├╝. 6. “Kimapim├áya” machasa├╝. To vi.

[BJT Page 556] [\x 556/]

48. Ekamantaü nisinno kho suppiyo upàsako bhagavantaü etadavoca:
“adhiv├ásetu me bhante bhagav├á sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á”
ti. Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho suppiyo up├ásako bhagavato
adhiv├ásana├╝ viditv├á u├▒├▒h├áy├ásan├á bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝
katvà pakkàmi.

49. Atha kho suppiyo up├ásako tass├á rattiy├á accayena pa├Á├úta├╝
kh├ádan├úya├╝ bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo
bhante, ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta”nti. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á
pattacãvaraü àdàya yena [PTS Page 218] [\q 218/] suppiyassa upàsakassa
nivesana├╝ tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝
bhikkhusaïghena.

50. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü
├▒hita├╝ kho suppiya├╝ up├ásaka├╝ bhagav├á etadavoca: “kaha├╝ suppiy├á” ti.
“Gil├án├á bhagav├á” ti. “Tena hi ├ágacchat├ą” ti. “Na bhagav├á ussahat├ú ” ti.
“Tena hi pariggahetv├ápi ├áneth├á” ti. Atha kho suppiyo up├ásako suppiya├╝
up├ásika├╝ pariggahetv├á ├ánesi. Tass├á sahadassanena bhagavato t├áva mah├áva├Áo
r├ą├źho ahosi succhavi lomaj├áto.

51. Atha kho suppiyo ca up├ásako suppiy├á ca up├ásik├á “acchariya├╝ vata
bho! Abbhutaü vata bho! Tathàgatassa mahiddhikatà mahànubhàvatà, yatra
hi n├áma sahadassanena bhagavato t├áva mah├áva├Áo r├ą├źho bhavissati succhavi
lomaj├áto” ti ha├▒├▒h├á udagg├á buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pan├útena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi├╝su. Atha kho bhagav├á suppiya├╝
ca upàsakaü suppiyaü ca upàsikaü dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà
samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

52. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe bhikkhusa├»gha├╝
sannip├át├ápetv├á bhikkh├ą pa├▒ipucchi: “ko bhikkhave, suppiya├╝ up├ásika├╝
ma├╝sa├╝ vi┬Ą┬Ą├ápes├ú” ti. Eva├╝ vutte so bhikkhu bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “aha├╝
kho bhante suppiya├╝ up├ásika├╝ ma├╝sa├╝ vi┬Ą┬Ą├ápesi”nti. “├óhar├úyittha
bhikkh├ą” ti. “├óhar├úyittha bhagav├á”ti. “Paribhu┬Ąji tva├╝ bhikkh├ą” ti.
“Pari┬Ąj├áha├╝ 1 bhagav├á” ti. “Pa├▒ivekkhi tva├╝ bhikkh├ą” ti. “N├áha├╝ bhagav├á
pa├▒ivekkhi” nti.

53. Vigarahi buddho bhagav├á: “ananucchaviya├╝ bhikkhave, tassa
moghapurisassa ananulomika├╝ appatir├ąpa├╝ ass├áma├Áaka├╝ akappiya├╝
akara├Á├úya├╝. Katha├╝ hi n├áma tva├╝ moghapurisa, appa├▒ivekkhitv├á ma├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjissasi. Manussama├╝sa├╝ kho tay├á moghapurisa, paribhutta├╝. Neta├╝
moghapurisa, appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya
vigarahitv├á dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “santi bhikkhave,
manussà saddhà pasannà. Tehi attanopi maüsàni pariccattàni. Na
bhikkhave, manussama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti
thullaccayassa. Na ca bhikkhave, appañivekkhitvà maüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

1. “Paribhu┬Ąj├ámaha├╝” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 558] [\x 558/]

54. Tena kho pana samayena ra┬Ą┬Ąo hatthi maranti. [PTS Page 219] [\q
219/] manuss├á dubbhikkhe hatthima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya
carant├ána├╝ hatthi ma├╝sa├╝ denti. Bhikkh├ą hatthima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjanti.
Manuss├á ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti: “katha├╝ hi n├áma sama├Á├á
sakyaputtiy├á hatthima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjissanti. R├ája├»ga├╝ hatthi. Sace r├áj├á
j├áneyya, na tesa├╝ 1 attamano ass├á” ti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
“Na bhikkhave, hatthima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti
dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

55. Tena kho pana samayena ra┬Ą┬Ąo ass├á maranti. Manuss├á dubbhikkhe
assama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ assama├╝sa├╝
denti. Bhikkh├ą assama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjanti. Manuss├á ujjh├ápenti, kh├úyanti,
vip├ácenti: “katha├╝ hi n├áma sama├Á├á sakyaputtiy├á assama├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjissanti. R├ája├»ga├╝ ass├á. Sace r├áj├á j├áneyya, na tesa├╝ attamano
ass├á” ti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, assama├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

56. Tena kho pana samayena manussà dubbhikkhe sunakhamaüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ sunakhama├╝sa├╝ denti.
Bhikkh├ą sunakhama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjanti. Manuss├á ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti,
vip├ácenti: “katha├╝ hi n├áma sama├Á├á sakyaputtiy├á sunakhama├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjissanti. Jeguccho sunakho pa├▒ikk├ąlo”ti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, sunakhama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo
paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

57

Tena kho pana samayena manuss├á dubbhikkhe ahima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjanti.
Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ ahima├╝sa├╝ denti. Bhikkh├ą ahima├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Manuss├á ujjh├áyanti, kh├úyanti, vip├ácenti: “katha├╝ hi n├áma
sama├Á├á sakyaputtiy├á ahima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjissanti. Jeguccho ahi pa├▒ikk├ąlo”
ti.

58. Suphassopi 2 nàgaràjà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito kho suphassà
n├ágar├áj├á bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “santi hi 3 bhante, n├ág├á assaddh├á
appasann├á. Te appamattakehipi bhikkh├ą vihe├▒heyyu├╝. S├ádhu bhante ayy├á
abhima├╝sa├╝ na paribhu┬Ąjeyyu” nti.

59. Atha kho bhagavà suphassaü nàgaràjànaü dhammiyà kathàya
sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi. Atha kho suphasso
nàgaràjà bhagavatà dhammiyà kathà sandassito samàdapito samuttejito
sampaha├╝sito bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakk├ámi.

60. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe [PTS Page 220]
[\q 220/] dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “na bhikkhave,
abhima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

1. “Nesa├╝” machasa├╝. 2. “Supassopi” machasa├╝. [P T S. 3.] “Sant├ú” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 560] [\x 560/]

61. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà sãhaü hantvà sãhamaüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ s├úhama├╝sa├╝ denti. Bhikkh├ą
s├úhama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitv├á ara┬Ą┬Ąe viharanti. S├úh├á ma├╝sagandhena 1 bhikkh├ą
parip├átenti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave, s├úhama├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

62. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà vyagghaü hantvà vyaggha maüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ vyagghama├╝sa├╝ denti.
Bhikkh├ą vyagghama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitv├á ara┬Ą┬Ąe viharanti. Vyaggh├á
ma├╝sagandhena 2 bhikkh├ą parip├átenti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na
bhikkhave, vyagghama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti
dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

63. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà dãpiü hantvà dãpimaüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ d├úpima├╝sa├╝ denti. Bhikkh├ą
d├úpima├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitv├á ara┬Ą┬Ąe viharanti. D├úpi ma├╝sagandhena 3 bhikkh├ą
parip├átenti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave d├úpima├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

64. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà acchaü hanatvà acchamaüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ acchama├╝sa├╝ denti. Bhikkh├ą
acchama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitv├á ara┬Ą┬Ąe viharanti. Acch├á ma├╝sagandhena 4
bhikkh├ą parip├átenti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na bhikkhave,
acchama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

65. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà taracchaü hantvà taracchamaüsaü
paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhikkh├ąna├╝ pi├Á├│├áya carant├ána├╝ taracchama├╝sa├╝ denti.
Bhikkh├ą taracchama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitv├á ara┬Ą┬Ąe viharanti. Taracch├á
ma├╝sagandhena 5 bhikkh├ą parip├átenti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Na
bhikkhave, taracchama├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti
dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

Suppiyabh├á├Áav├áro dutiyo.

1. “S├úhama├╝sagandhena” machasa├╝. 3. “D├úpima├╝sagandhena” ma cha sa├╝. 2. “Vyagghama├╝sagandhena” ” 4. “Acchama├╝sagandhena” “

5. “Taracchama├╝sagandhena” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 562] [\x 562/]

1. Atha kho bhagav├á b├ár├á├Áasiya├╝ yath├ábhiratta├╝ viharitv├á yena
andhakavindaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü
a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusatehi.

2. Tena kho pana samayena j├ánapad├á manuss├á bahu├╝ lo├Áampi telampi
ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi saka├▒esu ├áropetv├á buddhapamukhassa bhikkhu
sa├»ghassa pi├▒├▒hito pi├▒├▒hito anubaddh├á1 honti “yad├á pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝ labhiss├áma,
tad├á bhatta├╝ kariss├ám├á” ti. Pa┬Ącamatt├áni ca vigh├ás├ádasat├áni.

3. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena andhakavindaü
tadavasar├ú. Atha kho a┬Ą┬Ąatarassa br├áhma├Áassa pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝ alabhantassa
etadahosi: “adhik├áni 2 kho me dve m├ás├áni buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhasa├»gha├╝
anubandhantassa ‘yad├á pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝ labhiss├ámi, tad├á bhatta├╝ kariss├ám├ú’ ti.
Na ca me pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝ labbhati. Aha┬Ącamhi ekako3. Bahu ca me ghar├áv├ásattho
h├áyati. Yann├ąn├áha├╝ bhattagga├╝ olokeyya├╝, ya├╝ bhattagge n├ássa, ta├╝
pa├▒iy├ádeyya” nti. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo bhattagga├╝ olokento dve n├áddasa:
y├águ┬Ąca madhugo├źaka┬Ąca.

4. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo yen├áyasm├á ├ánando tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á
├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝ etadavoca: “idha me bho ├ánanda, pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝
alabhantassa etadahosi: ‘adhik├áni kho [PTS Page 221] [\q 221/] me dve
m├ás├áni buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhu sa├»gha├╝ anubandhantassa ‘yad├á pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝
labhiss├ámi tad├á bhatta├╝ kariss├ám├ú’ ti. Na ca me pa├▒ip├á├▒i labbhati.
Aha┬Ącambhi ekako. Bahu ca me ghar├áv├ásattho h├áyati. Yann├ąn├áha├╝ bhattagga├╝
olokeyya├╝, ‘ya├╝ bhattagge n├ássa ta├╝ pa├▒iy├ádeyya’ nti. So kho aha├╝ bho
├ánanda, bhattagga├╝ olokento dve n├áddasa├╝: y├águ┬Ąca madhugo├źaka┬Ąca. Sv├áha├╝
bho ├ánanda, pa├▒iy├ádeyya├╝ y├águ┬Ąca madhugo├źaka┬Ąca, patiga├Áheyya me bhava├╝
gotamo”ti. “Tena hi br├áhma├Áa, bhagavanta├╝ pa├▒ipucchiss├ám├ú” ti.

5. Atha kho ├áyasm├á ├ánando bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesi. “Tenah├ánanda,
pa├▒iy├ádet├ą” ti. “Tena hi br├áhma├Áa, pa├▒iy├ádeh├ú” ti. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo
tass├á rattiy├á accayena pah├ąta├╝ y├águ┬Ąca madhugo├źaka┬Ąca pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á
bhagavato” upan├ámesi: patiga├Áh├átu me bhava├╝ gotamo y├águ┬Ąca
madhugo├źaka┬Ąc├á” ti. “Tena hi br├áhma├Áa, bhikkh├ąna├╝ deh├ú” ti. Bhikkh├ą
kukkucc├áyant├á na patiga├Áhanti. “Patiga├Áh├átha bhikkhave, paribhu┬Ąjath├á”
ti:

6. Atha kho so br├áhma├Áo buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pah├ąt├áya y├águy├á
ca madhugo├źakena ca sahatth├á santappetv├á sampav├áretv├á bhagavanta├╝
dhotahattha├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinna├╝ kho
ta├╝ br├áhma├Áa├╝ bhagav├á etadavoca: “dasa ime br├áhma├Áa, ├ánisa├╝s├á y├águy├á, 4
y├águ├╝ dento ├áyu├╝ deti. Va├Á├Áa├╝ deti. Sukha├╝ deti. Bala├╝ deti. Pa├▒ibh├á├Áa├╝
deti. Yàgu pãtà khudaü 5 pañihanti 6. Pipàsaü pañivineti 7. Vàtaü
anulometi. Vatthi├╝ sodheti. ├óm├ávasesa├╝ p├áceti. Ime kho br├áhma├Áa,
das├ánisa├╝s├á y├águy├á” ti.

1. “Anubandh├á” s├ú mu. Machasa├╝. 2. “At├út├áni” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

3. “Ekatthako” machasa├╝. 4. “Katame dasa” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

5. “Khudda├╝” machasa├╝. 6. “Pa├▒ihanti” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

7. “Vineti” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 564] [\x 564/]

7. Yo sa┬Ą┬Ąat├ána├╝ paradattabhojina├╝

Kàlena sakkacca dadàti yàguü,

Dasassa ñhànàni anuppavecchati

├óyu┬Ąca va├Á├Áa┬Ąca sukha├╝ bala┬Ąca.

8. Pa├▒ibh├á├Áamassa upaj├áyate tato

Khudaü pipàsaü 1 vyapaneti vàtaü,

Sodheti vatthi├╝ pari├Á├ámeti bhutta├╝ 2

Bhesajjameta├╝ sugatena va├Á├Áita├╝.

9. Tasmà hi yàguü alameva dàtuü

Nicca├╝ manussena sukhatthikena,

Dibbàni và patthayatà 3 sukhàni

Manussasobhagyatamicchatà 4 vàti.

10. [PTS Page 222] [\q 222/] atha kho bhagav├á ta├╝ br├áhma├Áa├╝ im├áhi
gathàhi anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü
pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave,
y├águ┬Ąca madhugo├źaka┬Ąc├á” ti.

11. Assosu├╝ kho manuss├á “bhagavat├á kira bhikkh├ąna├╝ 5 y├águ anu┬Ą┬Ą├át├á
madhugo├źaka┬Ąc├á” ti. Te k├álasseva bhojjay├águ├╝ pa├▒iy├ádenti madhugo├źaka┬Ąca.
Bhikkh├ą k├álasseva bhojj├áya y├águy├á 6 dh├át├á madhugo├źakena ca bhattagge na
cittar├ąpa├╝ bhu┬Ąjanti. 7

12. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąatarena taru├Áappasannena 8 mah├ámattena
svàtanàya buddhapamukho bhikkhusaïgho nimantito hoti. Atha kho tassa
taru├Áappasannassa mah├ámattassa etadahosi: “yann├ąn├áha├╝ a├│├│hate├źasanna├╝
bhikkhusat├ána├╝ a├│├│hate├źas├áni ma├╝sap├átisat├áni pa├▒iy├ádeyya├╝, ekamekassa
bhikkhuno ekameka├╝ ma├╝sap├áti├╝ upan├ámeyya” nti. Atha kho so
taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto tass├á rattiy├á accayena pa├Áita├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝
bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á a├│├│hate├źas├áni ca ma├╝sap├átisat├áni bhagavato
k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo bhante, ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagav├á
pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á pattac├úvara├╝ ├ád├áya yena tassa
taru├Áappasannassa mah├ámattassa nivesana├╝ tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á
pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghena.

13. Atha kho so taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto bhattagge bhikkh├ą
parivisati. Bhikkh├ą evam├áha├╝su. “Thoka├╝ ├ávuso deh├ú” ti. “M├á kho tumhe
bhante. “Aya├╝ taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto” ti. Thoka├╝ thoka├╝ patiga├Áhittha
9. Bahu├╝ me kh├ádan├úya├╝ bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iyatta├╝ a├│├│hate├źas├áni 10
ma├╝sap├átisat├áni. Ekameka├╝ ma├╝sap├áti├╝ upan├ámess├ámi. 11. Patiga├Áhatha
bhante y├ávadattha” nti. “Na kho maya├╝ ├ávuso eta├╝ k├ára├Á├á thoka├╝ thoka├╝
patiga├Áh├áma. Api ca maya├╝ k├álasseva bhojj├áya y├águy├á dh├át├á madhugo├źakena
ca. Tena maya├╝ thoka├╝ thoka├╝ patiga├Áh├ám├á” ti.

1. “Pip├ása┬Ąca” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “Bhatta├╝” machasa├╝. Ja vi to vi.
Ma nu pa to vi. 3. “Patthayata├╝” 4. “Icchita├╝” a├▒├▒hakath├á. 5.
“Bhagavat├á kira y├águ” machasa├╝. 6. “Bhojjay├águy├á” machasa├╝. [P T S. 7.]
“Paribhu┬Ąjanti” ma cha sa├╝. 8. “Taru├Áapasannena” machasa├╝. 9.
“Patiga├Áhatha” machasa├╝ [P T S. 10.] “A├│├│hatelas├áni ca” machasa├╝. 11.
“Upan├ámess├ám├úti’ machasa├╝. To vi.

[BJT Page 566] [\x 566/]

14. Atha kho so taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto ujjh├áyati, kh├úyati,
vip├áceti: “katha├╝ hi n├áma bhadant├á may├á nimantit├á a┬Ą┬Ąassa bhojjay├águ├╝
paribhu┬Ąjissanti. Na c├áha├╝ pa├▒ibalo y├ávadattha├╝ d├átu” nti kupito
anattamano as├ádan├ápekkho bhikkh├ąna├╝ patte p├ąrento ├ágam├ási “bhu┬Ąjatha v├á.
Haratha v├á” ti.

15. Atha kho so taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhu
sa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena [PTS Page 223] [\q 223/] kh├ádan├úyena bhojan├úyena
sahattha├╝ santappetv├á sampav├áretv├á bhagavanta├╝ bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝
ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinn├á kho ta├╝ taru├Áappasanna├╝ mah├ámatta├╝
bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà
sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

16. Atha kho tassa taru├Áappasannassa mah├ámattassa acirapakkantassa
bhagavato ahudeva kukkucca├╝. Ahu vippa├▒is├áro: “al├ábh├á vata me, na vata
me làbhà, dulladdhaü vata me, na vata me suladdhaü, yohaü kupito
anattamano ├ás├ádan├ápekkho bhikkh├ąna├╝ patte p├ąrent├á agam├ási├╝ ‘bhu┬Ąjatha v├á
haratha v├á’ ti. Kinnu kho may├á bahu├╝ pasuta├╝ pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ v├á apu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ v├á? Ti.

17. Atha kho so taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto yena bhagav├á tenupasa├»kami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü
nisinno kho so taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “idha
mayha├╝ bhante acirapannantassa bhagavato ahudeva kukkucca├╝ ahu
vippa├▒is├áro: ‘al├ábh├á vata me, na vata me l├ábh├á, dulladdha├╝ vata me, na
vata me suladdha├╝, yoha├╝ kupito anattamano ├ás├ádan├ápekkho bhikkh├ąna├╝
patte p├ąrento ├ágam├ási├╝. ‘Bhu┬Ąjatha v├á haratha v├á’ ti. Kinnu kho maya├╝
bahu├╝ pasuta├╝ pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ v├á apu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ v├á?” Ti. Kinnu kho may├á bhante bahu├╝
pasuta├╝ pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ v├á apu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ v├á?” Ti. “Yadaggena tay├á ├ávuso, sv├átan├áya
buddhapamukho bhikkhusa├»gho nimantito, tadaggena te bahu├╝ pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝
pasutaü. Yadaggena te ekamekena bhikkhunà ekamekaü sitthaü pañiggahitaü,
tadaggena te bahu├╝ pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ pasuta├╝. Sagg├á te ├áraddh├á” ti.

18. Atha kho so taru├Áappasanno mah├ámatto “l├ábh├á kira me. Suladdha├╝
kira me. Bahu├╝ kira may├á pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ pasuta├╝. Sagg├á kira me ├áraddh├á” ti
ha├▒├▒ho udaggo u├▒├▒h├áy├ásan├á bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á
pakk├ámi. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe bhikkhusa├»gha├╝
sannip├át├ápetv├á bhikkh├ą pa├▒ipucchi: “sacca├╝ kira bhikkhave bhikkh├ą
a┬Ą┬Ąatra nimantit├á a┬Ą┬Ąassa bhojjay├águ├╝ paribhu┬Ąjant├ú” ti. “Sacca├╝
bhagav├á” ti. Vigarahi buddho bhagav├á “katha├╝ hi n├áma te bhikkhave,
moghapuris├á a┬Ą┬Ąatra nimantit├á a┬Ą┬Ąassa bhojjay├águ├╝ paribhu┬Ąjant├ú” ti.
“Sacca├╝ bhagav├á” ti. Vigarahi buddho bhagav├á: “katha├╝ hi n├áma te
bhikkhave, moghapuris├á a┬Ą┬Ąatra nimantit├á a┬Ą┬Ąassa bhojjay├águ├╝
paribhu┬Ąjissanti. Neta├╝ bhikkhave, appasann├ána├╝ v├á pas├ád├áya” pasann├ána├╝
v├á bhiyyobh├áv├áya vigarahitv├á dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: [PTS
Page 224] [\q 224/] “na bhikkhave, a┬Ą┬Ąatra nimantitena a┬Ą┬Ąassa
bhojjay├águ paribhu┬Ąjitabb├á. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, yath├á dhammo k├áretabbo”
ti.

[BJT Page 568] [\x 568/]

19. Atha kho bhagavà andhakavinde yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
ràjagahaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü
a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusatehi.

20. Tena kho pana samayane belaññho kaccàno ràjagahaü andhakavindaü
addh├ánamaggapa├▒ipanno hoti pa┬Ącamattehi saka├▒asatehi sabbeheva
gu├źakumbhap├ąrehi. Addas├á kho bhagav├á bela├▒├▒ha├╝ kacc├ána├╝ d├ąratova
├ágacchanta├╝. Disv├ána magg├á okkamama a┬Ą┬Ąatarasmi├╝ rukkham├ąle nis├údi.

21. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito
kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “icch├ámaha├╝ bhante
ekamekassa bhikkhuno ekameka├╝ gu├źakumbha├╝ d├átu”nti. Tena hi tva├╝
kacc├ána, eka├╝yeva gu├źakumbha├╝ ├áhar├á” ti. “Eva├╝ bhante” ti kho bela├▒├▒ho
kacc├áno bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á eka├╝yeva gu├źakumbha├╝ ├ád├áya yena bhagav├á
tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “├áha├▒o 1 bhante,
gu├źakumbho. Kath├áha├╝ bhante, pa├▒ipajj├ám├ú” ti. “Tena hi tva├╝ kacc├ána,
bhikkh├ąna├╝ gu├źa├╝ deh├ú” ti. “Eva├╝ bhante” ti kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno
bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á bhikkh├ąna├╝ gu├źa├╝ datv├á bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca:
“dinno bhante, bhikkh├ąna├╝ gu├źo. Bahu c├áya├╝ gu├źo avasi├▒├▒ho. Kath├áha├╝
bhante, pa├▒ipajj├ám├ú” ti. “Tena hi tva├╝ kacc├ána,bhikkh├ąna├╝ g├ąla├╝
y├ávadattha├╝ dehi”ti.” Eva├╝ bhante”ti kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno bhagavato
pa├▒issutv├á bhikkh├ą gu├źehi santappesi. Ekacce bhikkh├ą pattepi p├ąresu├╝.
Pariss├ávan├ánipi thavik├áyopi p├ąresu├╝.

22. Atha kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno bhikkh├ą gu├źehi santappetv├á bhagavanta├╝
etadavoca: “santappit├á bhante bhikkh├ą gu├źehi. Bahu c├áya├╝ gu├źo avasi├▒├▒ho.
Kath├áha├╝ bhante, pa├▒ipajj├ám├ú”ti. “Tena [PTS Page 225] [\q 225/] hi tva├╝
kacc├ána vigh├ás├ád├ána├╝ gu├źa├╝ deh├ú” ti. “Eva├╝ bhante”ti kho bela├▒├▒ho
kacc├áno bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á vigh├ás├ád├ána├╝ gu├źa├╝ datv├á bhagavanta├╝
etadavoca: “dinno bhante, vigh├ás├ád├ána├╝ gu├źo. Bahu c├áya├╝ gu├źo avasi├▒├▒ho.
Kath├áha├╝ bhante, pa├▒ipajj├ám├ú” ti. “Tena hi tva├╝ kacc├ána, vigh├ás├ád├ána├╝
gu├źa├╝ y├ávadattha├╝ deh├ú” ti. “Eva├╝ bhante” ti kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno
bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á vigh├ás├ád├ána├╝ gu├źa├╝ y├ávadattha├╝ datv├á bhagavanta├╝
etadavoca: “dinno bhante, vigh├ás├ád├ána├╝ gu├źo y├ávadattho. Bahu├╝ c├áya├╝ gu├źo
avasi├▒├▒ho. Kath├áha├╝ bhante, pa├▒ipajj├ám├ú” ti. “Tena hi tva├╝ kacc├ána,
vigh├ás├áde gu├źehi santappeh├ú” ti. “Eva├╝ bhaneta” ti kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno
bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á vigh├ás├áde gu├źehi santappesi. Ekacce vigh├ás├ád├á
kolambepi gha├▒epi p├ąre├╝su. Pi├▒ak├ánipi uccha├»gepi p├ąresu├╝.

1. “├óhato” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 570] [\x 570/]

23. Atha kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno vigh├ás├áde gu├źehi santappetv├á
bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “santappit├á bhante vigh├ás├ád├á gu├źehi. Bahu c├áya├╝
gu├źo avasi├▒├▒ho. Kath├áha├╝ bhante pa├▒ipajj├ám├ú” ti. “N├áha├╝ ta├╝ kacc├ána,
pass├ámi sadevake loke sam├árake sabrahmake sassama├Áabr├áhma├Áiy├á paj├áya
sadevamanuss├áya yasseso gu├źo1 paribhutto samm├á pari├Á├áma├╝ gaccheyya
a┬Ą┬Ąatra tath├ágatassa v├á tath├ágatas├ávakassa v├á. Tena hi tva├╝ kacc├ána, ta├╝
gu├źa├╝ appaharite v├á cha├│├│ehi. App├á├Áake v├á udake opil├ápeh├ú” ti. “Eva├╝
bhante” ti kho bela├▒├▒ho kacc├áno bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á ta├╝ gu├źa├╝ app├á├Áake
udake opilepesi 2. Atha kho so gu├źo udake pakkhitto cicci├▒├áyati.
Ci├▒ici├▒├áyati. Sandh├ąp├áyati3. Sampadh├ąp├áyati. Seyyath├ápi n├áma ph├álo
divasasantatto4 udake pakkhitto cicci├▒├áyati, ci├▒ici├▒├áyati, sandh├ąp├áyati,
sampadh├ąp├áyati, evameva so gu├źo udake pakkhitto cicci├▒├áyati.
Ci├▒ici├▒├áyati. Sandh├ąp├áyati. Sampadh├ąp├áyati.

24. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno saüviggo lomahaññhajàto yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinassa kho belaññhassa kaccànassa bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü
kathesi. Seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü saggakathaü kàmànaü àdinavaü
ok├ára├╝ sa├╝kilesa├╝ nekkhamme ├ánisa├╝sa├╝ pak├ásesi. Yad├á bhagav├á a┬Ą┬Ą├ási
bela├▒├▒ha├╝ kacc├ána├╝ kallacitta├╝ muducitta├╝ vin├úvara├Áa citta├╝ udaggacitta├╝
pasannacittaü, atha yà buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü
pak├ásesi. (Seyyath├ápi n├áma suddha├╝ vattha├╝ apagatak├á├źaka├╝ sammadeva
rajana├╝ pa├▒iga├Áheyya, ) evameva bela├▒├▒hassa [PTS Page 226] [\q 226/]
kaccànassa tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi:
“ya├╝ ki┬Ąci samudayadhamma├╝, sabbanta├╝ nirodhadhamma” nti.

25. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyog├á├źhadhammo ti├Á├Áavicikiccho vigatakatha├»katho ves├árajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthus├ásane bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “abhikkanta├╝ bhante,
abhikkantaü bhante, seyyathàpi bhante, nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pa├▒icchanna├╝ v├á vivareyya, m├ą├źhassa v├á magga├╝ ├ácikkheyya, andhak├áre v├á
telapajjota├╝ dh├áreyya: cakkhumanto r├ąp├áni dakkhint├ú ti, evameva├╝
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante bhagavantaü
sara├Áa├╝ gacch├ámi dhamma┬Ąca bhikkhusa├»gha┬Ąca. Up├ásaka├╝ ma├╝ bhagav├á
dh├áretu ajjatagge p├á├Áupeta├╝ sara├Áa├╝ gata” nti.

1. “Yassa so gu├źo” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “Opil├ápeti” machasa├╝. 3. “Padh├ąp├áyati” machasa├╝. 4. “Divasa├╝santatto” ma cha sa├╝.

++ [BJT Page 572] [\x 572/]

26. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena ràjagahaü
tadavasari. Tatra suda├╝ bhagav├á r├ájagahe viharati ve├źuvane
kalandakaniv├ápe. Tena kho pana samayena r├ájagahe gu├źo ussanno hoti.
Bhikkh├ą “gil├ánasseva bhagavat├á gu├źo anu┬Ą┬Ą├áto. No agil├ánass├á” ti.
Kukkucc├áyant├á gu├źa├╝ na paribhu┬Ąjanti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝.
“Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, gil├ánassa gu├źa├╝. Agil├ánassa gu├źodaka” nti.

27. Atha kho bhagavà ràjagahe yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
pàñaligàmo tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü
a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusatehi. Atha kho bhagav├á anupubbena c├árika├╝
caramàno yena pàñaligàmo tadavasari. Assosuü kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà
“bhagav├á kira p├á├▒alig├áma├╝ anuppatto” ti. Atha kho p├á├▒alig├ámik├á up├ásak├á
yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Ekamantaü nisinno kho pàñaligàmike upàsake bhagavà
dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi. Atha
kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà bhagavatà dhammiyà kathàya sandassità
sam├ádapit├á samuttejit├á sampaha├╝sit├á bhagavanta├╝ etadavocu├╝: “adhiv├ásetu
no bhante bhagav├á ├ávasath├ág├ára├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á”ti. Adhiv├ásesi
bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena.

28. Atha kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà
u├▒├▒h├áy├ásan├á bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á [PTS Page 227] [\q 227/] padakkhi├Áa├╝
katvà yena àvasathàgàraü tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà sabbasanthariü
├ávasath├ág├ára├╝ santharitv├á ├ásan├áni pa┬Ą┬Ą├ápetv├á udakama├Áika├╝ pati├▒├▒h├ápetv├á
telappadãpaü àropetvà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhaüsu. Ekamantaü ñhità kho
p├á├▒alig├ámik├á up├ásak├á bhagavanta├╝ etadavocu├╝: “sabbasanthari├╝ santhata├╝1
bhante, ├ávasath├á g├ára├╝. ├ósan├áni pa┬Ą┬Ąatt├áni. Udakama├Áiko pati├▒├▒h├ápito.
Telappad├úpo ├áropito. Yassad├áni bhante, bhagav├á k├ála├╝ ma┬Ą┬Ąat├ú” ti. Atha
kho bhagavà nivàsetvà pattacãvaraü àdàya saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena yena
àvasathàgàraü tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pàde pakkhàletvà
àvasathàgàraü pavisitvà majjhimaü thambhaü nissàya puratthàbhimukho
nisãdi. Bhikkhu saïghopi kho pàde pakkhàletvà àvasathàgàraü pavisitvà
pacchimaü bhittiü nissàya puratthàbhimukho nisãdi bhagavantaüyeva
purakkhatvà. Pàñaligàmikàpi kho upàsakà pàde pakkhàletvà àvasathàgàraü
pavisitvà puratthimaü bhittiü nissàya pacchimàbhimukhà nisãdiüsu
bhagavantaüyeva purakkhatvà.

1. Sabbasantharisatthata├╝” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 574] [\x 574/]

29. Atha kho bhagav├á p├á├▒alig├ámike up├ásake ├ámantesi: “pa┬Ącime
gahapatayo, ├ád├únav├á duss├úlassa s├úlavipattiy├á. Katame pa┬Ąca? Idha
gahapatayo, duss├úlo s├úlavipanno pam├ád├ádhikara├Áa├╝ mahati├╝ bhogaj├áni├╝
nigacchati. Ayaü pañhamo àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Punacaparaü
gahapatayo, dussãlassa sãlavipannassa pàpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati.
Ayaü dutiyo àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Punacaparaü gahapatayo,
duss├úlo s├úlavipanno ya┬Ą┬Ąadeva parisa├╝ upasa├»kamati: yadi khattiyaparisa├╝
yadi br├áhma├Áaparisa├╝ yadi gahapatiparisa├╝ yadi sama├Áaparisa├╝, avis├árado
upasa├»kamati ma├»kubh├ąto. Aya├╝ tatiyo ├ád├únavo. Duss├úlassa s├úlavipattiy├á.
Punacapara├╝ gahapatayo, duss├úlo s├úlavipanno samm├ą├źho k├ála├╝ karoti. Aya├╝
catuttho àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Punacaparaü gahapatayo,
duss├úlo s├úlavipanto k├áyassa bhed├á parammara├Á├á ap├áya├╝ duggati├╝ vinip├áta├╝
niraya├╝ upapajjati. Aya├╝ pa┬Ącamo ├ád├únavo duss├úlassa s├úlavipattiy├á. Ime
kho gahapatayo. Pa┬Ąca ├ád├únav├á duss├úlassa s├úlavipattiy├á.

30. Pa┬Ącime gahapatayo, ├ánisa├╝s├á s├úlavato s├úlasampad├áya. [PTS Page
228] [\q 228/] katame pa┬Ąca? Idha gahapatayo, s├úlav├á s├úlasampanno
appam├ád├ádhikara├Áa├╝ mahanta├╝ bhogakkhandha├╝ adhigacchati. Aya├╝ pa├▒hamo
ànisaüso sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Punacaparaü gahapatayo, sãlavato
s├úlasampannassa kaly├á├Áo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. Aya├╝ dutiyo ├ánisa├╝so
sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Punacaparaü gahapatayo, sãlavà sãlasampanno
ya┬Ą┬Ąadeva parisa├╝ upasa├»kamati: yadi khattiyaparisa├╝ yadi
br├áhma├Áaparisa├╝ yadi gahapatiparisa├╝ yadi sama├Áaparisa├╝, vis├árado
upasa├»kamati ama├»kubh├ąto. Aya├╝ tatiyo ├ánisa├╝so s├úlavato s├úlasampad├áya.
Punacapara├╝ gahapatayo, s├úlav├á s├úlasampanno asamm├ą├źho k├ála├╝ karoti. Aya├╝
catuttho ànisaüso sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Punacaparaü gahapatayo,
s├úlav├á s├úlasampanno k├áyassa bhed├á parammara├Á├á sugati├╝ sagga├╝ loka├╝
upapajjati. Aya├╝ pa┬Ącamo ├ánisa├╝so s├úlavato s├úlasampad├áya. Ime kho
gahapatayo, pa┬Ąca ├ánisa├╝s├á s├úlavato s├úlasampad├áy├á”ti.

31. Atha kho bhagavà pàñaligàmake upàsake bahudeva rattiü dhammiyà
kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uyyojesi
“abhikkant├á kho gahapatayo, ratti. Yassad├áni k├ála├╝ ma┬Ą┬Ąath├á” ti. “Eva├╝
bhante” ti kho p├á├▒alig├ámik├á up├ásak├á bhagavato pa├▒issutv├á u├▒├▒h├áy├ásan├á
bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakkami├╝su. Atha kho bhagav├á
acirapakkantesu p├á├▒alig├ámikesu up├ásakesu su┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ p├ávisi.

32. Tena kho pana samayena sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà
pàñaligàme nagaraü màpenti vajjãnaü pañibàhàya. Addasà kho bhagavà
rattiy├á pacc├ąsasamaya├╝ paccu├▒├▒h├áya dibbena cakkhun├á visuddhena atikkanta
m├ánusakena sambahul├á devat├áyo p├á├▒alig├áme vatth├ąni pariga├Áhantiyo.
Yasmi├╝ padesa mahesakkh├á devat├á vatth├ąni pariga├Áhanti, mahesakkh├ána├╝
tattha r├áj├ąna├╝ r├ájamah├ámatt├ána├╝ citt├áni namanti nivesan├áni m├ápetu├╝.
Yasmi├╝ padese majjhim├á devat├á vatth├ąni pariga├Áhanti, majjhim├ána├╝ tattha
r├áj├ąna├╝ r├ájamah├ámatt├ána├╝ citt├áni namanti nivesan├áni m├ápetu├╝. Yasmi├╝
padese n├úc├á devat├á vatth├ąni pariga├Áhanti, n├úc├ána├╝ tattha r├áj├ąna├╝
ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni màpetuü.

[BJT Page 576] [\x 576/]

33. Atha kho bhagav├á ├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝ ├ámantesi: “ko nu kho te
├ánanda, p├á├▒alig├áme nagara├╝ m├ápent├ú” ti. “Sun├údhavassak├ár├á [PTS Page 229]
[\q 229/] bhante, magadhamahàmattà pàñaligàme nagaraü màpenti vajjãnaü
pa├▒ib├áh├áy├á” ti. “Seyyath├ápi ├ánanda, devehi t├ávati├╝sehi saddhi├╝ mantetv├á,
evameva kho ànanda, sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà pàñaligàme
nagaraü màpenti vajjãnaü pañibàhàya. Idhàhaü ànanda, rattiyà
pacc├ąsasamaya├╝ paccu├▒├▒h├áya addasa├╝ dibbena cakkhun├á visuddhena
atikkantam├ánusakena sambahul├á devat├áyo p├á├▒alig├áme vatth├ąni
pariga├Áhantiyo. Yasmi├╝ padese mahesakkh├á devat├á vatth├ąni pariga├Áhanti.
Mahesakkh├ána├╝ tattha r├áj├ąna├╝ r├ájamah├ámatt├ána├╝ citt├áni namanti nivesan├áni
m├ápetu├╝. Yasmi├╝ padese majjhim├á devat├á vatth├ąni pariga├Áhanti,
majjhim├ána├╝ tattha r├áj├ąna├╝ r├ájamah├ámatt├ána├╝ citt├áni namanti nivesan├áni
m├ápetu├╝. Yasmi├╝ padese n├úc├á devat├á vatth├ąni pariga├Áhanti, n├úc├ána├╝ tattha
r├áj├ąna├╝ r├ájamah├ámatt├ána├╝ citt├áni namanti nivesan├áni m├ápetu├╝. Y├ávat├á
├ánanda, ariya├╝ ├áyatana├╝, y├ávat├á va├Áippatho, ida├╝ agganagara├╝ bhavissati
pàñaliputtaü puñabhedanaü. Pàñaliputtassa kho ànanda, tayo antaràyà
bhavissanti aggito v├á udakato v├á abbhantarato v├á mithubhed├á” ti.

34. Atha kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamattà yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavatà saddhiü sammodiüsu.
Sammodan├úya├╝ katha├╝ s├ár├á├Á├úya├╝ v├útis├áretv├á ekamanta├╝ a├▒├▒ha├╝su. Ekamanta├╝
ñhità kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà bhagavantaü etadavocuü:
“adhiv├ásetu no bhava├╝ gotamo ajjatan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝
bhikkhusa├»ghen├á”ti. Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho
sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà
pakkami├╝su.

35. Atha kho sun├údhavassak├ár├á magadhamah├ámatt├á pa├Á├úta├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝
bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesu├╝. “K├álo bho gotama,
ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á
pattacãvaraü àdàya yena sunãdhavassakàrànaü magadhamahàmattànaü
parivesan├á tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝
bhikkhusaïghena.

36. Atha kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà buddhapamukhaü
bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena kh├ádan├úyena bhojan├úyena sahatth├á santappetv├á
sampav├áretv├á bhagavanta├╝ bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi├╝su.
Ekamantaü nisinne kho sunãdhavassakàre magadhamahàmatte bhagavà imàhi
gàthàhi anumodi:

37. “Yasmi├╝ padese kappeti v├ása├╝ pa├Á├│itaj├átiyo,

S├úlavantettha bhojetv├á sa┬Ą┬Ąate brahmac├árayo 2.

38. Y├á tattha devat├á ├ásu├╝ t├ása├╝ dakkhi├Áam├ádise,

T├á p├ąjit├á p├ąjayanti m├ánit├á m├ánayanti na├╝.

39. [PTS Page 230] [\q 230/] tato naü anukampanti màtà puttaü va orasaü,

Devat├ánukampito poso sad├á bhadr├áni passat├ú” ti.

1. Va├Á├Áippatho - katthaci. 2. “Brahmac├árino” si.

[BJT Page 578] [\x 578/]

40. Atha kho bhagavà sunãdhavassakàre magadhamahàmatte imàhi gàthàhi
anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi. Tena kho pana samayena sunãdhavassakàrà
mahadhamah├ámatt├á bhagavanta├╝ pi├▒├▒hito pi├▒├▒hito anubaddh├á honti: “yena
ajja sama├Áo gotamo dv├árena nikkhamissati, ta├╝ gotamadv├ára├╝ n├áma
bhavissati. Yena titthena gaïgaü nadiü uttarissati, taü gotamatitthaü
n├áma bhavissat├ú” ti. Atha kho bhagav├á yena dv├árena nikkhami, ta├╝
gotamadvàraü nàma ahosi. Atha kho bhagavà yena gaïgà nadã,
tenupasa├»kami. Tena kho pana samayena ga├»g├ánad├ú p├ąr├á hoti samatittik├á
k├ákapeyy├á. Manuss├á a┬Ą┬Ąe n├áva├╝ pariyesanti, a┬Ą┬Ąe u├źumpa├╝ pariyesanti,
a┬Ą┬Ąe kulla├╝ bandhanti or├á p├ára├╝ gantuk├ám├á.

41. Addas├á kho bhagav├á te manusse a┬Ą┬Ąe n├áva├╝ pariyesante a┬Ą┬Ąe u├źumpa├╝
pariyesante a┬Ą┬Ąe kulla├╝ bandhante or├á p├ára├╝ gantuk├áme. Disv├ána
seyyath├ápi n├áma balav├á puriso sammi┬Ąjita├╝ v├á b├áha├╝ pas├áreyya, pas├árita├╝
v├á b├áha├╝ sammi┬Ąjeyya, evameva1 bhagav├á ga├»g├áya nadiy├á orimat├úre
antarahito pàrimatãre paccuññhàsi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena. Atha kho
bhagavà etamatthaü viditvà tàyaü velàyaü imaü udànaü udànesi:

42. “Ye taranti a├Á├Áava├╝ sara├╝ setu├╝ katv├ána visajja pallal├áni,

Kulla├╝ hi jano pabandhati 2 ti├Á├Á├á medh├ávino jan├á”ti.

43. Atha kho bhagavà yena koñigàmo tenupasaïkami. Tatra sudaü bhagavà
ko├▒ig├áme viharati. Tatra kho bhagav├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “catunna├╝
bhikkhave, ariyasaccànaü ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü dãghamaddhànaü
sandh├ávita├╝ sa├╝sarita├╝ mama┬Ąceva tumh├áka┬Ąca. Katamesa├╝ catunna├╝: ?
Dukkhassa bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü
d├úghamaddh├ána├╝ sandh├ávita├╝ sa├╝sarita├╝ mama┬Ąceva tumh├áka┬Ąca.
Dukkhasamudayassa ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü
d├úghamaddh├ána├╝ sandh├ávita├╝ sa├╝sarita├╝ mama┬Ąceva tumh├áka┬Ąca.
Dukkhanirodhassa ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü
d├úghamaddh├ána├╝ sandh├ávita├╝ sa├╝sarita├╝ mama┬Ąceva tumh├áka┬Ąca.
Dukkhanirodhagàminiyà pañipadàya 3 ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà
evamida├╝ d├úghamaddh├ána├╝ sandh├ávita├╝ sa├╝sarita├╝ mama┬Ąceva tumh├áka┬Ąca.
Tayida├╝ bhikkhave, dukkha├╝ ariyasacca├╝ [PTS Page 231] [\q 231/]
anubuddha├╝ pa├▒ividdha├╝. Dukkhasamudaya├╝ ariyasacca├╝ anubuddha├╝
pa├▒ividdha├╝. Dukkhanirodha├╝ ariyasacca├╝ anubuddha├╝ pa├▒ividdha├╝.
Dukkhanirodhagàminãpañipadaü ariyasaccaü anubuddhaü pañividdhaü.
Ucchinn├á bhavata├Áh├á. Kh├ú├Á├á bhavanetti. Natthid├áni punabbhavo” ti.

44. “Catunna├╝ ariyasacc├ána├╝ yath├ábh├ąta├╝ adassan├á,

Saüsitaü 4 dãghamaddhànaü tàsu tàsveva jàtãsu.

45. T├áni et├áni di├▒├▒h├áni bhavanenti sam├ąhat├á,

Ucchinna├╝ m├ąla├╝ 5 dukkhassa natthid├áni punabbhavoti.

1. “Evameva kho bhagav├á” machasa├╝. 2. “Bandhati” machasa├╝.

3. “Dukkhanirodhag├ámin├úpa├▒ipad├á” s├ú mu. 4. “S├ásita├╝” s├ú mu.

5. “Ucchinnam├ąla├╝” s├ú mu. To vi. Ja vi. Ma nu pa.

[BJT Page 580] [\x 580/]

46. Assosi kho ambap├áli ga├Áik├á “bhagav├á kira ko├▒ig├áma├╝ anuppatto” ti.
Atha kho ambap├áli ga├Áik├á bhadr├áni bhadr├áni y├án├áni yoj├ápetv├á bhadra├╝
yànaü 1 abhiruhitvà bhadrehi bhadrehi yànehi vesàliyà niyyàsi
bhagavanta├╝ dassan├áya. Y├ávatik├á y├ánassa bh├ąmi, y├ánena gantav├á y├án├á
paccorohitvà pattikàva yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho
ambap├áli├╝ ga├Áika├╝ bhagav├á dhammiy├á kath├áya sandassesi. Sam├ádapesi.
Samuttejesi. Sampaha├╝sesi. Atha kho ambap├ál├ú ga├Áik├á bhagavat├á dhammiy├á
kathàya sandassità samàdapità samuttejità sampahaüsità bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “adhiv├ásetu me bhante bhagav├á sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝
bhikkhusa├»ghen├á”ti. Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho ambap├ál├ú
ga├Áik├á bhagavato adhiv├ásana├╝ viditv├á u├▒├▒h├áy├ásana├╝ bhagavanta├╝
abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakk├ámi.

47. Assosu├╝ kho ves├álik├á licchav├ú “bhagav├á kira ko├▒ig├áma├╝ anuppatto”
ti. Atha kho vesàlikà licchavã bhadràni bhadrani yànàni yojàpetvà
bhadra├╝ bhadra├╝ y├ána├╝ abhir├ąhitv├á bhadrehi bhadrehi y├ánehi ves├áliy├á
n├úyi├╝su 2 bhagavanta├╝ dassan├áya. Appekacce licchav├ú n├úl├á honti n├úlava├Á├Á├á
n├úlavatth├á n├úl├ála├»k├ár├á. Appekacce licchav├ú p├út├á honti p├útava├Á├Á├á
p├útavatth├á p├út├ála├»k├ár├á. Appekacce licchav├ú lohitak├á honti lohitakava├Á├Á├á3
lohitakavatthà lohitakàlaïkàrà. Appekacce licchavã odàtà honti
od├átava├Á├Á├á od├átavatth├á od├át├ála├»k├ár├á.

48. Atha kho ambap├ál├ú ga├Áik├á dahar├ána├╝ licchav├úna├╝ ├ús├áya ├úsa├╝ yugena
yuga├╝ cakkena cakka├╝ akkhena akkha├╝ pativa├▒├▒esi. [PTS Page 232] [\q
232/] atha kho te licchav├ú ambap├áli├╝ ga├Áika├╝ etadavocu├╝: “kissa je
ambapàli, amhàkaü4 daharànaü daharànaü licchavãnaü ãsàya ãsaü yugena
yuga├╝ cakkena cakka├╝ akkhena akkha├╝ pativa├▒├▒es├ú”ti. “Tath├á hi pana may├á
ayyaputt├á, sv├átan├áya buddhapamukho bhikkhusa├»ghe nimantito” ti. “Dehi je
ambap├áli, amh├áka├╝ eta├╝ bhatta├╝ satasahassen├á” ti. “Sacepi me ayyaputt├á
ves├áli├╝ s├áh├ára├╝ dajjeyy├átha, neva dajj├á bhatta” nti.

49. Atha kho te licchav├ú a├»guli├╝ po├▒hesu├╝: “par├ájitambha 5 vata bho ambak├áya. Par├ájitambha vata bho ambak├áy├á” ti.

50. Atha kho te licchavã yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Addasà kho
bhagav├á te licchav├ú d├ąratova ├ágacchante. Disv├ána bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “yehi
bhikkhave, bhikkh├ąhi dev├á t├ávati├╝s├á adi├▒├▒hapubb├á, oloketha bhikkhave,
licchaviparisa├╝. Apaloketha bhikkhave, licchaviparisa├╝. Upasa├╝haratha
bhikkhave, licchaviparisa├╝ t├ávati├╝saparisa” nti.

1. “Bhadra├╝ bhadra├╝ y├ána├╝” to vi ma nu pa. 2. “N├úy├ásu” ma cha sa├╝. [P T S.]

3. “Lohitava├Á├Á├á” machasa├╝. [P T S. 4.] “Ambap├áli dahar├ána├╝” machasa├╝

5. “Jitamha” machasa├╝. A vi to vi.

[BJT Page 582] [\x 582/]

51. Atha kho te licchav├ú y├ávatik├á y├ánassa bh├ąmi y├ánena gantv├á y├án├á
paccorohitvà pattikàva yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Ekamantaü nisinno kho te
licchavã bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi.
Sampahaüsesi. Atha kho te licchavã bhagavatà dhammiyà kathàya sandassità
samàdapità samuttejità sampahaüsità bhagavantaü etadavocuü: adhivàsetu
no bhante bhagav├á sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á” ti.
“Adhivutthomhi licchav├ú, sv├átan├áya ambap├áliy├á ga├Áik├áya bhatta” nti. Atha
kho te licchav├ú a├»guli├╝ po├▒hesu├╝: “par├ájitamha vata bho ambak├áya.
Par├ájitamha vata bho ambak├áy├á”ti. Atha kho te licchav├ú bhagavato
bhàsitaü abhinanditvà anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakkami├╝su.

52. Atha kho bhagavà koñigàme yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena nàtikà 1
tenupasa├»kami. Tatra suda├╝ bhagav├á n├átike viharati gi┬Ąjak├ávasathe. Atha
kho ambap├áli ga├Áik├á tass├á rattiy├á accayena sake ├ár├áme pa├Á├úta├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝
bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo bhante,
ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á
pattac├úvara├╝ ├ád├áya yena ambap├áliy├á ga├Áik├áya pa├▒ivesan├á tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghena.

53. [PTS Page 233] [\q 233/] atha kho ambap├ál├ú ga├Áik├á buddhapamukha├╝
bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena kh├ádan├úyena bhojan├úyena sahatth├á santappetv├á
sampav├áretv├á bhagavanta├╝ bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi.
Ekamanta├╝ nisinn├á kho ambap├ál├ú ga├Áik├á bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “im├áha├╝
bhante, ambavana├╝ buddha pamukhassa bhikkhusa├»ghassa damm├ú” ti.
Pañiggahesi bhagavà àràmaü.

54. Atha kho bhagav├á ambap├áli├╝ ga├Áika├╝ dhammiy├á kath├áya sandassetv├á
samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà yena mahàvanaü
tenupasaïkami. Tatra sudaü bhagavà vesàliyaü viharati mahàvane
k├ą├▒├ág├áras├ál├áya├╝.

Licchavibh├á├Áav├áro tatiyo.

1. ‘N├ádik├á” s├ú mu. “┬ą├átik├á” [P T S.]

[BJT Page 584] [\x 584/]

1. Tena kho pana samayena abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á licchav├ú santh├ág├áre 1
sannisinn├á sannipatit├á anekapariy├áyena buddhassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti.
Dhammassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Sa├»ghassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti.

2. Tena kho pana samayena s├úho sen├ápati niga├Á├▒has├ávako tassa├╝
parisàyaü nisinno hoti. Atha kho sãhassa senàpatissa etadahosi:
“nissa├╝saya├╝ kho so bhagav├á araha├╝ samm├ásambuddho bhavissati. Tath├á hi
me abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á licchav├ú santh├ág├áre sannisinn├á sannipatit├á
anekapariy├áyena buddhassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Dhammassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti.
Sa├»ghassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Yann├ąn├áha├╝ ta├╝ bhagavanta├╝ dassan├áya
upasa├»kameyya├╝ arahanta├╝ samm├ásambuddha” nti.

3. Atha kho s├úho sen├áp├áti yena niga├Á├▒ho n├átaputto 2 tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á niga├Á├▒ha├╝ n├átaputta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á 3 ekamanta├╝ nis├údi.
Ekamanta├╝ nisinno kho s├úho sen├ápati niga├Á├▒ha├╝ n├átaputta├╝ etadavoca:
“icch├ámaha├╝ bhante, sama├Áa├╝ gotama├╝ dassan├áya upasa├»kamitu” nti. “Ki├╝
pana tva├╝ s├úha, kiriyav├ádo sam├áno akiriyav├áda├╝ sama├Áa├╝ gotama├╝ dassan├áya
upasa├»kamissasi? Sama├Áo hi s├úha, gotamo akiriyav├ádo akiriy├áya dhamma├╝
deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú” ti. Atha kho s├úhassa sen├ápatissa yo ahosi
gamikàbhisaïkhàro 4 bhagavantaü dassanàya so pañippassambhi.

4. Dutiyampi kho abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á licchav├ú santh├ág├áre sannisinn├á
sannipatit├á anekapariy├áyena buddhassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Dhammassa va├Á├Áa├╝
bh├ásanti. Sa├»ghassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. [PTS Page 234 [\q 234/] Textvvv
isvvv faulvvvtyvvv] tatiyampi kho abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á licchav├ú
santh├ág├áre sannisinn├á sannipatit├á anekapariy├áyena buddhassa va├Á├Áa├╝
bh├ásanti. Dhammassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Sa├»ghassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti.
Tatiyampi kho s├úhassa sen├ápatissa etadahosi: “nissa├╝saya├╝ kho so bhagav├á
araha├╝ samm├ásambuddho bhavissati. Tath├á hi me abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á abhi┬Ą┬Ą├át├á
licchavã santhàgàre sannisinnà sannipatità anekapariyàyena buddhassa
va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Dhammassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti. Sa├»ghassa va├Á├Áa├╝ bh├ásanti.
Ki├╝ hi me karissanti niga├Á├▒h├á apalokit├á v├á anapalokit├á v├á? Yann├ąn├áha├╝
anapaloketv├á va niga├Á├▒he ta├╝ bhagavanta├╝ dassan├áya upasa├»kameyya├╝
arahanta├╝ samm├ásambuddha” nti.

5. Atha kho s├úho sen├ápati pa┬Ącahi rathasatehi div├ádivassa ves├áliy├á
n├úyy├ási bhagavanta├╝ dassan├áya y├ávatik├á y├ánassa bh├ąmi y├ánena gantv├á y├án├á
paccorohitvà pattikova yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho sãho
sen├ápati bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “sutammeta├╝ bhante, akiriyav├ádo sama├Áo
gotamo akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetãti. Ye te bhante
evam├áha├╝su: ‘akiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo akiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Ye te bhante evam├áha├╝su: ‘akiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo
akiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Kacci te bhante,
bhagavato vuttav├ádino? Na ca bhagavanta├╝ abh├ątena abbh├ácikkhanti?
Dhammassa cànudhammaü vyàkaronti? Na ca koci sahadhammiko vàdànuvàdo
g├árayha├╝ ├▒h├ána├╝ ├ágacchati? Anabbhakkh├átuk├ám├á hi maya├╝ bhante bhagavanta”
nti.

1. “Sandh├ág├áre” machasa├╝. 2. “Nigha├Á├▒han├átha” s├ú. S├ú mu. “Nigha├Á├▒han├á├▒a” machasa├╝.

3. “Abhiv├ádetv├á ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinno kho s├úho sen├ápati
niga├Á├▒ha├╝ n├átaputta├╝” iti aya├╝ p├á├▒ho na dissate marammakkharapotthake.
4. “Gamiy├ábhisa├»kh├áro” 5. “V├ád├ánup├áto” sabbattha.

[BJT Page 586] [\x 586/]

6. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya:
‘akiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo akiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti.

7. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya:
‘kiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo kiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti.

8. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya:
‘ucchedav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo ucched├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ti.

9. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya:
jegucch├ú sama├Áo gotamo jegucchit├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti.

10. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: venayiko sama├Áo gotamo vinay├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti.

11. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘tapass├ú sama├Áo gotamo tapassit├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti.

12. “Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘apagabbho sama├Áo gotamo apagabbhat├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ti.

13. ‘Atthi s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘assattho sama├Áo gotamo ass├ás├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti.

14. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘akiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo akiriy├áya dhamma├╝ [PTS Page 235] [\q
235/] deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Aha├╝ hi s├úha, akiriya├╝ vad├ámi
kàyaduccaritassa vacãduccaritassa manoduccaritassa. Anekavihitànaü
pàpakànaü akusalànaü dhammànaü akiriyaü vadàmi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo,
yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya: ‘akiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo
akiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti.

15. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘kiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo kiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Aha├╝ hi s├úha, kiriya├╝ vad├ámi k├áyasucaritassa
vacãsucaritassa manosucaritassa. Anekavihitànaü kusalànaü dhammànaü
kiriyaü vadàmi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà
vadam├áno vadeyya: ‘kiriyav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo. Kiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti.
Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti.

[BJT Page 588] [\x 588/]

16. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘ucchedav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo ucched├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Aha├╝ hi s├úha, uccheda├╝ vad├ámi r├ágassa dosassa
mohassa. Anekavihitànaü pàpakànaü akusalànaü dhammànaü ucchedaü vadàmi.
Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya:
‘ucchedav├ádo sama├Áo gotamo ucched├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti.

17. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘jegucch├ú sama├Áo gotamo jegucchit├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Aha├╝ hi s├úha, jigucch├ámi k├áya duccaritena
vacãduccaritena manoduccaritena. Anekavihitànaü pàpakànaü akusalànaü
dhammànaü samàpattiyà jigucchàmi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü
pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya: “jegucch├ú sama├Áo gotamo jegucchit├áya
dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti.

18. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘venayiko sama├Áo gotamo vinay├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti. Aha├╝ hi s├úha, vinay├áya dhamma├╝ desemi r├ágassa dosassa
mohassa. Anekavihitànaü pàpakànaü akusalànaü dhammànaü vinayàya dhammaü
desemi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘venayiko sama├Áo gotamo vinay├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ti.

19. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘tapass├ú sama├Áo gotamo tapassit├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ti. Tapan├úy├áha├╝ s├úha, p├ápake akusale dhamme vad├ámi
kàyaduccaritaü vacãduccaritaü manoduccaritaü. Yassa kho sãha, tapanãyà
p├ápak├á akusal├á dhamm├á pah├ú├Á├á ucchinnam├ąl├á t├ál├ávatthukat├á anabh├ávakat├á1
àyatiü anuppàdadhammà, tamahaü tapassãti vadàmi. Tathàgatassa kho sãha,
tapan├úy├á p├ápak├á akusal├á dhamm├á pah├ú├Á├á ucchinnam├ąl├á t├ál├ávatthukat├á
anabhàvakatà àyatiü anuppàdadhammà, ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü
pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya: tapassã [PTS Page 236] [\q 236/]
sama├Áo gotamo tapassit├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ti.

1. “Anabh├áva├╝ kat├á” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 590] [\x 590/]

20. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘apagabbho sama├Áo gotamo apagabbhat├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca
s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti. Yassa kho s├úha, ├áyati├╝ gabbhaseyy├á
punabbhav├ábhinibbatti pah├ú├Á├á ucchinnam├ąl├á t├ál├ávatthukat├á anabh├ávakat├á
àyatiü anuppàdadhammà, tamahaü apagabbhoti vadàmi. Tathàgatassa kho
s├úha, ├áyati├╝ gabbhaseyy├á punabbhav├ábhinibbatti pah├ú├Á├á ucchinnam├ąl├á
tàlàvatthukatà anabhàvakatà àyatiü anuppàdadhammà. Ayaü kho sãha,
pariy├áyo yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya: ‘apagabbho sama├Áo
gotamo apagabbhat├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú’ ti.

21. “Katamo ca s├úha, pariy├áyo, yena ma├╝ pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno
vadeyya: ‘assattho sama├Áo gotamo ass├ás├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake
vinet├ú’ ti. Aha├╝ hi s├úha, assattho paramena ass├ásena. Ass├ás├áya ca 1
dhammaü desemi. Tena ca sàvake vinemi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü
pariy├áyena samm├á vadam├áno vadeyya: ‘assattho sama├Áo gotamo ass├ás├áya
dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú” ti.

22. Eva├╝ vutte s├úho sen├ápati bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “abhikkanta├╝
bhante. Abhikkantaü bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pa├▒icchanna├╝ v├á vivareyya, m├ą├źhassa v├á magga├╝ ├ácikkheyya, andhak├áre v├á
telapajjota├╝ dh├áreyya: ‘cakkhumanto r├ąp├áni dakkhint├ú’ ti, evameva├╝
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante, bhagavantaü
sara├Áa├╝ gacch├ámi dhamma┬Ąca bhikkhusa├»gha┬Ąca. Up├ásaka├╝ ma├╝ bhagav├á
dh├áretu ajjatagge p├á├Áupeta├╝ sara├Áa├╝ gata” nti.

23. Anuviccakàraü kho sãha, karohi. Anuviccakàro tumhàdisànaü
┬Ą├átamanuss├ána├╝ s├ádhu hot├ú ti. Imin├ápaha├╝ bhante bhagavato vacanena
bhiyosomattàya 2 attamano abhiraddho, yaü maü bhagavà evamàha:
“anuviccak├ára├╝ kho s├úha, karohi. Anuviccak├áro tumh├ádis├ána├╝
┬Ą├átamanuss├ána├╝ s├ádhu hot├ú”ti. Mama├╝ hi bhante a┬Ą┬Ąatitthiy├á s├ávaka├╝
labhitv├á kevalakappa├╝ ves├áli├╝ pa├▒├áka├╝ parihareyyu├╝: ’s├úho3 amh├áka├╝
sen├ápati s├ávakatta├╝ upagato’ ti. Atha ca pana ma├╝ bhagav├á evam├áha:
“anuviccak├ára├╝ kho s├úha, karohi. Anuviccak├áro tumh├ádis├ána├╝
┬Ą├átamanuss├ána├╝ s├ádhu hot├ú” ti. Es├áha├╝ bhante dutiyampi bhagavanta├╝
sara├Áa├╝ gacch├ámi dhamma┬Ąca bhikkhusa├»gha┬Ąca. Up├ásaka├╝ ma├╝ bhagav├á
dh├áretu ajjatagge p├á├Áupeta├╝ sara├Áa├╝ gata” nti.

1. “Ass├ás├áya” machasa├╝. 2. “Bhagavato bhiyyosomant├áya” machasa├╝. 3. “S├úho kho” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 592] [\x 592/]

24. D├úgharatta├╝ kho te s├úha, niga├Á├▒h├ána├╝ op├ánabh├ąta├╝ kula├╝, yena
tesa├╝ upagat├ána├╝ pi├Á├│aka├╝1 d├átabba├╝ ma┬Ą┬Ąeyy├ás├ú ti. Imin├ápaha├╝ bhante,
bhagavato vacanena bhiyosomattàya attamano abhiraddho, yaü maü bhagavà
evam├áha: “d├úgharatta├╝ kho te s├úha, niga├Á├▒h├ána├╝ op├ánabh├ąta├╝ kula├╝, yena
tesa├╝ upagat├ána├╝ pi├Á├│aka├╝ d├átabba├╝ ma┬Ą┬Ąeyy├ás├ú” ti.

25. Suta├╝ meta├╝ bhante, “sama├Áo gotamo evam├áha: mayhameva d├ána├╝
d├átabba├╝. Na a┬Ą┬Ąesa├╝ d├ána├╝ d├átabba├╝. Mayhameva s├ávak├ána├╝ d├ána├╝ d├átabba├╝.
Na a┬Ą┬Ąesa├╝ s├ávak├ána├╝ d├ána├╝ [PTS Page 237] [\q 237/] d├átabba├╝. Mayhameva
dinna├╝ mahapphala├╝. Na a┬Ą┬Ąesa├╝ dinna├╝ mahapphala├╝. Mayhameva s├ávak├ána├╝
dinna├╝ mahapphala├╝. Na a┬Ą┬Ąesa├╝ s├ávak├ána├╝ dinna├╝ mahapphala” nti. Atha ca
pana ma├╝ bhagav├á niga├Á├▒hesupi d├áne sam├ádapeti. Api ca bhante,
mayamettha k├ála├╝ j├ániss├áma. Es├áha├╝ bhante, tatiyampi bhagavanta├╝ sara├Áa├╝
gacch├ámi dhamma┬Ąca bhikkhusa├»gha┬Ąca. Up├ásaka├╝ ma├╝ bhagav├á dh├áretu
ajjatagge p├á├Áupeta├╝ sara├Áa├╝ gata nti.

26. Atha kho bhagavà sãhassa senàpatissa ànupubbãkathaü kathesi
seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü
sa├╝kilesa├╝. Nekkhamme ├ánisa├╝sa├╝ pak├ásesi. Yad├á bhagav├á a┬Ą┬Ą├ási s├úha
sen├ápati├╝ kallacitta├╝ muducitta├╝ vin├úvara├Áacitta├╝ udaggacitta├╝
pasannacittaü, atha yà buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü
pakàsesi: dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü maggaü. Seyyathàpi nàma suddhaü
vattha├╝ apagatak├á├źaka├╝ sammadeva rajana├╝ patiga├Áheyya, evameva s├úhassa
senàpatissa tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi:
“ya├╝ ki┬Ąci samudayadhamma├╝ sabba├╝ ta├╝ nirodhadhamma”nti.

27. Atha kho sãho senàpati diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyog├á├źhadhammo ti├Á├Áavicikiccho vigatakatha├»katho ves├árajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthus├ásane bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “adhiv├ásetu me bhante
bhagav├á sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á” ti. Adhiv├ásesi
bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho s├úho sen├ápati bhagavato adhiv├ásana├╝
viditv├á u├▒├▒h├áy├ásan├á bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakk├ámi.

28. Atha kho s├úho sen├ápati a┬Ą┬Ąatara├╝ purisa├╝ ├á├Á├ápesi: “gaccha bha├Áe,
pavattama├╝sa├╝ j├án├áh├ú” ti. Atha kho s├úho sen├ápati tass├á rattiy├á accayena
pa├Á├úta├╝ kh├ádan├úya├╝ bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi:
“k├álo bhante, ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝
nivàsetvà pattacãvaramàdàya yena sãhassa senàpatissa nivesanaü
tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝
bhikkhusaïghena.

1. “Pi├Á├│ap├áta├╝” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 594] [\x 594/]

29. Tena kho pana samayena sambahul├á niga├Á├▒h├á ves├áliya├╝ rathiy├á
rathiya├╝1 si├»gh├á├▒akena si├»gh├á├▒aka├╝ b├áh├á paggayha kandanti: “ajja s├úhena
sen├ápatin├á thulla├╝ pasu├╝2 vadhitv├á sama├Áassa gotamassa bhatta├╝ kata├╝.
Ta├╝ sama├Áo gotamo j├ána├╝ uddissaka├▒a├╝ ma├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjati pa├▒iccakamma”
nti.

30. Atha kho a┬Ą┬Ąataro puriso yena s├úho sen├ápati tenupasa├»akami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á s├úhassa sen├ápatissa upaka├Á├Áake ├árocesi: “yagghe bhante,
j├áneyy├ási? Ete sambahul├á niga├Á├▒h├á ves├áliya├╝ rathiy├á rathiya├╝
siïghàñakena siïghàñakaü bàhà paggayha kandanti: ajja sãhena senàpatinà
thulla├╝ pasu├╝ vadhitv├á sama├Áassa gotamassa bhatta├╝ kata├╝. Ta├╝ sama├Áo
gotamo j├ána├╝ uddissaka├▒a├╝ ma├╝sa├╝ paribhu┬Ąjati pa├▒iccakamma” nti.

31. “Ala├╝ ayyo, d├úgharattampi te ├áyasmant├á ava├Á├Áak├ám├á buddhassa.
Ava├Á├Áak├ám├á dhammassa. Ava├Á├Áak├ám├á sa├»ghassa. Na ca pana te ├áyasmant├á
j├úranti 3 ta├╝ bhagavanta├╝ asat├á tucch├á mus├á abh├ątena abbh├ácikkhant├á. Na
ca maya├╝ j├úvitahet├ąpi sa┬Ącicca p├á├Áa├╝ j├úvit├á voropeyy├ám├á” ti.

32. Atha kho s├úho sen├ápati buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà [PTS Page 238] [\q 238/] santappetvà
sampav├áretv├á bhagavanta├╝ bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi.
Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho sãhaü senàpatiü bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya
sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

33. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á
bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: ” na bhikkhave, j├ána├╝ uddissaka├▒a├╝ ma├╝sa├╝
paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, tiko├▒iparisuddha├╝ macchama├╝sa├╝: adi├▒├▒ha├╝ asuta├╝ aparisa├»kita”
nti.

34. Tena kho pana samayena ves├ál├ú subhikkh├á hoti susass├á4 sulabhapi├Á├│├á. Sukar├á u┬Ąchena paggahena y├ápetu├╝.

35. Atha kho bhagavato rahogatassa patisallãnassa evaü cetaso
parivitakko udap├ádi: “y├áni t├áni may├á bhikkh├ąna├╝ anu┬Ą┬Ą├át├áni dubbhikkhe
dussasse dullabhapi├Á├│e anto vuttha├╝ anto pakka├╝ s├áma├╝ pakka├╝,
uggahitapañiggahitakaü, tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü,
vana├▒├▒ha├╝ pokkhara├▒├▒ha├╝, ajj├ápi nu kho t├áni bhikkh├ą paribhu┬Ąjant├ú”ti.

1. “Rathik├áya rathika├╝” machasa├╝. 2. “Th├ąla├╝ pasu├╝” machasa├╝.

3. “J├úridanti” machasa├╝. 4. “Sussass├á” s├ú mu.

[BJT Page 596] [\x 596/]

36. Atha kho bhagav├á s├áya├Áhasamaya├╝ patisall├án├á vu├▒├▒hito ayasmanta├╝
├ánanda├╝ ├ámantesi: “y├áni t├áni ├ánanda, may├á bhikkh├ąna├╝ anu┬Ą┬Ą├át├áni
dubbhikkhe dussasse dullabhapi├Á├│e anto vuttha├╝ anto pakka├╝ s├áma├╝ pakka├╝,
uggahitapañiggahitakaü, tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü,
vana├▒├▒ha├╝, pokkhara├▒├▒ha├╝, ajj├ápi nu kho t├áni bhikkh├ą paribhu┬Ąjant├ú” ti.
“Paribhu┬Ąjanti bhagav├á” ti.

37. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “y├áni t├áni bhikkhave, may├á bhikkh├ąna├╝ anu┬Ą┬Ą├át├áni
dubbhikkhe dussasse dullabhapi├Á├│e anto vuttha├╝ anto pakka├╝ s├áma├╝
pakkaü, uggahitapañiggahitakaü, tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü,
vanaññhaü, pokkharaññhaü, tànàhaü ajjatagge pañikkhipàmi. Na bhikkhave,
anto vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü pakkaü, uggahitapañiggahitakaü
paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Na ca bhikkhave,
tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü. Vanaññhaü, pokkharaññhaü
bhutt├ávin├á pav├áritena anatiritta├╝ paribhu┬Ąjitabba├╝. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya,
yath├á dhammo k├áretabbo” ti.

38. Tena kho pana samayena j├ánapad├á manuss├á bahu├╝ lo├Áampi telampi
ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi saka├▒esu ├áropetv├á bah├ár├ámako├▒├▒hake
saka├▒aparivatta├╝ karitv├á acchanti: “yad├á pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝ labhiss├áma, tad├á
bhatta├╝ kariss├ám├á” ti. Mah├á ca [PTS Page 239] [\q 239/] megho uggato
hoti.

39. Atha kho te manussà yenàyasmà ànando tenupasaïkamiüsu.
Upasa├»kamitv├á ├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝ etadavocu├╝: “idha bhante ├ánanda, bahu├╝
lo├Áampi telampi ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi saka├▒esu ├áropit├á1 ti├▒├▒hanti.
Mah├á ca megho uggato. Kathannukho bhante ├ánanda, 2 pa├▒ipajjitabba” nti.

40. Atha kho àyasmà ànando bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesi.
“Tenah├ánanda, sa├»gho paccantima├╝ vih├ára├╝ kappiyabh├ąmi├╝ sammannitv├á
tattha vàsetu, yaü saïgho àkaïkhati vihàraü và aóóhayogaü và pàsàdaü và
hammiya├╝ v├á guha├╝ v├á. Eva┬Ąca pana bhikkhave, sammannitabbo3 vyattena
bhikkhun├á pa├▒ibalena sa├»gho ┬Ą├ápetabbo: “su├Á├átu me bhante, sa├»gho. Yadi
sa├»ghassa pattakalla├╝, sa├»gho itthann├áma├╝ vih├ára├╝ kappiyabh├ąmi├╝
sammanneyya, es├á ┬Ąatti. Su├Á├átu me bhante, sa├»gho. Sa├»gho itthann├áma├╝
vih├ára├╝ kappiyabh├ąmi├╝ sammannati. Yass├áyasmato khamati itthann├ámassa
vih├árassa kappiyabh├ąmiy├á sammuti, so tu├Áhassa. Yassa nakkhamati, so
bh├áseyya. Sammato sa├»ghena itthann├ámo vih├áro kappiyabh├ąmi. Khamati
sa├»ghassa. Tasm├á tu├Áh├ú. Evameta├╝ dh├áray├ám├ú” ti.

1. “├óropetv├á” s├ú mu. 2. “Bhante” machasa├╝.

3. “Sammannitabb├á” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 598] [\x 598/]

41. Tena kho pana samayena manuss├á tattheva sammutiy├á1 kappiyabh├ąmiy├á
y├águyo pacanti. Bhatt├áni pacanti. S├ąp├áni samp├ádenti. Ma├╝s├áni ko├▒├▒enti.
Kaññhàni phàlenti.

42. Assosi kho bhagav├á rattiy├á pacc├ąsasamaya├╝ paccu├▒├▒h├áya ucc├ásadda├╝
mah├ásadda├╝ k├ákoravasadda├╝. Sutv├ána ├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝ ├ámantesi: “kinnu
kho so ├ánanda ucc├ásaddo mah├ásaddo k├ákoravasaddo”? Ti. “Etarahi bhante,
manuss├á tattheva sammutiy├á kappiyabh├ąmiy├á y├águyo pacanti. S├ąp├áni
sampàdenti. Maüsàni koññenti. Kaññhàni phàlenti. So eso bhagavà
ucc├ásaddo mah├ásaddo k├ákoravasaddo” ti.

43. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “na bhikkhave, sammutikappiyabh├ąmi
paribhu┬Ąjitabb├á. Yo paribhu┬Ąjeyya, ├ápatti dukka├▒assa. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, tisso kappiyabh├ąmiyo: uss├ávanantika├╝ gonis├ádika├╝
gahapati”nti.

44. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà yasojo gilàno hoti. Tassatthàya
bhesajj├áni ├áhar├úyanti. T├áni bhikkh├ą bahi v├ásenti. Ukkapi├Á├│ak├ápi
kh├ádanti. Cor├ápi haranti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, sammuti├╝ kappiyabh├ąmi├╝ [PTS Page 240] [\q 240/]
paribhu┬Ąjitu├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, catasso kappiyabh├ąmiyo:
uss├ávanantika├╝ gonis├ádika├╝ gahapati├╝ sammuti” nti.

S├úhabh├á├Áav├áro catuttho.

1. “Sammatik├áya si.

[BJT Page 600] [\x 600/]

1. Tena kho pana samayena bhaddiyanagare me├Á├│ako gahapati pa├▒ivasati.
Tassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti: s├úsa├╝ nah├áyitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝
sammajj├ápetv├á padv├áre1 nis├údati. Anta├źikkh├á dha┬Ą┬Ąassa dh├ár├á opatitv├á
dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ p├ąreti.

2. Bhariy├áya evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti: eka┬Ą┬Ąeva ├á├źhaka th├álika├╝
upanis├úditv├á eka┬Ąca s├ąpabhi┬Ąjaraka├╝2 d├ásakammakaraporisa├╝ bhattena
parivisati. Na tàva taü khãyati3, yàva sà na vuññhàti.

3. Puttassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti: eka├╝yeva sahassatthavika├╝
gahetvà dàsakammakaraporisassa chammàsikaü4 vetanaü deti. Na tàva taü
khãyati, yàvassa hatthagatà.

4. Su├Áis├áya evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti: eka┬Ą┬Ąeva catudo├Áika├╝ p├ú├▒aka├╝
upanisãditvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü bãjabhattaü5 deti. Na
tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti.

5. D├ásassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti: ekena na├»galena kasantassa satta s├út├áyo gacchanti.

6. Assosi kho r├áj├á m├ágadho seniyo bimbis├áro “amh├áka├╝ kira vijite
bhaddiyanagare me├Á├│ako gahapati pa├▒ivasati. Tassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo:
s├úsa├╝ nah├áyitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ sampajj├ápetv├á padv├áre1 nis├údati. Antalikkh├á
dha┬Ą┬Ąassa dh├ár├á opatitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ p├ąreti. Bhariy├áya evar├ąpo
iddh├ánubh├ávo: eka├╝yeva ├á├źhakath├álika├╝ upanis├úditv├á eka┬Ąca
s├ąpabhi┬Ąjaraka├╝2 d├ásakammakaraporisa├╝ bhattena parivisati. Na t├áva ta├╝
kh├úyati, y├áva s├á na vu├▒├▒h├áti. Puttassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: eka├╝yeva
sahassatthavikaü gahetvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü vetanaü deti.
Na t├áva ta├╝ kh├úyati, y├ávassa hatthagat├á. Su├Áis├áya evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo:
eka├╝yeva catudo├Áika├╝ pi├▒aka├╝ upanis├úditv├á d├ásakammakaraporisassa
jammàsikaü bãjabhattaü5 deti. Na tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti.
D├ásassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: ekena na├»galena kasantassa satta s├út├áyo
gacchant├ú” ti.

7. Atha kho r├áj├á m├ágadho seniyo bimbis├áro a┬Ą┬Ąatara├╝ sabbatthaka├╝
mah├ámatta├╝ ├ámantesi: “amh├áka├╝ kira bha├Áe vijite bhaddiyanagare me├Á├│ako
gahapati pa├▒ivasati. Tassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: [PTS Page 241] [\q
241/] s├úsa├╝ nah├áyitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ sammajj├ápetv├á padv├áre nis├údati.
Antalikkh├á dha┬Ą┬Ąassa dh├ár├á opatitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ p├ąreti. Bhariy├áya
evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: eka┬Ą┬Ąeva ├á├źhakath├álika├╝ upanis├úditv├á eka┬Ąca
s├ąpabhi┬Ąjaraka├╝2 d├ásakammakaraporisa├╝ bhattena parivisati. Na t├áva ta├╝
kh├úyati, y├áva s├á na vu├▒├▒h├áti. Puttassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti.
Ekaüyeva sahassatthavikaü gahetvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü
vetana├╝ deti. Na t├áva ta├╝ kh├úyati, y├ávassa hatthagat├á. Su├Áis├áya evar├ąpo
iddh├ánubh├ávo hoti. Eka┬Ą┬Ąeva catudo├Áika├╝ pi├▒aka├╝ upanis├úditv├á
dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü bãjahattaü5 deti. Na tàva taü khãyati,
y├áva s├á na vu├▒├▒h├áti. D├ásassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: ekena na├»galena
kasantassa satta s├út├áyo gacchant├ú” ti.

Gaccha bha├Áe. J├án├áhi yath├á may├á s├áma├╝ di├▒├▒ho, eva├╝ tava di├▒├▒ho bhavissat├ú” ti.

1. “Bahidv├áre” machasa├╝. 2. “S├ąpabhi┬Ąjanaka├╝” machasa├╝. 3. “Kh├úyati”
machasa├╝. Ma nu pa. ” “S├ąpavya┬Ąjanaka├╝” [P T S. 4.] “Jam├ásika├╝”
machasa├╝. 5. “B├újabhatta├╝” - ettha “b├úja” iti ├ąna├╝ sabba potthakesu.
Dhammapadaññhakathàyaü ceva taüsãhalànuvàde
saddhammaratan├ával├ún├ámas├úhalaganthe “bat bijuva├▒a” iti ca dissam├ánatt├á
ta├╝ idha yojita├╝.

[BJT Page 602] [\x 602/]

8. “Eva├╝ dev├á” t├ú kho so mah├ámatto ra┬Ą┬Ąo m├ágadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa pañissutvà caturaïginiyà senàya yena bhaddiyaü tena pàyàsi.
Anupubbena yena bhaddiya├╝ yena me├Á├│ako gahapati tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á me├Á├│aka├╝ gahapati├╝ etadavoca: “aha├╝ hi gahapati, ra┬Ą┬Ą├á
├á├Áatto “amh├áka├╝ kira bha├Áe, vijite bhaddiya nagare me├Á├│ako gahapati
pa├▒ivasati. Tassa evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: s├úsa├╝ nah├áyitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝
sammajj├ápetv├á padv├áre nis├údati. Anta├źikkh├á dha┬Ą┬Ąassa dh├ár├á opatitv├á
dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ p├ąreti. Bhariy├áya evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: eka┬Ą┬Ąeva
├á├źhakath├álika├╝ upanis├úditv├á eka┬Ąca s├ąpabhi┬Ąjaraka├╝2 d├ásakammakaraporisa├╝
bhattena parivisati. Na tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti. Puttassa
evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: eka├╝yeva sahassatthavika├╝ gahetv├á
dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü vetanaü deti. Na tàva taü khãyati,
y├ávassa hatthagat├á. Su├Áis├áya evar├ąpo iddh├ánubh├ávo: eka┬Ą┬Ąeva catudo├Áika├╝
piñakaü upanisãditvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü bãjabhattaü5
deti. Na t├áva ta├╝ kh├úyati, y├áva s├á na vu├▒├▒h├áti. D├ásassa evar├ąpo
iddh├ánubh├ávo: ekena na├»galena kasantassa satta s├út├áyo gacchanti. ‘
Gaccha bha├Áe, j├án├áhi. Yath├á may├á s├áma├╝ di├▒├▒ho, eva├╝ tava di├▒├▒ho
bhavissat├ú” ti. Pass├áma te gahapati, iddh├ánubh├áva nti.

9. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati s├úsa├╝ nah├áyitv├á dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝
sammajj├ápetv├á padv├áre nis├údi. Antalikkh├á dha┬Ą┬Ąassa dh├ár├á opatitv├á
dha┬Ą┬Ą├ág├ára├╝ p├ąresi.

10. “Di├▒├▒ho te gahapati, iddh├ánubh├ávo. Bhariy├áya te iddh├ánubh├áva├╝
pass├ám├á” ti1. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati bhariya├╝ ├á├Á├ápesi: “tena hi
catura├»gini├╝ sena├╝ bhattena parivis├á”ti. Atha kho me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa
bhariy├á eka├╝yeva ├á├źhakath├álika├╝ upanis├úditv├á eka┬Ąca s├ąpabhi┬Ąjaraka├╝
caturaïginiü senaü bhattena parivisi. Na tàva taü khãyi. 2 Yàva sà na
vuññhàsi. 3

11. “Di├▒├▒ho te gahapati bhariy├áyapi iddh├ánubh├ávo. Puttassa te
iddh├ánubh├áva├╝ pass├ám├á” ti. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati putta├╝ ├á├Á├ápesi:
“tena hi catura├»giniy├á sen├áya jamm├ásika├╝ vetana├╝ deh├ú” ti. Atha kho
me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa putto eka├╝yeva sahassatthavika├╝ gahetv├á
caturaïginiyà senàya chammàsikaü vetanaü adàsi. Na tàva taü khãyi,
yàvassa hatthagatà.

12. “Di├▒├▒ho te gahapati, puttassapi iddh├ánubh├ávo. Su├Áis├áya te
iddh├ánubh├áva├╝ passam├á” ti. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati su├Áisa├╝ ├á├Á├ápesi:
“tena hi catura├»giniy├á sen├áya chamm├ásika├╝ b├újabhatta├╝ deh├ú” ti. Atha kho
me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa su├Áis├á eka├╝yeva catudo├Áika├╝ pi├▒aka├╝ upanis├úditv├á
caturaïginiyà senàya chammàsikaü bãjabhattaü adàsi. Na tàva taü khãyi,
yàva sà na vuññhàsi.

13. “Di├▒├▒ho te gahapati, su├Áis├áyapi iddh├ánubh├ávo. D├ásassa te
iddh├ánubh├áva├╝ pass├ám├á” ti. “Mayha├╝ kho s├ámi, d├ásassa iddh├ánubh├ávo khette
passitabbo”ti. “Ala├╝ gahapati, di├▒├▒ho te d├ásassapi iddh├ánubh├ávo” ti.

14. Atha kho so mahàmatto caturaïginiyà senàya punadeva ràjagahaü
pacc├ága┬Ąj├ú. Yena r├áj├á m├ágadho seniyo bimbis├áro tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á ra┬Ą┬Ąo m├ágadhassa seniyassa bimbis├árassa etamattha├╝
àrocesi.

1. “Passiss├ám├áti” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “Kh├úyati” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

3. “Na vu├▒├▒h├áti” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 604] [\x 604/]

15. [PTS Page 242] [\q 242/] atha kho bhagavà vesàliyaü
yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena bhaddiyaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà
bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusatehi.

16. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena bhaddiyaü tadavasari. Tatrasudaü bhagavà bhaddiye viharati jàtiyàvane.

17. Assosi kho me├Á├│ako gahapati “sama├Áo khalu bho gotamo sakyaputto
sakyakulà pabbajito bhaddiyaü anuppatto bhaddiye viharati jàtiyàvane.
Ta├╝ kho pana bhagavanta├╝ gotama├╝ eva├╝ kaly├á├Áo kittisaddo abbhuggato:
“itipi so bhagav├á araha├╝, samm├ásambuddho, vijj├ácara├Áasampanno, sugato,
lokavid├ą, anuttaro, purisadammas├árath├ú, satth├á devamanuss├ána├╝, buddho,
bhagavà. 1 So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü sabrahmakaü,
sassama├Áabr├áhma├Ái├╝ paja├╝ sadevamanussa├╝, saya├╝ abhi┬Ą┬Ą├á sacchikatv├á
pavadeti. So dhamma├╝ deseti ├ádikaly├á├Áa├╝ majjhe kaly├á├Áa├╝
pariyos├ánakaly├á├Áa├╝ s├áttha├╝ sabya┬Ąjana├╝. Kevalaparipu├Á├Áa├╝ parisuddha├╝
brahmacariya├╝ pak├áseti. S├ádhu kho pana tathar├ąp├ána├╝ arahata├╝ dassana├╝
hot├ú” ti.

18. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati bhadr├áni y├án├áni yoj├ápetv├á bhadra├╝ y├ána├╝
abhir├ąhitv├á bhadrehi bhadrehi y├ánehi bhaddiy├á n├úyy├ási bhagavanta├╝
dassanàya.

19. Addasa├╝su kho sambahul├á titthiy├á me├Á├│aka├╝ gahapati├╝ d├ąratova
├ágacchanta├╝ disv├ána me├Á├│aka├╝ gahapati├╝ etadavocu├╝: kaha├╝ tva├╝ gahapati,
gacchas├ú” ti. “Gacch├ámaha├╝ bhante, bhagavanta├╝ sama├Áa├╝ gotama├╝2
dassan├áy├á”ti. “Ki├╝ pana tva├╝ gahapati, kiriyav├ádo sam├áno akiriyav├áda├╝
sama├Áa├╝ gotama├╝ dassan├áya upasa├»kamissasi? Sama├Áo hi gahapati, gotamo
akiriyav├ádo akiriy├áya dhamma├╝ deseti. Tena ca s├ávake vinet├ú “ti.

20. Atha kho me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa etadahosi: “nissa├╝saya├╝ kho so
bhagav├á araha├╝ samm├á sambuddho bhavissati, yath├ápime3 titthiy├á us├ąyant├ú”
ti. Y├ávatik├á y├ánassa bh├ąmi y├ánena gantv├á y├án├á paccorohitv├á pattikova
yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinnassa kho me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa
bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü kathesi seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü
saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü saükilesaü, nekkhamme ànisaüsaü
pakàsesi.

1. “Bhagav├áti” machasa├╝. Ja vi. A vi. To vi. 2. “Bhante sama├Áa├╝ gotama├╝” s├ú mu. 3. “Yathaime” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 606] [\x 606/]

21. Yad├á bhagav├á a┬Ą┬Ą├ási me├Á├│aka├╝ gahapati├╝ kallacitta├╝ muducitta├╝
vin├úvara├Áacitta├╝ udaggacitta├╝ pasannacitta├╝, atha y├á buddh├ána├╝
sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü pakàsesi - dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü
magga├╝. Seyyath├ápi n├áma suddha├╝ vattha├╝ apagatak├á├źaka├╝ sammadeva rajana├╝
patiga├Áheyya, evameva kho me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa tasmi├╝ yeva ├ásane
viraja├╝ v├útamala├╝ dhammacakkhu├╝ udap├ádi: “ya├╝ ki┬Ąci samudayadhamma├╝,
sabba├╝ ta├╝ nirodhadhamma” nti.

22. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati di├▒├▒hadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyog├á├źhadhammo ti├Á├Áavicikiccho vigatakata├»katho ves├árajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthus├ásane bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “abhikkanta├╝ bhante.
Abhikkantaü bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pa├▒icchanna├╝ v├á vivareyya, m├ą├źhassa v├á magga├╝ ├ácikkheyya, andhak├áre v├á
telapajjota├╝ dh├áreyya: “cakkhumanto r├ąp├áni dakkhint├ú’ ti, evameva
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante, bhagavantaü
sara├Áa├╝ gacch├ámi dhamma┬Ąca bhikkhusa├»gha┬Ąca. Up├ásaka├╝ ma├╝ bhagav├á
dh├áretu ajjatagge p├á├Áupeta├╝ sara├Áa├╝ [PTS Page 243] [\q 243/] gata├╝.
Adhivàsetu ca me bhante bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusa├»ghen├á” ti. Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho me├Á├│ako
gahapati bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü
abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakk├ámi.

23. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati tass├á rattiy├á accayena pa├Á├úta├╝
kh├ádan├úya├╝ bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo
bhante, ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti.

24. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á pattac├úvaram├ád├áya yena
me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa nivesana├╝, tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte
àsane nisãdi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena.

25. Atha kho me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa bhariy├á ca putto ca su├Áis├á ca
dàso ca yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü
abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Tesaü bhagavà ànupubbikathaü kathesi
seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü
saïkilesaü, nekkhamme ànisaüsaü pakàsesi.

26. Yad├á te bhagav├á a┬Ą┬Ą├ási kallacitte muducitte vin├úvara├Áa citte
udaggacitte pasannacitte, atha yà buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà,
taü pakàsesi - dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü maggaü. Seyyathàpi nàma
suddha├╝ vattha├╝ apagatak├á├źaka├╝ sammadeva rajana├╝ patiga├Áheyya, evameva
tesa├╝ tasmi├╝ yeva ├ásane viraja├╝ v├útamala├╝ dhammacakkhu├╝ udap├ádi: “ya├╝
ki┬Ąci samudayadhamma├╝, sabba├╝ ta├╝ nirodhadhamma’ nti.

[BJT Page 608] [\x 608/]

27. Te di├▒├▒hadhamm├á pattadhamm├á viditadhamm├á pariyog├á├źhadhamm├á
ti├Á├Áavicikicch├á vigatakatha├»kath├á ves├árajjappatt├á aparappaccay├á
satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavocuü: abhikkantaü bhante. Abhikkantaü
bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante, nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya, pañicchannaü và
vivareyya, m├ą├źhassa v├á magga├╝ ├ácikkheyya, andhak├áre v├á telapajjota├╝
dh├áreyya - ‘cakkhumanto r├ąp├áni dakkhint├ú’ ti, evameva bhagavat├á
anekapariy├áyena dhammo pak├ásito. Ete maya├╝ bhante, bhagavanta├╝ sara├Áa├╝
gacch├áma dhamma┬Ąca bhikkhusa├»gha┬Ąca. Up├ásake no bhagav├á dh├áretu
ajjatagge p├á├Áupeta├╝ sara├Áa├╝ gate” ti.

28. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà, bhagavantaü
bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinno kho
me├Á├│ako gahapati bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “y├áva bhante bhagav├á bhaddiye
viharati t├áva aha├╝ buddhapamukhassa bhikkhusa├»ghassa dh├ąvabhatten├á” ti.
Atha kho bhagav├á me├Á├│aka├╝ gahapati├╝ dhammiy├á kath├á sandassetv├á
samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

29. Atha kho bhagav├á bhaddiye yath├ábhiratta├╝ viharitv├á me├Á├│aka├╝
gahapatiü anàpucchà yena aïguttaràpo tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Mahatà
bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkh├ąsateh├ú”.

30. Assosi kho me├Á├│ako gahapati “bhagav├á kira yena a├»guttar├ápo tena
c├árika├╝ pakkanto mahat├á bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi
bhikkh├ąsateh├ú” ti.

31. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati d├áse ca kammakare ca ├á├Á├ápesi: “tena hi
bha├Áe, bahu├╝ lo├Áampi telampi madhumpi ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi saka├▒esu
├áropetv├á ├ágacchatha. A├│├│hate├źas├áni ca gop├álakasat├áni a├│├│hate├źas├áni ca
dhenusatàni àdàya àgacchantu. Yattha mayaü bhagavantaü1 passissàma,
dh├áru├Áhena2 kh├úrena bhojess├ám├á” ti.

32. Atha kho me├Á├│ako [PTS Page 244] [\q 244/] gahapati bhagavanta├╝
antar├ámagge kant├áre sambh├ávesi. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati yena bhagav├á
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi.
Ekamanta├╝ ├▒hito kho me├Á├│ako gahapati bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “adhiv├ásetu
me bhante bhagav├á sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á” ti.
Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati bhagavato
adhiv├ásana├╝ viditv├á bhagavanta├╝ abhiv├ádetv├á padakkhi├Áa├╝ katv├á pakk├ámi.

1. “Yattha bhagavanta├╝” machasa├╝. 2. ‘Taru├Áena’ machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 610] [\x 610/]

33. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati tass├á rattiy├á accayena pa├Á├úta├╝
kh├ádan├úya├╝ bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo
bhante ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta” nti.

34. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝ niv├ásetv├á pattac├úvara├╝ ├ád├áya
yena me├Á├│akassa gahapatissa parivesana├╝ tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á
pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghena.

35. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati a├│├│hate├źas├áni gop├álakasat├áni ├á├Á├ápesi:
“tena hi bha├Áe, ekameka├╝ dhenu├╝ gahetv├á ekamekassa bhikkhuno
upati├▒├▒hatha. Dh├áru├Áhena kh├úrena bhojess├ám├á” ti.

36. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena
kh├ádan├úyena bhojan├úyena sahatth├á santappesi: sampav├áresi dh├áru├Áhena ca
kh├úrena. Bhikkhu kukkucc├áyant├á kh├úra├╝ na patiga├Áhanti. “Patiga├Áh├átha
bhikkhave paribhu┬Ąjath├á” ti.

37. Atha kho me├Á├│ako gahapati buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena
kh├ádan├úyena bhojan├úyena sahatth├á santappetv├á sampav├áretv├á dh├áru├Áhena ca
kh├úrena, bhagavanta├╝ bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi.
Ekamanta├╝ nisinno kho me├Á├│ako gahapati bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “sanni
bhante, maggà kantàrà appodakà appabhakkhà na sukarà apàtheyyena gantuü.
S├ádhu bhante, bhagav├á bhikkh├ąna├╝ p├átheyya├╝ anuj├án├át├ą” ti. Atha kho
bhagav├á me├Á├│aka├╝ gahapati├╝ dhammiy├á kath├áya sandassetv├á sam├ádapetv├á
samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

38. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, pa┬Ąca gorasekh├úra├╝ dadhi
takkaü navanãtaü sappi. Santi bhikkhave, maggà kantàrà appodakà
appabhakkhà na sukarà apàtheyyena gantuü. Anujànàmi. Bhikkhave,
p├átheyya├╝ pariyesitu├╝. Ta├Á├│ulo ta├Á├│ulatthikena. Muggo muggatthikena.
M├áse m├ásatthikena. Lo├Áa├╝ lo├Áatthikena. [PTS Page 245] [\q 245/] gu├źo
gu├źatthikena. Tela├╝ telatthikena. Sappi sappitthikena. Santi bhikkhave,
manuss├á saddh├á pasann├á. Te kappiyakarak├ána├╝ hatthe hira┬Ą┬Ąa├╝
upanikkhipanti: ‘imin├á ya├╝ ayyassa kappiya├╝, ta├╝ deth├á’ti. Anuj├án├ámi
bhikkhave, yaü tato kappiyaü, taü sàdiyituü. 1 Na tvevàhaü bhikkhave,
kenaci pariy├áyena j├átar├ąparajata├╝ s├ádiyitabba├╝2 pariyesitabbanti.
Vad├ám├ú” ti.

1. “S├áditu├╝” machasa├╝. To vi. 2. “S├áditabba├╝” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 612] [\x 612/]

39. Atha kho bhagav├á anupubbena c├árika├╝ caram├áno yena ├ápa├Áa├╝,
tadavasari. Assosi kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo “sama├Áo khalu bho gotamo sakyaputto
sakyakul├á pabbajito ├ápa├Áa├╝ anuppatto ├ápa├Áe viharati. 1 Ta├╝ kho pana
bhavanta├╝ gotama├╝ eva├╝ kaly├á├Áo

Kittisaddo abbhuggato: itipi so bhagavà arahaü sammàsambuddho
vijj├ácara├Áasampanno sugato lokavid├ą anuttaro purisadammas├árathi satth├á
devamanussànaü buddho bhagavà. So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü
sabrahmaka├╝, sassama├Áabr├áhma├Ái├╝ paja├╝ sadevamanussa├╝ saya├╝ abhi┬Ą┬Ą├á
sacchikatv├á pavadeti. So dhamma├╝ deseti ├ádikaly├á├Áa├╝ majjhe kaly├á├Áa├╝
pariyos├ánakaly├á├Áa├╝ s├áttha├╝ sabya┬Ąjana├╝. Kevalaparipu├Á├Áa├╝ parisuddha├╝
brahmacariya├╝ pak├áseti. S├ádhu kho pana tath├ár├ąp├ána├╝ arahata├╝ dassana├╝
hot├ú” ti.

40. Atha kho ke├Áiyassa ja├▒ilassa etadahosi: “kinnu kho aha├╝ sama├Áassa
gotamassa har├ápeyya” nti. Atha kho ke├Áiyassa ja├▒ilassa etadahosi: “yepi
kho te br├áhma├Á├ána├╝ pubbak├á isayo mant├ána├╝ katt├áro mant├ána├╝ pavatt├áro,
yesamida├╝ etarahi br├áhma├Á├á por├á├Áa├╝ mantapada├╝ g├úta├╝ pavutta├╝ sam├úhita├╝
tadanugàyanti, tadanubhàsanti, bhàsita manubhàsanti, vàcitamanuvàcenti.
Seyyathãdaü: aññako, vàmako, vàmadevo, vessàmitto, yamataggi2, aïgãraso,
bh├áradv├ájo, v├áse├▒├▒ho, kassapo, bhagu, ratt├ąparat├á virat├á vik├álabhojan├á.
Te evar├ąp├áni p├án├áni s├ádiyi├╝su. “Sama├Áopi gotamo ratt├ąparato virato
vik├álabhojan├á. Arahati sama├Áopi gotamo evar├ąp├áni p├án├áni s├ádiyitu” nti.
Pah├ąta├╝ p├ána├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á k├ájehi g├áh├ápetv├á yena bhagav├á tenupasa├»kami.
Upasa├»kamitv├á bhagavat├á saddhi├╝ sammodi. Sammodan├úya├╝ katha├╝ s├ár├á├Á├úya├╝
v├útis├áretv├á ekamanta├╝ a├▒├▒h├ási. Ekamanta├╝ ├▒hito kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo
bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “patiga├Áh├átu me bhava├╝ gotamo p├ána” nti. “Tena hi
ke├Áiya, bhikkh├ąna├╝ deh├ú” ti. Bhikkh├ą kukkucc├áyant├á na patiga├Áhanti.
“Patiga├Áh├átha bhikkhave, paribhu┬Ąjath├á”ti.

41. Atha kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pah├ątehi
pànehi sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà, bhagavantaü dhotahatthaü
on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinna├╝ kho ke├Áiya├╝ ja├▒ila├╝
bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi.
Sampaha├╝sesi.

1. “├ópa├Áe viharat├ú” ti natthi marammakkhara potthake 2. “Yamadaggi” ityapi.

[BJT Page 614] [\x 614/]

42. Atha [PTS Page 246] [\q 246/] kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo bhagavat├á
dhammiyà kathàya sandassito samàdapito samuttejito sampahaüsito
bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “adhiv├ásetu me bhava├╝ gotamo sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝
saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á”ti. “Mah├á kho ke├Áiya, bhikkhusa├»gho.
A├│├│hate├źas├áni bhikkhusat├áni. Tva┬Ąca br├áhma├Áesu abhippasanno”ti.
Dutiyampi kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “ki┬Ąc├ápi bho1 gotama,
mah├á bhikkhusa├»gho a├│├│hate├źas├áni bhikkhusat├áni, aha├╝ ca br├ámha├Áesu
abhippasanno, adhivàsetu me bhavaü gotamo svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusa├»ghen├á”ti. “Mah├á kho ke├Áiya, bhikkhusa├»gho. A├│├│hate├źas├áni
bhikkhusat├áni. Tva├╝ ca br├áhma├Áesu abhippasanno” ti. Tatiyampi kho ke├Áiyo
ja├▒ilo bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “ki┬Ąc├ápi bho gotama, mah├á bhikkhusa├»gho
a├│├│hate├źas├áni bhikkhusat├áni, aha├╝ ca br├áhma├Áesu abhippasanno, adhiv├ásetu
me bhava├╝2 gotamo sv├átan├áya bhatta├╝ saddhi├╝ bhikkhusa├»ghen├á” ti.
Adhiv├ásesi bhagav├á tu├Áh├úbh├ávena. Atha kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo bhagavato
adhivàsanaü viditvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

43. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, a├▒├▒ha pan├áni: ambap├ána├╝
jambup├ána├╝ vocap├ána├╝ mocap├ána├╝ madhup├ána├╝3 muddikap├ána├╝ s├ál├ąkap├ána├╝
phàrusakapànaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabbaü phalarasaü ñhapetvà
dha┬Ą┬Ąaphalarasa├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, sabba├╝ pattarasa├╝ ├▒hapetv├á
óàkarasaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabbaü puppharasaü ñhapetvà
madhukapuppharasa├╝. Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave ucchurasa” nti.

44. Atha kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo tass├á rattiy├á accayena sake assame pa├Á├úta├╝
kh├ádan├úya├╝ bhojan├úya├╝ pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato k├ála├╝ ├ároc├ápesi: “k├álo
bho gotama, ni├▒├▒hita├╝ bhatta”nti. Atha kho bhagav├á pubba├Áhasamaya├╝
niv├ásetv├á pattacivaram├ád├áya yena ke├Áiyassa ja├▒ilassa assamo
tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á pa┬Ą┬Ąatte ├ásane nis├údi saddhi├╝
bhikkhusaïghena.

45. Atha kho ke├Áiyo ja├▒ilo buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pa├Á├útena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà, bhagavantaü
bhutt├ávi├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinna├╝ kho
ke├Áiya├╝ ja├▒ila├╝ bhagav├á im├áhi g├áth├áhi anumodi: -

1. “Aggihuttamukh├á ya┬Ą┬Ą├á s├ávitti chandaso mukha├╝,

Ràjà mukhaü manussànaü nadãnaü sàgaro mukhaü.

11. Nakkhattànaü mukhaü cando àdicco tapataü mukhaü,

Pu┬Ą┬Ąam├áka├»kham├án├ána├╝4 sa├»gho ve yajata├╝ mukha”nti.

1. “Ki┬Ąc├ápi kho” machasa├╝. 2. Adhiv├ásetu bhava├╝. Machasa├╝.

3. “Madhukap├ána├╝” machasa├╝. 4. “Pu┬Ą┬Ąa├╝ ├áka├»kham├án├ána├╝” ma cha sa├╝. [P T S.] To vi. Ja vi.

[BJT Page 616] [\x 616/]

46. Atha kho bhagav├á ke├Áiya├╝ ja├▒ila├╝ im├áhi g├áth├áhi anumoditv├á
u├▒├▒h├áy├ásan├á pakk├ámi. [PTS Page 247] [\q 247/] atha kho bhagav├á ├ápa├Áe
yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena kusinàrà, tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà
bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusatehi.

47. Assosu├╝ kho kosin├árak├á mall├á “bhagav├á kira kusin├ára├╝ ├ágacchati
mahat├á bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusateh├ú”ti. Te
sa├»gara├╝ aka├╝su: “yo bhagavato paccuggamana├╝ na karissati,
pa┬Ącasat├ánissa da├Á├│o” ti.

48. Tena kho pana samayena rojo mallo àyasmato ànandassa sahàyo hoti.
Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena kusinàrà, tadavasari.
Atha kho kosinàrakà mallà bhagavato paccuggamanaü akaüsu.

49. Atha kho rojo mallo bhagavato paccuggamanaü karitvà yenàyasmà
ànando, tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü ànandaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhitaü kho rojaü mallaü àyasmà ànando
etadavoca: “u├ź├ára├╝ kho te ima├╝ ├ávuso roja, ya├╝ tva├╝ bhagavato
paccuggagamana├╝ ak├ás├ú” ti. “N├áha├╝ bhante ├ánanda, bahukato buddhe v├á
dhamme v├á sa├»ghe v├á1. Api ca ┬Ą├át├úhi sa├»garo kato: ‘yo bhagavato
paccuggamana├╝ na karissati, pa┬Ącasat├ánissa da├Á├│o’ti. So kho aha├╝ bhante
├ánanda, ┬Ą├át├úna├╝ da├Á├│abhay├á ev├áha├╝ bhagavato paccuggamana├╝ ak├ási” nti.

50. Atha kho ├áyasm├á ├ánand├á anattamano ahosi: “katha├╝ hi n├áma rojo
mallo eva├╝ vakkhat├ú” ti. Atha kho ├áyasm├á ├ánand├á yena bhagav├á
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamanta├╝ nisinno kho ├áyasm├á ├ánando bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “aya├╝ bhante
rojo mallo abhi┬Ą┬Ą├áto ┬Ą├átamanusso. Mahiddhiyo2 kho pana evar├ąp├ána├╝
┬Ą├átamanuss├ána├╝ imasmi├╝ dhammavinaye pas├ádo. S├ádhu bhante, bhagav├á tath├á
karotu, yath├á rojo mallo imasmi├╝ dhammavinaye pas├údeyy├á” ti. “Na kho ta├╝
ànanda, dukkaraü tathàgatena yathà rojo mallo imasmiü dhammavinaye
pas├údeyy├á” ti.

51. Atha kho bhagavà rojaü mallaü mettena cittena pharitvà
uññhàyàsanà vihàraü pàvisi. Atha kho rojo mallo bhagavatà3 mettena
cittena phu├▒├▒ho seyyath├ápi n├áma g├áv├ú taru├Áavacch├á4, evameva vih├árena
vih├ára├╝ parive├Áena parive├Áa├╝ upasa├»kamitv├á bhikkh├ą pucchati: “kahannu
kho bhante etarahi so bhagavà viharati arahaü sammà sambuddho?
Dassanak├ám├á hi maya├╝ ta├╝ bhagavanta├╝ arahanta├╝ samm├ásambuddha” nti.
“Es├ávuso roja, [PTS Page 248] [\q 248/] vih├áro sa├╝vutadv├áro. Tena
appasaddo upa├»kamitv├á ataram├áno ├álinda├╝ pavisitv├á ukk├ásitv├á agga├źa├╝
├áko├▒ehi. Vivarissati te bhagav├á dv├ára”nti

1. “Buddhena v├á dhammena v├á sa├»ghena v├á” s├ú mu 1 2. “Mahiddhiko”
machasa├╝. 3. “Bhagavato” machasa├╝ to vi. 4. “G├ávi├╝ taru├Áavaccho”
machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 618] [\x 618/]

52. Atha kho rojo mallo yena so vihàro saüvutadvàro, tena appasaddo
upasa├»kamitv├á ataram├áno ├álinda├╝ pavisitv├á ukk├ásitv├á agga├źa├╝ ├áko├▒esi.
Vivari bhagavà dvàraü. Atha kho rojo mallo vihàraü pavisitvà bhagavantaü
abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnassa kho rojassa mallassa
bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü kathesi: seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü
saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü saükilesaü, nekkhamme ànisaüsaü
pakàsesi.

53. Yad├á bhagav├á a┬Ą┬Ą├ási roja├╝ malla├╝ kallacitta├╝ muducitta├╝
vin├úvara├Áacitta├╝ udaggacitta├╝ pasannacitta├╝, atha y├á buddh├ána├╝
sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü pakàsesi: dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü
magga├╝ seyyath├ápi n├áma suddha├╝ vattha├╝ apagatak├á├źaka├╝ sammadeva rajana├╝
patiga├Áheyya, evameva kho rojassa mallassa tasmi├╝ yeva ├ásane viraja├╝
v├útamala├╝ dhammacakkhu├╝ udap├ádi: “ya├╝ ki┬Ąci samudayadhamma├╝, sabba├╝ ta├╝
nirodhadhamma” nti.

54. Atha kho rojo mallo di├▒├▒hadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyog├á├źhadhammo ti├Á├Áavicikiccho vigatakatha├»katho ves├árajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthus├ásane bhagavanta├╝ etadavoca: “s├ádhu bhante ayy├á
mama┬Ą┬Ąeva patiga├Áheyyu├╝
c├úvarapi├Á├│ap├átasen├ásanagil├ánappaccayabhesajjaparikkh├ára├╝, no a┬Ą┬Ąesa”
nti. “Yesa├╝ kho roja, sekhena ┬Ą├á├Áena sekhena dassanena dhammo di├▒├▒ho
seyyath├ápi tay├á, tesampi eva├╝ hoti: ‘aho n├ąna ayya amh├áka┬Ą┬Ąeva
patiga├Áheyyu├╝ c├úvarapi├Á├│ap├átasen├ásanagil├ánappaccayabhesajjaparikkh├ára├╝,
no a┬Ą┬Ąesa’ nti. Tena hi roja, tava ceva pa├▒iggahessanti a┬Ą┬Ąesa┬Ąc├á” ti.

55. Tena kho pana samayena kusin├ár├áya├╝ pa├Á├út├ána├╝ bhatt├ána├╝
bhattapañipàñi aññhità hoti. Atha kho rojassa mallassa pañipàñiü
alabhantassa etadahosi: “yann├ąn├á ha├╝ bhattagga├╝ olokeyya├╝, ya├╝ bhattagge
n├ássa, ta├╝ pa├▒iy├ádeyya” nti. Atha kho rojo mallo bhattagga├╝ olokento
dve n├áddasa ├│├áka┬Ąca pi├▒├▒hakh├ádan├úya┬Ąca. Atha kho rojo mallo yen├áyasm├á
├ánando tenupasa├»kami. Upasa├»kamitv├á ├áyasmanta├╝ ├ánanda├╝ etadavoca: “idha
me bhante ├ánanda, pa├▒ip├á├▒i├╝ alabhantassa etadahosi: ‘yann├ąn├áha├╝
bhattagga├╝ olokeyya├╝, ya├╝ bhattagge n├ássa, ta├╝ pa├▒iy├ádeyya’ nti. So kho
aha├╝ bhante ├ánanda, bhattagga├╝ olokento dve n├áddasa├╝ ├│├áka┬Ąca
pi├▒├▒hakh├ádan├úya┬Ąca. Sac├áha├╝ bhante ├ánanda, pa├▒iy├ádeyya├╝ ├│├áka┬Ąca
pi├▒├▒hakh├ádan├úya┬Ąca, patiga├Áheyya me bhagav├á”ti. “Tena hi roja,
bhagavanta├╝ pa├▒ipucchiss├ám├ú”ti.

56. Atha kho ├áyasm├á ├ánando bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesi. “Tenah├ánanda, pa├▒iy├ádet├ą” ti. “Tena hi roja, pa├▒iy├ádeh├ú” ti.

[BJT Page 620] [\x 620/]

57. Atha kho rojo mallo tass├á rattiy├á accayena pah├ąta├╝ ├│├áka┬Ąca
pi├▒├▒hakh├ádan├úya┬Ąca pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato upan├ámesi “patiga├Áh├átu me
bhante bhagav├á ├│├áka┬Ąca pi├▒├▒hakh├ádan├úya┬Ąc├á” ti. “Tena hi roja, bhikkh├ąna├╝
deh├ú”ti *. Bhikkhu kukkucc├áyant├á na patiga├Áhanti. [PTS Page 249] [\q
249/] “patiga├Áa├Áh├átha bhikkhave, paribhu┬Ąjath├á” ti.

58. Atha kho rojo mallo buddhapamukha├╝ bhikkhusa├»gha├╝ pah├ątehi ├│├ákehi
ca piññhakhàdanãyehi ca sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
dhotahattha├╝ on├útapattap├á├Ái├╝ ekamanta├╝ nis├údi. Ekamanta├╝ nisinna├╝ kho
rojaü mallaü bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà
samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

59. Atha kho bhagav├á etasmi├╝ nid├áne etasmi├╝ pakara├Áe dhammi├╝ katha├╝
katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, sabba┬Ąca ├│├áka├╝ sabba┬Ąca
pi├▒├▒hakh├ádan├úya” nti.

60. Atha kho bhagavà kusinàràyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena àtumà,
tena c├árika├╝ pakk├ámi mahat├á bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi
bhikkhusatehi.

61. Tena kho pana samayena a┬Ą┬Ąataro bu├│├│hapabbajito ├átum├áya├╝
pa├▒ivasati nah├ápitapubbo. Tassa dve d├árak├á honti ma┬Ąjuk├á pa├▒ibh├á├Áeyyak├á
dakkhà pariyodàtasippà sake àcariyake nahàpitakamme. Assosi kho so
bu├│├│hapabbajito “bhagav├á kira ├átuma├╝ ├ágacchati mahat├á bhikkhusa├»ghena
saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi bhikkhusateh├ú”ti.

62. Atha kho so bu├│├│hapabbajito te d├árake etadavoca: “bhagav├á kira
t├át├á, ├átuma├╝ ├ágacchati mahat├á bhikkhusa├»ghena saddhi├╝ a├│├│hate├źasehi
bhikkhusatehi. Gacchatha tumhe t├át├á, khurabha├Á├│a├╝ ├ád├áya. N├á├źiy├áv├ápakena
anugharaka├╝1 ├áhi├Á├│atha. Lo├Áampi telampi ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi
sa├╝haratha. Bhagavato ├ágatassa y├águd├ána├╝2 kariss├ám├á”ti. “Eva├╝ t├át├á” ti
kho te d├árak├á tassa bu├│├│hapabbajitassa pa├▒issutv├á khurabha├Á├│a├╝ ├ád├áya
n├á├źiy├á ├áv├ápakena anugharaka├╝ ├áhi├Á├│anti lo├Áampi telampi ta├Á├│ulampi
kh├ádan├úyampi sa├╝harant├á. Manuss├á te d├árake ma┬Ąajuke pa├▒ibh├á├Áeyyake
passitvà yepi na kàràpetukàmà, tepi kàràpenti. Kàràpetvàpi bahuü denti.
Atha kho te d├árak├á bahu├╝ lo├Áampi telampi ta├Á├│ulampi kh├ádan├úyampi
sa├╝hari├╝su.

63. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena àtumà tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà àtumàyaü viharati bhusàgàre.

* “Atha kho rojo mallaputto bhikkh├ąna├╝ deti” machasa├╝. Aya├╝ p├á├▒ho
s├úhalakkharapotthakesu na dissate. 1. “Anugharaka├╝ anugharaka├╝”
machasa├╝. [P T S.] To vi. A vi. 2. “Y├águp├ána├╝” machasa├╝. [P T S.] To vi.

[BJT Page 622] [\x 622/]

64. Atha kho so bu├│├│hapabbajito tass├á rattiy├á accayena pah├ąta├╝ y├águ├╝
pa├▒iy├ád├ápetv├á bhagavato upan├ámesi: “patiga├Áh├átu me bhante bhagav├á y├águ”
nti.

65. Jànantàpi [PTS Page 250] [\q 250/] tathàgatà pucchanti. Jànantàpi
na pucchanti. Kàlaü viditvà pucchanti. Kàlaü viditvà na pucchanti.
Atthasaühitaü tathàgatà pucchanti no anatthasaühitaü. Anatthasaühite
setugh├áto tath├ágat├ána├╝. Dv├úh├ák├árehi buddh├á bhagavanto bhikkh├ą
pa├▒ipucchanti: “dhamma├╝ v├á desess├áma. S├ávak├ána├╝ v├á sikkh├ápada├╝
pa┬Ą┬Ą├ápess├ám├á”ti.

66. Atha kho bhagav├á ta├╝ bu├│├│hapababajita├╝ etadavoca: “kut├áya├╝
bhikkh├ą y├ág├ą”ti. Atha kho so bu├│├│hapabbajito bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesi: vigarahi buddho bhagav├á ‘ananucchaviya├╝ moghapurisa,
ananulomika├╝ appatir├ąpa├╝ ass├áma├Áaka├╝ akappiya├╝ akara├Á├úya├╝. Katha├╝ hi
nàma tvaü moghapurisa, pabbajite1 akappiye samàdapessasi2. Netaü
moghapurisa, appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya
vigarahitv├á dhammi├╝ katha├╝ katv├á bhikkh├ą ├ámantesi: “na bhikkhave,
pabbajità akappiye samàdapetabbà3. Yo samàdapeyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Na
ca bhikkhave, nah├ápitapubbena burabha├Á├│a├╝ pariharitabba├╝. Yo
parihareyya ├ápatti dukka├▒ass├á” ti.

67. Atha kho bhagavà àtumàyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena sàvatthi,
tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena sàvatthi,
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà sàvatthiyaü viharati jetavane
an├áthapi├Á├│ikasasa ├ár├áme.

68. Tena kho pana samayena sàvatthiyaü bahuü phalakhàdanãyaü uppannaü
hoti4. Atha kho bhikkh├ąna├╝ etadahosi: “kinnu kho bhagavat├á
phalakh├ádan├úya anu┬Ą┬Ą├áta├╝? Ki├╝ ananu┬Ą┬Ą├áta”nti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝
├árocesu├╝. “Anuj├án├ámi bhikkhave, sabba├╝ phalakh├ádan├úya” nti.

69. Tena kho pana samayena sa├»ghik├áni b├új├áni puggalik├áya bh├ąmiy├á
rop├úyanti. Puggalik├áni b├új├áni sa├»ghik├áya bh├ąmiy├á rop├úyanti. Bhagavato
etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Sa├»ghik├áni bhikkhave, b├új├áni puggalik├áy├á bh├ąmiy├á
ropit├áni bh├ága├╝ datv├á paribhu┬Ąjitabb├áni. Puggalik├áni b├új├áni sa├»ghik├áya
bh├ąmiy├á ropit├áni bh├ága├╝ datv├á paribhu┬Ąjitabb├án├ú” ti.

1. “Pabbajito” machasa├╝. [P T S.] To vi. S├ú mu. Imassa
bu├│├│hapabbajitassa dve d├árak├ápi pabbajit├á s├áma├Áerabh├ąmiya├╝ ├▒hit├áti
d├úghanik├áya├▒├▒hakath├áya├╝ vutta├╝. Tasm├á ettha “pabbajite” ti pada├╝
yuttameva. 2. “Sam├ádapesi” machasa├╝. 3. “Pabbajitena sam├ádapetabb├á”
machasa├╝. [P T S.] To vi. To vi. Ja. Vi 4. “Ussanna├╝” machasa├╝.

[BJT Page 624] [\x 624/]

70. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkh├ąna├╝ kismi┬Ąci kismi┬Ąci ├▒h├áne
kukkucca├╝ uppajjati: “kinnu kho bhagavat├á anu┬Ą┬Ą├áta├╝? Ki├╝ ananu┬Ą┬Ą├áta”
nti. Bhagavato etamattha├╝ ├árocesu├╝. “Ya├╝ bhikkhave, may├á ‘ida├╝ na
kappat├ú’ ti apa├▒ikkhitta├╝, [PTS Page 251] [\q 251/] ta├╝ ce akappiya├╝
anulometi’ kappiya├╝ pa├▒ib├áhati, ta├╝ vo na kappati. Ya├╝ bhikkhave, may├á
‘ida├╝ na kappat├ú’ ti apa├▒ikkhitta├╝, ta├╝ ce kappiya├╝ anulometi, akappiya├╝
pa├▒ib├áhati, ta├╝ vo kappati. Ya├╝ bhikkhave, may├á ‘ida├╝ kappat├úti
ananu┬Ą┬Ą├áta├╝, ta├╝ ce akappiya├╝ anulometi, kappiya├╝ pa├▒ib├áhati, ta├╝ vo na
kappati. Ya├╝ bhikkhave, may├á ‘ida├╝ kappat├ú’ ti ananu┬Ą┬Ą├áta├╝, ta├╝ ce
kappiya├╝ anulometi, akappiya├╝ pa├▒ib├áhati, ta├╝ vo kappat├ú” ti.

71. Atha kho bhikkh├ąna├╝ etadahosi: “kappati nu kho y├ávak├álikena
yàmakàlikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàvakàlikena
sattàhakàlikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàvakàlikena
yàvajãvikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàmakàlikena
sattàhakàlikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàmakàlikena
yàvajãvikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho sattàhakàlikena
yàvajãvikaü? Na nu kho kappatã? Ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Y├ávak├álikena bhikkhave, y├ámak├álika├╝ tadahu pa├▒iggahita├╝ k├ále kappati.
Vikàle na kappati. Yàvakàlikena bhikkhave, sattàhakàlikaü tadahu
pañiggahitaü kàle kappati. Vikàle na kappati. Yàvakàlikena bhikkhave,
yàvajãvikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü kàle kappati. Vikàle na kappati.
Yàmakàlikena bhikkhave, sattàhakàlikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü yàme kappati.
Yàmàtikkante na kappati. Yàmakàlikena bhikkhave, yàvajãvikaü tadahu
pañiggahitaü yàme kappati. Yàmàtikkante na kappati. Sattàhakàlikena
bhikkhave yàvajãvikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü sattàhaü kappati.
Satt├áh├átikkante na kappat├ú” ti.

Bhesajjakkhandhako ni├▒├▒hito cha├▒├▒ho

[BJT Page 626] [\x 626/]

Imamhi khandhake vatth├ą ekasata├╝ cha vatth├ą.

Tassa uddànaü:

S├áradike vik├álepi vasa├╝ m├ąle pi├▒├▒hehi ca,

Kas├ávehi pa├Á├Áa├╝ phala├╝ jatu lo├Áa├╝ chakana┬Ąca.

Cu├Á├Áa├╝ c├álin├ú ma├╝sa┬Ąca a┬Ąjan├ú1 upapi├╝san├ú 2,

A┬Ąjan├ú ucca3 p├árut├á sal├ák├á sal├ákodhan├ú 4.

Thavika├╝ sava├▒├▒aka├╝ 5 sutta├╝ muddhani tela6 natthu ca,

Natthukara├Á├ú dh├ąma 7 netta┬Ąca pidh├ána├╝ yamakatthavi 8.

Telap├ákesu majja┬Ąca atikkhitta├╝ abbha┬Ąjana├╝,

Tumba├╝ seda├╝ sambh├ára┬Ąca mah├ábha├»godaka├╝ tath├á.

Dakako├▒├▒ha├╝ lohita┬Ąca vis├á├Áa├╝ p├ádabbha┬Ąjana├╝,

Pajja├╝ sattha├╝ kas├áva┬Ąca tilakakka├╝ kabalika├╝.

[PTS Page 252] [\q 252/] cola├╝ s├ásapaku├│├│a┬Ąca 9 dh├ąmasakkharik├áya ca,

Va├Áatela├╝ vik├ásika├╝ vika├▒a┬Ąca pa├▒iggaha├╝.

G├ątha├╝ karont├á ro├źi┬Ąca kh├ára├╝ muttahari├▒ak├ú 10

Gandh├á virecana┬Ąceva acch├á ka├▒a 11 ka├▒├áka├▒a├╝.

Pa├▒icch├ádan├ú pabbh├ár├á ├ár├ám├á sat├á pa┬Ącahi 12

Gu├źa├╝ mugga├╝ sov├úra┬Ąca s├ámap├ák├á 13 pun├á pace.

Pun├ánu┬Ą┬Ą├ási dubbhikkhe phala┬Ąca tilakh├ádan├ú,

Purebhatta├╝ k├áya├│├áho nibba├▒├▒a┬Ąca bhagandala├╝.

Vatthikamma┬Ąca supp├ú ca 14 manussama├╝sameva ca,

Hatthi assà sunakhàhi 15 sãhabyagghaü ca dãpikaü. 16

Accha taraccha ma├╝sa┬Ąca pa├▒ip├á├▒i ca y├águ ca,

Taru├Áa├╝ a┬Ą┬Ąatra gu├źa├╝ sun├údh├ávasath├ágara├╝. 17

Gaïgà koñi saccakathà ambapàlã ca licchavi,

Uddissa ka├▒a├╝ subhikkha├╝ punadeva pa├▒ikkhipi.

Megho yaso me├Á├│ako ca gorasa├╝ p├átheyyakena ca,

Ke├Ái ambo jambucoca mocamadhumuddikas├áluka├╝.

Phàrusakaü 18 óàkapiññhaü àtumàyaü nahàpito,

Sàvatthiyaü phalaü bãjaü kismiü ñhàne ca kàliketi.

1. “A┬Ąjana├╝” machasa├╝. [P T S. 2.] “Upap├úsan├ú” machasa├╝.
“Upapi├╝sana├╝” si. [P T S. 3.] “Ucc├á” machasa├╝. To vi. 4. “Sal├áka├▒h├áni”
machasa├╝.

5. “Sabandhaka├╝” machasa├╝ “bandhaka├╝” [P T S. 6.] “Tela├╝” [P T S.]

7. “Dh├ąma┬Ąca” machasa├╝. [P T S.]

8. “Netta┬Ąc├ápidha natthavi” machasa├╝. “Netta┬Ąc├á pidh├ána├╝ thavi” [P T S.]

9. “S├ásapaku├▒├▒haka┬Ąca” machasa├╝ [P T S.] “S├ásapaku├Á├│a├╝ca” a vi. To vi.

10. “Haritaka├╝’ machasa├╝. 11. “Acch├áka├▒a├╝ machasa├╝.

12. “├ór├ámasatth├áhenaca” machasa├╝. 13. “S├áma├╝p├ák├á” ma cha sa├╝.

14. “Suppi┬Ące” machasa├╝. Ja vi. A vi.

15. “Sunakhoca” machasa├╝. [P T S.] Ma nu pa.

16. “Abhis├úha┬Ącad├úpika├╝” machasa├╝ ja vi. Ma nu pa.

17. “Vasath├ág├ára├╝” machasa├╝. A vi. [P T S.] Ja vi.

18. “Ph├árusak├á” machasa├╝. S├ú mu.

8  fNicAclaLFOlh’



*3( tl,ays jkdys Nd.Hj;a nq├łrcdKka jykafia ieje;a kqjr wfkamsZvq
uyisgdKka jsiska lrjk ,o fca;jkdrdufhys jdih lrkfial’ *4( ir;a l, Wmka
ms;a f,iska *tl,ays jeiafika f;usuo uZv mE.Suo w;r;2r ,efnk ;o wjqfjka
jsh

[ \ q 254 / ]
Tjzyq lDIjQjdyq” ├łrAjrAKjQjdyq”
yg.;a mZvq meye we;a;dyq” kyr b,amqKq YrSr we;a;dyqh’ blans;s ;ksj
jsfjzlhg ..shdyq Nd.H;2ka jykafia is;g fufia is;la jsh’

oeka
jkdyss ir;a ld,fhys jq wdndOhlska iamrAY lrk ,oaodyq NsCIQkag le├ő nS
l,la jukh fjhs’ n;a wkqNj l<;a jukh lrhs’ Tjqyq ta lrK fldg f.k
lDIjQjdyq” rECIjQjdyq” ├łrAjrAK jQjdyq yg .;a mZvq mey we;s wjhj we;a;dyq
kyr b,amqKq wjhj we;a;dyqh’ ” lsfulao uu NsCIQkag fnfy;a wkqokafkuzo “


hula fnfy;l2;a f,dalhdf.a fnfy;ahhs mss


fuz NsCIqkayg fuz mia fnfy;a iq├łiq l, ms


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ijia ld,fhys M, iuj;ska keZ.sgsfiala  fuz
isoaOsfhys fuz ksodkfhys oeyeuss l:d fldg NsCIQka wduka;1Kh l

[ \  q 255 / ]
fhda lshkqu ljryqo ‘
Wkajykafia,d th ir;a l, WmkakdjQ mss;a f,iskao fuz wdydr fkdosrSfukao hk
ta folsska iamrAIY l


ta iufhyss jkdys ..s,ka uyKqkayg jqreKq f;,a ms

[ \ q 256 / ]
,oafoao” miajre fmrk ,oafoao”
boska ta mrssfNda. lrkafka kuz ├łl2,d weje;a folla fjz’ uyfKks” boska
fmrjre ms


” tl,ays jkdys ..s,ka NsCIQkag uq,a fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’
lido” bZ.2reo” jo lido” fy


tl,ays jkdys ..s,ka NsCIQkag uq,a fnfy;a jQ  msgsj,ska *pQK!lr.;a (
uq,a fnfy;ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l


tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag lig rih jQ fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdackh fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie,l


tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag fld< fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l


tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag f.vs fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh ie,l

[ \ q 257 / ]
id,ao” j.mq,ao” usrsiao” wrZMo” nqZMo” fk,a,so” l2l2ZMm;ao wkqoksus’ * fuys 6 *4((

-
tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag ,dgq fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh ie,l

3= 
tl,ayssss jkdysss ..s,ka NsCIQkag ,qKq fnfy;a j,ska m1fhdack fjz’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l

33 
tiufhys wdhqIau;a wdkFo f;rekaf.a WmdOHdhjQ wdhqIau;a fn,gzGsiSi
f;rekag uyd ms

( c ) 10
[ \ q 258 / ]
wms tajd f;u f;ud bj;a lruqhs ” *
fuys 3+8 *3(( ” uyfKks” huz uyfKl2yg lKavq;s frda.hla fyda fmd

34 
” fkd.s,kayg wia fngs wdosho uegso” rck ligo” wkqokssus’ msZvq msKsi
;euznQ ├ŐjH iqKqfldg fyda tu ├ŐjH fldgd fyda m11lD;sfhka weZ. .d kdk iqKq
jrA.hla fldgd j;2frka f;ud fyda weZ. .d kEuo wkqoksus’ uyfKks” jxf.vsh
yd fudfyd, wkqoksus’”

35 
tl,ays jkdys .s,ka NssCIQkayg fmrk ,o” pQK! lrk ,o fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack
fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l

36 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlayg wukqIHfhl2 jsiska lrk ,o f,vla fjz’ wdpdhH!
WmdOHdhjre Tyqg Wmia:dk lrkafkda frda ke;sfhl2 lrkag fkdyels jsh’ ta 
wukqIHdfjzI jQ uyK f;u yQre uia f,dUqjg f.dia wuq uiao lEfhah’ wuqf,a o
mdkh flf


wukqIHndOfhys wuq udxYo” wuq f,ao wkqoksus ” udxY wkqNjh yd f,a mdkh
NsCIQ f;fuz fkdflf

[ \ q 259 / ]

37 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlayg weia frda.hla fjz’ mejsoafoda ta uyK jg fldg
f.k u


uyfKks” lZM w├îkao fkdfhla ├ŐjH tl;2 fldg l< w├îkao” koSSs
fY1da;doSkays * fudah lgj,aj, ( Wmka w├îkao” iajK!f.rel w├îkao” myka
oe,af,ka yg.;a oe,sfhka l< w├îkao hk w├îka wkaoksushs ” jod

38 
w├îka msKsi wUrd .kakd ├ŐjHj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ *4( Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fiag
fuz ldrKh ie, l,dyqh’ *5( ” uyfKkss” i├îkao ;2jr,do lZMje,ao tkuz relao *
fuz rela jrA.h mss;a iukhg ys;lr fnfy;a jrA.hls’ ( juzuq;2o wkqoksushs ”
jod

39 
tl,ays NsCIQyq msgs w├îka ;egsssj,o u,djkayso ;n;a’ ta * Ndckfhda ( ;DK
pQK! *;K frdvq ( j,skao” miaj,sskao” * ├łjs,ss(  j.2rejkq ,efn;a’* fuys
38 *4(( w├î l2,d wkqoksus’

30 
tl,ays jkdys ij. NsCIQyq iajK!uh jQo rEmsh uh jQo Wia my;a wÌka l2,d
or;a’ usksiaiq luziem js├őskakdjQ .Dyia:fhda huzfiao tfuka lshd *4( ,dul
fldg is;;a’ ..rAyd flfr;a’ fodai m1ldY flfr;a’ *5( * fuys 38 *4((

” uyfKks” Wia my;a w├îka l2,d fkdoersh hq;af;dah’ huz uyfKla orkafka kuz ├łl2,d weje;a fjz’ “

[ \ q 260 / ]

3- 
uyfKkss” *4( weg j.!hlska l

4= 
tl,ays jkdys w├îka l2,d fkdjik ,oafoa fj;a’ ;DK pQK!j,ska * ;K
frdvqj,skao( miaj,skao j.2rejkq ,efn;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” mshk
*wkqokssusshs jodf

43 
tl,ays jkdys NsCIQyq weZ.s,af,ka * w├îka ( .Eu flfr;a’ weia ├łla we;af;da
fj;a *fuys 38 *4(( uyfKks” w├îk l@re wkqoksus’ ” tl,ays jkdys ij.
NsCIQyq f,dl2 l2vd rejkauh jQo” rsoSuh jQo” w├îka l@re or;a’ ukqIHfhda
ldufNda.S ..syshka fuka hhs fodia lsh;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( uyfKks” f,dl2
l2vd w├îka l@re fkdoerssh hq;a;dy’ hfula ord kuz ├łl2,d weje;a fjz’
uyfKks” * fuys 3- *4((

44  tiufhys w├îka l@re fmdf

45 
tl,ays NsCIQyq w├îka l2,do w├îka l@reo w;ska mrsyrKh flfrA’ * fuys 38
*4((  wxijgzglfhla * Wrysiska oud .;a; mgshls’ ( fkdfjz’ * fuys 38 *4((
wxijgzglfh *th w[acksJ:jslfhys ( n├őssk yqho” *Wrysiska oud .ekSug fhdok
,o miquzns wdosfhys mgssh’ ( wxijgzglh wkqoksus’ “

46 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a ms,sFosjpzP f;rekayg ysirohla f jz’ * fuys 38 *4((
uyfKks” ysfiys f;,a ..Eu wkqoksus’ bjish fkdyelafla fjz’ * fuys 38 *4((
kiH lu!h *wkqoksus’( kdisld f;dfuda je.sfrhhs’ * kdisldfjka neyer fnfy;a
je.sfrhs’ ( * fuys 38 *4(( kiH lrk Ndckhla wkqoksus’ “

[ \ q 261 / ]

47 
tl,ays ij. NsCIqyQ rejkska l

48 
tl,aysss ij. NsCIQyq * fuys 3- *4(( ukqIHfhda ldufNda.Ska fukehs fodia
lsh;a’  *fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” f,dl2 l2vd ├łuz ke,s fkdoersh hq;a;dy’
hfula ord kuz ├łl2,d weje;a fjz’ uyfKks” * fuys 3- *4(( ke,s mila
wkqoksus’ folla jQ kF:lrKShla wkqoksus’ fkdfjfyish yelsfjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( uyfKks” ├łuz nSu wkqoksus’ ta ├łuz jegshu o,ajd mdkh flfr;a’ fndgqj
oefjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( uyfKks” ├łuz ke,s wkqoksus’ “

49 tiufhyss OQufk;a;fhda *mhsmam( fkdjik ,oafoda fj;a’ * mKqfjda msjsfi;a ( * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” mshkla wkqoksus’ “

40  tiufhyss NsCIQyq ├łuz mhsmam w;ska f.k h;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” ├łuz mhsmam fldmqjla wkqoksus’ “

4-  tiufhyss ├łuz  *mhsmam( yd mshka tlg .efgz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” ldur fofla fldmqjlaa wkqoksus’ “

5=  wixjgzglhla * miqnsuz mgshla ( ke;af;a fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” wixjgzglhg n├ősk kQ,la o wkqoksus’ “

53 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a mss

[ \ 262 / ]
tl, ij. NsCIQyq jevshla nyd,Q
uoH we;s f;,a msi;a’ ta f;,a nS u;a fj;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( “uyfKks”
jevshla uoH nyd,Q f;,a fkdmsh hq;2h’ hfula  mdkh lrkafka kuz weje;a jQ
fia lrjsh hq;2h’ weje;aks”  huz msiQ f;,l uoHhdf.a jrAKfhla fkdfmfkao
..f├őla fkdfmfkao rifhla fkdfmfkao fuhdldrjQ uoHhla nyd,Q f;,a nSu
wkqoksus’ “

54 
tl,ays NsCIQkag jevshla  nyd,Q uoH we;s fndfyda f;,a msik ,oafoa fjz’
blans;s NsCIQkag ÔÇś flfia kuz jevshla nyd,Q uoH we;s f;f,ys ms

55
tl,ays jkdys wdhqIau;a ms

56 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a  ms

[ \ q 263 / ]

57 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a ms

58 
tla lf,lays tla;rd NssCIqjlayg .KavdndOfhla fjhs’ * fuys 38 *4((
“uyfKks” ie;aluz wkqoksus’ ” ie;aluz lig osfhka m1fhdack fjz’ ” uyfKks”
lig osh wkqokssus’ ” ;, l,alfhka m1fhdack fjz’ ” uyfKks” l, l,alh
wkqoksus’ ” jyka fnfy;ska m1fhdack fjz’ ” uyfKks” ln,sld wkqoksus’ ” jK
n├ősk frosfhka m1fhdackfjz’ “jKn├ősk  froaola wkqoksus’ ” jKh lihs’ ” wn
msgsfhka iamY! lsrSu * jKh u;2fhys wn l2vq oeuSu ( wkqoksushs ” jKh f;;a
fjhs’ ” * msKs nska├ł fia Tzcdj u;2jsh ( “uyfKks” ├łuzlsrSu wkqoksus’ ”
wOsl udxY * weKhla fia ( Wvg k.shs’ ” ,qKq weg fhka is├őSu wkqoksus’ ”
jKh iqj fkdfjhs’ jK le<, fkdueflhs’ ” uyfKks” jK f;,a wkqoksus’ ”
f;,a je.sfrhs’ ” * fuys 38 *4(( uyfKkss” f;,a kj;ajk froslvo ishZM 
j1Km1;slu!o wkqoksus’ “

59 
tl,ays tla;rd NssCIqjla im!hl2 jsiska oIag lrk ,oafoa fjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( uyfKks” wiqpso” uq;1o” wZMo” uegso hk i;r uyd jslgh oSug wkqoksus’
blans;s NssCIQkag ÔÇś fkdms

50 
tiufhys jkdys tla;rd mejsoafola jsiska jsi fndk ,oafoa fjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( ” wiqps fmjSu wkqoksus’ ” blans;s NsCIQkag ÔÇś fkdms

[ \ q 264 / ]
kej; ms

5- 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlg iroskakl wdndOhla * .Dy NdhH!djla jYSlrKh msKsi
fh├ł fnfy;la mdkh lsrSfuka yg.;a f,vla ( fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ”
iSS;df,da,Sh fmjSu wkqoksus’ ” * iS;df,da,S kuz kZ.2f,ka ydk l, ySjef,ys
t,aUqkq uegs j;2frka osh lr fmjSuh’ (

6= 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlg jsmhH!dimdld.aksh we;af;la fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ”
n;a wZM fmrE j;2r * jsh,s n;a mqZMiaid .;a wZM fmryfKys oud ta u;2fhys
j;2r j;a l< l, bka jEiafik j;2rh’ ( fmjSu wkqoksus’ “

63  tl,ayss tla;rd NsCIqjlayg mdKavqfrda.dndOhla fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” f.da uQ;1fhys ,Q wrZM fmjSu wkqoksus’ “

64  tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlg Pjs fodaidndOhla fjz’ * isjsfhys fodia krlajSfuka yg .;a f,vla ( * fuys 38 *4(( .FOdf,amh wkqoksus’ “

65 
tl,aysss tla;rd NsCIqjlg wOslj fodia lsmqKq lh we;af;a fjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( jsfrApk fnfy;a nSu fmrd .;a le├őj;2frka m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’
fmrd.;a le├ő j;2r ├łre usrsia wdosh iuZ. fkdfh├ł uqx weg ;euznQ j;2frka
m1fhdack we;af;afjz’ wlg hqih uqx weg ;uznd weg ke;s fia fmrd .;a
j;2frka m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’ udxY rifhka m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’

66 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a ms

[ \ q 265 / ]
f;r f;fuz ÔÇśuyrc” f,kla lrKq
leue;af;us” mnzNdrhla msrsis├łlrjushs ÔÇÖ lSsfhah’ ÔÇśiajduSks” wdhH!hka
jykafiag wdrduslfhl2 ksid jevla fjzoehs ÔÇÖ jspdf

67 
blans;s wdhqIau;a msss

[ \ q 266 / ]
” foajhka jykai” wK l

68 
tiufhys jkdys wdhqIau;a ms

69 
tl, wdhqIau;a ms

[ \ q 267 / ]
oel2uz lghq;a;Sh’ meyeosu
t

60 
blans;s u.fOYajr jQ fiakd we;s nsuznsidr rc f;fuz ta wdrdusl l2,h nJOkh
lrjSh’ fofjks oskfhysu wdhqIau;a ms

6- 
blans;s wdhqIau;a msss

[ \ q 268 / ]

7= 
usksiaiq wdhH! jQ ms

* fnfy;a wkqo;a m

[ \ q 269 / ]

73 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ieje;a kqjr leue;s ;dla l,a jei rc.y kqjr
huz;efklayso tys pdrsldfjys jevsfial’ wdhqIau;ajQ lXzLdfrAj;  f;r f;fuz
w;ruZ. Wla Yd,djlg meusK Wlail2frys msgso wZMo nykakjqka ├łgqfjzuh’ oel  ”
Wlail2re wlem fjz’ wdydr iys; fjz’ Wlail2re jsld,fhys je<├őSu fkdlem
fjzhhs ” l2l2ia lruska msrsia iys; jQfha Wla il2re fkdj<├őhs’ huz
uyfKla Wkajykafiaf.a joka weish hq;2hhs i,l;ao f;ms Wkajkafia,do Wla
il2re fkdj<├ő;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz lreK ie,l

74 
wdhqIau;a lXzLdfrAj; f;r f;fuz w;ruZ.o jrApiays  yg.;a uqx * me, (
├łgqfhauh’ oel uqx wlem fj;a ‘ msiqjdjQo uqx *weg ( me,fj;ahhs l2l2ia
lruska msrsia iys; jqfha uqx *weg ( fkdj<├őhs’ huzflfkla Wkajykafiag
weish hq;2 fldg is;;ao Tjqyqo uqx mrsfNda. fkdlr;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh ie, l

75 
tiufjys jkdys tla;rd uyfKl2yg nfvys jd; frda. fhla fjhs’ ta uyK f;fuz
,qKq ldvs mdkh flf

[ \ q 270 / ]
jdih lrkfial’ tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag nfvz jd lsmSfuka f,vla fjz’ tl,ays wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;r f;fuz fmro
Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fiaf.a Worjd;dndOh f;lgq,d hd.2fjka iqjjShhs * f;lgq,d
hd.2 hkq ;2ka jrA. hla usY1 lsrSSsfuka msik ,o le├őls’ ( ;uka jsiska ;,o
iy,ao uqx o jskjd f.a ;2< ;nd we;2<; ;ud jsiska msi Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia f;lgq,d hd.2j j<├őkfialajdhs Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
ms

76 
” uyfKks” f.a ;2< ;nk ,oafoao” we;2<; msik ,oafoao” ;uka jsiska
msik ,oafoao fkdje<├ősh hq;af;ah’ huz uyfKla j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d
weje;a fjz’ uyfKks” boska we;2<; ,nk ,oafoao” we;2<; msik ,oafoao”
;uka jsiska msik ,oafoao boska th j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d ;2kla fjz’
uyfKks” boska we;2<; ;nk ,oafoao” we;2<; msik ,oafoao” wkqka
jsiska msik ,oafoao” boska th j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d folla fjz’ uyfKks”
boska we;2<; ;nk

[ \ q 271 / ]
,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” ;uka
jsisska msik ,oafoao boska th j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d folla fjz’ uyfKks”
boska neyer ;nk ,oafoao” we;2,; msik ,oafoao” ;uka jsisska msik ,oafoao
boska th j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d folla fjz’ uyfKks” boska we;2<; ;nk
,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” wkqka jsisska msik ,oafoao boska th
j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d fjz’ uyfKks” boska neyer ;nk ,oafoao” we;2<;
msik ,oafoao” wkqka jsisska msik ,oafoao boska th j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d
weje;a fjz’ uyfKks” boska neyer ;nk ,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” ;uka
jsisska mssik ,oafoao boska th j<├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d fjz’ uyfKks” boska
neyer ;nk ,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” wkqkaa jsisska msik ,oafoao boska
th j<├őkafka kuz weje;a fkdfjzhhs ” * jod

tiufhys
NsCIQyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska ;ukaf.a msiSu f;u m1;sfCImlrk
,oafoahhs msiQ foh keje; msiSfuys l2l2ia fj;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz
ldrKh ie, l

77 
tiufhys jkdys rc.ykqjr ├łrANsCI fjz’ usksiaiq ,qKqo” f;,ao” iy,ao”
lEhq;2 foho wrug f.k t;a’ NsCIQyq Tjqka msg; ;nj;a’ n<,a uS wdoSyqo
l;a’ fidreo meyer .Ks;a’ b├î,a lkafkda o meyer .Ks;a’ *4( Nd.Hj;2la
jykaafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l

[ \ 272 / ]

78 
tiufhys fndfyda NsCIQyq liSS okjzfjys jia jsiqfjda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
olakd msKsi rc.ykqjrg hkafkda w;ruZ.o rECIjQ fyda  m1KS; jQ fyda l2i
msrSug wdydrhla fkd,enqjdyqh’ fndfyda lE hq;2 f.vs jsh’ lem lrefjlao
fkdjSh’ tnejska mejsoafoda la,dka; iajNdj we;af;da rc .ykqjr msysgshd jQ
fjZMjkh huz;efklayso l,Folksjdmh f;u huz;efklayso Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
huz;efklayso  tys meusKshdyqh’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaa je├ő tll;amfil
yqkakdyqh’ wd.lka;2l NsCIQka iuZ. i;2gq iduSps l:d lsrSu Nd.Hj;a
nqrcdKka jykafia,d jsiska mqre├łlrk ,oaodyqh’ blans;ss Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
ta NsCIQkag ” ” uyfKks” lsfulao $ bjish yelso $ lsfulao hemsh yelso $
lsful ks├łlska osla uZ. wdjyqo $ uyfKks” f;ms fldys isg tjzoehs $ ”
ms

79 
tl,ays tla;rd n1dyauKfhl2g w,q;a ;,o w,q;a uSo Wmkafkda fj;a’ tl, ta
nuqKqyg fun├î isf;la jsh’ ” uu w,q;a ;,o w,q;a uS o nq├łmdfudla nsla iZ.Kg
fokafkuz kuz fhfyls ÔÇÖ lshdhs’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz ;efklayso
tys meusKsfhah’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iuZ. i;2gq jsh’ i;2gqjsh

[ \ q 273 / ]
hq;2jQ isys lghq;2jQ l:dj fldg
ksujd tl;amfil isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs ta n1dyauK f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag ” f.#;uhka jykafiaa nsla iZ.K iuZ. udf.a n; bjikfialajdhs ”
wdrdOkd lf

70 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia mQrAjdyaK ld,fhys ye├ő fmdrjd md;1 issjqre
f.k ta n1dyauKhdf.a jdiia:dkh huz;efklayso tys meusKsfhah’ meusK” mkjk
,o wiafkys NsCIqq ixhd iuZ. jevyqkafial’ blans;s ta n1dyauK f;u
nqoaOm1uqL NsCIq  ixhd m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 fohska nqosh hq;2 fohska issh;ska
j<├őjd je<├î md;1fhka wyl w; we;s l,ays tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil
isgs ta n1dyauKhdg Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia oeyeus l:d fjka bosrsfhys fuka
fldg olajd iudoka lrjd W;aidy jrAOkh lrjd i;2gq lrjd wiafkka keZ.sg
jevsfial’

7- 
blans;s nq├łrcdKka jykafia jevsss fkdfnda  fjz,dfjlska ta nuqKqyg fun├î
isf;la jsh’ ” w,q;a ;,o w,q;a uSo fokafkushs ” ud jsiska hula  msKsi
nq├łmdfudla nslaiZ.K f;fuz mjrK,oafoao” ug tajd oSug  isys u├ő jsh’ uu
w,q;a ;,o” w,q;a uSo  ie

(c)  11

[ \ q 274 / ]
nqoaO m1uqL NsCIq ixhd mjrK
,oafoaao udjsiska Wkajykafia,dg oSug wu;l lrK ,oS’ Nd.Hj;a f.#;u f;u
udf.a wZM;a ;,o wZM;a uSo ms

8= 
tl, NsCIQyq ├łnssla l, iqZM muKla ├łka l,ays├ł j,l;a’ * fumuKlskq├ł hemsh
yelaflah’ fiiai wkayg fjzjhs ( i

83 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a WmkFo YdlHmq;1f.a Wjegka lrk l2,hla iZ.k msKsi le hq;2
fohla msg;a flf

84 
blans;s YdlHmq;1jQ wdhqIau;a WmkFo f;r f;fuz fmjre l2,hka lrd  t

[ \ q 275 / ]
” uyfKkss” ms

85 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.ykqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei ieje;a kqjr
huz;efklaysssso tyss pdrsldfjys jevsfial’ l1ufhka pdrsldfjys
yeisfrkfiala ieje;a kqjr huz;efklayso tys jsiQfial’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta
ieje;a kqjr wfkamsZZvq uyisgdKka jsiska lrjd mQcd lrk ,o fcA;jkdrdufhys
jdih lrkfial’ wdhqIau;a YdrSmq;1 f;rekayg ldhdodydndOfhla fjhs’ tl,
wdhqIau;a uyd fud.a.,a,dk f;r f;u wdhqIau;a YdrSmq;1 f;r f;fuz
huz;efklayso tys t

86 
tl, wdhqIau;a uyd fud.a.,a,dk f;r f;fuz fojzruzys w;2reoyka jQfiala
uFodlsKs kuz fmdl2Kq f;r my

[ \ q 276 / ]
f;fuz n,j;a mqreIfhla yel2,Q
w;la osla lrkafkao osla l< w; yl2ZMjkafkao tfiau uFodlsKs fmdl2Kq f;r
w;2reoyka jQfha fcA;jkfhys my< jsh’ ta we;do uFodlsKs fmdl2Kq f;r
w;2reoyka jQfha fcA;jkfhys my< jsh’ blanss;s ta we;d wdhqIau;a
uyfud.a.,a,dk f;rekag fkZMuz w,o fkZMuz oZvqo ms

87 
tiufhys jkdys idjJ:s kqjfrys fndfyda lEhq;2 f.vs /ia lrk ,oafoa fjhs’
lem lrefjlao fkdfjz’ NssCIQyq iel lrkakdyq f.vs fkdj<├ő;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fuz lreK ie, lf

88 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ieje;a kqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei rc.y kqjr
huz;efklayso tys jevsfial’ ms

[ \ q 277 / ]
ta uyKyqf.a jsydrh huz;efklayso
tys meusKshy’ wdldYf.d;1 ffjoH f;fu wE; isg tk Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia oel
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” msKe;s f.dhquz f;fuz jvskfialajd’ f.dfhl2f.a uqjla
jeksjQ fuu mejsosyqf.a jrApia ud.!h n,djdhs ” tl, Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ”
fuz ysia mqrsia f;fuz ljgluz flfrAhhs ” thskau fmr

89 
tl,ays jkdys ij. NsCIQyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska Y,H lu!h j

[ \ q 278 / ]
jia;s lu! lrjkakdyqoehs *lrj;a
hkq ( * uyfKks” iuzndOhdf.a yd;a mi oEZ.2,lska we;2<; Y,H lu!hla fyda
jia;s lu!hla fyda fkdlrjsh hq;af;ah’ huz uyfKla lrjkafka kuz :q,eis
weje;a fjz’ “

80 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.ykqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei nrKeia kqjr
huz;efklayso tys pdrssldfjys jevsfial’ l1ufhka pdrssld lrk fiala nrKeia
kqjr huz;efklayso tys jsiQfial’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tys uss.odh kuzjQ
nrKei bism;kdrdufhys jdih lrkfial’ tl,ays jkdys nrKei iqmamsh kuz Wmdil
f;fuzo iqmamshd kuz Wmdisld f;dfudao fofok meye├łfkda fj;a’ *f;rejkg(
fokafkda fj;a’ lghq;2 lrkafkda fj;a’ iZ.kg Wmia:dk lrkafkda fj;a’ tl,
iqmamshd kuz Wmdisld f;dfuda wdrduhg f.dia ldurfhka ldurh lrdo msrfjfKka
msrsssfjfK lrdo *  msrsfjka kuz wx. iuzmQK! mkai,ah( meusK” “iajduSks”
ljfrla .s,kafjzo$ ljfrl2yg l2ula f.fkkq ,efnzjdoehs ” NsCIQka jspdrhs’
tiufhys tla;rd uyfKl2 jsiska jsfrApk fnfy;la fndk ,oafoa fjz’ blans;s ta
uyK f;fuz iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldjg fufia lSfhah’


keZ.KShks” ud jsiska jsfrApk fnfy;la fndk ,oafoah’ udyg udxY rYfhka
m1fhdack fjzhhs ” ” iajduSks” hym; f.k tkq ,nkafkahhs” f.g f.dia
w;jeisfhl2 ,jd wKlrjSh’” fld,” hj ” mj;a; udxY okqjh ” wdhH!fjks” tfia
flfrushs ” lsshd ta mqrsi f;fu iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldjg ms

[ \ q 279 / ]

lsrSu
fyda jkafkah’ huz uu ms

8- 
tl, iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fuz f.g f.dia ÔÇś iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldj fldysoehs
ÔÇÖ odish w;ska jspdf

 [ \ q 280 / ]

9= 
blans;s iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fu ta rd;1shf.a wejEfuka m1KS; jQ lEhq;2
nqosh hq;2 foh ms

93 
blans;s iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fuz iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldj jgfldg f.k
f.kdfjzh’ nq├łr├łka oelSu iuZ. wef.a *4( tmuK uy;ajQ j1Kh jevqfka *
f.dvjQfha ( ukdj yg.;a isjs we;af;da yg .;a f,duz we;af;da *5( jsh’
blans;s iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fuzo iqmamshd kuz Wmdisld f;dfudao huz
fya;2jlska nq├łr├łka oelSu iuZ. * fuys *4(( jkafkao *ta fya;2j kuz (
;:d.;hka jykafiaf.a uy;a iDoaOs we;s njo uy;a wdkqNdj iuzmkak Ndjho fjz’
mskaj;aks” ta ldka;fhka wdYaphH! fjz’ nq├łr├łka oelSu iuZ. * fuys *4((
jkafkao” mskaj;aks” taldka;fhka fmr fkdjQjla hhs i;2gqjQjdyq TojevsshdjQ
nqoaO m1uqL NsCIq ixhd m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 fohska nqosh hq;2 fohska ish;skau
j<├őjd mjrd je<├î md;1fhka bj;g .;a w;a we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a
tl;amfil isgshdyqh’ blans;s iqmamsh Wmdilhdo iqmamshd Wmdisldjo *6(
oeyeus l:dfjka lreKq f.kyer olajd iudoka lrjd f;o .kajd i;2gq lrjd
wiafkka jevsfial’ * fuys 3+8 *3((

[ \q 281 / ]

94 
” uyfKks” ljr uyfKla iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldj udxY jskh jQfhysoehs ” fufia
jod< l, ” ta uyK f;fuz nq├łr├łkag fujoka ie, lf


uyK” kqU je<├îfhyso $ ” ” Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” je<├îfjushhs “  ” uyK”
kqU *lskuz udXYoehs( jspdf

95 
uyfKks” we;uz usksia flfkla Y1oaOd we;af;da meye├łkdyq fj;a’ ta usksiqka
jsiska ;ukaf.au udxY mrss;Hd. lrk ,oaody’ uyfKks” ukqIH udxY
fkdje<├ősh hq;af;ah’ *huz uyfKla ( j<├őkafka kuz :q,is weje;a fjz’
uyfKks” fkdjspdrd udxY fkdje<├ősh hq;af;ah’ huz uyfKla j<├ő kuz
├łl2,d weje;a fjz’”

96 
*3( tiufhys jkdys rcqf.a we;ayq uefr;a usiaiq ├łnsla l, tu yia;s udxYh
wkqNj flfr;a’ msZvq isZ.d jvkdjQ NsCIQkag we;a udxY fo;a’ NsCIQyq we;a
udxY j<├ő;a’ ” usksiaiq flfia kuz NsCIQyq we;a uia j<├őkakdyqoehs
fodia lsh;a’ we;a f;u rcqf.a fiakd wjhjhls’ boska rc f;fuz okafka kuz
Wkajykafia,dyg i;2gqjkafka fkdjkafkahhs ” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh
ie, l

97  * fuys 96 fPAoh fhoSfuzoS ÔÇś we;a ÔÇÖ fjkqjg ÔÇśwYajÔÇÖ lshd fhdod.; hq;2hs’(

98  *3( tl,ays jkdys ukqIHfhda ├łrANsssCIfhys nZM uia wkqNj lr;a’ msZvq msKsi yeisfrk NsCIQkag nZM uia

[ \ q 282 / ]
fo;a NsCIQyq nZM uia wkqNj lr;a’
” flfia kuz Y1uK YdlHmq;1fhda nZM uia wkNj flfr;aoehs ” fodia lsh;a’
*4( iqkL f;u .erysh hq;af;ah’ ms

99 
* fuys 98 *4( ÔÇś nZM ÔÇÖ fjkqjg ÔÇś irAm ÔÇÖ fhdokak’ ( iqMiai kuz kd rc f;fu
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz;efklayso tys meusKsfhah’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
je├ő tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgs iqMiai kuz kdrc f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag ” iajduSsks” Y1oaOdj ke;s fkdmeye├łk kd.hka we;a;dy’ Tjzyq
iaj,amhlskq├ł NsCIQkag ysrsyer lrkakdyqh’ iajduSks” wdhH!fhda irAm udxY
wkqNj fkdlrkakdyq kuz hym;ehs ” lSfhah’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iqMiai
kd. rdchd *4( oeyeus l:dfjka lreKq f.kyer oelajQy” iudoka lrjQy” f;o
.ekajQy” i;2gq l

90 
tl,ays jeoafoda isxyhka urd isxy uia wkqNj lr;a’ msZvq msKsi yeisfrk
NsCIQkag isxy udxY fo;a’ NsCIQyq isxy udxY j<├őd jkfhys fjfi;a’
isxyfhda udxY ..FOfhka NsCIQka wUj;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie,
l

9-+03 * fuys 90 fPAoh fhoSfuzoS ÔÇś isxy ÔÇÖ fjkqjg ÔÇś osjs ÔÇÖ ÔÇś j,ia ÔÇÖ ÔÇślrndkd j,iqka ÔÇÖ fhdod fPAo ;2kla idod.; hq;2h’ (
 

[ \ 283 / \


,spzPjS nKjr


blans;ss Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia nrKeia kqjr leu;s;dla l,a jei wFoljsJoh
huz;efklayso wv f;f


blans;s ta n1dyauK f;u wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;reka huz;efklayso tys
meusKsfhah’ meusK” wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;rekag ÔÇś Nj;a wdkJo ia:jsfrfhks” fuys
jdrh fkd,nk ug * fuys 3 *4(( fuz is; jsh’ Nj;a wdkJofhks” ta uu okay,
n,kafka le├őo uSmsZvqo hk foj.!hla fkdosgsu’ mskaj;a wdkJohka jykai”
bosks uu le├ő;a uS msZvq;a ms

[ \ q 284 / ]


blans;s ta nuqKq f;fuz ta /hf.a wejEfuka fndfyda le├őo uS msZvqo
ms


blans;s ta nuqKq f;fuz nq├łka m1uqL NsCIq ixhd fndfyda jQ le├őskao” uS
msZvqfhkao ish;ska j<├őjd wjika fldg md;1fhka bj;a l< fia├ł w;a we;s
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fj; meusK tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil yqka ta
n1dyauKhdg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ” le├ő ms

7  “  hfula wkqka jsiska fok ,oao j<├őkakdjQ ldh jd.a ixhufhka hqla; jQjkag iq├łiq l, ilia fldg le├ő foao lreKq oihla fjhs’

“wdhqIho”
isrer meyeho” iemho”  Yla;shoo foa’ Tyg kqjK Wmoshs” ta le├ő je<├őSfuz
fya;2fjka nv.skao msmdiho neyer flfrhs” jd;h wkqf,duz flfrhss” jia;sh
Y2oaO flfrA” j<├ők ,o wdydr uqyql2re flfrhs” fuz le├ő Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
jsiska jK!kd l< fnfy;la fjhs’ tnejska iqj leue;sjQo” osjHuh jQ
iqjhla m;kakdjQo” usksiqka ms


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta nuqKyg  fuz .d:dj,ska wkqfudaokd fldg
yqkiafkka keZ.sg jevsfial’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz ksodkfhys fuz
isoaOsfhys oeyeus l:d fldg NsCIQka weu;@fial’ ” uyfKks” le├őo” us msZvqo
wkqokussshs ‘” * jodf

[ \ 285 / ]

usksiaiq
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska NsCIQkag yq,qleka *le├ő( wkqokakd ,oafoahhs uS
msZvqo wkqokakd ,oafoa hhs weiqfjdauh’ ta *joka ( weiQ usksiaiq l,skau
wkqNj l


tl,ays tla;rd *iiafkys ( mykajQ ;reK uyweue;s fhl2 jsiska fig msKsi nq├ł
mdfudla  nsla iZ.k f;fuz mjrK ,oafoa fjhs’ blans;s m1ikakjQ ta ;reK uy
weue;syg fun├î isf;la jsh’ ÔÇś uu wv f;f

[ \ q 286 / ]


tl, myka ta ;reK uy weue;s f;u ” iajdusjre ud jsiska mjrk ,oafoda
wkslla yqf.a wkNj l

3= 
blans;s myka ta ;reK uyue;syg nq├łka jevs fkdfnda fjz,dfjloS *4( ÔÇś huz
uu *fuys - *4(( .sfhuzo * fuz lreK ( udyg taldka;fhka w,dNfhda  fj;a’
udyg taldka;fhka ,dNfhda fkdfj;a’ ud jsiska taldka;fhka whym;la ,nk
,oafoah’ ud jsiska taldka;fhka hym;la fkd,nk ,oafoah’ lsfulao $ ud
jsiska fndfyda mska fyda mjz  fyda /ialrk ,oafoaoehs ÔÇÖ l2l2ila jQfhauh’
jsms

[ \ q 287 / ]
jsisska fndfyda mska fyda /ia
lrk ,oafoao mjz fyda /ia lrk ,oafoao $” lshdhss’ “weje;aks” huz osfkl
mgka kqU fig msKsi nsla iZ.k mjrk ,oafoao tosk mgka kqU jsiska fndfyda
mska /ialrk ,oafoah’ huz fjzf,l mgka tl tl mejsoafol2 jsisska kqUf.a tl
tl  n;a yq,la ms

33 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wJOljsJo rg leue;s;dla l,a jei rc.y kqjr
huz;efklayso tys wv f;f

[ \ q 288 / ]
kuz lpzpdk f;reka
*
oel u.ska bj;aj tl;a;rd .ila uq, jevyqkafial’ blans;s fn,gzG lpzpdk f;u
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz;efklayso tys meueKsfhah’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
je├ő tl;amfil isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs fn,gzG lpzpdk f;u Nd.Hj;2ka jyka
fiag ” iajduSks” tl tl NsCIqyg tl tl Wlail2re l

* fm< yd ii├őkak
[ \ q 289 / ]

blans;s fn,gzGlpzpdk f;fuz *4(
NsCIQka il2rska i;2gq lrjd Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag “iajduSks” NsCIQka
yl2rej,sska mskjk ,oS’ *5( fndfyda yl2re b;srsjssh’ iajduSks” uu flfia
ms

(c)  12
[ \ q 290 / ]

34 
tl, ta Wla yl2re *4( osfhys ouk ,oafoa pspzpsg hk wkqlrK flfrA’
psgspsgs hk wkqlrK flfrA’ yd;amiska ├łudfha’ yd;a miska jevsh;a ├łudfha’
*5( ojila r;a l

blans;s
fn,gzG lpzpdk f;fu yg.;a isf;a ;e;s.eKSuz we;af;a” f,duq veye.eKquz
we;af;a” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia  huz;efklayso t;ekg meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
je├ő tl;amfil isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgshdjQu fn,gzGlpzpdhkhkag ms

[ \ 291 / ]
njg meusKsfha Ydia;D Ydikfhka
msg jsYajdihla ke;sjQfha Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuh ie, lf

35 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIq kula .s,ka fjz’ NsCIQyq nq├łka jsiska .s,ka yg Wla
yl2re wkqokakd ,oafoah” fkd.s,kayg wkq fkdokakd ,oafoahhs l2l2ia
lrkafkda Wla yl2re fkdj<├ő;a’ NsCIQyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz lreKq
ie,l

36 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.y kqjr leue;s fia jei mdg,S .u
huz;efklayso tys iersird jevsfial’ mdG

[ \ q 292 / ]

mkjd
uy;a osh ie

37 
tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ye├ő md;1 isjqre f.k NsCIq ixhd iuZ. wdjia:d
.drh huz;efklo tys meusK mdohka msrsis├łfldg f.k wdjia:d.drhg ueo lKqj
weiqre fldg fmr os.g wNsuqL jQfha jevyqkafial’ nsla iZ.k f;fuzo *4(
mdohka msrsis├ł fldg f.k wdji:d.drhg msjsi *5( miq ns;a;sh weiqre fldg
fmr os.g wNsuqL jQfha Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiau fmrgq fldg f.k jevyqkafial’
mdG

38  
blans;sss Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia mdG

[ ]\ q 293 /
.Dym;s msrsila lrd fyda boska
uyK msrsila lrd fyda hk huz huz msrsila lrdu t

39 
is,aj;ayqf.a iS, iuzm;a;sfhys fuz wdksYxifhda miafofkls’ ljr miafofklao
h;a $ *4( ..Dym;sfhks” is,a we;sfha iS,fhka hq;2jQfha *5( wm1udo
fya;2fjka uy;ajQ Ok rdYshlg meusfKa’ *6( fuh is,aj;ayqf.a iS,
iuzm;a;sfhys *7( m

30 
blsns;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia mdG

[ \ q 294 / ]
fndfyda fjz,djloS Y@kHd.drhg
msjsisfia’ tiufhys jkdys u.O rg uy weue;af;dajQ iqkSO+jiaildr hk fofok
*3( jcAcSka j,lkq msKsi mdG

[ \ q 295 / ]
ckhd flrkao jkafkah’ * fldgila .skafkka jskdY jSuo”  fldgila c,fhka jskdY jSuo fldgila  wiu.sfhka jskdY jSuo oelafjz’ (

3- 
blans;s iqkSO jiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz;efklayso
tys meusKshdyqh’   meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia iuZ. i;2gq jQjdyqh’ i;2gq
jsh hq;2jQ isys lghq;2 jQ l:dj  blaujd tl;amfil isgshdyqh’ tl;amfi isgs
iqkSOjiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” Nj;a f.#;uhka jyka fia
wo oji msKsi NsCIq ixhd iuZ. wmf.a odkh bjikfialjd ” *wheo isgshy’ (
blans;s iqkSOjiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a bjiSu oek
.shdyqh’ blans;s  iqkSOjiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 foh nqosh
hq;2 foh ms

4= 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fmrjre fjzf,ys ye├ő fmdrjd md;1 isjqre f.k iqkSO
jiaildr u.Ouydud;Hhkaf.a wkqNj lrk ;ek huz;efklayso  tys meusKsfial’
meusK mkjk ,o wiafkys NsCIq ixhd iuZ. jevisgsfial’ blans;s iqkSO jiaildr
u.O uydud;Hfhda nq├łka m1uqL NsCIq ixhd m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 fohska nqosh hq;2
fohska ish;ska j<├őjd  wjika fldg je<├î md;1fhka bj;a l< w;a
we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tl;am fil isgshdyqh’ tl;amfil isgs iqkSO jiaildr
u.O uy ud;Hhkag Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz .d:dj,ska wkqfudaokd l

ÔÇś huz fmfofilays mKavs; iajNdj we;sfhla jsiSu flfrAo”  fuz fmfofiys jik ldh jdla ixhu jQ nUir yeisrSuz we;s is,aj;2ka j<├őjd”ÔÇÖ

ÔÇśta
fmfofiys huz fojss flfkla jQjdyqo ta fojshkayg mska fokafkah’ mqok ,o
ta fojsfhda Tyqg mqo;a’ ie

[ \ q 296 / ]

ÔÇś
blsns;s ujq f;dfuda ;uka l2i fyd;a mqf;l2g fia wkqluzmd flfr;a’ fojshka
jsiska wkqluzmd lrk ,o mqreI f;fuz ieu l, hym;la olShhs ÔÇÖ *jod< fial
(

blans;s Nd.H;2ka jykafia u.O uydud;HjQ iqkSO jiaildrhkag fuz .d:dj,ska wkqfudaoka fldg yqkiafkka ke.sg jevsfial’

43 
tiufhys u.O uydud;HjQ iqkSO jiaildrfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia miqmiafia
.uka .;af;da  fj;a’ ” wo uyK f.dhquz f;fuz * kqjr ms

44 
tiu fhys jkdys ..x.d koS f;dfuda .x bjqr olajd msreks’ ljqvka jsiska
msj yels osh we;af;a fjz’ fuf.dvska tf.dv hkq leue;s jQ usksiaiq iuyr
flfkla kejz fidh;a’ iuyre myqre fidh;a’ iuyre myqre n├ős;a’ fuf.dvska
tf.dvg hkq leue;sjQ kejz  fidhkakdjQ ta iuyr usksiqka o” myqqre
fidhkakdjq ta iuyr usksiqkao” myqre n├őskakdjQ ta iuyre usksiqkao
├łgqfialauh’ huzfia n,j;a mqreIfhla yel2,Q w;la osla lrkafkao osla l<
w;la yl2,kafkao tfiau Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ..x.d kosfhys fuf.dv bjqfrka
tf.dv bjqfrys  nsla iZ.k iuZ. jev isgs fial’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
fuz ldrKh oek ta fjz,dfjys fuz m1S;s jdlHh my< l< fial’


huzflfkla ;DIaKd keue;s uy ihqr fyda koshla tf;r flfr;ao” *Tjzyq ;2uQ (
wdhH!ud.!h fya oKavla fldg l2vd js,a fkdfyd;a .x.d kosh jeks .x.djka
yer tf.dv jkakdy’ ck f;fuz myqre n├őshs’ kqjKe;s ckfhda tf;rjQy’ “

[ \ q 297 / ]

45 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs .1duh huz;efklayso tys meusKsfial’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs ..1dufhys jevjik  fial’ tl, Nd.Hj;22ka jykafia
NsCIQka weu;@fial’ ” uyfKks” ud jsiskao f;dm jsiskao isjziia oyuz *4(
wjfndaO fkdlsrSSfuka m1;sfjzO fkdlsrS fuka fuz osla ld,hla uqZM,af,ys 
fuhdldrfhka ixOdjkh lrk ,oafoah” iersirK ,oafoah’ *5( ljr i;rlao h;a $
├ł%laLdhH! i;Hh” *fuys *4(( ├ł%laL iuqohdhH! i;Hh” * fuys *4(( ├łlaL
ksfrOdhH! i;Hh” *fuys *4(( ├łlaL kssfrdaO.dusKS mgsmod wdhH! i;Hh * fuys
*4(( uyfKks” ta fuz ├ł%laLdhH! i;Hh wjfndaO lrk ,oafoah’ m1;sfjzO lrk
,oafoah’ uyfKks” ta fuz ├ł%laLiuqohdhH! i;hHh wjfndaO lrk ,oafoah’
m1;sfjzO lrk ,oafoah’ uyfKks” ta fuz ├ł%laL ksfrdaOdhH! i;hHh wjfndaO lrk
,oafoah’ m1;sfjzO lrk ,oafoah’ uyfKks” ta fuz ├ł%laL ksfrdaO.dusKS
mgsmodhH! i;hHh wjfndaO lrk ,oafoah’ m1;sfjzO lrk ,oafoah’ Nj ;DIaKd
f;dfuda is├ősk ,oaoSh” Njh  keue;s /yek CIh lrk ,oaoSh’ oeka u;2 bmoSfula
ke;shhs isjziia oyuz we;s mrsos fkdoelafuka os.2l,la uqZM,af,yss ta ta
cd;SSkays ierssirk ,oafoah’ ta fuz p;2rdhH! i;Hhfhda udrAM, {dk fhka
olald ,oafodah’ Nj keue;s /yeka f;fuda kik ,oaoSh’ * ixidr ( ├łl W├łrd ouk
,o uq,a we;af;dah’ oeka  mqkN!jhla ke;s’ ” * ry;a M, kqjK oelafjz’ (

46 
wuznmd,S ..Ksld f;dfuda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs.1duhg jevsfialahhs
weiqjduh’ tl, wuznmd,S ..Ksld f;dfuda hym;;a jQ hym;ajQ hdkdjka fhdojd
iqkaorjQ hdkdjlg keZ.SS iqkaorjQ iqkaorjQ hdkdj,ska hqla;j jsid,d
kqjrska Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia olakd msKsi kslau .shdh’ *4( hdkdjf.a nsu
huzmuK jSo tmuKla hdkfhka f.dia hdkfhka nei  md.uka we;a;Su Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia huz;efklayso tys meusKshdh’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia je├ő tl;amfil
isgshdh’ tl;amfil isgs wuznmd,S ..Ksldjg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia oeyeus
l:dfjka lreKq f.kyer oelajQy’ iudoka lrjQy’ f;o .ekajQy’ i;2gq l

[ \ q 298 / ]
f;dfuda Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia jsiska
oeyeus l:dfjka lreKq fmkajd i;2gq lrjk ,oaoS” iudoka lrjk ,oaoS” f;o
.kajk ,oaoS Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia fig ojig
NsCIq ixhd iuZ. udf.a odkh bjik fialajdhs ” lSjdh’ *5( Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
ksYaYnzoj bjiQfial’ blans;s wuznmd,S .Ksldj Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a bjiSu
oek wiafkka keZ.sg je├ő meol2Kq fldg .shdh’

47 
jsYd,d kqjr ,spzPjSyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs.1duhg jevssfhahhs
weiqjdyqh’ blans;s jsYd,d kqjr ,spzPjSyq hym;a hym;a hdkd fhdojd hym;a
hym;a hdkd keZ.S hym;a hym;a hdkdj,ska jsYd,d uykqjrg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
oelSu msKsi .shdy’

*4(
iuyr ,spzPjyq ks,a fj;a” kS, jK! we;af;da kS, jia;1 we;af;da kS,dNrK
me

48 
blans;s wuznmd,S ..Ksld f;dfuda ;reK ;reK ,spzPjSkaf.a *4( r: ysiska
r:ysio” jshoZvqfhka jshoKavo” frdaofhka frdaoho” wl2frka wl2ro iemqfhah’
*5( tl, ta ,spzPjSyq wuznmd,S kuz .Ksldjg fufia lSy’ ” fl,a,” wuznmd,S”
l2ula ksid wmf.a ” * fuys *4(( ” wdhH!mq;1jreks” ta tfiauh’ ud jsiska
fig msKsi nq├łmdfudla nsla iZ.k f;fuz mjrk ,oaoSh’ “


fl,a, wuznmd,sh” tu n; ,CIhlska wmg foj’ ” ” wdhH!mq;1jreks” boska ckmo
iys; jQ jsYd,d uykqjr fokakjzo” uu ta n; fkdfouzuhhs” lSh’ tl, ta
,spzPjSyq ” mskaj;” taldka;fhka ..eyeKshla jssiska mrojk ,lafoda fjuq’
mskaj;a;s”  .eyeKshla jsiska mrojk ,oafoa juqhs ” wiqr .eiQy’

49 
blanss;s ta ,sspzPjSyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz ;efklayso tys meusKshdyqh’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ├łr isg tk ,spzPjSka ├łgqfial’ oel NsCIQka weu;@fial’

[ \ q 299 / ]
 ” uyfKks” huz NsCIQka jsiska
;jz;sid jeis fojsfhda fmr fkd├łgqfjdao” uyfKks” ,spzPjS msrsi n,jz’
,spzPjS msrsi ;jz;sid msrsiahhs i,ljz’ ” * jodf

40 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs kuz .fuys leue;sfia  jei kosld kuz .u
huz;efklo tys meusKsfial’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta kosld kuz .fuys WZM f.hs
jev jikfial’ blans;s wuznmd,S .Ksldj ta rd;1shf.a wejEfuka iajlSh
ksjdifhys m1KS;jQ l@hq;2 foh nqosh hq;2 fh ms

[ \ q 300 / ]
 
 


6   iSy nKjr

3  tl, jkdys *4(
m1lgjq m1lgjQ ,spzPjSyq ika:d.dr Yd,dfjys ukd fldg yqkakdyq ukd fldg
/iajQjdyQ kka whqrska nq├ł .2K lsh;s’ oyuz .2K lsh;s’ iZ. .2K lsh;s’ *5(
tl,ays jkdys ks.KaG Y1djl jQ iSy kuz fiakdm;s f;fuz ta msssrssfiys
yqkafka fjz’ tl, *6( iSy kuz fiakdm;ssyg fu├î is;la jsh’ ” ksielju ta
;:d.; f;fuzu Nd.Hj;a jQfha ry;a jQfha iuHla iuznqoaO jQfha jkafkah’
tnejskau fuz * fuys *4(( uu ry;a jQ iuzud iuznq├łjQ ta wrAy;a iuzud
iuznqoaO Nd.Hj;2ka olakd msKsi hkafkus kuz fhfyl ” lshdhs’

4
*3( blans;s iSSy fiakdm;s f;fuz ks.KaGkd:mq;a;hka je├ő tl;amfil
isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs iSy fiakdm;s f;fuz ks.KaGkd:m1;1hkag ”
iajduSSks” uu Y1uK f.#;u f;u olakd msKsi t

*4(
” iSy kuz fiakdm;sh” l2ulg kqU lsrsh jdoS jQfha wlsrsh jdoSjQ uyK f.#;u
olakd msKsi t


blans;s iSy kuz fiakdm;s f;fuz mkaisshhla rshj,ska hq;2j ueos oj,a
nq├łka olakd msKsi jsYd,d uy kqjrska kslau .sfhah’ hdkhdf.a nsuz huz
muKjSo tmuKla hdkfhka f.dia hdkfhka nei md .uka we;af;a Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia huz;efklaysssso tys meusKsfhaah’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia je├ő 
tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgs iSy kuz fiakdm;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fufia lSh’ ” iajduSks” *4( Y1uK f.#;u f;u wlsrsshjdo we;af;l’ fkdlsrSu
msKsi oyuz foik fial’ thskau ijzjka yslaujk

[ \ q 301/ ]
fialhhs *5( fuz jok ud jsiska
wik ,oafoah’ iajduSks” huz ta flfkla fufia lSyqo * fuys *4(( iajduSks”
lsfulao$ Tjqka Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia jsiska lshk ,oaola lshkafkdao $
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fndrefjka fkdlsh;ao $ Ou!hgo tlZ. jQjla m1ldY flfr;ao
$ lreKq iys;jQ lsis jdohla .erysh hq;2 lreKlg fkdmeusfKao $ huzfyhlska
iajduSks” wms Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfiag fndrefjka fpdaokd fkdlrkq leue;af;da
fjuqo” tfiafyhsks’ “


*3( ” iSy” huz m1l1drhlska ukdfldg lshk ;eke;af;a ÔÇś Y1uK f.#;u f;fuz
wlsrsh jdo we;af;l” fkdlsrSu msKsi oyuz foikfial” thskau ijzjka
yslaujkfialahhs ÔÇÖ *4( ug lshkafkao tn├î m1ldrfhla we;’ * fuys *3((
WpzfPAo jdo we;af;l’ is├őSu msKsi ms

[ \ q 302 / ]
lshkafkao ta m1ldrh ljfrAo$ *8( lsrSu  msKsi ldh iqprs;ho” jd.a iqprs;;ho” ufkd iqprsho lsrSu l2i,a oyuz foius’

7  * fuys *6( *5( ( is├őSuz jdo we;af;l’ is├őSu msKsi * fuys 6 *7(( rd.ho” oafjzYho” fudayho is├őSug oyuz foius’


* fuys 6 *5(( ms

9  * fuys 6 *5(( ks.1yhg iq├łiafil’ jsskdYh msKsi * fuys 6 *7(( oyuz foius’


* fuys 6 *5(( fmf


* fuys 6 *5(( bmoSuz ke;af;l’ bmoSu ke;slrkq msKsi wkd.;fhys .en jsiSuo
mqkre;am;a;sho” * ..nzNfihH hkafkka c,dnqc fhdaksho”
mqknzNjdNsksnzn;a;s hkafkka wKavc ixfioc Tmmd;ssl hk  fhdks ;2ko
m1ldYs;hs’(

3=  * fuys 6 *5(( wiajig meusKs we;af;l’ wiajig meusKSu msKsi uu W;2uzjQ iekiSfuka iekiSu we;sfhla fjus’

[ \ Q 303 / ]

33
fufia jod< l, iSy kuz fiakdm;ss f;u Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuh
ie,lf

[ \ q 304 / ]
lshdhs’ tfia kuq├ł Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia ksjgqka flfryso oSfuys ud iudoka lrk fial’ ” iajduSks” tfia
jqj;a wms fuys l,a oka fouq’ ÔÇś iajduSks” ud ;2kafjks jro * fuys *4( *6((
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iSSy fiakdm;shdg ms

34 
blans;s iSy kuz fifkjs f;fuz tla;rd mqreIfhl2g wK flf

[ \ q 305 / ]
ta nq├łr├łkag wjsoHudkjQ ysiajQ
wiuzm1dma;shlska us:Hdjpkfhka lshkakdjQ ta wdhqIau;ajre fkdosr;a’ *
fndrejf.a fl

34 
blanss;s iSy kuz fifkjs f;fuz nq├łka m1uqL NsCIq ixhd *3( m1KS;jQ lEhq;2
fohska nqosh hq;2 fohska ish;ska i;mjd wjika fldg je<├î  md;1fhka
bj;a fldg .; w;a we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fj; tl;am filg jS yqkafkah’
tl;amfil yqkakdjQ iSy kuz fifkjshd *4( Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia oeyeus l:dfjka
lreKq f.kyer olajd iudoka lrjd f;o .kajd i;2gq lrjd wiafkka keZ.sg
jevsfial’ *5( blaaans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz ksodkfhys fuz isoaOsfhys
oeyus l:d fldg NsCIQka weu;@fial’ ” uyfKks” f;fuz okafka ;uka Wfoid
l< udxY wkqNj fkdl< hq;2h’ hfula j├őkafka kuz ├łl2,d weje;a fjz’
uyfKks” ;uka jsiska fkdolakd ,oaodjQ o”;uka ksid urK ,oehs fkdwik ,oaod
jQo” iel fkdlrk ,oaodjQo hk ;1sfldags mdrsiqoaOjQ u;aiH udxY wkqoksus’”

36 
tiufhys jsYd,d uykqjr iqNsCI jQjd hym;a YiH we;a;S iqjfia ,ensh yels
wdydr we;a;S msZvq isZ.d hEfuka hemSug myiq jQjd fjz’ ;ksj jsfjzlhg .sh
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz is; jsh’ ├ł,n nsla we;s l, f.dhuz ├łYH jQ l, ├ł,n 
wdydr we;s l, *4( we;2<; ;nk ,oaoo” we;2<; msik ,oaoo” ;ud jsiska
msik ,oaoo” * W.a.ys;h ( kej; ms

( c )  13
[ \ q 306 / ]

flfr;ahhs
*6( blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ijia ld,fhys M, iuj;ska keZ.Sisgsfha
wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;reka weu;@2fial’ ” * fuys *4(( mrsfNda. flfr;ao$” ”
Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” mrsfNda. flfr;ahhss ” ms


uyfKks” je<├î ;ekska f.fkk ,oaoo” fmr n; ms

37 
tl,ays jkdys okjq jeis ukqIHfhda fndfyda ,qKqo” f;,ao” iyy,ao” lEhq;2
foao .e,aj, mqrjd wdrdu fldIaGfhka msg; huz jsgu jdrh ,enqfKa kuz n;
msikafkushs .e,aj, lerSSu fldg fjfi;a’ uy;a fuzhlao Wvg kexf.a fjz’
blans;s ta ukqIHhfhda wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;reka huz;efklayso tys meusKshdyqh’
meusK” wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;rekag ” iajduSks” wk├ő f;rekss” fuys fndfyda
,qKqo” f;,ao” iy,ao” lEhq;2 foao .e,aj, mqrjd issgs;a’ uy;a fuzhla
kexf.a fjz’ iajduSks” wk├ő f;reks” flfia ms

[ \ q 307 / ]
fmdfydlsrSsu wkqoksus’ uyfKks”
fufiao jkdys iuzu; lghq;2hs’ m1;sn, jQ oCI uyKl2 jsiska ix f;u yeZ.jsh
hq;2h’ ÔÇś iajduSks ix f;fuz ud lshkakla widjd’ ixhdg  boska  meusKs l,a
we;af;a jS kuz fuz jssydr lem N@ush iuzu; lrkafkah’ fuz oekajSuhs’ ÔÇÖ ÔÇś 
ixf;u ud lshkakla widjd’ ix f;u fuz jsydr lem N@ush iuzu; lrhs’ fuz
jsydr lem N@usf.a iuzu;h huz wdhqIu;a flfkl2g leue;ss fjz kuz fyf;u
ksYaYnzo jkafkah’ hful2g fkdleue;s fjz kuz fyf;u lshka fkah’ fuz jsydr
lem N@ush ixhd jsiska iuzu; lrk ,oS’ ixhd leue;s fjhs’ tfyhska ksYaYnzo
jsh’ fuh fufia orus ” hkqhs’

38 
tiufhys jkdys *3( usksiaiq tysu iuzu; lrk ,o lem N@usfhys le├ő msi;a”
n;a msi;a” iQmhka * fndk fydos ( imh;a” udxY fldgj;a” oej m,;a’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ? wZMhuz fjzf,ys keZ.S isg *5( Wia yZvo uy;a yZvo
ljqvkaf.a uy;a *7( yZvo”wid wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;rekag l:d l


Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” * fuys *3(( fuz f;fuz ta Wia yZv fjz’ ta uy;a yZv fjz’
ta ljqvkaf.a uy;a yZv fjzhhs ” * ie, lf

39 
tiufhys wdhqIau;a hfidac kuz f;r f;fuz .s,ka fjz’ Wkajykafia msKsi
fnfy;a f.fkkq ,efn;a’ NsCIQyq th neyer ;nj;a’ n<,a uS wdoSyq l;a’
fidreo meyer .ks;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuh ie, lf

[ \ q 308 / ]
muK iSudjlg /iajQ iudk NsCIQka
yd jsiSuz we;af;a tmuKlska idu.a.shhs wkqoksus’ uyfKks” iuzu; lrk ,o lem
nsu mrsfNda. lSrSu wkqoksuss’ uyfKks” Wiaidjkka;slh” f.dksidoslh”
..Dym;sh” iuzuq;sh hk lem nsuz i;rla wkqoksus’ ” *jodf

* i;rfjkss iSy nKjr ksus’ (
 
 


miafjks nK jr

3  tiufhys jkdys *3(
Noaosh kqjr fuKavl kuz isgqjrfhla fjfihs’ ta isgqyqf.a *4( fun├î jQ
oshqKqj ms


tl,ays u.fOYajr fiakd we;s nsuznssidr rc tla;rd ishZM lghq;2 Ndr uy
weue;sfhl2 weu;2fjzh’ ” wmf.a rfgys * fuys 3 *3( *4( *5(( ” fld,” hj ”
okqj ud jsiska ;uka olakd ,oafoa huzfiao kqU jsiska olakd ,oafoa tmrsos
jkafkahhs “  ” foajhka jykai” tfiau flfrushs ” lshd ta uy weue;s f;fuz
u.fOYajr fiakd we;s ta nsuznssir rcyg

[ \ Q 309 / ]
mss


blans;s fuKavl issgq f;u iakdkh fldg OdkHd.drh yeuoSsu lrjd w.
fodrgqfjyss yqkafkah’ wyissska OdkH iuQyh jegS OdkHd.drh msrjSSSh’ ”
.Dym;ssh” kqUf.a iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafoah’ kqU nsrskaof.a *4( oshqKqj
ms


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;Syqf.a nssrskao f;fuda tlu ke

ÔÇś
.Dym;sh” kqUf.a nsrskaof.a iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafous’ kqUf.a
mq;1hdf.a * fuys 5 *4(( tl, fuKavl isgq f;fuz mq;1hdg wK flf

[ \ q 310 / ]
iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafoah’”
iajdush” udf.a oiayqf.a oshqKqfjz Wiia nj fl;ays oelal hq;2h’”
..Dym;shdfKks” luz ke;’ kqUf.a oiayqf.a iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafoahhs ”
isjzrZ.  fika mssrsjrd f.k keje;o rc.y kqjrg fmr,d wdfhah’ *4( rcq
huz;efklo tys meusKfhah’ meussK” u.fOYajr fiakd we;ss nsuzir rcqg fuz
ldrKh oekquz ├łkay’


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsYd,d kqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei Noaosh kqjr
huz;efklayso tyss wv f;f


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;s f;fuz hym;a hym;a hdkd fhdod hym;a hdkdjlg keZ.S
hym;a hdkdjkaf.ka Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia olakg .sfhah’ fndfyda ;SJ:!lfhda
tkakdjQ fuKavl isgqyq ├łroSu ├łgqfjdauh’ oel

[ \ q 311 / ]
fuKavl kuz ..eyejshdg fujoka
lSy’ ” .eyejsh kqU fld;ekays hkafkyso$” iajduSSsks uu Y1uK f.#;uhka
olakd msKsi hkafkushs ” lSfhah’ ” .Dym;sh” lsfulao $ Tn l11shdjdoS
jQfhau wlss1hjdoS jQ Y1uK f.#;uhka olakg hkafkyso $” .Dym;sh” Y1uK
f.#;ufhda fkdlsrSu msKsi oyuzfoi;a” bka ijzjka yslaujdh hs ” lSy’ tl,
fuKavl isgqyg fun├î is;la jsh’ ÔÇś huzm1ldrfhlska fuz ;SJ:!lfhda BIH!d
flfr;ao” *talreKskau(  ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia kssielju wy!;a iuzud iuznq├ł
jkafkahhs ÔÇÖ *is;Sh( * fuys 5== msgqfjz 5 fPAofha ÔÇś .sfhah ÔÇÖ hk ;ek isg
ÔÇśisgsfhah ÔÇÖ hk ;ek olajd ( tl;amfil isgs fuKavl .Dym;shdg Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia mss

[ \ q 312 / ]
blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;s f;u olakd
,o Ou!h we;af;a” mrm1;Hh rys; jQfha” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” iajduSks” *
fuys 7+36 *4( *5( ÔÇś wms ÔÇÖhkakgÔÇśud ÔÇÖ fhosh hq;2hs’ 449 msgqj (
orkfialajd’ ” iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fig oji msKsi NsCIq ixhd iuZ.
udf.a odkh bjidjd ‘” blans;s fuKavl .Dym;s f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykaafiaf.a
bjiSu oek ..sfhah’ blans;s fuKavl .Dym;s f;fuz * fuys 40= mssgqfjz 9=
fjks fPAofha ÔÇś f;u ÔÇÖ hk ;eka isg ( jevyqkafial’


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;shdf.a NdhH!jo” mq;1hdo” f,a,so” odihdo Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia huz;efklayso tys meussKshdyqh’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia je├ő
tl;amfil yqkakdyqh’ Tjqkag Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ms


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia Noaosh kqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei * Noaosh kqjr (
fuKavl kuz ..Dym;shd fkdjspdrd wXz.2 okjzj huz ;efklyso ” tys tlaoyia
foiSh mKyla jQ uy;a NsCIq iuQyhla iuZ. jevsfial’ fuKavl kuz .Dym;s f;fuz
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jkdys tlaoyia

[ \ q 313 // ]
foish mKyla muK uy;a NsCI
iuQyhd;a iuZ. wXz.2;drdm ckmoh huz;efklayso tys jevsfialehs weiqfjzh’
tl, fuKavl kuz .Dym;s f;fuz odihkago luzlrejkago wK lf

[ \ q 314 / ]


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;sss f;fuz nq├łka  m1uqL NsCIq ixhd m1KS; jQ lE hq;2
fohsskao nqosh hq;2 fohskao fojQ WKqiquz lsfrkao je<Ì md;1fhka bj;a
fldg ..;a w;a we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgss
fuKavl ..Dym;s f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia lSfjzh’ ” iajduSks” osh
ke;a;djQ” wdydr ke;a;djQ” u. jshouz ke;ss hdu myiq fkdjkakdjQ ldka;dr
udrA.fhda fj;a’ iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia NsCIQka yg u. jshouz
wkqokakdfiala kuz hym;ehs ” blans;s * fuyss 5=7 msgqfjys 35 fjkss
fPAofha *4( *5(( ” uyfKks” lsrso” oSo” fudareo” fjZvreo” .sf;,ao hk
miaf.da ri wkqoksus’ uyfKks” osh ke;s” wyr ke;ss ldka;dr udrA. we;af;ah’
udrAf.damlrK yer hdug fkdyelsh’ uyfKks” u. jshouz fijSu wkqoksus’ ”
iy,a leue;ayqf.a iy,a fijSuo” uqx leue;a;yqf.a uqx fijSuo” uE
leue;a;yqf.a uE fijSuo” ,qKq leue;a;yqf.a ,qKq fijSuo” Wla il2re
leu;a;yqf.a Wlail2re fijSuo” f;,a leue;a;yqf.a f;,a fijSuo” .sf;,a
leue;ayqf.a .sf;,a fijSuo” * wkqoksus’ (” “uyfKks” Y1oaOd we;s m1ikakjQ
huz usksiqka flfkla fj;ao$ ta usksiaiq lmamshldrlhka w;g uqo,a fo;a’ ”
fuhska iajduSka jykafiayg lemjQ huz fohla jS kuz th bgqlrjjz ” lshdhs’ ”
uyfKks” thska hula lem fjzo” th bjiSu wkqoksus’ uyfKks” lsishuz
mrssoafolska r;a;rka rsoS bjish hq;2h’ fijshh hq;2hhs uu fkdlshus’ ”
jod

3=  blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia l1ufhka pdrsld lrkfiala wdmKh huz;efklayso tys jsiQfial’ flaKsh

[ \ q 315 / ]
cgs, f;u YdlH l2,fhka mejssosjQ
YdlH mq;1 Y1uK Nj;a f.#;u f;fuz wdmKhg meussKsfha wdmKfhyss jdih lrhs ‘
ta Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafiaf.a fun├î hym;a lSSrA;s Ynzohla mek kexf.ah’ fuz
ldrKfhkao ta Nd.Hj;a iuHla iuznq├łrcdKka jykafia * fys 53= msgqfjys 7
fjks fPAofha *4( *5( *6((

33 
*3( blans;ss flaKsh kuz cgs,hdg fun├î isf;la jssh’*4( uu Y1uK f.#;uhkayg
l2ula kuz hjkafkuso $ * fuys *3(( nuqKkaf.a fjzofhka l*
hk fudjqyq fj;a’ * Tjqyq ;2uQ ( rd;1S fNdckfhka je

* fm< yd ii├őkak
[ \ q 316 / ]

ukdfldg mjdrKh lrjd Nd.Hj;ayq
lrd meussK cgs,hd *4( Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska oeyeus l:dfjka bosrss
fuka fldg oelajQfial’ iudoka lrjQfial”W;aidy jrAOkh lrjQfial”  i;2gq
lrjQfial’ *5( fojkqj;a *6( flaKsh cgs, f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” Nj;a
f.#;uhka jykai” NsCIq ixhd jsYd,h’ tloyia foish mKyla muKs’ uu o nuqKka
flfryss w;sYshska meye├łfkuss’ Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” fyg NssCIq ixhd iuZ.
udf.a odkh bjik fialajd’ ” *7(


flaKsh NsCIq ixhd uy;ah’ tloyia foisssh mKyla muKh’ Tno nuqKka flfrys
ukdj meye├łfkahhs ” jod

34 
blans;s flaKsh cgs, f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a bjiSsu oek wiafkka
keZ.sg .sfhah’blans;s N.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz ksodkfhys fuz isoaOsfhys
oeyeus l:d fldg NsCIQka wduka;1Kh l

[ \ q 317 / ]

35
blans;s flaKsh cgs, f;fuz ta rd;1sh wejEfuka iajlSh wdY1ufhys m1Kss;
lEhq;2 foh nqosh hq;2foh m


hd.fhda .sks msoSu m1Odk fldg we;af;dah’ fjzohg idjs;1s kuz PFoi m1Odk
fjz’ rc f;fuz usksiqkayg m1Odk fjz’ ihqr koSskag m1Odk fjz’ pF├Őhd
;drldjkag m1Odk fjz’ ysre ;dm lrjqkag m1Odk fjz’ mska leue;a;djQ
mqokakjqkag iZ.k taldka;fhka  m1Odk fjz hhs “

36 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia flaKsh cgs,hd fuz .d:djkaf.ka wkqfudaoka lrjd
yqka wiqfkka keZ.sg jevsfial’ l2iskdrd kqjr jeis u,a, rc orefjda
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wv f;f

37 
tl, jkdys frdac u,a, f;fuz wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;rKqjkaf.a iydhlfhls’ blans;s
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ms

[ \ q 318 / ]
f;reka ilid je├ő tl;amfil
isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs frdac u,a,hdg wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;r f;fuz fufia
lSfhah’ ” weje;a frdacfhks” kqU Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag huz fmr .ukla
flf

38 
blans;s wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;r f;fuz flfia kuz frdac u,a, f;fuz fufia
lshkafkaoehs fkdi;2gq is;a we;sfhla jQfhah’ blans;s wdhqIau;a wdkFo
f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia huz;efklayso  tys meusKsfhah’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka
jykaafia je├ő tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgs wdhqIau;a wdkFo f;fuz
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” iajduSks” fuz frdac u,a,  f;fuz fjfiiska m1lg jQ
W.;a usksfil2 jQ funÌ W.;a usksiqkaf.a fuz iiafkys meyeoSu uy;a
oshqKqfjlau fjz’ iajduSks” frdac u,a, f;u fuz Ou! jskfhys huzm1ldrfhlska
myoskafkao Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tn├î m1ldrfhla lrk fial kuz fhfylehs ”
lSfhah’ ” wdkFofhks” frdac u,a, f;fuz huzm1ldrfhlska fuz Ou! jskfhys
myoskafkao ;:d.;hkag tn├î m1ldrhla lsrSu wmyiq fkdfjzuhhs ” * jodf

39 
blans;s nq├łrcdfKda frdac kuz u,a,hdg fu;a is;a m;2rjd yqkiafkka keZ.sg
fjfyrg jevsfial’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykaafia jsiska fu;a is;a iamY! lrk
,o frdac kuz u,a, f;u foka f;dfuda huzfia

[ \ q 319 / ]

30 
tl, frdac u,a, f;fu jik ,o oajdr we;s ta .├őls

3- 
tl,ays jkdys l2iskdrd kqjr m1KS;jQ oka ms

[ \ q 320 / ]
uu oka Yd,dj n,kafkus’ th
ms

4= 
blaans;s wdhqIau;a wk├ő f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, lf

43  blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia l2iskdrd kqqqqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei wd;2ud kqjr huz;efklayso tlaoyia

[ \ q 321 / ]
foish mKyla muKjQ uy;a NsCIq
iuQyhla iuZ. pdrsldfjka jevsfial’ tiufhys jkdys wd;2ud k.rfhys fmr
lrKjEusfhl2 jQ wm1lg jQ nqvzVmnzncs;fhla fjfihs’ Tyqf.a usssyssssrs joka
we;s ish ismays jegfyk kqjKe;s ksmqkjQ ish we├łrka i;2 lrKjEus luzys
ksfodiaj .;a isma we;s * idufKar jQ ( ore fofofkla fj;a’ ta nqvzVmnzncs;
f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wv f;f

44 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ms

(c)  14

[ \ Q 322 / ]
jykafia udf.a le├ő ms

45 
blans;ss Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wd;2ud kqjr leue;s ;dla l,a jei ieje;a kqjr
huz;efklayso tys pdrsldfjys jevsfial’ ms

[ \ q 323 / ]
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska lskuz
f.vs lEhq;2 f.vshhss  wkqokakd ,oafoao $ lskuz f.vs wkqfkdokakd ,oafoao $
ÔÇÖ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie,lf

46 
tl, jkdys iZ. i;2 nScfhda  mqoa.,sl nsuzys frdamkh lrkq ,n;a’ mqoa.,ssl
nScfhda iZ. i;2 nsuzys frdamkh lrkq ,n;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh 
ie, l

47 
tiufhys jkdys NsCIQkag lsis lrefKlays iel Wmoshs’ ” lsful Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia jssiska wkqokakd ,oafoa fkdfjzo$’ ” lshdhs’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh iel

[ \ q 324 / ]

48 
blans;s NsCIQkag fun├î isf;la jsh’ ” hdjld,slh yd usY1jQ hduld,slh
lemfjzo lem fkdfjzo $ hdjld,slh yd usY1jQ i;a;dyld,slh lem fjzo
lemfkdfjzo $ hdjld,slh yd usY1jQ hdcSjslh lem fjzo lem fkdfjzo $
hduld,slh yd usY1jQ i;a;dy ld,slh lem fjzo lem fkdfjzo $ hduld,slh yd
usY1 jQ hdjcSjslh lemfjzo lem fkdfjzo $ i;a;dyld,slh yd usY1jQ hdjcSjslh
lem fjzo lemfkdfjzo $” lshdhs’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh
ie,l

* fNicAclaLJOlh ksus’ (
 
 


fNicAclaLJOl Woaodkh

ir;a iD;2fjys ms;a f,v
yg.ekSuo” ta ixis├őjkq msKsi miajrefhys miafnfy;a wdosh wkqoekSuo”
jqreKq f;, fnfy;a je<├őSug wjir oSuo” uq,a fnfy;a

[ \ q 325 / ]
wkqoekSuo” uq,a pQK! l< msgs
wkqoekSuo” hqi fnfy;a wkqoekSuo” fld< fnfy;a je<├őSug wjir oSuo”
f.vs fnfy;a wkqoekSuo” ,dgqfnfy;a wkqoekSuo” ,qKq fnfy;a je<├őSug wjir
oSuo” fkd.s,kayg wia fngs wdosh weZ. .d kEug wjir oSuo”

.s,kqkag
iqj├ő iqKq wdosh weZ. .d kEug wjir oSuo” fmryk wkqoekSuo” wukqqIHdndOhla
we;s l, wuq udxY je<├őSug wjir oSuo” w├îka wkqoekSuo” w├îka iEoSug
..kakd ├ŐjH yd w├îka l2,d wkqoekSuo” iajK!doS w├îka l2,d ;ykuo” w├îkal2,d
mshko” w├îka .dk l@ro” w├îka l@re fldmqo wkqoekSuo” :jslho” wxijgzglh *
:jslh t,a,d.kakd mgs ( :jslh yd wixjgzglh tlg n├ősk yqho” ysfiys f;,a
wdf,amho” kiHho” kJ:qlrKsho” * kiHlrk jsg fnfy;a j;a lrk Ndckhls’ (
OQufk;a;ho” OQufk;a;h jyk mshko” ldur fofla :jslho”

uoH
usY1 fldg f;,a  msiSSuo” wOsl uoH oeuQ f;,a mdkh fkdlsrSuo” wOsl uoH
we;s f;,a weZ. ..Euo”* f;,a j;a lssrSug ( f,daydosfhka l< ie

jK
n├ők fros lvo” wn msgso” ├łuz oSuo” ,qKq wegfhka lemSuo” jk f;,ao”
jsldislho” jslghkao” ..@: ms

[ \ q 326 / ]
mgspzPdokSho” mnzNdrhla iqoaO
lsrSuo” wdrduslhska mkiShla oSuo” .2<+uqx weg+ ,qKq ldvs+wkqoekSuo”
idumdlh ;ykuo” mqkmdlh wkqoekSuo”

├łrANssCIfhys
kej; idumsldosh wkkqoekSuo” f.vs ;, yd LdokSh wkqoekSuo” *fmrjrefhys
fjfyrg f.kd ( wdydrdosh bryefrk ;2re je<├őSu” ldhvdyh” ksnzngzg nSch”
N.JO,dndOho”

jia;s
lu! ;ykuo” iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldjo” ukaIH+yia:s+wYaj+iqkL+irAm+
isxy+jHd1+oSms+j,ia+lrndk j,ia+hk fudjqkaf.a udxY ;ykuo” mgsldgsho” le├ő
wkqoekSuo” ;reK uydud;Hhdo” tl fjz,g fofmd,lska fkdje<├őSuo” Wla
il2re” iqkSOjiaildr fofokko” wdji:d.drho”

.x.d
kosh t;r lsrSsuo” fldgs .111duhg jevujSuo” p;2iai;Hh ms

fuzh
ksid lem ls

wuzn+cuznq+fpdp+fudp+uOquqoaosl+id,Ql+
Mdreil hk wIaGmdk wkqoekSuo” m
 
 





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