Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice Universitu 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
May 2013
M T W T F S S
« Apr   Jun »
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031  
05/11/13
917 LESSON 12-05-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Mahavagga 43 Bhesajjakkhandhakaü Pali English Sinhala Misuse of EVM machines- Part - 3 http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Pet-Couture-Small-Business-Idea.htm Pet Couture Small Business Idea The Pros and Cons of Starting a Pet Couture Business
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 3:52 pm

917 LESSON 12-05-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY


Mahavagga

 43

 Bhesajjakkhandhakaü

  Pali

 English

 Sinhala














Misuse of EVM machines- Part   - 3

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm
http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Pet-Couture-Small-Business-Idea.htm


Pet Couture Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Pet Couture Business

Pet owners love spoiling their pets, and many do so through the
purchase of unique designer clothes, toys and accessories, also known as
pet couture.

A pet couture business allows you to design and produce your own
brand of pet clothes, toys and accessories, or you can operate as
distributor of ready-made products. Either way, if you know what pet
owners want for their animals and have a knack for selling those
products, a small business as a pet couture shop may be the perfect business idea for you.

The Pros

Some of the benefits of starting a pet couture business include:

  • Your business can be entirely home-based.
  • You can sell your products online.
  • Startup costs are low for virtual pet boutiques.
  • If you establish a brick-and-mortar pet boutique, you can expand to provide on-site grooming services.
  • A pet couture business is relatively easy to market to animal-loving pet owners.
  • You can expand your business to sell related pet products such as food and grooming supplies.

The Cons

Some of the challenges of starting a pet couture business include:

  • Startup costs can be significant for a physical storefront business.
  • It could take time to see a profit, depending on your initial investment.
  • You will be in competition with big companies such as Petco, Petsmart and Target.
  • You need a niche that differentiates you from your competition.
  • You may need a local permit to run the business out of your home.
  • You must have a love of pets and do extensive market research to understand what products pet owners want to buy.

Recommended Resources

Related Articles


Misuse of EVM machines- Part   - 3


New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so.
 
Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relavance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.

http://verifiedvoting.org/verifier/

Verified Voting

The Verifier


Minnesota
Washington
Washington
Montana
Idaho
North Dakota
Washington
Washington
Washington
Washington
Washington
Washington
Washington
Washington
Michigan
Washington

Michigan
Maine
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Oregon
South Dakota
Michigan
Michigan
Michigan
Wisconsin
New Hampshire
Michigan
Wisconsin
Michigan
Vermont

New York
Wyoming
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine

Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Iowa
Nebraska
Massachusetts
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Connecticut
Rhode Island
California
Nevada
Utah
Ohio

Indiana
Ohio
Ohio
Rhode Island
Ohio
Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Ohio
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Massachusetts
New Jersey
New York
Rhode Island
New York

Colorado
New York
New York
New York
New York
West Virginia
Missouri
Kansas
Delaware
Maryland
Delaware
Delaware
Virginia
Kentucky
District of Columbia
Maryland
Maryland

Virginia
Virginia
California
Virginia
California
California
Arizona
Oklahoma
New Mexico
Tennessee
North Carolina
Kentucky
Texas
Arkansas
North Carolina
North Carolina
South Carolina

Alabama
Georgia
Mississippi
California
California
California
California
California
California
California
Louisiana
Florida
Alabama
Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi

Louisiana
Florida
Florida
Texas
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida
Florida


Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska

Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska

Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Alaska
Washington
Oregon
California


Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii

Hawaii
Hawaii


Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico

Election Equipment 2012

See states’ use of:
Legend - Polling Place Equipment
     Paper Ballot
     Paper Ballot and Punch Card
     Mixed Paper Ballot and DREs with VVPAT
     DREs with VVPAT
     Mixed Paper Ballot and DREs with and without VVPAT
     Mixed Paper Ballot and DREs without VVPAT
     DREs without VVPAT
VVPAT = Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail Printers
DRE = Direct-recording Electronic
Customize your search for jurisdictions (counties and municipalities) that use different types and models of voting equipment:
(use alt/left click to select more than one choice)

Equipment Used for:


In Selected States:


Type of voting equipment:


Equipment vendor:


Model:


Paper record:


 
Results per page:

Please note: If you have any questions about the number of jurisdictions and registered voters using types and models of equipment please contact us directly.

http://www.verifiedvoting.org/resources/voting-equipment/


Voting Equipment in the United States


In an age of electronic banking and
online college degrees, why hasn’t the rest of the nation gone to voting
on touchscreen computers? The reason is simple and resonates with the
contentious debate that has yet to be resolved after at least 15 years
of wrangling over the issue of electronic voting. No one has yet figured
out a straightforward method of ensuring that one of the most revered
democratic institutions—in this case, electing a U.S. president—can be
double checked for fraud, particularly when paperless e-voting systems
are used.”
 - Scientific American, Jan. 9, 2012

Today’s political climate is riven with discontent and mistrust of the institutions of government,
yet apart from public discourse, the vote is still how we make our will known. Mistrust in
lawmakers or institutions may be nearly endemic, but we still rely on the principle that they can
be voted out. When our voting systems fail though, voters lose trust in the electoral process,
and that is corrosive. Without that trust, our democracy could crumble. In such an environment,
it is of critical importance that we safeguard that most fundamental part of who we are as
Americans – our democracy – by ensuring voting systems work properly and that it is possible
for those responsible for operating our elections to demonstrate to the public that their votes
indeed are being captured and counted as they intended, and that the outcomes are correct.
The U.S. election system faces unprecedented tests this November, and beyond. Among
those tests are overt challenges to the full participation of all eligible voters. But there are also
serious fault lines in the landscape of democracy, some of which are not visible but which
threaten nonetheless. Many of these tests will become visible in the last yard of the voting
process—the final step that occurs after other obstacles to voting are overcome, where the will of
the voters must be captured and counted. That last yard is where the voter actually has the
opportunity to mark and cast a ballot, and where the ballots are collected and counted, and
ideally, where the systems that tally our votes are checked to make sure they work as they
should. This is where the intersection of technology and democracy occurs. Challenges to
voters’ rights in that last yard derive from problems caused by the deployment and use of
inadequate voting systems, and exacerbated by insufficient checks on the accuracy of the
outcome.

Far too many states use unreliable and insecure electronic voting machines, and many
states have made their situation worse by adding some forms of Internet voting for some voters,which cannot be checked for accuracy at all. Even in states where verifiable systems are used,
too often the check on the voting system’s function and accuracy is not done. In 2012, the
voting systems now in use are aging; resources are severely impacted by the state of the
economy over the past several years; shortages of both equipment and human resources are
likely. After all the effort necessary to overcome the other hurdles to casting a ballot, it is
patently unfair that once you get to the ballot box, that the ballot itself fails you. Taken together,
these problems threaten to silently disenfranchise voters, potentially in sufficient numbers to
alter outcomes.

Overview of Voting Equipment

Four basic types of voting equipment are used in US elections.
Optical Scan Paper Ballot Systems (including both marksense and digital image scanners), in
which voters mark paper ballots that are subsequently tabulated by scanning devices. On most
optical scan ballots voters indicate their selections by filling in an oval (on ES&S and
Premier/Diebold ballots), completing an arrow (Sequoia ballots), or filling in a box (Hart Intercivic
ballots.) Ballots may be either scanned on precinct-based optical scan systems in the polling
place (Precinct Count) or collected in a ballot box to be scanned at a central location (Central
Count.)

Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) Systems, in which using one of three basic interfaces
(pushbutton, touchscreen or dial) voters record their votes directly into computer memory. The
voter’s choices are stored in DREs via a memory cartridge, diskette or smart card and added to the choices of all other voters. An alphabetic keyboard is typically provided with the entry device
to allow for the possibility of write-in votes, though with older models this is still done manually.
DRE systems can be distinguished generally by the interface through which the voter indicate
her selections. The first generation of DREs used a push-button interface, while later systems
use a touchscreen interface. The Hart Intercivic eSlate uses a dial interface. Some DREs can
be equipped with Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) printers that allow the voter to
confirm their selections on an independent paper record before recording their votes into
computer memory. This paper record is preserved and, depending on State election codes,
made available in the event of an audit or recount.

Ballot Marking Devices and Systems provide an interface to assist voters with disabilities in
marking a paper ballot, which is then scanned or counted manually. Most ballot marking devices
provide a touchscreen interface together with audio and other accessibility features similar to
those provided with DREs, but rather than recording the vote directly into computer memory, the
voter’s selections are indicated through a marking a paper ballot, which is then scanned or
counted manually.

Punch Card Voting Systems Punchcard systems employ a card (or cards) and a small
clipboard-sized device for recording votes. Voters punch holes in the cards (with a supplied
punch device) opposite their candidate or ballot issue choice. After voting, the voter may place
the ballot in a ballot box, or the ballot may be fed into a computer vote-tabulating device at the
precinct. Four Idaho counties still use Votomatic Punch Card Voting System in the November
2012 election.

Mechanical Lever Voting Machines First introduced in the 1890s, mechanical lever machines
were used in many States during the 20th Century. As recently as 1996, mechanical lever
machines were used by 20.7% of registered voters in the United States. Since 2010, no
mechanical lever voting machines are used in US elections.

Hand Counted Paper Ballots A significant number of jurisdictions manually count paper ballots
cast in polling places by hand and even more count absentees and/or provisional ballots by
hand. While not a type of “voting equipment”, beyond the pen or pencil used by the voter to
mark the ballot, many of the issues of ballot design and voter intent that effect all voting systems
are relevant to hand counted paper ballots as well.
Voting Stages

Not all votes are cast in traditional polling places on Election Day - an increasing number of
voters vote absentee by mail or at in-person early voting facilities. All jurisdictions now provide
accessible equipment for voters with disabilities. Most jurisdictions use different voting systems for these different voting stages.

Polling Place Voting In American elections, the majority of votes are cast in polling places.
There are essentially two methods used to capture the voter’s selections: a paper ballot marked
by the voter, either physically or through the use of an assistive ballot-marking device, or a
software interface in which votes are recorded directly into computer memory. Most paper
ballots cast are tabulated by optical scanners, though there a significant number of jurisdictions
that count paper ballots cast at polling places manually.

Accessible Voting The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) required that every polling
place provide voting equipment with assistive features for voters with disabilities. Jurisdictions
have adopted different approches to meeting this requirement. Some have opted the exclusive
use of direct recording electronic (DRE) systems for all polling place voters. Others have chosen
to have “Mixed” systems, with both an optical scan paper ballot system and a DRE system
available in each polling place. Some such jurisdictions limit the use of the DRE primarily to
voters with disabilities while others allow all voters to choose between the two systems
available. A third approach to meeting the accessibility requirements of HAVA through the use
of Ballot Marking Devices or Systems. These systems allow voters with disabilities to mark a
paper ballot that is then counted along with the other paper ballots cast in the polling place.
Early Voting In recent years many, but not all, States provide for in-person Early Voting. For a
period a days or weeks prior to the official Election Day (the period varies from State to State)
voters have the option of visiting a central location (typically the county election officials office
or, in larger jurisdictions, satellite vote centers) to cast their vote. Most jurisdictions use the
same voting equipment for the early voting period that are used in polling places on election day
but not all.

Absentee Voting Absentee Voting is available in every State. In some States there are
restrictions on who can vote by mail and two States (Oregon and Washington) conduct elections
using only mail ballots. Most jurisdictions tabulate absentee ballots with optical scanners - either
high volume “Central Count” systems or smaller “Precinct Count” scanners. A small but
significant number of jurisdictions count absentee ballots manually. Some jurisdictions transfer
the votes cast by voters on absentee paper ballots onto DRE systems rather than tabulating the
ballot by scanning or manual counting.

Provisional Ballots The Help America Vote Act of 2002 established that a voter could cast a
provisional ballot if he or she believes that they are entitled to vote. A provisional ballot is cast
when: the voter refuses to show a photo ID if required, the voter’s name does not appear on the
voter roll for the given precinct, the voter’s registration contains inaccurate or out-dated
information such as the wrong address or a misspelled name. or the voter’s ballot has already
been recorded. Whether a provisional ballot is counted is contingent upon the verification of that
voter’s eligibility. Many voters do not realize that the provisional ballot is not counted until 7–10
days after election so their vote does not affect the calling of the states to different candidates.
Once the provisional ballot is determined to be valid it is counted with a scanner or manually.

A Brief History Voting Machines in the US

(From Douglas Jones, Brief Illustrated History of Voting) The conduct of elections has changed
in many ways over the past 200 years. The extent of these changes is nicely illustrated by a
comparison of today’s voting practices with those illustrated in George Caleb Bingham’s
painting, The County Election (left - click to enlarge). In addition to being a noteworthy artist,
Bingham was a successful politician; this painting shows a polling place on the steps of the
courthouse in Saline County, Missouri, in 1846. In this painting, we see the judge (top center)
administering an oath to a voter. The voter (in red) is swearing, with his hand on the bible, that
he is entitled to vote and has not already done so. There was no system of voter registration, so
this oath and the possibility that the judge or someone else in the vicinity of the polls might
recognize him if he came back was all that prevented a voter from voting again and again.
There was no right to a secret ballot; having been sworn in, the voter simply called out his
choices to the election clerks who sit on the porch behind the judge tallying the vote. Each clerk
has a pollbook in which he writes the voter’s name and records his votes; multiple pollbooks
were a common defense against clerical error. There are several people in the painting holding
paper tickets in their hands. We know that these were not paper ballots because Missouri
continued to use voice voting until 1863. In a general election, however, many voters might
have wanted to bring their own notes to the polling place. Campaigning at the polling place was legal and common. The man in blue tipping his hat to the voter immediately behind the man
taking the oath is one of the candidates in this election, E. D. Sappington, who lost to Bingham
by one vote. He’s handing out his calling cards so that people can easily read off his name to
vote for him.

Voice votes offer modest protection against fraudulent vote counts: An observer can easily
maintain an independent tally of the votes, and since there is no ballot box, it cannot be stuffed.
On the other hand, the lack of privacy means that voters are open to bribery and intimidation; an
employer can easily demand, for example, that his employees vote as required, and a crook can
easily offer to pay a voter if he votes a certain way.

A Brief Illustrated History of Voting

Part of

the Voting and Elections web pages


by
Douglas W. Jones


THE UNIVERSITY
OF IOWA

Department of Computer Science

Copyright ©
2001, updated 2003.
This work may be transmitted or stored in electronic form on any
computer attached to the Internet or World Wide Web so long as this
notice is included in the copy. Individuals may make single copies
for their own use. All other rights are reserved.

– Work in Progress –

Contents

  1. Before Ballots
  2. The First Ballots
  3. Paper Ballots
  4. The Chartist Demand for a Secret Ballot
  5. The Australian Paper Ballot
  6. Lever Voting Machines
  7. Punched Cards for Voting
  8. Optical Mark-Sense Scanners
  9. Direct Recording Voting Machines

Before Ballots

Nobody pretends that democracy is perfect or at all wise. Indeed,
it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government
except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.


(Winston Churchill, November 11, 1947)

Figure 1:  The County Election (detail)
by George Caleb Bingham.

 

 [painting of a crowded polling place]

The conduct of elections has changed in many ways over the past 200 years.
The extent of these changes is nicely illustrated by a comparison of
today’s voting practices with those illustrated in George Caleb Bingham’s
painting, The County Election (Figure 1).
In addition to being a noteworthy artist, Bingham was a successful
politician; this painting shows a polling place on the steps of the
courthouse in Saline County, Missouri, in 1846.

In this painting, we see the judge (top center) administering an oath to
a voter. The voter (in red) is swearing, with his hand on the bible, that
he is entitled to vote and has not already done so. There was no system
of voter registration, so this oath and the possibility that the judge or
someone else in the vicinity of the polls might recognize him if he
came back was all that prevented a voter from voting again and again.

There was no right to a secret ballot; having been sworn in, the voter
simply called out his choices to the election clerks who sit on
the porch behind the judge tallying the vote. Each clerk has a pollbook
in which he writes the voter’s name and records his votes; multiple pollbooks
were a common defense against clerical error.
There are several people in
the painting holding paper tickets in their hands. We know that these were
not paper ballots because Missouri continued to use voice voting until
1863. In a general election, however, many voters might have wanted to bring
their own notes to the polling place.

Campaigning at the polling place was legal and common. The
man in blue tipping his hat to the voter immediately behind the man taking
the oath is one of the candidates in this election, E. D. Sappington,
who lost to Bingham by one vote. He’s handing out his calling cards so that
people can easily read off his name to vote for him.

Voice votes offer modest protection against fraudulent vote counts: An
observer can easily maintain an independent tally of the votes,
and since there is no ballot box, it cannot be stuffed. On the other
hand, the lack of privacy means that voters are open to bribery and
intimidation; an employer can easily demand, for example, that his employees
vote as required, and a crook can easily offer to pay a voter if he votes
a certain way.

Kurt Hyde has sent me a
scan of a page
of a pollbooks in his collection from Bond County, Illinois;
this contains the clerical records of a viva-voce election of the type shown in
Bingham’s painting. Candidate names are written across the top of the page,
while voter names are written down the left hand side as the voters arrive to
vote. Instead of tick marks to record votes, the clerk has written in
the running vote total as each vote is cast. Kurt Hyde reports that most of
the pollbooks in his collection reflect this practice.


The First Ballots

One man shall have one vote.

(John Cartwright, 1780)

The word ballot has been described as being derived from the diminuitive form
of the word ball in
Italian, ballota, and in fact, many early ballots were small balls.
In classical Greek, however, the root is the verb for casting or throwing;
indeed, we cast ballots, but the Greeks did not read this word as requiring
that they be round balls.
In ancient Athens, votes were taken by issuing clay or metal tokens
to each voter, and the voter would vote by depositing the appropriate token
in the appropriate ballot box, or perhaps in a clay pot that served as a
ballot box.

Since the renessance, secret societies such as the Masons have used identical
round balls as ballots.
The phrase to blackball someone comes from this usage. In a vote to
admit someone to a secret society, each member was traditionally given a
white ball and a black ball. Depositing the white ball in the
ballot box was a vote for the candidate’s membership, while depositing the
black ball was a vote against the candidate. It follows that to blackball
someone meant to vote to exclude them from the organization or to campaign
for their exclusion in an upcoming vote.

In the late 19th century, many early developers of voting machines
continued to interpret laws requiring that election be by ballot as the
requirement that elections be carried out by the use of little balls, so many
early voting machines operated by depositing small balls in the appropriate
containers as each voter cast a vote. The purpose of the mechanism was to
prevent a voter from casting more than the allowed number of votes in each
race, and to maintain separate ballot containers for each of the many
candidates in each of the many races races in an election.

Paper Ballots

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice-President …; they shall name in their ballots
the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots, the person
voted for as Vice-President, …


(12th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution,
ratified June 15, 1804)

Figure 2:  Ballot from an 1839 general election
in Iowa Territory

 

 [photo of a general election ballot]

The first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been
in Rome in 139 BCE, and the first use of paper ballots in the United States
was in 1629 to select a pastor for the Salem Church.

By the time the 12th Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed,
it is clear that the term ballot was routinely taken to refer to a slip of
paper on which were written the names of candidates for office. The very
fact that the 12th amendment requires the use of separate ballots to elect
the President and Vice-President implies that the use of one ballot to elect
candidates to more than one office was understood at the time. Of course,
this amendment applied only to the electoral college and not to voting by
the electorate at large.

The Tennessee Acts of 1796, chapter IX section 3 gave the following
definition: “[A ballot is] a ticket or scroll of paper, purporting
to express the voter’s choice, given by the voter to the officer or person
holding an election, to be put into the ballot box.”

These early paper ballots were no more than slips of paper
provided by the voters themselves, although it was not long before
candidates or political parties began to provide preprinted ballots.
This innovation was not always welcome. It took a state supreme court
decision in Massachusetts (Henshaw v. Foster) in 1829 to legalize this
practice in that state. It took a constitutional amendment in Connecticut,
in 1844.

The example shown in Figure 2
was apparently provided by Francis Gehon, a candidate for nonvoting
territorial delegate to the United States Congress in the 1839 Iowa
territorial election; the torn edges suggest that this ballot may
have been printed as an advertisement in the newspaper. This ballot
includes write-in blanks for the other offices in the election,
the territorial house of representatives and various county offices.
The printer omitted the office of Sheriff from the ballot, so the voter
wrote this in at the very bottom.

This form of paper ballot makes it very difficult to reconcile several
requirements that we usually take for granted, the right to privacy, the
requirement that the voter not disclose his or her vote, and the requirement
that no voter deposit more than one ballot in the box.

To maintain voter privacy, we must allow voters the right to insert their
own ballots into the ballot box. Doing this, however, raises the possibility
that a voter might deposit a handful of ballots. If we require voters to give
their ballots to a polling place official, the official might read the
ballot in the process of unfolding it to determine if other ballots have
been cleverly concealed inside, or a dishonest official might add other
ballots to the box.

If a voter wants to disclose his votes, he may easily sign the ballot,
and if we disallow this with rules that require signed ballots to be rejected
in the count, the voter may simply arrange to use distinctive paper or a
distinctive style of writing in order to identify his ballot to someone
observing the count. Political parties quickly mastered the art of
printing ballots on distinctive paper so that all voters using a party’s
ballot could be easily identified.

Figure 3:  Ballot from an 1880 municipal election in Iowa
(partial)

 

 [photo of a partisan municipal ballot]

Despite these serious problems, this style of voting on paper ballots remained
the rule into the late 19th century. By the mid 19th century, it was standard
for each political party in the United States to print a party ticket
that listed all of the offices in the election, along with the candidates
endorsed by that party. The word ticket was used because they
resembled railroad tickets in size and printing style.
The municipal election ticket shown in
in Figure 3 was printed by a local Republican party.

Voters in this era were allowed to write out their own ballots, longhand,
but the parties encouraged them to use the party ticket as a ballot.
So long as a party representative got to a voter in advance to give him that
party’s ticket, voting a straight party ticket was easy. A voter who
wished to split his ticket, that is to vote for candidates from more than
one party, could write out the entire ballot longhand, or he could
could cross out the candidates he didn’t like on one party’s ticket and
write in the names of the candidates he preferred.

Figure 4:  Ballot from an 1888 general election in Iowa
(partial)

 

 [photo of a partisan general election ballot]

By the 1880’s, the parties had learned to format ballots to make it difficult
to vote a spit ticket. The idea is quite simple: arrange the layout of the
ticket so that a voter who crosses out a candidates name on the party
ticket will have no space left to write in the name of any other candidate.
Figure 4 illustrates a general election ticket formatted this way. Where the
example in Figure 3 had ample space under each candidate name to write in a
substitute name, this example has almost no space, except for the write-in
blank for county treasurer, where the party had no nominee.

A striking feature of the ballot in Figure 4 is that the
typography, below the ballot title, is deliberately difficult to read.
From the party’s perspective, printing a ballot that invited close reading
ammounted to an invitation to strike-out names and write in alternatives.
The parties wanted voters to be loyal to the party, not the specific
candidates, so the party name was always easy to pick out and read.

Of course, the typography of the ballot could not be arbitrarily unreadalbe,
the ballot had to be legible enough to tally. On the other hand, with
party tickets, it is not necessary to closely read each ballot; instead,
each ticket style need only be closely read once. The first step in the
tally is to sort the ballots by ticket style; then, all ballots of a
particular style would be counted, along with the number of strike-outs
for each office on that ticket. Candidates on that ticket would then be
credited with the number of tickets less the number of strikeouts. Finally,
all write-ins, manuscript ballots and handwritten additions to ballots
would be counted.

The examples shown here are all printed on inexpensive paper - generally
newsprint, but in large urban areas, it was very common for parties to
print their tickets on distinctive paper. This had only one purpose, to
make it very easy for a party observer at the polling place to note which
party’s ballot each voter was using. Ballot box stuffing was extremely
common in many jurisdictions, and to prevent this, it was common to
demand that ballot boxes be transparent, thus making it completely
impossible for a voter to hide the color of the ballot being deposited.

For an excellent discussion of the extent of vote fraud using such paper
ballots, see the paper
Harrison Count Methods: Election Fraud in Late 19th Century Texas
by Worth Robert Miller, Locus: Regional and Local History 7, 2
(Spring 1995), 111-28.

One of the best references on the pre-technological history of elections is
Election Administration in the United States by Joseph P. Harris,
published by the Brookings Institution in 1934. The book The American
Ballot
by Spencer D. Albright, published by the American Council on Public
Affairs in 1942 is a much shorter work filled with extremely useful history
but with very little of the critical content that makes Harris’ book so
valuable.

The Chartist Demand for a Secret Ballot

In 1838, the London Working Men’s Association published
The People’s Charter. The association represented the first
mass working class labor movement in the world, and its members can
be counted as radical revolutionaries. Today, however, the demands
of the chartists, as they came to be known, seem remarkably tame. They
are, in fact, at the very foundation of essentially all modern democracies,
as outlined in the full title for the charter:

The People’s Charter: Being the outline of an act to provide for
the just representation of the people of Great Britain in the Commons
house of Parliament; embracing the principles of universal suffrage,
no property qualification [for the right to vote], annual parliaments,
equal representation, payment of members [of parliament], and vote by
ballot, prepared by a committee of twelve persons, six members of
parliament and six members of the London Working Men’s Association, and
addressed to the United Kingdom.
– Quoted from an
1839
edition
of the People’s Charter

Figure 5:  The Chartist proposal for polling-place
organization and a voting machine from the
1839
edition
of the People’s Charter.

 
 [photo of a partisan general election ballot]

A remarkable feature of the Chartist demand was that one page of each
Chartist pamphlet was a diagram of a polling place that included use
of a voting machine, along with two schedules. Schedule A described the
features of the polling place, including a description of the rolls of
each of the people shown in the woodcut. Schedule B described the
voting machine, described as a ballot box. The Chartists attributed
their ballot box design to Benjamin Jolly of 19 York Street, Bath.

Voters using Jolly’s voting machine were to vote by dropping a brass ball
(the ballot)
into one of the holes in the top of the machine. Each hole was to be
marked with a candidate’s name. The ball, on passing through the machine,
would advance a clockwork counter one step before dropping into a tray
on the front of the machine, in clear view of the election judges. During
the election, the counters would be sealed behind a closed door, so
nobody could see the count until the polls closed, and the voter would
vote behind a partition, so nobody could see which hole the ball was
dropped into. If a voter brought an extra ball into the polling place,
the judges would see two balls falling into the tray.

The Australian Paper Ballot

It’s not the voting that’s democracy, it’s the counting.

(Tom Stoppard, British playwright, 1972)

You won the election, but I won the count.

(Anastasio Somoza, Dictator, 1977)

Figure 5:  Australian Ballot from an 1893 Iowa City
municipal election
(partial)

 

 [photo of a partisan general election ballot]

Concern about vote fraud and voter privacy was not restricted to England
and the United States.
One of the most important innovations in voting technology came
about in Australia. In 1858, an election was held in the state of
Victoria using
standardized paper ballots that listed all candidates for office. These
ballots were printed at government expense and distributed to the voters
at the polling place, one per voter. This system, while obvious in
retrospect, was sufficiently innovative that it came to be known as the
Australian secret ballot.

The Chartists had significant influence in Australia, and several of the
Australian states had been experimenting with how to reduce the Chartist
demand for secret ballots into practical form. All of the Australian
experiments substituted printed ballots and a simple ballot box for the
voting machine the Chartists proposed, but it is the Victorian model that
later came to be seen as definitive.

Today, the Australian ballot seems so natural that we take it for granted
as ancient technology, and in much of the world, it is so firmly entrenched
that replacing it with mechanical or electronic voting machines is unthinkable.
Nonetheless, the benefits of the Australian ballot were not
obvious at the time it was introduced. Use of this technology requires,
after all, a special print run at government expense, plus the cost of
secure ballot storage and transport.

In the United States, it is likely that the widespread fraud reported in
the general election of 1884 was the major impetus behind the first adoption
of new voting methods in 1888, but this level of fraud would probably have
gone unnoticed if it hadn’t been for the election upset of 1876. In that
year, Rutheford B. Hayes won an majority of the electoral vote with only
a minority of the popular vote, and just as with the 2000 general election,
this focused popular attention on the problems with the election methods
then in use. The hearings into Boss Tweed’s dealings in New York, published
in 1878 are likely to have been another contributing factor; there, Tweed
admitted quite openly to completely ignoring the ballots and having his
ward bosses simply announce the requested result.

So, it was in 1888 that the Australian ballot was first used in the United
States, in New York and Massachusetts, and it was also in 1888 that the
lever voting machine was first used. The example Australian ballot shown
in Figure 5 allows straight-party voting by a single X
in the circle by the party name at the top of the column, or a split ticket
vote by marking an X in the box by an individual candidate name.

Figure 6:  Australian Ballot from a 1916
Democratic primary in South Carolina.

 

 [photo of a scratch-out primary ballot]

The move to the Australian ballot was not instantaneous. Texas and
Connecticut moved by gradual reform of the partisan ballot, completing
their changes in 1905 and 1909.
Missouri experimented with the Australian ballot but reverted to
partisan ballots until 1921.
New Mexico finished a gradual migration from partisan ballots in 1927.
North Carolina only required that all counties use the Australian ballot
in 1929.
By 1940, Delaware still had a mixed system where partisan distribution
of ballots was still allowed outside the polling place, and South Carolina
was still voting on partisan ballots, although their size, color and
typography were strictly regulated.

While most Australian ballots ask the voter to mark an X or checkmark in
the voting target beside the candidate’s name, where the target is either
a box or a circle, the original form of this ballot asked the voter to scratch
out the names of all but the preferred candidates. The use of an X mark to vote
for a candidate was introduced in West Australia in 1877. The older pattern
persisted for many years in a number of Southern states, most
notably Arkansas. The example in Figure 6 illustrates this.

The scratch-out ballot variant would have appeared quite natural
to those accustomed to voting with party ticket ballots where
voters could scratch out the names of the party nominees they did not support.
There is nothing particularly wrong
with this variant, but when a juristiction changes from this rule to the
more common mark-in-target rule, there are special voter education problems.

Corrupt politicians and political machines have always been quick to search
out and exploit the weaknesses of new voting methods, and it was not long
before the weakness of the Australian ballot was uncovered. Properly
administered, the Australian ballot does indeed make it very difficult for
voters to cast multiple votes or for a dishonest election administration
to stuff the ballot box, but the greatest weakness of the Australian ballot
lies in how votes are counted.

This weakness was the focus of the Supreme Court decision that followed the
2000 general election. The Australian ballot requires a subjective
interpretation of each mark on the ballot, so if corrupt officials cannot
control the ballots that land in the ballot box, they may still try to
control how they are counted. Typical counting procedures attempt to prevent
this, first by allowing observers at the count so that any bias will be out
in the open, and second, by requiring that each tally team be composed of
representatives of opposing parties, each monitoring the other. Even with
these precautions, a corrupt election administration can introduce bias into
the count by manipulating the makeup of the tally teams and by instituting
carefully crafted objective standards governing what marks on
the ballot count as votes.

The Michigan law current today (2001, see MCL 168.803) provides an excellent
example of “an objective and uniform standard” that allows such a biased count.
This law requires that each vote be made with either an X or a checkmark, where
the intersection of the X or the corner of the checkmark is within or on the
border of the box provided on the ballot.

This standard seems excellent, but as a consequence, many marks a voter could
make on the ballot that express clear and obvious intent are disallowed.
A hurried checkmark where the vertex is rounded and not sharp, or an X or check
that is obviously intended to be in a particlar box but is just outside that
box may, under these rules, be discounted.

If an entrenched political machine wishes to remain in power even when their
support from the voters is questionable, all they need to do is assure that
their representatives on each tally team are well trained in the selective
exclusion of votes for the opposition using these rules, while the
representatives for the opposition selected for each tally team are relatively
niave and generally willing to accept the obvious intent of voters. By the
time the oppostion members of the tally team understand the game that is being
played, it is likely that they will have already lost the election.

The problems with the Australian Paper ballot can largely be overcome by
strict accounting requirements, specifically, by the requirement that the
official election canvass include not only the counts of the votes that all
agreed were acceptable votes for one or another candidate, but also counts
of the numbers of undervotes and votes not counted because of improper
marking. If the latter number exceeds the margin of victory of the winning
candidate, there is good reason to request a careful recount, and if these
numbers add up to a number in excess of the number of voters who came to
the polls, a ballot box has been stuffed.

A properly administered Australian paper ballot sets an extremely high
standard that any competing election technology must match, but in a general
election such as those in the United States, where a single ballot may
include over 50 individual candidates and questions on the ballot, hand
counting can be a very expensive proposition.

Lever Voting Machines

the right to vote today is far more than the right to pull that lever on
election day. It is the right to an equal and meaningful vote, which
includes the right to equal and meaningful participation.


(John C. Bonifaz to the House Judiciary Committee,
May 5, 1999)

The Myers Automatic Booth lever voting machines was first used in 1892
in Lockport, New York, and lever machines descended from this were slowly
adopted across the country. In the words of Jacob H. Myers, this machine
was designed to “protect mechanically the voter from rascaldom, and make
the process of casting the ballot perfectly plain, simple and secret.”

By the 1930’s, essentially all of
the nation’s larger urban centers had adopted lever voting machines,
and in the election of 1944, Automatic Voting Machine Corporation
advertising claimed that 12 million voters used their machines.
In states such as Iowa, smaller rural counties never abandoned
hand-counted Australian paper ballots.
In other states, particularly where there were serious charges
of election fraud in the first half of the 20th century, lever voting
machines were installed statewide. This happened in Louisiana, for example,
in the 1950’s.

In the 1890’s, lever voting machines were on the cutting edge of technology,
with more moving parts than almost anything else being made. As such, they
were as much of a high-tech solution to the problem of running an honest
election as computer-tabulated punched cards in the 1960’s or direct-recording
electronic voting machines in the 1990’s.

Figure 7:  Patent illustration for a lever voting
machine.

 

 [a lever voting machine and booth]

Two manufacturers split the market for lever voting machines,
Shoup
and AVM (Automatic Voting Machines); the latter company is the direct
descendant of Jacob H. Myers original company, organized in 1895.
Ransom F. Shoup made a number of improvements to lever voting machines
between 1929 and 1975. Figure 7 shows an early Shoup machine; like most
of its successors, this included a substantial voting booth, yet it could
be collapsed into a package that was relatively easy to transport and store.

The most visible difference between the AVM and Shoup machines
was in ballot layout: Both used a tabular ballot layout, with
the lever at the intersection of a particular row and column used to record
a vote for a particular party’s candidate for a particular office;
in the Shoup machine, one column is assigned to each party and one row to
each office, while in the AVM machine, the role of rows and columns is
reversed.

Lever voting machines were so pervasive by the mid 20th century that most
of us born in midcentury grew up assuming that all voting
machines were and would always be lever machines. Today, although they
have been out of production since 1982, these machines are still in
extremely widespread use. They completely eliminate most of the approaches
to manipulating the vote count that were endemic a century ago, and they
can easily be configured to handle a complex general election ballot.

A lever voting machine completely eliminates all questions of ballot
interpretation. At the time the voter opens the machine’s curtain to
leave the voting machine, it adds one to the counter behind each lever
that was pulled down by the voter, and then it resets all the levers.
The lever voting machines of the mid 20th century included interlocks
to prevent a voter from overvoting — that is, voting for more than one
candidate in a race, and the voting booths that were integral to the
machines offered what most voters considered excellent privacy.

Unfortunately, the mechanism of a lever voting machine maintains no
independent record of each voter’s ballot. Instead, the only record of
a vote is the count maintained on the mechanical register behind each
voting lever, where each register has a mechanism comparable to the
odometer in a car. Not only is this vulnerable to tampering by the
technicians who maintain the machine, but it means that the machine
has an immense number of moving parts that are subject to wear and very
difficult to completely test.

Roy G. Saltman has noted that the number 99 shows up in the vote totals
on lever machines significantly more frequently than would be expected
if vote totals were randomly distributed — that is, the number of 99’s
is noticably different from the number of 98’s or 100’s. The probable
explanation is that it takes more force to turn the vote counting wheels
in a lever machine from 99 to 100, and therefore, if the counter is going
to jam, it is more likely to jam at 99. The fact that this is a frequent
occurance in vote totals reported from lever machines is empirical evidence
that the lever machines that have been used in real elections are, in fact,
inadequately maintained and that this results in the loss of a significant
number of votes. Exhaustive pre-election testing would be expected to detect
these jams, but exhaustive testing of a mechanism as complex as a lever
voting machine is very time consuming, and performing such tests on every
voting machine prior to every election would be prohibitively expensive.

Punched Cards for Voting

… one card for every individual enumerated, in which holes are punched
according to various possible answers to questions contained in the schedule.

(F. H. Wines, The Census of 1900,
National Geographic Jan. 1900)

The standard punched card, originally invented by

Herman Hollerith
,
was first used for vital statistics tabulation by the Baltimore Board of
Health. After this trial use, punched cards were
adopted for use in the 1890 census. Hollerith wasn’t working in a vacuum.
His idea for using punched cards for data processing came after he’d seen
the punched cards used to control Jaquard looms.

IBM
developed pre-scored punched cards and the Port-A-Punch card punch.
In the early 1960’s, two professors at the University of California at Berkeley
adapted this for voting.
Joseph P. Harris
, from the political science department, had the
idea, and sought help from William Rouverol, of the mechanical engineering
department. They made several improvements to the Port-A-Punch,
patented them, and formed Harris Votomatic, Inc. to sell the result.
After a large-scale trial at the Oregon State Fair, the system was used
in primaries in Fulton and DeKalb Counties, Georgia;
By the general election that fall, several counties
in Oregon and California had moved to this new technology, and things
looked promising enough that, in 1965, IBM bought the company.

Figure 8:  A Votomatic Ballot, minus the ballot stub

 

 [235 position Votomatic ballot]

The Votomatic ballot shown in Figure 8 has 235 voting positions. Other
ballot layouts support 228 and 235 voting positons. No matter what the
layout, the preprinted information on the Votomatic ballot contains little
more than voting-position numbers. The actual names of candidates and
the text of ballot questions is not printed on these ballots, but rather,
must be provided elsewhere, either on the ballot label attached to the
Votomatic machine, or in a booklet provided with the ballot when it is used
for absentee voting.

Figure 9:  A Votomatic voting machine

 

 [photo of a Votomatic voting machine]

The Votomatic machine shown in Figure 9 is essentially the same as the original
IBM Portapunch, mounted vertically in a panel that is designed to
be integrated into a voting booth. The entire booth, consisting of
the machine itself, plus sides, back and legs. These booths are well
enough designed that many jurisdictions that have abandoned the Votomatic
ballot have retained the booths, replacing the Votomatic machine with a
tabletop that can be used with their newer voting system.

The Votomatic ballot is pre-scored at each voting position so that punching
with a stylus through that position into an appropriate backing will remove
a rectangle of chad, leaving a hole that is counted as a vote. The backing
used inside the Votomatic machine is a complex structure of elastomeric
strips, and the stylus has a relatively comfortable handle on it. When used
for absentee voting, a disposable styrofoam sheet is generally used as backing,
and in some jurisdictions, the stylus for absentee ballots is an unbent
paperclip.

The ballot card is held in proper alignment in the Votomatic machine by
holes in the ballot stub that fit over pins at the top of the machine.
When the ballot is inserted in the machine, the face of the machine
completely covers the ballot, with the exception of small holes over
those voting positions relevant to the current election. The pages of
the ballot label are hinged to the face of the machine; when the book
made up by the pages of the ballot label is open, one column of voting
positions on the ballot is exposed. The ballot label mounted on the
machine shown in Figure 9 is a replica of the first two pages of the
notorious “butterfly ballot” used in Palm Beach County Florida during
the 2000 general election.

Figure 10:  A Data Punch voting machine
with ballot.

 

 [photo of a Datapunch voting machine]

IBM got out of the Votomatic business in 1969, after problems with this
technology began coming to light. Later Votomatic machines (including the
one pictured) were made by Computer Election Services Inc. and several other
IBM licencees. CESI was later absorbed into Election Systems and Software.
Similar mechanisms were made under the Data-Punch trademark
by Election Data Corporation of St. Charles, Illinois.

The example Data-Punch machine shown in Figure 10 is far closer to the original
IBM Portapunch than the Votomatic machine in Figure 9. Unlike the latter, it
is not integrated into the voting booth, but rather, can be used loose on a
desktop. This machine in Figure 10 has has a full book of ballot labels
mounted on it, but they are generic pages with only the positon numbers
printed on them. Both the ballot cards and the hinged ballot label holders
used with this machine are completely compatible with those of the Votomatic
machine, and in some jurisdictions, both machines have been used
interchangably.

The Data-Punch machine in Figure 10 has a 228 position Votomatic ballot
inserted in it, and the punching stylus has been pushed through voting
position 72. Note how the alignment holes in the ballot stub fit
over the red alignment pins on the machine. The actual punched-card
portion of the ballot is entirely hidden inside the machine; only the
tear-off stub is visible. In addition to the alignment holes, the stub
also contains a blank for write-in votes, and when the stub is folded
over along the perforations that separate it from the ballot, it serves
as a privacy cover, hiding both the write-in votes, if any, and any holes
that have been punched.

At the far end of the ballot stub is a small tear-off tab.
The details of how this is used vary from one jurisdiction to
another, but the following is typical: the tear-off tab is
serial numbered; the number on the tab is recorded when the ballot is
issued to the voter, and after the voter has voted, the tab is checked
against the pollbook to see that the voter is returning the same ballot
that was issued. This is a defense agains chain voting, a vote buying
scheme in which a crook gives the voter a pre-voted ballot, the voter
votes that ballot, and then after leaving the polling place, sells his blank
ballot to the crook, who votes it and then gives it to the next willing
participant.

Once the tab has been used to verify that a voted ballot is legitimate,
it is torn off and the ballot, with the stub still folded over to hide
the votes, is deposited in the ballot box. When the time comes to count
the ballots, the stubs are unfolded and any ballots that contain write-in
votes are separated so that the write-ins can be hand-tabulated. The ballots
are then separated from the stubs and stacked for tabulation. The tabulation
may be done either by a computer equipped with a standard punched-card
reader or by an electromechanical punched-card tabulating machine.

Figure 11:  A Votomatic ballot seen from the back

 

 [close up of a Votomatic ballot]

Problems with Votomatic technology have been known since the late 1960’s.
It is common to notice a few pieces of chad accumulating in areas where
Votomatic ballots are being processed, and each of these may represent
a vote added to some candidates total by accident. Roy Saltman of the
National Bureau of Standards published several reports in the mid 1980’s
calling for the abandonment of Votomatic technology because of these and
other problems, but these reports were ignored by all but a few.

It was not until the general election of November 2000 that problems with
the Votomatic voting technology became the subject of widespread public
discussion. The focus of much of this discussion was dimpled chad;
Figure 11 shows a cleanly punched hole and a dimple in a 228 position
Votomatic ballot. It is noteworthy that 12 punch positions on the
228 position ballot are directly over internal braces inside the Votomatic
mechanism, and that these positions are particularly prone to the
development of chad jams that may prevent clean punching in those positions.

The problem with such dimples during a hand recount is that, unlike the case
with the classic Australian ballot, it is difficult for a human looking at
such a dimple to determine the voter’s intent. Every literate person has had
years of experience evaluating pencil marks on paper, but very few people have
had more than passing exposure to the problems of evaluating bits of chad.
It is possible but unlikely that a dimple could be caused by voter hesitation,
where the stylus was gently pushed against that voting position and then
withdrawn. It is also possible but unlikely that the voter pushed hard
enough to create a clean punch while there was something obstructing the hole.
It is possible to distinguish between these two cases by microscopic
examination using of the back of the dimple, but few have the expertise to
do this.

Figure 12:  A DataVote ballot

 

 [a datavote ballot]

There is another punched card voting technology that has proven to be far
less troublesome than the Votomatic. This is the DataVote system.
Unlike Votomatic ballots, DataVote ballots must be specially printed for
each election, with the candidate names printed by each punching position.
This limits Datavote ballots are punched in only two columns of punching
positions along the two edges of the ballot, with the remainder of the space
reserved for ballot text. Each ballot can hold, in theory, about 70
voting positions (35 per column) but to avoid cramped presentation, the normal
practice is to double or tripple space candidate names, so the effective
capacity of a single DataVote ballot is much smaller. In a typical
general election in the United States,

When used to cast absentee votes, DataVote ballots are prescored, just like
Votomatic ballots. When used in the polling place, DataVote ballots are
punched using an inexpensive formed sheet-metal punching fixture that
holds the ballot in alignment and cleanly punches a hole. Although voters
need some training to learn to align the punch properly, this system avoids
all of the chad problems of the Votomatic and has performed very well in the
small fraction of all jurisdictions that have used it.

Optical Mark-Sense Scanners

Mark-sense scanning has its roots in the world of standardized testing.
In
1937,
IBM
introduced the

Type 805 Test Scoring Machine
,
sensing graphite pencil marks on paper by their electrical conductivity.
These were used for the first generation of machine-scored educational
tests, most notably the SAT. This remained in use into the 1950’s.

Optical mark-sense scanning was developed as an alternative to IBM’s
electrical system. IBM had explored optical mark sensing in years earlier,
but Professor E. F. Lindquist of the University
of Iowa developed the ACT exam and directed the development of the first
practical optical mark-sense test scoring machines in the mid 1950’s.
The rights to this technology were sold to Westinghouse Learning Corporation
in 1968, and in 1974, Robert J. Urosevich of the Klopp Printing Company
visited the Westinghouse offices in Iowa City and initiated Westinghouse’s
experiments with using their mark-sense tabulators to scan ballots.

The first use of mark-sense ballots was in 1962, in Kern City, California,
using a mark-sense system developed by the Norden Division of United Aircraft
and the City of Los Angeles. Development of this 15,000 pound system began in
1958 and commercialized as the Coleman and later Gyrex Vote Tally System.
The system remained in use in Orange County for over a decade. The system
also saw use in Oregon, Ohio and North Carolina.

Another early development was the Votronic ballot tabulator, an optical
mark-sense voting system that was used in San Diego in 1964 and was used in
many California counties in 1968, and also approved for use in Ohio.
When compared to earlier scanners, the Votronic was small and easy to
operate. Although originally incorporated as Votronic Corporation, Cubic
Corporation adsorbed the company in 1964.
This was the first
vendor to sell reasonable numbers of mark-sense ballot tabulators.

The Westinghouse system, based on the Westinghouse Learning Corporation
M-600 page scanner, was developed in conjunction with Data Mark Systems and
was first used for an election in Douglas City Nebraska in 1976. In 1979,
American Information Systems emerged from the ashes of this venture and
in 1982, the AIS model 315 central-count ballot tabulator saw its first
official use in several Nebraska counties. In 1997, AIS was reorganized
as Election Systems and Software after merger with Business Records
Corporation.

 [photo]

ES&S 150 Central Count Scanner

The ballot scanner shown here, made by Election Systems and Software
is typical of central-count optical mark sense
systems. The model 150 and 550 differ in speed; the 150 is slower, suitable
for small counties and for processing absentee ballots that have been
folded for mailing, while the 550 and later 650 are faster, more appropriate
for large counties.

In use, ballots to be counted are loaded on the tray to the right
(shown with a few ballots in place) and then they are automatically fed
through the reader mechanism and ejected into the output tray on the left.
The scanner includes, within its body, a complete computer system, and
it sits on a wheeled cart that also holds a printer and supplies.

 [photo]

Optech Eagle (ES&S)

The Optech IIIP Eagle originally made Business Records Corporation and later
(as a result of merger and an antitrust decision) by both Sequoia Voting
Systems and by Election Systems and Software
is typical of modern precinct-count optical mark-sense
ballot scanning systems. The machine in the photo consists of two major
parts, the ballot box (blue) and the head (white). The box is just that, a
secure container for the ballots the machine has counted, while the head
contains the scanner and electronics.

The ballot box on the Eagle and most other precinct-count ballot tabulating
machines contains three compartments. One compartment holds ballots that
were not scanned by the machine. This compartment is considered an emergency
feature; it is intended that it be used only if the scanner does not work,
and in normal use, it is sealed shut. After the polls are closed, any ballots
deposited in this compartment are typically fed through a working scanner
by the precinct election workers or they are subject to a hand count.

Ballots are diverted into one or the other of the two remaining compartments
inside the ballot box by a software controlled diverter mechanism. One
compartment is for ballots that do not require human inspection, while the
other is for ballots that must be hand inspected, for example, those
containing write-in votes.

Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines

The first proposals for electrical vote recording date back to the mid
19th century. In 1850, Albert Henderson patented an electrochemical vote
recorder for legislative roll-call votes (U.S. Patent 7,521). This system
allowed legislators to vote by holding down either the aye or
nay telegraph key on their desk to remotely print their name
in either the aye or nay column on a piece of damp blotter
paper that served as the official record of the vote. Edison refined this
idea in his 1869 patent by adding electromechanical counters to count the
votes (U.S. Patent 90,646), and in 1898, Frank S. Wood proposed a push-button
paperless electrical voting machine for use in polling places
(U.S. Patent 616,174).

Occasional patents for such machinery continued to be filed over the next
70 years, but none of these appear to have come to anything until
McKay, Ziebold, Kirby et al developed their electronic voting machine
in 1974 (U.S. Patent 3,793,505). This machine, known commercially as the
Video Voter, was first used in real elections in 1975, in Streamwood and
Woodstock Illinois. Following these demonstrations, several Illinois counties
purchased the system and used it between 1976 and 1980, approximately.
This system was probably the first direct-recording electronic voting system
to be used in a real election.

 [photo]

Electrovote 2000 (Fidlar)

The Electrovote 2000 voting machine sold by Fidlar-Doubleday (formerly
Fidlar and Chambers) is a wedge shaped affair, basically
an IBM PC compatable with a touch screen, packaged for voting, with
a secure case that prevents keyboard or mouse from being plugged in while
it is in the polling place. The machine plugs into a network hub that
also includes a UPS (uninterruptable power supply, including battery pack),
and sits in a voting booth that is little more than a table with a corrugated
plastic privacy screen — this is a bare minimum voting booth, but the
flat panel display screen on the voting machine has very poor off axis
viewing, so the privacy is a bit better than the minimal booth suggests.
The machine in this photo was on when the picture was taken, with a ballot
displayed on the screen, black text on a white background.

The Global Election Systems Model 100 Electronic Ballot Station is quite
similar looking, with many of the same features. To the voter, the most
visible difference is that it incorporates a smartcard interface. With
the EV2000, the polling place worker enables the machine with an ID code
entered on the screen, while with the EBS100, each voter is given a smartcard
that is good for one use.

 [photo]

Microvote

The Microvote Electronic Voting Computer represents an older generation of
direct recording electronic voting machines. This uses push-buttons adjacent
to each ballot item to cast votes, with a light by each button giving
positive feedback that the vote has been registered. The ballot issues are
printed on a paper ballot label that is protected behind a window between the
rows of buttons, and the machine itself opens up and assembles into a voting
booth, just as the classic lever machines did - the side privacy panels
of the machine in the photo were folded into the lid at the time, in order
to allow greater visibility during a demonstration of the machine.

The Microvote machine has only 64 buttons, and many elections would require
significantly more than this if the full ballot were to be displayed at once.
Microvote has a patented “ballot paging system” that allows a ballot with
up to 512 candidates or positions on issues to be divided into 8 pages for
presentation. The ballot label is printed on a single scroll, with the pages
printed side-by-side, and the machine contains a motor drive that advances
the scroll to the left or right as the voter works through the issues on the
ballot.


I am indebted to Laura Rigal for her suggestion that Bingham’s County Election
(Figure 1) would be a good illustration. This painting was made in 1851-52,
and this particular version of the painting is from the St. Louis Art Museum;
Bingham produced a second version (without the dark figure directly under
the judge flipping a coin) and he commissioned an engraving that was sold
widly.

All of the 19th century ballots shown here are in the Special Collections
department of the Iowa State Historical Society Library in Iowa City.
The ballot in Figure 3 is from the Dolliver papersa the ballot in
Figure 4 is from the Larrabee papers.
The digital images were made by the author.

The ballot in Figure 6 is from the personal collection of
Jim Dowling of Sac City, IA; he purchased it in 1997 from an antique
dealer near Savanah GA. There are Richland Counties in several states,
but John Wolff Crews, 1890-1962, was a prominant
South Carolina Legislator and Jurist and almost certainly the John W. Crews
listed as a candidate on this ballot.
The digital images were made by the author.

The Data Punch and Votomatic ballots and voting systems shown here are
from the author’s collection. The digital image in Figure 7 was made
by the author; those in Figures 9, 10 and 11 were made by Ted Herman.

The DataVote ballot in Figure 12 is from the collection of Kurt Hyde.

I am indebted to Todd Urosevich of Election Systems and Software for
his help with the early history of mark-sense voting systems. Herb Deutsch
at ES&S has also been very helpful, particularly with regard to the early
history of DRE voting systems.


The History of Voting Machines
from
inventors.about.com
offers an interesting history of voting.

Elon Hasson’s paper,

How secret is your Vote?
is a useful survey of many related issues.
This was a student paper in
Lydia Loren’s fall 1999 course,
Cyberspace Law
at Lewis and Clark College.

Vinayapiñake



Mahàvaggapàëiyà

Dutiyo bhàgo

6 Bhesajjakkhandhakaü


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.

1. Tena samayena buddho bhagavà sàvatthiyaü viharati jetavane
anàthapiõóikassa àràme. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhånaü sàradikena
àbàdhena phuññhànaü yàgupi pãtà uggacchati. Bhattampi bhuttaü
uggacchati. Te tena kisà honti låkhà dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà
dhamanisanthatagattà. Addasà kho bhagavà te bhikkhå kise låkhe dubbaõõe
uppaõóuppaõóukajàte dhamanisanthatagatte. Disvàna àyasmantaü ànandaü
àmantesi: “kinnukho ànanda etarahi bhikkhå kisà låkhà dubbaõõà
uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà dhamanisanthatagattà?” Ti.

2. Etarahi bhante bhikkhånaü sàradikena àbàdhena phuññhànaü yàgupi
pãtà uggacchati. Bhattampi bhuttaü uggacchati. Te tena kisà honti1 låkhà
dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà dhamanisanthatagattà”ti.

3. Atha kho bhagavato rahogatassa patisallãnassa evaü cetaso
parivitakko udapàdi: “etarahi kho bhikkhånaü sàradikena àbàdhena
phuññhànaü yàgupi pãtà uggacchati. Bhattampi bhuttaü uggacchati. Te tena
kisà låkhà dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà dhamanisanthatagattà. Kinnå kho
ahaü bhikkhånaü bhesajjaü anujàneyyaü, yaü bhesajja¤ceva assa
bhesajjasammata¤ca lokassa. âhàrattha¤ca phareyya. Na ca oëàriko àhàro
pa¤¤àyeyyà” ti.

1. “Honti” ånaü sã mu.

[BJT Page 522] [\x 522/]

4. Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: “imàni kho pa¤ca bhesajjàni.
Seyyathãdaü: sappi navanãtaü telaü madhu phàõitaü bhesajjàni ceva
bhesajjasammatàni ca lokassa. âhàrattha¤ca pharanti. Na ca oëàriko àhàro
pa¤¤àyati. Yannånàhaü bhikkhånaü imàni pa¤ca bhesajjàni anujàneyyaü
kàle pañiggahetvà kàle paribhu¤jitu”nti.

5. Atha kho bhagavà sàyaõhasamayaü patisallànà vuññhito etasmiü
nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “idha
mayhaü bhikkhave, rahogatassa patisallãnassa evaü cetaso parivitakko
udapàdi: ‘etarahi kho bhikkhånaü sàradikena àbàdhena phuññhànaü yàgupi
pãtà uggacchati. Bhattampi bhuttaü uggacchati. Te tena kisà låkhà
dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà dhamanisanthatagattà. Kinnu kho ahaü
bhikkhånaü bhesajjaü anujàneyyaü. Yaü kho1 bhesajjaü ceva assa,
bhesajjasammata¤ca lokassa. âhàrattha¤ca phareyya. Na ca oëàriko àhàro
pa¤¤àyeyyà”ti.

6. Tassa mayhaü bhikkhave, etadahosi: “imàni kho pa¤ca bhesajjàni.
[PTS Page 200] [\q 200/] seyyathãdaü: sappi navanãtaü telaü madhu
phàõitaü bhesajjàni ceva bhesajjasammatàni ca lokassa. âhàrattha¤ca
pharanti. Na ca oëàriko àhàro pa¤¤àyati. Yannånàhaü bhikkhånaü imàni
pa¤ca bhesajjàni anujàneyyaü kàle pañiggahetvà kàle paribhu¤jitu”nti.
“Anujànàmi bhikkhave, tàni pa¤ca bhesajjàni kàle pañiggahetvà kàle
paribhu¤jitu” nti.

7. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå tàni pa¤ca bhesajjàni kàle
pañiggahetvà kàle paribhu¤janti. Tesaü yànipi tàni pàkatikàni låkhàni
bhojanàni, tànipi nacchàdenti. Pageva senesikàni 2. Te tena ceva
sàradikena àbàdhena phuññhà iminà ca bhattacchàdakena 3 tadubhayena
bhiyosomattàya kisà honti låkhà dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà
dhamanisanthatagattà.

8. Addasà kho bhagavà te bhikkhå bhiyyosomattàya kise låkhe dubbaõõe
uppaõóuppaõóukajàte dhamanisanthatagatte. Disvàna àyasmantaü ànandaü
àmantesi: “kinnu kho ànanda, etarahi bhikkhå bhiyyosomattàya kisà låkhà
dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà dhamanisanthatagattà?”Ti.

9. Etarahi bhante bhikkhå tàni pa¤ca bhesajjàni kàle pañiggahetvà
kàle paribhu¤janti. Tesaü yànipi tàni pàkatikàni låkhàni bhojanàni,
tànipi nacchàdenti. Pageva senesikàni 2. Te tena ceva sàradikena
àbàdhena phuññhà iminà ca bhattacchàdakena 3 tadubhayena bhiyyosomattàya
kisà honti låkhà dubbaõõà uppaõóuppaõóukajàtà dhamanisanthatagattà”ti.

1. “Kho” ånaü. Machasaü.

2. “Sinehikàni” katthaci “sineyikàni” machasaü. (Yojanà)

3. “Bhattàcchàdakena, machasaü. Bhattàcchantakena” itipi

[BJT Page 524] [\x 524/]

10. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, tàni pa¤ca bhesajjàni
pañiggahetvà kàlepi vikàlepi paribhu¤jitu” nti.

11. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü vasehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave vasàni
bhesajjàni: acchavasaü macchavasaü susukàvasaü såkaravasaü gadrabhavasaü
kàle pañiggahitaü kàle nippakkaü1 kàle saüsattaü2 telaparibhogena
paribhu¤jituü. Vikàle ce bhikkhave, pañiggahitaü vikàle nippakkaü vikàle
saüsattaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti tiõõaü dukkañànaü. Kàle ce
bhikkhave, pañiggahitaü vikàle nippakkaü vikàle saüsattaü, ta¤ce
paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dvinnaü dukkañànaü. Kàle ce bhikkhave,
pañiggahitaü kàle nippakkaü vikàle saüsattaü, taü ce paribhu¤jeyya,
àpatti dukkañassa. Kàle ce bhikkhave, pañiggahitaü kàle nippakkaü kàle
saüsattaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya, anàpattã” ti.

12. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü målehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. [PTS Page 201] [\q 201/]
“anujànàmi bhikkhave, målàni bhesajjàni: haliddiü siïgiveraü vacaü
vacatthaü ativisaü kañukarohiõiü usãraü bhaddamuttakaü. Yàni và
pana¤¤ànipi atthi målàni bhesajjàni neva khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü
pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti, tàni pañiggahetvà
yàvajãvaü pariharituü, sati paccaye paribhu¤jituü. Asati paccaye
paribhu¤jantassa àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

13. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü målehi bhesajjehi
piññhehi attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, nisadaü nisadapotaka”nti3 .

14. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü kasàvehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, kasàvàni
bhesajjàni: nimbakasàvaü kuñajakasàvaü pañolakasàvaü siggavakasàvaü
nattamàlakasàvaü. Yàni và pana¤¤ànipi atthi kasàvàni4 bhesajjàni neva
khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti,
tàni pañiggahetvà yàvajãvaü pariharituü, sati paccaye paribhu¤jituü.
Asati paccaye paribhu¤jantassa àpatti dukkañassà’ ti.

15. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü paõõehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, paõõàni
bhesajjàni: nimbapaõõaü kuñajapaõõaü pañolapaõõaü sulasipaõõaü
kappàsipaõõaü.5 Yàni và pana¤¤ànipi atthi paõõàni bhesajjàni neva
khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti,
tàni pañiggahetvà yàvajãvaü pariharituü, sati paccaye paribhu¤jituü.
Asati paccaye paribhu¤jantassa àpatti dukkañassà’ ti.

1. “Nipakkaü” itipi. 2. “Saüsaññhaü” ñãkà. 3. “Nisadapotanti” a. Vi.
To vi. [P T S.] Ja vi. 4. “Kasàva” machasaü. 5. “Kappàsapaõõaü”
machasaü. 5. “Kappàsikapaõõaü” [PTS]

[BJT Page 526] [\x 526/]

16. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü phalehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, phalàni
bhesajjàni: viëaïgaü pipphaliü maricaü harãñakaü vibhãñakaü àmalakaü
goññhaphalaü1, yàni và pana¤¤àni pi atthi phalàni bhesajjàni, neva
khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti,
tàni pañiggahetvà yàvajãvaü pariharituü. Sati paccaye paribhu¤jituü.
Asati paccaye paribhu¤jantassa àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

17. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü jatåhi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, jatåni
bhesajjàni: hiügu giügujatu2 hiügusipàñikaü takaü takapattiü [PTS Page
202] [\q 202/] takapaõõiü sajjulasaü, yàni và pana¤¤ànipi atthi jatåni
bhesajjàni neva khadanãye khàdanãyatthaü pharanti, na bhojanãye
bhojanãyatthaü pharanti, tàni pañiggahetvà yàvajãvaü pariharituü, sati
paccaye paribhu¤jituü. Asati paccaye paribhu¤jantassa àpatti dukkañassà”
ti.

18. Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü loõehi bhesajjehi
attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, loõàni
bhesajjàni: sàmuddaü kàëaloõaü sindhavaü ubbhidaü biëàlaü3, yàni và
pana¤¤ànipi atthi loõàni bhesajjàni, neva khàdanãye khàdanãyatthaü
pharanti, na bhojanãye bhojanãyatthaü pharanti, tàni pañiggahetvà
yàvajãvaü pariharituü, sati paccaye paribhu¤jituü. Asati paccaye
paribhu¤jantassa àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

19. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato ànandassa upajjhàyassa àyasmato
belaññhisãsassa4 thullakacchàbàdho hoti. Tassa lasikàya cãvaràni kàye
lagganti. Tàni bhikkhå udakena temetvà temetvà apakaóóhanti.

20. Addasà kho bhagavà senàsanacàrikaü àhiõóanto te bhikkhå tàni
cãvaràni udakena temetvà temetvà apakaóóhante. Disvàna yena te bhikkhå
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà te bhikkhå etadavoca: “kiü imassa
bhikkhave, bhikkhuno àbàdho” ti. “Imassa bhante àyasmato
thullakacchàbàdho. Lasikàya cãvaràni kàye lagganti. Tàni mayaü udakena
temetvà temetvà apakaóóhàmà” ti.

21. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmanetasi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, yassa kaõóu và piëakà và
assàvo và thullakacchu và àbàdho, kàyo và duggandho, cuõõàni bhesajjàni.
Agilànassa chakaõaü mattikaü rajananippakkaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
udukkhalamusala”nti.

1. Koññhaphalaü itipi 2. “Hiügu” “hiügujatuü” machasaü.

3. “Bilaü” ma ja saü. 4. “Belaññhasãsassa” ma ja saü. [P T S.]

[BJT page 528 22.] Tena kho pana samayena gilànànaü bhikkhånaü
cuõõehi bhesajjehi càlitehi attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Anujànàmi bhikkhave, cuõõacàlini”nti. Saõhehi attho hoti. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, dussacàlini”nti.

23. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno amanussikàbàdho
hoti. Taü àcariyupajjhàyà upañañhahantà nàsakkhiüsu arogaü kàtuü. So
såkarasånaü gananvà àmakamaüsa¤ca 1 khàdi. âmakalohita¤ca2 pivi. Tassa
so amanussikàbàdho pañippassambhi. Bhagavato etamatthaü [PTS Page 203]
[\q 203/] àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, amanussikàbàdhe àmakamaüsaü
àmakalohita” nti.

24. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno cakkhurogàbàdho
hoti. Taü bhikkhu pariggahetvà uccàrampi passàvampi nikkhàmenti.

25. Addasà kho bhagavà senàsanacàrikaü àhiõóanto te bhikkhå taü
bhikkhuü pariggahetvà uccàrampi passàvampi nikkhàmente. Disvàna yena te
bhikkhå tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà te bhikkhå etadavoca: “kiü imassa
bhikkhave, bhikkhuno àbàdho” ti. “Imasasa bhaneta, àyasmato
cakkhurogàbàdho. Imaü mayaü pariggahetvà uccàrampi passàvampi
nikkhàmemà” ti.

26. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmanetasi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, a¤janaü: kàëa¤janaü
rasa¤janaü sota¤janaü gerukaü kapallaka”3 nti. A¤janåpapiüsanehi4 attho
hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, candanaü
tagaraü kàëànusàriyaü tàlãsaü bhaddamuttaka” nti.

27. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå piññhàni a¤janàni thàlakesupi5
saràvakesupi nikkhipanti. Tiõacuõõehipi paüsukehipi okirãyanti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, a¤jani” nti.

28. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhå uccàvacà a¤janiyo
dhàrenti: sovaõõamayaü råpãmayaü. Manussà ujjhàyanti, khãyanti,
vipàcenti: “seyyathàpi gihã kàmabhogino” ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, uccàvacà a¤janiyo6 dhàretabbà. Yo dhàreyya,
àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, aññhimayaü dantamayaü
visàõamayaü naëamayaü veëumayaü kaññhamayaü jatumayaü phalamayaü
lohamayaü saïkhanàbhimaya”nti.

29. Tena kho pana samayena a¤janiyo apàrutà honti. Tiõacuõõehipi
paüsukehipi okirãyanti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, apidhàna” nti. Apidhànaü patati 7. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
suttakena bandhitvà a¤janiyà bandhitu”nti. A¤janã phalati 8. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, suttakena sibbetu” nti.

1. “âmakamaüsaü” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “âmakalohitaü” machasaü. 3.
“Kapallaü” ma ja saü 4. “A¤janåpapisanehi” machasaü [P T S. 5.]
“Carukesupi” ma cha saü. 6. “A¤janã” machasaü. [P T S. 7.] “Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü” machasaü. 8. “Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü” [P T
S.]

[BJT Page 530] [\x 530/]

30. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå aïguliyà a¤janti. Akkhãni dukkhàni
honti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
a¤janisalàka” nti.

31. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhu uccàvacà
a¤janisalàkàyo dhàrenti sovaõõamayaü råpãmayaü. 1 Manussà [PTS Page 204]
[\q 204/] ujjhàyanti, khãyanti, vipàcenti: “seyyathàpi gihã
kàmabhogino”ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, uccàvacà
a¤janisalàkà dhàretabbà. Yo dhàreyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, aññhimayaü dantamayaü visàõamayaü naëamayaü veëumayaü
kaññhamayaü jatumayaü phalamayaü lohamayaü saïkhanàbhimaya” nti.

32. Tena kho pana samayena a¤janisalàkà bhåmiyaü patità pharusà hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, salàkodhàniya”nti
2.

33. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå a¤janimpi a¤janisalàkampi hatthena
pariharanti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
a¤janitthavika” nti. Aüsavaññako 3 na hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, aüsavaññakaü4 bandhanasutta” nti.

34. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa 5 sãsàbhitàpo
hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, muddhani
telaka”nti. Nakkhamaõiyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, natthukammanti. Natthu galati. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, natthukaraõi” nti.

35. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhå uccàvacà
natthukaraõiyo dhàrenti: sovaõõamayaü råpãmayaü. Manussà ujjhàyanti,
khãyanti, vipàcenti: “seyyathàpi gihã kàmabhogino”ti. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, uccàvacà natthukaraõã dhàretabbà. Yo
dhàreyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, aññhimayaü dantamayaü
visàõamayaü naëamayaü veëumayaü kaññhamayaü chatumayaü phalamayaü
lohamayaü saïkhanàbhimaya”nti. Natthuü visamaü àsi¤cãyati 6. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, yamakaü natthukaraõi” nti. 7
Nakkhamaõãyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. ‘Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
dhåmaü pàtu” nti. Ta¤¤eva vaññiü àlimpetvà pivanti. Kaõñho8 óahati.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, dhåmanetta” nti.

36. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhu uccàvacàni
dhåmanettàni, dhàrenti sovaõõamayaü råpãmayaü. Manussà ujjhàyanti.
Khãyanti, vipàcenti: “seyyathàpi gihã kàmabhogino” ti. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, uccàvacàni dhåmanettàni
dhàretabbàni. Yo dhàreyya, àpatti dukkañassa. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
aññhimayaü dantamayaü visàõamayaü naëamayaü veëumayaü kaññhamayaü
chatumayaü phalamayaü lohamayaü saïkhanàbhimaya”nti.

37. Tena kho pana samayena dhåmanettàni apàrutàni honti. Pàõakà
pavisanti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
apidhàna”nti.

1. “Råpãmayaü” machasaü. 2. “Salàkañhàniyanti” machasaü.
“Salàkàdhàniyanti’ ma nu pa. 3. “Aüsabaddhako” machasaü. [P T S. 4.]
“Aüsabaddhakaü” machasaü. [P T S. 5.] “Piëindacacchassa” machasaü. [P T
S.] A vi. To vi. 6. “âsi¤canti” machasaü. [P T S. 7.] “Yamaka
natthukaraõinti” ma cha saü. [P T S. 8.] “Kaõñhaü” [P T S.]

[BJT Page 532] [\x 532/]

38. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå dhåmanettàni hatthena pariharanti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
dhåmanettatthavika” nti. Ekato ghaüsãyanti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, yamakatthavika” nti. Aüsavaññako na
hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, aüsavaññakaü
bandhanasutta” nti.

+++++++++ 39. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindicchavassa [PTS
Page 205] [\q 205/] vàtàbàdho hoti. Vejjà evamàhaüsu: “telaü pacitabba”
nti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, telapàka” nti.
Tasmiü kho pana telapàke majjaü pakkhipitabbaü hoti. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, telapàke majjaü pakkhipitu”
nti.

40. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhå atipakkhittamajjàni
telàni pacanti. Tàni pivitvà majjanti bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. ”
Na bhikkhave, atipakkhittamajjaü telaü pàtabbaü. Yo piveyya, yathà
dhammo kàretabbo. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, yasmiü telapàke majjassa na ca
vaõõo1 na ca gandho na ca raso pa¤¤àyati, evaråpaü majjapakkhittaü telaü
pàtu” nti.

41. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhånaü bahuü atipakkhittamajjaü telaü
pakkaü hoti. Atha kho bhikkhånaü etadahosi: “kathannu kho
atipakkhittamajje tele pañipajjitabba” nti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, abbha¤janaü adhiññhàtu” nti.

42. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa bahuü telaü
pakkaü hoti. Telabhàjanaü na vijjati 2. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Anujànàmi bhikkhave, tãni tumbàni: lohatumbaü kaññhatumbaü phalatumba”
nti.

43. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa aïgavàto hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sedakamma” nti.
Nakkhamanãyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
sambhàraseda” nti. Nakkhakamanãyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
Anujànàmi bhikkhave mahàseda” nti. Nakkhamanãyo hoti. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave bhaïgodaka” nti. Nakkhakamanãyo
hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
udakakoññhaka” nti.

44. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato pilindivacchassa pabbavàto hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, lohitaü mocetu”
nti. Nakkhamanãyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, lohitaü mocetvà visàõena gahetu”nti. 3

45. Tena kho pana samayena ayasmato pilindivacchassa pàdà phalità 4
honti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
pàdabbha¤jana” nti. Nakkhamanãyo hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Anujànàmi bhikkhave, pajjaü abhisaïkaritu” nti.

1. “Majjassa na vaõõo” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “Saüvijjati” ma nu pa.
[P T S. 3.] “Gàhetunti” machasaü. To vi. A vi. 4. “Phàlità” sã mu.

[BJT Page 534] [\x 534/]

46. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno gaõóàbàdho hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, satthakamma” nti.
Kasàvodakena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave kasàvodaka”nti. Tilakakkena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, tilakakka”nti. Kabalikàya attho hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, kabalika”nti.
Vaõabandhanacolakena1 attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
Anujànàmi bhikkhave, vaõabandhanacolaka” nti. Vaõo kaõóuvati. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi, bhikkhave, sàsapakuõóena2 phositu” nti.
Vaõo kilijjittha 4. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. [PTS Page 206] [\q
206/] “anujànàmi bhikkhave, dhåmaü kàtu” nti. Vaóóhamaüsaü 5 vuññhàti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, loõasakkharikàya
chinditu” nti. Vaõo na råhati. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, vaõatela” nti. Telaü galati. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Anujànàmi bhikkhave, vikàsikaü sabbaü vaõapañikamma” nti.

47. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤ataro bhikkhå ahinà daññho hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, cattàri
mahàvikañàni dàtuü: guthaü muttaü chàrikaü mattika” nti. Atha kho
bhikkhånaü etadahosi: “apañiggahãtàni nu kho udàhu pañiggahetabbànã” ti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sati kappãyakàrake
pañiggahàpetuü, asati kappiyakàrake sàmaü gahetvà paribhu¤jitu” nti.

48. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarena bhikkhunà visaü pãtaü hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, gåthaü pàyetu” nti.
Atha kho bhikkhånaü etadahosi: “apañiggahito nu kho udàhu
pañiggahetabbà” ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
yaü karonto patigaõhàti, sveva pañiggaho kato hoti. Na puna
pañiggahàpetabbo” ti.

49. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno gharadinnakàbàdho
hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sãtàëoliü
pàyetu” nti.

50. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤ataro bhikkhu duññhagahaõiko hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, àmisakhàraü pàyetu”
nti.

51. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno paõóurogàbàdho hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, muttaharãñakaü
pàyetu” nti.

52. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno chavidosàbàdho hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, gandhàlepaü kàtu”
nti. 1.

“Vaõabandhanacolena” machasaü. [P T S.] A vi. Cha vi. 2.
“Sàsapakuóóena” sã mu. “Sàsapakuññhena” machasaü. [P T S] cha vi 3.
“Dhovitunti” ma nu pa. Cha vi. 4. “Kilijjattha” sã mu. 5. “Vaõamaüsaü”
[P T S. “.] “Posituü” sã. Mu. Phusituü?

[BJT Page 536] [\x 536/]

53. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤ataro bhikkhu abhisannakàyo hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, virecanaü pàtu”
nti. Acchaka¤jiyà attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, acchaka¤ji” nti. Akañayåsena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave akañayåsa” nti. Kañàkañena attho hoti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave kañàkaña” nti.
Pañicchàdanãyena attho hoti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, pañicchàdanãya” nti.

54. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà pilindivaccho ràjagahe pabbhàraü
sodhàpeti leõaü kattukàmo. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro
yenàyasmà pilindivaccho tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü
pilindivacchaü [PTS Page 207] [\q 207/] abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinno kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àyasmantaü
pilindivacchaü etadavoca: “kiü bhante thero kàràpetã” ti. “Pabbhàraü
mahàràja, sodhàpemi leõaü kattukàmo” ti. “Attho bhante, ayyassa
àràmikenà” ti. “Na kho mahàràja, bhagavatà àràmiko anu¤¤àto” ti. “Tena
hi bhante, bhagavantaü pañipucchitvà mama àroceyyàthà” ti. “Evaü
mahàràja” ti kho àyasmà pilindivaccho ra¤¤o màgadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa paccassosi.

55. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho ràjànaü màgadhaü seniyaü bimbisàraü
dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi.
Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àyasmatà pilindivacchena dhammiyà
kathàya sandassito samàdapito samuttejito sampahaüsito uññhàyàsanà
àyasmantaü pilindivacchaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkàmi.

56. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho bhagavato santike dåtaü pàhesi:
“ràjà bhante, màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àràmikaü dàtukàmo. Kathannu kho
bhante1 pañipajjitabba”nti. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü
pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave,
àràmika” nti.

57. Dutiyampi kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro yenàyasmà
pilindivaccho tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü pilindivacchaü
abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ràjà màgadho seniyo
bimbisàro àyasmantaü pilindivacchaü etadavoca: “anu¤¤àto bhante,
bhagavatà àràmiko” ti. “Evaü mahàràjà” ti. “Tena hi bhante, ayyassa
àràmikaü dammã” ti.

1. “Bhaneta mayà” machasaü.

[BJT Page 538] [\x 538/]

58. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro àyasmato pilindivacchassa
àràmikaü pañissutvà vissaritvà cirena satiü pañilabhitvà a¤¤ataraü
sabbatthakaü mahàmattaü àmanetasi: “yo mayà bhaõe, ayyassa àràmiko
pañissuto, dinno so àràmiko” ti. “Na kho deva ayyassa àràmiko dinno” ti.
“Kãva cirannu kho bhaõe, ito hi 1 taü hoti” ti. Atha kho so mahàmatto
rattiyo vigaõetvà 2 ràjànaü màgadhaü seniyaü bimbisàraü etadavoca:
“pa¤ca deva rattisatànã” ti. “Tena hi bhaõe, ayyassa pa¤ca àràmikasatàni
dehã” ti. 3 “Evaü devà” ti kho so mahàmatto ra¤¤o màgadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa pañissutvà àyasmato pilindivacchassa pa¤ca àràmikasatàni
pàdàsi. Pàñiyekko gàmo nivisi. âràmikagàmotipi4 naü àhaüsu.
Pilindigàmotipi5 naü àhaüsu.

59. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà pilindivaccho tasmiü gàmake
kulåpago hoti. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà
pattacãvaraü àdàya pilindigàmaü piõóàya pàvisi.

60. Tena kho pana samayena tasmiü gàmake ussavo hoti. Dàrakà
alaïkità6 màlàkità kãëanti. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho pilindigàmake
sapadànaü piõóàya caramàno yena a¤¤atarassa àràmikassa nivesanaü
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi.

61. Tena kho pana samayena tassà àràmikiniyà dhãtà a¤¤e dàrake
alaïkite màlàkite passitvà rodati: “màlaü me detha. Alaükàraü me dethà”
ti. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho taü àràmikiniü etadavoca: “kissàya
dàrikà rodatã” ti. “Ayaü bhaneta, dàrikà a¤¤e dàrake alaïkite màlàkite
passitvà rodati: ‘màlaü me detha. Alaïkàraü me dethà’ ti. Kuto amhàkaü
duggatànaü màlà. Kuto alaïkàro” ti.

62. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho a¤¤ataraü tiõaõóupakaü gahetvà taü
àràmikiniü etadavoca: “handimaü tiõaõóupakaü tassà dàrikàya sãse
pañimu¤cà”ti. Atha kho sà àràmikinã taü tiõaõóupakaü gahetvà tassà
dàrikàya sãse pañimu¤ci. Sà ahosi suvaõõamàlà abhiråpà dassanãyà
pàsàdikà. Natthi tàdisà ra¤¤opi antepure suvaõõamàlà. Manussà ra¤¤o
màgadhassa seniyassa bimbisàrassa àrocesuü: “amukassa deva, àràmikassa
seniyassa bimbisàrassa àrocesuü: “amukassa deva, àràmikassa ghare
suvaõõamàlà abhiråpà dassanãyà pàsàdikà. Natthi tàdisà devassàpi
antepure suvaõõamàlà. Kuto tassa duggatassa? Nissaüsayaü corikàya
àbhatà” ti. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro taü àràmikakulaü
bandhàpesi.

1. “Ito rattã” si. . 2. “Gaõetvà” machasaü. 3. “Dethàti” sãmu. 4.
“âràmãka gàmakotipi” 5. “Piëindagàmakotipi” machasaü. 6. “Alaïkatà”
machasaü.

[BJT Page 540] [\x 540/]

63. Dutiyampi kho àyasmà pilindivaccho pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà
pattacãvaraü àdàya pilindigàmaü piõóàya pàvisi. Pilindigàmake sapadànaü
piõóàya caramàno yena tassa àràmikassa nivesanaü tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà pañivissake pucchi: “kahaü imaü àràmikakulaü gata” nti.
“Etissà bhante, suvaõõamàlàya kàraõà ra¤¤à bandhàpita” nti.

64. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho yena ra¤¤o màgadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa nivesanaü tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane
nisãdi. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro yenàyasmà pilindivaccho
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü pilindivacchaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü [PTS Page 209] [\q 209/] kho
ràjànaü màgadhaü seniyaü bimbisàraü àyasmà pilindivaccho etadavoca:
“kissa mahàràja àràmikakulaü bandhàpita” nti. “Tassa bhante, àràmikassa
ghare suvaõõamàlà abhiråpà dassanãyà pàsàdikà. Natthi tàdisà amhàkampi
antepure suvaõõamàlà. Kuto tassa duggatassa? Nissaüsayaü corikàya
àbhatà” ti.

65. Atha kho àyasmà pilindivaccho ra¤¤o màgadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa pàsàdaü suvaõõanti adhimucci. So ahosi sabbasovaõõamayo.
“Idaü pana te mahàràja, tàva bahuü suvaõõaü kuto” ti. “A¤¤àtaü bhaneta,
ayyassa eso1 iddhànubhàvo” ti taü àràmikakulaü mu¤càpesi. Manussà
“ayyena kira pilindivacchena saràjikàya parisàya uttarimanussadhammà2
iddhipàñihàriyaü dassita” nti attamanà abhippasannà àyasmato
pilindivacchassa pa¤ca bhesajjàni abhihariüsu. Seyyathãdaü: sappi3
navanãtaü telaü madhu4 phàõita” nti.

66. Pakatiyàpi ca àyasmà pilindivaccho làbhã hoti pa¤cannaü
bhesajjànaü. Laddhaü laddhaü parisàya vissajjeti. Parisà cassa hoti
bàhulikà5. Laddhaü laddhaü kolambepi ghañepi påretvà pañisàmeti6.
Parissàvanànipi thavikàyopi påretvà vàtapànesu laggeti. Tàni
olãnavilãnàni tiññhanti. Undårehipi vihàrà okiõõà vikiõõà honti. Manussà
vihàracàrikaü àhiõóantà passãtvà ujjhàyanti, khãyanti, vipàcenti:
“anetà koññhàgàrikà ime samaõà sakyaputtiyà seyyathàpi ràjà màgadho
seniyo bimbisàro” ti.

67. Assosuü kho bhikkhu tesaü manussànaü ujjhàyantànaü khãyantànaü
vipàcentànaü. Ye te bhikkhå appicchà te ujjhàyanti, khãyanti, vipàcenti:
“kathaü hi nàma bhikkhå evaråpàya bàhullàya cetessantã” ti. Atha kho te
bhikkhå7 bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Saccaü kira bhikkhave, bhikkhå
evaråpàya bàhullàya cetentã”8ti. “Saccaü bhagavà” bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. Vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi. “Yàni kho
pana tàni gilànànaü bhikkhånaü pañisàyanãyàni bhesajjàni, seyyathãdaü:
sappi navanãtaü telaü madhu phàõitaü, tàni pañiggahetvà sattàhaparamaü
sannidhikàrakaü paribhu¤jitabbàni. Taü atikkàmayato yathà dhammo
kàretabbo” ti.

Bhesajjaanu¤¤àtabhàõavàro pañhamo

1. “Ayyasseveso” machasaü. 2. “Uttarimanussa dhammaü” ma cha saü. [P T
S. 3.] “Sappiü” machasaü. [P T S. 4.] “Madhuü” machasaü 5. “Bàhullikà”
machasaü. [P T S. 6.] “Pañisàmenti” a vi. Cha vi. 7. “Te anekapariyàyena
vigarahitvà” machasaü. 8. “Cetessantãti” sã mu.

[BJT Page 542] [\x 542/]

1. Atha kho bhagavà sàvatthiyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà [PTS Page 210] [\q 210/] yena ràjagahaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi.

2. Addasà kho àyasmà kaïkhàrevato antaràmagge guëakaraõaü okkamitvà
guëe piññhampi chàrikampi pakkhipante. Disvàna “akappiyo guëo. Sàmiso.
Na kappati guëo vikàle paribhu¤jitu” nti kukkuccàyanto sapariso guëaü na
paribhu¤jati. Yepissa sotabbaü ma¤¤anti, tepi guëaü na paribhu¤janti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Kimatthàya1 bhikkhave, guëe piññhampi
chàrikampi pakkhipantã” ti. “Bandhanatthàya2 bhagavà” ti. “Sace
bhikkhave, bandhanatthàya3 guëe piññhampi chàrikampi pakkhipanti, so ca
guëotveva saïkhaü gacchati. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, yathàsukhaü guëaü
paribhu¤jitu” nti.

3. Addasà kho àyasmà kaïkhàrevato antaràmagge vacce muggaü jàtaü.
Passitvà “akappiyà muggà. Pakkàpi muggà jàyantã” ti kukkuccàyanto
sapariso muggaü na paribhu¤jati. Yepissa sotabbaü ma¤¤anti tepi muggaü
na paribhu¤janti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Sace bhikkhave,
pakkàpi muggà jàyanti, anujànàmi bhikkhave, yathàsukhaü muggaü
paribhu¤jitu”nti.

4. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno udaravàtàbàdho hoti.
So loõasovãrakaü apàyi. Tassa so udaravàtàbàdho pañippassambhã.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, gilànassa
loõasovãrakaü agilànassa udakasambhinnaü pànaparibhogena paribhu¤jitu”
nti.

5. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena ràjagahaü
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà ràjagahe viharati veëuvane
kalandakanivàpe. Tena kho pana samayena bhagavato udaravàtàbàdho hoti.

6. Atha kho àyasmà ànando “pubbepi bhagavato udaravàtàbàdho
tekañulàya4 yàguyà phàsu hotã” ti sàmaü tilampi taõóulampi muggampi
vi¤¤àpetvà anto vàsetvà anto sàmaü pacitvà bhagavato upanàmesi “pivatu
bhagavà tekañulayàgu” nti.

7. Jànantàpi tathàgatà pucchanti. Jànantàpi na pucchanti. Kàlaü
viditvà pucchanti. Kàlaü viditvà na pucchanti. Atthasaühitaü tathàgatà
pucchanti. No anatthasaühitaü. Anatthasaühite setughato tathàgatànaü.
Dvãhi àkàrehi buddhà bhagavanto bhikkhå pañipucchanti: “dhammaü và
desissàma sàvakànaü và sikkhàpadaü pa¤¤àpessàmà” ti.

8. Atha kho bhagavà àyasmantaü [PTS Page 211] [\q 211/] ànandaü àmantesi “kuto yaü5 ànanda, yàgå ti.

1. “Kimatthiyà” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “Baddhatthàya” ma cha saü. ”
“Thaddhanatthàya” [P T S. 3.] “Thaddhatthàya” machasaü sãmu - kattha ci.
4. “Tekañula” machasaü. 5. “Kutàyaü” ma cha saü [P T S.]

[BJT Page 544] [\x 544/]

9. Atha kho àyasmà ànando bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesi. Vigarahi
buddho bhagavà “ananulomikaü appatiråpaü assàmaõakaü akappiyaü
akaraõãyaü. Kathaü hi nàma tvaü ànanda, evaråpàya bàhullàya cetessasi?
Yadapi ànanda, anto vutthaü1, tadapi akappiyaü. Yadapi anto pakkaü,
tadapi akappiyaü. Yadapi sàmaü pakkaü, tadapi akappiyaü. Netaü ànanda,
appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya vigarahitvà dhammiü
kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “na bhikkhave, anto vutthaü anto pakkaü
sàmaü pakkaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Anto
ce bhikkhave, vutthaü anto pakkaü a¤¤ehi pakkaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya,
àpatti dvinnaü dukkañànaü. Bahi ce bhikkhave, vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü
pakkaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dvinnaü dukkañànaü. Anto ce
bhikkhave vutthaü bahi pakkaü a¤¤ehi pakkaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti
dukkañassa. Bahi ce bhikkhave, vutthaü anto pakkaü a¤¤ehi pakkaü, ta¤ce
paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Bahi ce bhikkhave, vutthaü bahi
pakkaü sàmaü pakkaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya àpatti dukkañassa. Bahi ce
bhikkhave, vutthaü bahi pakkaü a¤¤ehi pakkaü, ta¤ce paribhu¤jeyya,
anàpattã” ti.

10. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå “bhagavato sàmaüpàko pañikkhitto”
ti puna pàke kukkuccàyanti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, puna pàkaü pacitu” nti.

11. Tena kho pana samayena ràjagahaü dubbhikkhaü hoti. Manussà
loõampi telampi taõóulampi khàdanãyampi àràmaü àharanti. Tàni bhikkhå
bahi vàsenti. Ukkapiõóikàpi khàdanti. Coràpi haranti. Damakàpi haranti.
Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, anto vàsetu” nti.
Anto vàsetvà bahi pàcenti. Damakà parivàrenti. Bhikkhå avissatthà2
paribhu¤janti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, anto
pacitu” nti. Dubbhikkhe kappiyakàrakà bahutarà haranti. Appataraü
bhikkhånaü denti. Bhagavato [PTS Page 212] [\q 212/] etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sàmaü pacituü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, anto
vutthaü3 anto pakkaü sàmaü pakkaü” nti.

12. Tena kho pana samayena sambahulà bhikkhå kàsãsu vassaü vutthà4
ràjagahaü gacchantà bhagavantaü dassanàya antaràmagge na labhiüsu
låkhassa và paõãtassa và bhojanassa yàvadatthaü pàripåriü. Bahu¤ca
phalakhàdanãyaü ahosi. Kappiyakàrako ca na ahosi. Atha kho te bhikkhå
kilantaråpà yena ràjagahaü veëuvanaü kalandakanivàpo yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdiüsu.

1. “Anto vuññhaü” machasaü. 2. “Avisaññhà” machasaü. [P T S. 3.] “Antovuññhaü” machasaü. ” “Avissatthàya” to vi. Ma nu pa.

4. “Vassaü vuññhà” machasaü.

[BJT Page 546] [\x 546/]

13. âciõõaü kho panetaü buddhànaü bhagavantaü àgantukehi bhikkhåhi
saddhiü pañisammodituü. Atha kho bhagavà te bhikkhå etadavoca: “kacci
bhikkhave, khamanãyaü? Kacci yàpanãyaü? Kaccittha appakilamathena
addhànaü àgatà? Kuto ca tumhe bhikkhave, àgacchathà?” Ti. “Khamanãyaü
bhagavà yàpanãyaü bhagavà. Idha mayaü bhante kàsãsu vassaü vutthà
ràjagahaü àgacchantà bhagavantaü dassanàya antaràmagge na labhimhà
låkhassa và paõãtassa và bhojanassa yàvadatthaü pàripåriü. Bahu¤ca
phalakhàdanãyaü ahosi. Kappiyakàrako ca na ahosi. Tena mayaü kilantaråpà
addhànaü àgatà” ti.

14. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakareõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, yattha phalakhàdanãyaü
passati, kappiyakàrako ca na hoti, sàmaü gahetvà haritvà kappiyakàrakaü1
passitvà bhåmiyaü nikkhipitvà pañiggahàpetvà paribhu¤jituü. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave. Uggahitapañiggahita” nti2.

15. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bràhmaõassa navà ca tilà
nava¤ca madhu uppannà honti. Atha kho tassa bràhmaõassa etadahosi:
“yannånàhaü nave ca tile navaü ca madhuü buddhapamukhassa
bhikkhusaïghassa dadeyya” nti. Atha kho so bràhmaõo yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavatà saddhiü sammodi3. Sammodanãyaü
kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàretvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito kho so
bràhmaõo bhagavantaü etadavoca: “adhivàsetu me bhavaü gotamo svàtanàya
bhattaü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà” ti. Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena.
[PTS Page 213] [\q 213/] atha kho so bràhmaõo bhagavato adhivàsanaü
viditvà pakkàmi.

16. Atha kho so bràhmaõo tassà rattiyà accayena paõãtaü khàdanãyaü
bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo bho gotama,
niññhitaü bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà
pattacãvaraü àdàya yena tassa bràhmaõassa nivesanaü tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena.

17. Atha kho so bràhmaõo buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho taü
bràhmaõaü bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà
sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

18. Atha kho tassa bràhmaõassa acirapakkantassa bhagavato etadahosi:
“yesaü kho mayà atthàya buddhapamukho bhikkhusaïgho nimantito nave ca
tile navaü ca madhuü dassàmã” ti te mayà pammuññhà4 dàtuü. Yannånàhaü
nave ca tile nava¤ca madhuü kolambehi ca ghañehi ca àràmaü àharàpeyya”
nti 5.

1. “Kappiyakàrake” ma ja saü. 2. “Uggahitaü pañiggahitunti” ma cha
saü. 3. “Pañisammodi” machasaü. 4. “Pamuññhà” machasaü. 5.
“Haràpeyyanti”

[BJT Page 548] [\x 548/]

19. Atha kho so bràhmaõo nave ca tile nava¤ca madhuü kolambehi ca
ghañehi ca àràmaü àharàpetvà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito kho so bràhmaõo bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “yesaü kho mayà bho gotama, atthàya buddhapamukho
bhikkhusaügho nimantito ‘nace ca tile nava¤ca madhuü dassàmã’ ti, te
mayà pammuññhà dàtuü. Patigaõhàtu me bhavaü gotamo nave ca tile nava¤ca
madhu” nti. “Tena hi bràhmaõa, bhikkhånaü dehã” ti.

20. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå dubbhikkhe appamattakepi
pavàrenti. Pañisaïkhàpi pañikkhipanti. Sabbo ca saïgho pavàrito hoti.
Bhikkhå kukkuccàyantà na patigaõhanti. “Patigaõhàtha1 bhikkhave,
paribhu¤jatha. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, tato nãhañaü bhuttàvinà pavàritena
anatirittaü paribhu¤jitu”nti.

21. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato upanandassa sakyaputtassa
upaññhàkakulaü saïghassa atthàya khàdanãyaü pàhesi: “idaü khàdanãyaü2
ayyassa upanandassa dassetvà saïghassa dàtabba” nti.

22 Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà upanando [PTS Page 214] [\q 214/] sakyaputto gàmaü piõóàya paviññho hoti.

23. Atha kho te manussà àràmaü gantvà bhikkhå pucchiüsu: “kahaü
bhante, ayyo upanando” ti. Esàvuso àyasmà upanando sakyaputto gàmaü
piõóàya paviññho”ti. Idaü bhante khàdanãyaü ayyassa upanandassa dassetvà
saïghassa dàtabba” nti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Tena hi
bhikkhave, pañiggahetvà nikkhipatha yàva upanando àgacchatã” ti.

24. Atha kho àyasmà upanando sakyaputto purebhattaü kulàni payirupàsitvà divà àgacchati.

25. Tena kho pana samayane bhikkhå dubbhikkhe appamattakepi
pavàrenti. Pañisaïkhàpi pañikkhipanti. Sabbo ca saïgho pavàrito hoti.
Bhikkhå kukkuccàyantà na patigaõhanti. “Patigaõhàtha bhikkhave,
paribhu¤jatha. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü bhuttàvinà
pavàritena anatirittaü paribhu¤jitu” nti.

26. Atha kho bhagavà ràjagahe yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena sàvatthi
tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena sàvatthi
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà sàvatthiyaü viharati jetavane
anàthapiõóikassa àràme.

27. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmato sàriputtassa kàyaóàhàbàdho hoti.

1. “Pañigaõhatha” machasaü. 2. “Idaü khàdanãyaü” iti marammakkharapotthake na dissate

[BJT Page 550] [\x 550/]

28. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno yenàyasmà sàriputto tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü sàriputtaü etadavoca: “pubbe te àvuso
sàriputta, kàyaóàhàbàdho kena phàsu hotã” ti. “Bhisehi ca me àvuso
muëàlikàhi cà” ti.

29. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno seyyathàpi nàma balavà puriso
sammi¤jitaü và bàhaü pasàreyya, pasàritaü và bàhaü sammi¤jeyya, evamevaü
jetavane antarahito mandàkiniyà pokkharaõiyà tãre pàturahosi.

30. Addasà kho a¤¤ataro nàgo àyasmantaü mahàmoggallànaü dåratova
àgacchantaü. Disvàna àyasmantaü mahàmoggallànaü etadavoca: “etu kho
bhante ayyo mahàmoggallàno. Svàgataü bhante ayyassa mahàmoggallànassa.
Kena bhante, ayyassa attho? Kiü dammã” ti. “Bhisehi ca me àvuso attho
muëàlikàhi cà” ti.

31. Atha kho so nàgo a¤¤ataraü nàgaü àõàpesi: “tena hi bhaõe ayyassa
bhise ca muëàlikàyo ca yàvadatthaü dehã” ti. Atha kho so nàgo mandàkiniü
pokkharaõiü ogàhetvà soõóàya bhisa¤ca bhisamuëàlika¤ca1 abbàhetvà2
suvikkhàlitaü [PTS Page 215] [\q 215/] vikkhàletvà bhaõóikaü bandhitvà
yenàyasmà mahàmoggallàno tenupasaïkami.

32. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno seyyathàpi nàma balavà puriso
sammi¤jitaü và bàhaü pasàreyya, pasàritaü và bàhaü sammi¤jeyya, evamevaü
mandàkiniyà pokkharaõiyà tãre antarahito jetavane pàturahosi.

33. Sopi kho nàgo mandàkiniyà pokkharaõiyà tãre antarahito jetavane
pàturahosi. Atha kho so nàgo àyasmato mahàmoggallànassa bhise ca
muëàlikàyo ca pañiggahàpetvà jetavane antarahito mandàkiniyà
pokkharaõiyà tãre pàturahosi.

34. Atha kho àyasmà mahàmoggallàno àyasmato sàriputtassa bhise ca
muëàlikàyo ca upanàmesi. Atha kho àyasmato sàriputtassa bhise ca
muëàlikàyo ca paribhuttassa3 kàyaóàhàbàdho pañippassambhi. Bahå bhisà ca
muëàlikàyo ca avasiññhà honti.

35. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhå dubbhikkhe appamattakepi
pavàrenti. Pañisaïkhàpi pañikkhipanti. Sabbo ca saïgho pavàrito hoti.
Bhikkhå kukkuccàyantà na patigaõhanti. “Patigaõhàtha bhikkhave,
paribhu¤jatha. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, vanaññhaü pokkharaññhaü bhuttàvinà
pavàritena anatirittaü paribhu¤jitu” nti.

1. “Bhisa muëàliü” sã mu. 2. “Aggahetvà’ ma nu pa. To vi. “Abbàhitvà” machasaü. 3. “Bhuttassa” machasaü.

[BJT Page 552] [\x 552/]

36. Tena kho pana samayena sàvatthiyaü bahuü phalakhàdanãyaü
uppannaü1 hoti. Kappiyakàrako ca na hoti. Bhikkhå kukkuccàyantà phalaü
na paribhu¤janti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave,
abãjaü nibbaññabãjaü2 akatakappaü phalaü paribhu¤jitu” nti.

37. Atha kho bhagavà sàvatthiyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
ràjagahaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena
ràjagahaü tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà ràjagahe viharati veëuvane
kalandakanivàpe.

38. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarassa bhikkhuno bhagandalàbàdho
hoti. âkàsagotto vejjo satthakammaü karoti. Atha kho bhagavà
senàsanacàrikaü àhiõóanto yena tassa bhikkhuno vihàro tenupasaïkami.
Addasà kho àkàsagotto vejjo bhagavantaü dåratova àgacchantaü. Disvàna
bhagavantaü etadavoca: “àgacchatu bhavaü gotamo, imassa bhikkhuno
vaccamaggaü passatu seyyathàpi godhàmukha” nti.

39. [PTS Page 216] [\q 216/] atha kho bhagavà “mamaü3 khvàyaü
moghapuriso uppaõóetã” ti tatova pañinivattitvà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü
pakaraõe bhikkhusaïghaü sannipàtàpetvà bhikkhå pañipucchi: “atthi4
bhikkhave, amukasmiü vihàre bhikkhu gilàno?”Ti. “Atthi bhagavà” ti. “Kiü
tassa bhikkhave, bhikkhuno àbàdho?” Ti. “Tassa bhante àyasmato
bhagandalàbàdho. âkàsagotto vejjo satthakammaü karotã” ti. Vigarahi
buddho bhagavà: “ananucchaviyaü bhikkhave, tassa moghapurisassa
ananulomikaü appatiråpaü assàmaõakaü akappiyaü akaraõãyaü. Kathaü hi
nàma so bhikkhave, moghapuriso sambàdhe satthakammaü kàràpessati.
Sambàdhe bhikkhave, sukhumà chavi. Duropayo vaõo. Dupparihàraü satthaü
netaü bhikkhave, appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya
vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “na bhikkhave,
sambàdhe satthakammaü kàràpetabbaü. Yo kàràpeyya, àpatti thullaccayassà”
ti.

40. Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyà bhikkhå “bhagavato
satthakammaü pañikkhitta” nti vatthikammaü kàràpenti. Ye te bhikkhå
appicchà te ujjhàyanti, khãyanti, vipàcenti: “kathaü hi nàma chabbaggiyà
bhikkhå vatthikammaü kàràpessantã” ti. Atha kho te bhikkhå bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü.

41. “Saccaü kira bhikkhave, chabbaggiyà bhikkhå vatthikammaü
kàràpentã” ti. “Saccaü bhagavà”. Sambàdhe bhikkhave, sukhumà chavi.
Duropayo vaõo. Dupparihàraü satthaü netaü bhikkhave, appasannànaü và
pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà
bhikkhå àmantesi: “na bhikkhave, sambàdhassa sàmantà dvaïgulà
satthakammaü và vatthikammaü và kàràpetabbaü. Yo kàràpeyya, àpatti
thullaccayassà” ti.

1. “Ussannaü” sã mu. 2. “Nibbittabãjaü” machasaü.

3. “So maü” machasaü. 4. “Atthi kira” machasaü. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 554] [\x 554/]

42. Atha kho bhagavà ràjagahe yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena bàràõasã
tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena bàràõasã
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà bàràõasiyaü viharati isipatane migadàye.

43. Tena kho pana samayena bàràõasiyaü suppiyo ca upàsako suppiyà ca
upàsikà ubho pasannà1 honti dàyakà kàrakà saïghupaññhàkà. Atha kho
suppiyà upàsikà àràmaü gantvà vihàrena vihàraü pariveõena pariveõaü
upasaïkamitvà bhikkhå pucchati: “ko bhaneta gilàno, kassa kiü àharãyatå”
ti.

44. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarena bhikkhunà [PTS Page 217] [\q
217/] virecanaü pãtaü hoti. Atha kho so bhikkhu suppiyaü upàsikaü
etadavoca: “mayà kho bhagini, virecanaü pãtaü. Attho me
pañicchàdanãyenà” ti. “Suññhu ayya, àharãyissatã”ti. Gharaü gantvà
antevàsiü àõàpesi: “gaccha bhaõe, pavattamaüsaü jànàhã” ti. “Evaü ayye”
ti kho so puriso suppiyàya upàsikàya pañissutvà kevalakappaü bàràõasiü
àhiõóanto na addasa pavattamaüsaü. Atha kho so puriso yena suppiyà
upàsikà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà suppiyaü upàsikaü etadavoca:
“natthayye pavattamaüsaü. Màghàto ajjà” ti.

45. Atha kho suppiyàya upàsikàya etadahosi: “tassa kho gilànassa
bhikkhuno pañicchàdanãyaü alabhantassa àbàdho và abhivaóóhissati.
Kàlakiriyà và bhavissati. Na kho me taü patiråpaü, yàhaü pañissutvà na
haràpeyya”nti. Potthanikaü gahetvà årumaüsaü ukkantitvà dàsiyà adàsi:
“bhanda je imaü maüsaü sampàdetvà, amukasmiü vihàre bhikkhu gilàno,
tassa dajjehi2. Yo ca maü pucchati, gilànàni pañivedehã” ti.
Uttaràsaïgena åruü paveñhetvà3 ovarakaü pavisitvà ma¤cako nipajiji.

46. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako gharaü gantvà dàsiü pucchi: “kahaü
suppiyà” ti. “Esayya4 ovarake nipannà”ti. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako yena
suppiyà upàsikà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà suppiyaü upàsikaü
etadavoca: “kissa nipannàsã” ti. Gilànamhã”ti 5. “Kinte àbàdho” ti. Atha
kho suppiyà upàsikà suppiyassa upàsakassa etamatthaü àrocesi.

47. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako “acchariyaü vata bho! Abbhutaü vata bho!
Yàvasaddhàyaü suppiyà pasannà, yatra hi nàma attanopi maüsàni
pariccattàni, kimpanimàya6 a¤¤aü ki¤ci adeyyaü bhavissatã” ti haññho
udaggo yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdi.

1. “Ubhato pasannà” machasaü. [P T S.] A vi. To vi. 2. “Dajjàhi”
machasaü. 3. “Veñhetvà” machasaü. 4. “Esàyya” machasaü. 5.
“Gilànàmbhãti” machasaü. 6. “Kimapimàya” machasaü. To vi.

[BJT Page 556] [\x 556/]

48. Ekamantaü nisinno kho suppiyo upàsako bhagavantaü etadavoca:
“adhivàsetu me bhante bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà”
ti. Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako bhagavato
adhivàsanaü viditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü
katvà pakkàmi.

49. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako tassà rattiyà accayena paõãtaü
khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo
bhante, niññhitaü bhatta”nti. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà
pattacãvaraü àdàya yena [PTS Page 218] [\q 218/] suppiyassa upàsakassa
nivesanaü tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena.

50. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü
ñhitaü kho suppiyaü upàsakaü bhagavà etadavoca: “kahaü suppiyà” ti.
“Gilànà bhagavà” ti. “Tena hi àgacchatå” ti. “Na bhagavà ussahatã ” ti.
“Tena hi pariggahetvàpi ànethà” ti. Atha kho suppiyo upàsako suppiyaü
upàsikaü pariggahetvà ànesi. Tassà sahadassanena bhagavato tàva mahàvaõo
råëho ahosi succhavi lomajàto.

51. Atha kho suppiyo ca upàsako suppiyà ca upàsikà “acchariyaü vata
bho! Abbhutaü vata bho! Tathàgatassa mahiddhikatà mahànubhàvatà, yatra
hi nàma sahadassanena bhagavato tàva mahàvaõo råëho bhavissati succhavi
lomajàto” ti haññhà udaggà buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü panãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Atha kho bhagavà suppiyaü
ca upàsakaü suppiyaü ca upàsikaü dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà
samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

52. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe bhikkhusaïghaü
sannipàtàpetvà bhikkhå pañipucchi: “ko bhikkhave, suppiyaü upàsikaü
maüsaü vi¤¤àpesã” ti. Evaü vutte so bhikkhu bhagavantaü etadavoca: “ahaü
kho bhante suppiyaü upàsikaü maüsaü vi¤¤àpesi”nti. “âharãyittha
bhikkhå” ti. “âharãyittha bhagavà”ti. “Paribhu¤ji tvaü bhikkhå” ti.
“Pari¤jàhaü 1 bhagavà” ti. “Pañivekkhi tvaü bhikkhå” ti. “Nàhaü bhagavà
pañivekkhi” nti.

53. Vigarahi buddho bhagavà: “ananucchaviyaü bhikkhave, tassa
moghapurisassa ananulomikaü appatiråpaü assàmaõakaü akappiyaü
akaraõãyaü. Kathaü hi nàma tvaü moghapurisa, appañivekkhitvà maüsaü
paribhu¤jissasi. Manussamaüsaü kho tayà moghapurisa, paribhuttaü. Netaü
moghapurisa, appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya
vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “santi bhikkhave,
manussà saddhà pasannà. Tehi attanopi maüsàni pariccattàni. Na
bhikkhave, manussamaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti
thullaccayassa. Na ca bhikkhave, appañivekkhitvà maüsaü
paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

1. “Paribhu¤jàmahaü” machasaü.

[BJT Page 558] [\x 558/]

54. Tena kho pana samayena ra¤¤o hatthi maranti. [PTS Page 219] [\q
219/] manussà dubbhikkhe hatthimaüsaü paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya
carantànaü hatthi maüsaü denti. Bhikkhå hatthimaüsaü paribhu¤janti.
Manussà ujjhàyanti, khãyanti, vipàcenti: “kathaü hi nàma samaõà
sakyaputtiyà hatthimaüsaü paribhu¤jissanti. Ràjaïgaü hatthi. Sace ràjà
jàneyya, na tesaü 1 attamano assà” ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Na bhikkhave, hatthimaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti
dukkañassà” ti.

55. Tena kho pana samayena ra¤¤o assà maranti. Manussà dubbhikkhe
assamaüsaü paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü assamaüsaü
denti. Bhikkhå assamaüsaü paribhu¤janti. Manussà ujjhàpenti, khãyanti,
vipàcenti: “kathaü hi nàma samaõà sakyaputtiyà assamaüsaü
paribhu¤jissanti. Ràjaïgaü assà. Sace ràjà jàneyya, na tesaü attamano
assà” ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, assamaüsaü
paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

56. Tena kho pana samayena manussà dubbhikkhe sunakhamaüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü sunakhamaüsaü denti.
Bhikkhå sunakhamaüsaü paribhu¤janti. Manussà ujjhàyanti, khãyanti,
vipàcenti: “kathaü hi nàma samaõà sakyaputtiyà sunakhamaüsaü
paribhu¤jissanti. Jeguccho sunakho pañikkålo”ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, sunakhamaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo
paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

57

Tena kho pana samayena manussà dubbhikkhe ahimaüsaü paribhu¤janti.
Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü ahimaüsaü denti. Bhikkhå ahimaüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Manussà ujjhàyanti, khãyanti, vipàcenti: “kathaü hi nàma
samaõà sakyaputtiyà ahimaüsaü paribhu¤jissanti. Jeguccho ahi pañikkålo”
ti.

58. Suphassopi 2 nàgaràjà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito kho suphassà
nàgaràjà bhagavantaü etadavoca: “santi hi 3 bhante, nàgà assaddhà
appasannà. Te appamattakehipi bhikkhå viheñheyyuü. Sàdhu bhante ayyà
abhimaüsaü na paribhu¤jeyyu” nti.

59. Atha kho bhagavà suphassaü nàgaràjànaü dhammiyà kathàya
sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi. Atha kho suphasso
nàgaràjà bhagavatà dhammiyà kathà sandassito samàdapito samuttejito
sampahaüsito bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkàmi.

60. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe [PTS Page 220]
[\q 220/] dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “na bhikkhave,
abhimaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

1. “Nesaü” machasaü. 2. “Supassopi” machasaü. [P T S. 3.] “Santã” machasaü. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 560] [\x 560/]

61. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà sãhaü hantvà sãhamaüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü sãhamaüsaü denti. Bhikkhå
sãhamaüsaü paribhu¤jitvà ara¤¤e viharanti. Sãhà maüsagandhena 1 bhikkhå
paripàtenti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave, sãhamaüsaü
paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

62. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà vyagghaü hantvà vyaggha maüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü vyagghamaüsaü denti.
Bhikkhå vyagghamaüsaü paribhu¤jitvà ara¤¤e viharanti. Vyagghà
maüsagandhena 2 bhikkhå paripàtenti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na
bhikkhave, vyagghamaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti
dukkañassà” ti.

63. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà dãpiü hantvà dãpimaüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü dãpimaüsaü denti. Bhikkhå
dãpimaüsaü paribhu¤jitvà ara¤¤e viharanti. Dãpi maüsagandhena 3 bhikkhå
paripàtenti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave dãpimaüsaü
paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

64. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà acchaü hanatvà acchamaüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü acchamaüsaü denti. Bhikkhå
acchamaüsaü paribhu¤jitvà ara¤¤e viharanti. Acchà maüsagandhena 4
bhikkhå paripàtenti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na bhikkhave,
acchamaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

65. Tena kho pana samayena luddakà taracchaü hantvà taracchamaüsaü
paribhu¤janti. Bhikkhånaü piõóàya carantànaü taracchamaüsaü denti.
Bhikkhå taracchamaüsaü paribhu¤jitvà ara¤¤e viharanti. Taracchà
maüsagandhena 5 bhikkhå paripàtenti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Na
bhikkhave, taracchamaüsaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti
dukkañassà” ti.

Suppiyabhàõavàro dutiyo.

1. “Sãhamaüsagandhena” machasaü. 3. “Dãpimaüsagandhena” ma cha saü. 2. “Vyagghamaüsagandhena” ” 4. “Acchamaüsagandhena” “

5. “Taracchamaüsagandhena” machasaü.

[BJT Page 562] [\x 562/]

1. Atha kho bhagavà bàràõasiyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
andhakavindaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü
aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehi.

2. Tena kho pana samayena jànapadà manussà bahuü loõampi telampi
taõóulampi khàdanãyampi sakañesu àropetvà buddhapamukhassa bhikkhu
saïghassa piññhito piññhito anubaddhà1 honti “yadà pañipàñiü labhissàma,
tadà bhattaü karissàmà” ti. Pa¤camattàni ca vighàsàdasatàni.

3. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena andhakavindaü
tadavasarã. Atha kho a¤¤atarassa bràhmaõassa pañipàñiü alabhantassa
etadahosi: “adhikàni 2 kho me dve màsàni buddhapamukhaü bhikkhasaïghaü
anubandhantassa ‘yadà pañipàñiü labhissàmi, tadà bhattaü karissàmã’ ti.
Na ca me pañipàñiü labbhati. Aha¤camhi ekako3. Bahu ca me gharàvàsattho
hàyati. Yannånàhaü bhattaggaü olokeyyaü, yaü bhattagge nàssa, taü
pañiyàdeyya” nti. Atha kho so bràhmaõo bhattaggaü olokento dve nàddasa:
yàgu¤ca madhugoëaka¤ca.

4. Atha kho so bràhmaõo yenàyasmà ànando tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
àyasmantaü ànandaü etadavoca: “idha me bho ànanda, pañipàñiü
alabhantassa etadahosi: ‘adhikàni kho [PTS Page 221] [\q 221/] me dve
màsàni buddhapamukhaü bhikkhu saïghaü anubandhantassa ‘yadà pañipàñiü
labhissàmi tadà bhattaü karissàmã’ ti. Na ca me pañipàñi labbhati.
Aha¤cambhi ekako. Bahu ca me gharàvàsattho hàyati. Yannånàhaü bhattaggaü
olokeyyaü, ‘yaü bhattagge nàssa taü pañiyàdeyya’ nti. So kho ahaü bho
ànanda, bhattaggaü olokento dve nàddasaü: yàgu¤ca madhugoëaka¤ca. Svàhaü
bho ànanda, pañiyàdeyyaü yàgu¤ca madhugoëaka¤ca, patigaõheyya me bhavaü
gotamo”ti. “Tena hi bràhmaõa, bhagavantaü pañipucchissàmã” ti.

5. Atha kho àyasmà ànando bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesi. “Tenahànanda,
pañiyàdetå” ti. “Tena hi bràhmaõa, pañiyàdehã” ti. Atha kho so bràhmaõo
tassà rattiyà accayena pahåtaü yàgu¤ca madhugoëaka¤ca pañiyàdàpetvà
bhagavato” upanàmesi: patigaõhàtu me bhavaü gotamo yàgu¤ca
madhugoëaka¤cà” ti. “Tena hi bràhmaõa, bhikkhånaü dehã” ti. Bhikkhå
kukkuccàyantà na patigaõhanti. “Patigaõhàtha bhikkhave, paribhu¤jathà”
ti:

6. Atha kho so bràhmaõo buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü pahåtàya yàguyà
ca madhugoëakena ca sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
dhotahatthaü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho
taü bràhmaõaü bhagavà etadavoca: “dasa ime bràhmaõa, ànisaüsà yàguyà, 4
yàguü dento àyuü deti. Vaõõaü deti. Sukhaü deti. Balaü deti. Pañibhàõaü
deti. Yàgu pãtà khudaü 5 pañihanti 6. Pipàsaü pañivineti 7. Vàtaü
anulometi. Vatthiü sodheti. âmàvasesaü pàceti. Ime kho bràhmaõa,
dasànisaüsà yàguyà” ti.

1. “Anubandhà” sã mu. Machasaü. 2. “Atãtàni” machasaü. [P T S.]

3. “Ekatthako” machasaü. 4. “Katame dasa” machasaü. [P T S.]

5. “Khuddaü” machasaü. 6. “Pañihanti” machasaü. [P T S.]

7. “Vineti” machasaü.

[BJT Page 564] [\x 564/]

7. Yo sa¤¤atànaü paradattabhojinaü

Kàlena sakkacca dadàti yàguü,

Dasassa ñhànàni anuppavecchati

âyu¤ca vaõõa¤ca sukhaü bala¤ca.

8. Pañibhàõamassa upajàyate tato

Khudaü pipàsaü 1 vyapaneti vàtaü,

Sodheti vatthiü pariõàmeti bhuttaü 2

Bhesajjametaü sugatena vaõõitaü.

9. Tasmà hi yàguü alameva dàtuü

Niccaü manussena sukhatthikena,

Dibbàni và patthayatà 3 sukhàni

Manussasobhagyatamicchatà 4 vàti.

10. [PTS Page 222] [\q 222/] atha kho bhagavà taü bràhmaõaü imàhi
gathàhi anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü
pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave,
yàgu¤ca madhugoëaka¤cà” ti.

11. Assosuü kho manussà “bhagavatà kira bhikkhånaü 5 yàgu anu¤¤àtà
madhugoëaka¤cà” ti. Te kàlasseva bhojjayàguü pañiyàdenti madhugoëaka¤ca.
Bhikkhå kàlasseva bhojjàya yàguyà 6 dhàtà madhugoëakena ca bhattagge na
cittaråpaü bhu¤janti. 7

12. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤atarena taruõappasannena 8 mahàmattena
svàtanàya buddhapamukho bhikkhusaïgho nimantito hoti. Atha kho tassa
taruõappasannassa mahàmattassa etadahosi: “yannånàhaü aóóhateëasannaü
bhikkhusatànaü aóóhateëasàni maüsapàtisatàni pañiyàdeyyaü, ekamekassa
bhikkhuno ekamekaü maüsapàtiü upanàmeyya” nti. Atha kho so
taruõappasanno mahàmatto tassà rattiyà accayena paõitaü khàdanãyaü
bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà aóóhateëasàni ca maüsapàtisatàni bhagavato
kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo bhante, niññhitaü bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagavà
pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà pattacãvaraü àdàya yena tassa
taruõappasannassa mahàmattassa nivesanaü tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena.

13. Atha kho so taruõappasanno mahàmatto bhattagge bhikkhå
parivisati. Bhikkhå evamàhaüsu. “Thokaü àvuso dehã” ti. “Mà kho tumhe
bhante. “Ayaü taruõappasanno mahàmatto” ti. Thokaü thokaü patigaõhittha
9. Bahuü me khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyattaü aóóhateëasàni 10
maüsapàtisatàni. Ekamekaü maüsapàtiü upanàmessàmi. 11. Patigaõhatha
bhante yàvadattha” nti. “Na kho mayaü àvuso etaü kàraõà thokaü thokaü
patigaõhàma. Api ca mayaü kàlasseva bhojjàya yàguyà dhàtà madhugoëakena
ca. Tena mayaü thokaü thokaü patigaõhàmà” ti.

1. “Pipàsa¤ca” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “Bhattaü” machasaü. Ja vi to vi.
Ma nu pa to vi. 3. “Patthayataü” 4. “Icchitaü” aññhakathà. 5.
“Bhagavatà kira yàgu” machasaü. 6. “Bhojjayàguyà” machasaü. [P T S. 7.]
“Paribhu¤janti” ma cha saü. 8. “Taruõapasannena” machasaü. 9.
“Patigaõhatha” machasaü [P T S. 10.] “Aóóhatelasàni ca” machasaü. 11.
“Upanàmessàmãti’ machasaü. To vi.

[BJT Page 566] [\x 566/]

14. Atha kho so taruõappasanno mahàmatto ujjhàyati, khãyati,
vipàceti: “kathaü hi nàma bhadantà mayà nimantità a¤¤assa bhojjayàguü
paribhu¤jissanti. Na càhaü pañibalo yàvadatthaü dàtu” nti kupito
anattamano asàdanàpekkho bhikkhånaü patte pårento àgamàsi “bhu¤jatha và.
Haratha và” ti.

15. Atha kho so taruõappasanno mahàmatto buddhapamukhaü bhikkhu
saïghaü paõãtena [PTS Page 223] [\q 223/] khàdanãyena bhojanãyena
sahatthaü santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü
ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnà kho taü taruõappasannaü mahàmattaü
bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà
sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

16. Atha kho tassa taruõappasannassa mahàmattassa acirapakkantassa
bhagavato ahudeva kukkuccaü. Ahu vippañisàro: “alàbhà vata me, na vata
me làbhà, dulladdhaü vata me, na vata me suladdhaü, yohaü kupito
anattamano àsàdanàpekkho bhikkhånaü patte pårentà agamàsiü ‘bhu¤jatha và
haratha và’ ti. Kinnu kho mayà bahuü pasutaü pu¤¤aü và apu¤¤aü và? Ti.

17. Atha kho so taruõappasanno mahàmatto yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü
nisinno kho so taruõappasanno mahàmatto bhagavantaü etadavoca: “idha
mayhaü bhante acirapannantassa bhagavato ahudeva kukkuccaü ahu
vippañisàro: ‘alàbhà vata me, na vata me làbhà, dulladdhaü vata me, na
vata me suladdhaü, yohaü kupito anattamano àsàdanàpekkho bhikkhånaü
patte pårento àgamàsiü. ‘Bhu¤jatha và haratha và’ ti. Kinnu kho mayaü
bahuü pasutaü pu¤¤aü và apu¤¤aü và?” Ti. Kinnu kho mayà bhante bahuü
pasutaü pu¤¤aü và apu¤¤aü và?” Ti. “Yadaggena tayà àvuso, svàtanàya
buddhapamukho bhikkhusaïgho nimantito, tadaggena te bahuü pu¤¤aü
pasutaü. Yadaggena te ekamekena bhikkhunà ekamekaü sitthaü pañiggahitaü,
tadaggena te bahuü pu¤¤aü pasutaü. Saggà te àraddhà” ti.

18. Atha kho so taruõappasanno mahàmatto “làbhà kira me. Suladdhaü
kira me. Bahuü kira mayà pu¤¤aü pasutaü. Saggà kira me àraddhà” ti
haññho udaggo uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà
pakkàmi. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe bhikkhusaïghaü
sannipàtàpetvà bhikkhå pañipucchi: “saccaü kira bhikkhave bhikkhå
a¤¤atra nimantità a¤¤assa bhojjayàguü paribhu¤jantã” ti. “Saccaü
bhagavà” ti. Vigarahi buddho bhagavà “kathaü hi nàma te bhikkhave,
moghapurisà a¤¤atra nimantità a¤¤assa bhojjayàguü paribhu¤jantã” ti.
“Saccaü bhagavà” ti. Vigarahi buddho bhagavà: “kathaü hi nàma te
bhikkhave, moghapurisà a¤¤atra nimantità a¤¤assa bhojjayàguü
paribhu¤jissanti. Netaü bhikkhave, appasannànaü và pasàdàya” pasannànaü
và bhiyyobhàvàya vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: [PTS
Page 224] [\q 224/] “na bhikkhave, a¤¤atra nimantitena a¤¤assa
bhojjayàgu paribhu¤jitabbà. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, yathà dhammo kàretabbo”
ti.

[BJT Page 568] [\x 568/]

19. Atha kho bhagavà andhakavinde yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
ràjagahaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü
aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehi.

20. Tena kho pana samayane belaññho kaccàno ràjagahaü andhakavindaü
addhànamaggapañipanno hoti pa¤camattehi sakañasatehi sabbeheva
guëakumbhapårehi. Addasà kho bhagavà belaññhaü kaccànaü dåratova
àgacchantaü. Disvàna maggà okkamama a¤¤atarasmiü rukkhamåle nisãdi.

21. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito
kho belaññho kaccàno bhagavantaü etadavoca: “icchàmahaü bhante
ekamekassa bhikkhuno ekamekaü guëakumbhaü dàtu”nti. Tena hi tvaü
kaccàna, ekaüyeva guëakumbhaü àharà” ti. “Evaü bhante” ti kho belaññho
kaccàno bhagavato pañissutvà ekaüyeva guëakumbhaü àdàya yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü etadavoca: “àhaño 1 bhante,
guëakumbho. Kathàhaü bhante, pañipajjàmã” ti. “Tena hi tvaü kaccàna,
bhikkhånaü guëaü dehã” ti. “Evaü bhante” ti kho belaññho kaccàno
bhagavato pañissutvà bhikkhånaü guëaü datvà bhagavantaü etadavoca:
“dinno bhante, bhikkhånaü guëo. Bahu càyaü guëo avasiññho. Kathàhaü
bhante, pañipajjàmã” ti. “Tena hi tvaü kaccàna,bhikkhånaü gålaü
yàvadatthaü dehi”ti.” Evaü bhante”ti kho belaññho kaccàno bhagavato
pañissutvà bhikkhå guëehi santappesi. Ekacce bhikkhå pattepi påresuü.
Parissàvanànipi thavikàyopi påresuü.

22. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno bhikkhå guëehi santappetvà bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “santappità bhante bhikkhå guëehi. Bahu càyaü guëo avasiññho.
Kathàhaü bhante, pañipajjàmã”ti. “Tena [PTS Page 225] [\q 225/] hi tvaü
kaccàna vighàsàdànaü guëaü dehã” ti. “Evaü bhante”ti kho belaññho
kaccàno bhagavato pañissutvà vighàsàdànaü guëaü datvà bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “dinno bhante, vighàsàdànaü guëo. Bahu càyaü guëo avasiññho.
Kathàhaü bhante, pañipajjàmã” ti. “Tena hi tvaü kaccàna, vighàsàdànaü
guëaü yàvadatthaü dehã” ti. “Evaü bhante” ti kho belaññho kaccàno
bhagavato pañissutvà vighàsàdànaü guëaü yàvadatthaü datvà bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “dinno bhante, vighàsàdànaü guëo yàvadattho. Bahuü càyaü guëo
avasiññho. Kathàhaü bhante, pañipajjàmã” ti. “Tena hi tvaü kaccàna,
vighàsàde guëehi santappehã” ti. “Evaü bhaneta” ti kho belaññho kaccàno
bhagavato pañissutvà vighàsàde guëehi santappesi. Ekacce vighàsàdà
kolambepi ghañepi påreüsu. Piñakànipi ucchaïgepi påresuü.

1. “âhato” machasaü.

[BJT Page 570] [\x 570/]

23. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno vighàsàde guëehi santappetvà
bhagavantaü etadavoca: “santappità bhante vighàsàdà guëehi. Bahu càyaü
guëo avasiññho. Kathàhaü bhante pañipajjàmã” ti. “Nàhaü taü kaccàna,
passàmi sadevake loke samàrake sabrahmake sassamaõabràhmaõiyà pajàya
sadevamanussàya yasseso guëo1 paribhutto sammà pariõàmaü gaccheyya
a¤¤atra tathàgatassa và tathàgatasàvakassa và. Tena hi tvaü kaccàna, taü
guëaü appaharite và chaóóehi. Appàõake và udake opilàpehã” ti. “Evaü
bhante” ti kho belaññho kaccàno bhagavato pañissutvà taü guëaü appàõake
udake opilepesi 2. Atha kho so guëo udake pakkhitto cicciñàyati.
Ciñiciñàyati. Sandhåpàyati3. Sampadhåpàyati. Seyyathàpi nàma phàlo
divasasantatto4 udake pakkhitto cicciñàyati, ciñiciñàyati, sandhåpàyati,
sampadhåpàyati, evameva so guëo udake pakkhitto cicciñàyati.
Ciñiciñàyati. Sandhåpàyati. Sampadhåpàyati.

24. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno saüviggo lomahaññhajàto yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinassa kho belaññhassa kaccànassa bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü
kathesi. Seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü saggakathaü kàmànaü àdinavaü
okàraü saükilesaü nekkhamme ànisaüsaü pakàsesi. Yadà bhagavà a¤¤àsi
belaññhaü kaccànaü kallacittaü muducittaü vinãvaraõa cittaü udaggacittaü
pasannacittaü, atha yà buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü
pakàsesi. (Seyyathàpi nàma suddhaü vatthaü apagatakàëakaü sammadeva
rajanaü pañigaõheyya, ) evameva belaññhassa [PTS Page 226] [\q 226/]
kaccànassa tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi:
“yaü ki¤ci samudayadhammaü, sabbantaü nirodhadhamma” nti.

25. Atha kho belaññho kaccàno diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyogàëhadhammo tiõõavicikiccho vigatakathaïkatho vesàrajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavoca: “abhikkantaü bhante,
abhikkantaü bhante, seyyathàpi bhante, nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pañicchannaü và vivareyya, måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya, andhakàre và
telapajjotaü dhàreyya: cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintã ti, evamevaü
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante bhagavantaü
saraõaü gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhagavà
dhàretu ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gata” nti.

1. “Yassa so guëo” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “Opilàpeti” machasaü. 3. “Padhåpàyati” machasaü. 4. “Divasaüsantatto” ma cha saü.

++ [BJT Page 572] [\x 572/]

26. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena ràjagahaü
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà ràjagahe viharati veëuvane
kalandakanivàpe. Tena kho pana samayena ràjagahe guëo ussanno hoti.
Bhikkhå “gilànasseva bhagavatà guëo anu¤¤àto. No agilànassà” ti.
Kukkuccàyantà guëaü na paribhu¤janti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Anujànàmi bhikkhave, gilànassa guëaü. Agilànassa guëodaka” nti.

27. Atha kho bhagavà ràjagahe yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena
pàñaligàmo tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü
aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehi. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü
caramàno yena pàñaligàmo tadavasari. Assosuü kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà
“bhagavà kira pàñaligàmaü anuppatto” ti. Atha kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà
yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Ekamantaü nisinno kho pàñaligàmike upàsake bhagavà
dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi. Atha
kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà bhagavatà dhammiyà kathàya sandassità
samàdapità samuttejità sampahaüsità bhagavantaü etadavocuü: “adhivàsetu
no bhante bhagavà àvasathàgàraü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà”ti. Adhivàsesi
bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena.

28. Atha kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà
uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà [PTS Page 227] [\q 227/] padakkhiõaü
katvà yena àvasathàgàraü tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà sabbasanthariü
àvasathàgàraü santharitvà àsanàni pa¤¤àpetvà udakamaõikaü patiññhàpetvà
telappadãpaü àropetvà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhaüsu. Ekamantaü ñhità kho
pàñaligàmikà upàsakà bhagavantaü etadavocuü: “sabbasanthariü santhataü1
bhante, àvasathà gàraü. âsanàni pa¤¤attàni. Udakamaõiko patiññhàpito.
Telappadãpo àropito. Yassadàni bhante, bhagavà kàlaü ma¤¤atã” ti. Atha
kho bhagavà nivàsetvà pattacãvaraü àdàya saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena yena
àvasathàgàraü tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pàde pakkhàletvà
àvasathàgàraü pavisitvà majjhimaü thambhaü nissàya puratthàbhimukho
nisãdi. Bhikkhu saïghopi kho pàde pakkhàletvà àvasathàgàraü pavisitvà
pacchimaü bhittiü nissàya puratthàbhimukho nisãdi bhagavantaüyeva
purakkhatvà. Pàñaligàmikàpi kho upàsakà pàde pakkhàletvà àvasathàgàraü
pavisitvà puratthimaü bhittiü nissàya pacchimàbhimukhà nisãdiüsu
bhagavantaüyeva purakkhatvà.

1. Sabbasantharisatthataü” machasaü.

[BJT Page 574] [\x 574/]

29. Atha kho bhagavà pàñaligàmike upàsake àmantesi: “pa¤cime
gahapatayo, àdãnavà dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Katame pa¤ca? Idha
gahapatayo, dussãlo sãlavipanno pamàdàdhikaraõaü mahatiü bhogajàniü
nigacchati. Ayaü pañhamo àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Punacaparaü
gahapatayo, dussãlassa sãlavipannassa pàpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati.
Ayaü dutiyo àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Punacaparaü gahapatayo,
dussãlo sãlavipanno ya¤¤adeva parisaü upasaïkamati: yadi khattiyaparisaü
yadi bràhmaõaparisaü yadi gahapatiparisaü yadi samaõaparisaü, avisàrado
upasaïkamati maïkubhåto. Ayaü tatiyo àdãnavo. Dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà.
Punacaparaü gahapatayo, dussãlo sãlavipanno sammåëho kàlaü karoti. Ayaü
catuttho àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Punacaparaü gahapatayo,
dussãlo sãlavipanto kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü vinipàtaü
nirayaü upapajjati. Ayaü pa¤camo àdãnavo dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà. Ime
kho gahapatayo. Pa¤ca àdãnavà dussãlassa sãlavipattiyà.

30. Pa¤cime gahapatayo, ànisaüsà sãlavato sãlasampadàya. [PTS Page
228] [\q 228/] katame pa¤ca? Idha gahapatayo, sãlavà sãlasampanno
appamàdàdhikaraõaü mahantaü bhogakkhandhaü adhigacchati. Ayaü pañhamo
ànisaüso sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Punacaparaü gahapatayo, sãlavato
sãlasampannassa kalyàõo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. Ayaü dutiyo ànisaüso
sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Punacaparaü gahapatayo, sãlavà sãlasampanno
ya¤¤adeva parisaü upasaïkamati: yadi khattiyaparisaü yadi
bràhmaõaparisaü yadi gahapatiparisaü yadi samaõaparisaü, visàrado
upasaïkamati amaïkubhåto. Ayaü tatiyo ànisaüso sãlavato sãlasampadàya.
Punacaparaü gahapatayo, sãlavà sãlasampanno asammåëho kàlaü karoti. Ayaü
catuttho ànisaüso sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Punacaparaü gahapatayo,
sãlavà sãlasampanno kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü
upapajjati. Ayaü pa¤camo ànisaüso sãlavato sãlasampadàya. Ime kho
gahapatayo, pa¤ca ànisaüsà sãlavato sãlasampadàyà”ti.

31. Atha kho bhagavà pàñaligàmake upàsake bahudeva rattiü dhammiyà
kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uyyojesi
“abhikkantà kho gahapatayo, ratti. Yassadàni kàlaü ma¤¤athà” ti. “Evaü
bhante” ti kho pàñaligàmikà upàsakà bhagavato pañissutvà uññhàyàsanà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkamiüsu. Atha kho bhagavà
acirapakkantesu pàñaligàmikesu upàsakesu su¤¤àgàraü pàvisi.

32. Tena kho pana samayena sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà
pàñaligàme nagaraü màpenti vajjãnaü pañibàhàya. Addasà kho bhagavà
rattiyà paccåsasamayaü paccuññhàya dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena atikkanta
mànusakena sambahulà devatàyo pàñaligàme vatthåni parigaõhantiyo.
Yasmiü padesa mahesakkhà devatà vatthåni parigaõhanti, mahesakkhànaü
tattha ràjånaü ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni màpetuü.
Yasmiü padese majjhimà devatà vatthåni parigaõhanti, majjhimànaü tattha
ràjånaü ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni màpetuü. Yasmiü
padese nãcà devatà vatthåni parigaõhanti, nãcànaü tattha ràjånaü
ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni màpetuü.

[BJT Page 576] [\x 576/]

33. Atha kho bhagavà àyasmantaü ànandaü àmantesi: “ko nu kho te
ànanda, pàñaligàme nagaraü màpentã” ti. “Sunãdhavassakàrà [PTS Page 229]
[\q 229/] bhante, magadhamahàmattà pàñaligàme nagaraü màpenti vajjãnaü
pañibàhàyà” ti. “Seyyathàpi ànanda, devehi tàvatiüsehi saddhiü mantetvà,
evameva kho ànanda, sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà pàñaligàme
nagaraü màpenti vajjãnaü pañibàhàya. Idhàhaü ànanda, rattiyà
paccåsasamayaü paccuññhàya addasaü dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena
atikkantamànusakena sambahulà devatàyo pàñaligàme vatthåni
parigaõhantiyo. Yasmiü padese mahesakkhà devatà vatthåni parigaõhanti.
Mahesakkhànaü tattha ràjånaü ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni
màpetuü. Yasmiü padese majjhimà devatà vatthåni parigaõhanti,
majjhimànaü tattha ràjånaü ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni
màpetuü. Yasmiü padese nãcà devatà vatthåni parigaõhanti, nãcànaü tattha
ràjånaü ràjamahàmattànaü cittàni namanti nivesanàni màpetuü. Yàvatà
ànanda, ariyaü àyatanaü, yàvatà vaõippatho, idaü agganagaraü bhavissati
pàñaliputtaü puñabhedanaü. Pàñaliputtassa kho ànanda, tayo antaràyà
bhavissanti aggito và udakato và abbhantarato và mithubhedà” ti.

34. Atha kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamattà yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavatà saddhiü sammodiüsu.
Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàretvà ekamantaü aññhaüsu. Ekamantaü
ñhità kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà bhagavantaü etadavocuü:
“adhivàsetu no bhavaü gotamo ajjatanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghenà”ti. Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho
sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà
pakkamiüsu.

35. Atha kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà paõãtaü khàdanãyaü
bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesuü. “Kàlo bho gotama,
niññhitaü bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà
pattacãvaraü àdàya yena sunãdhavassakàrànaü magadhamahàmattànaü
parivesanà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena.

36. Atha kho sunãdhavassakàrà magadhamahàmattà buddhapamukhaü
bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà
sampavàretvà bhagavantaü bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdiüsu.
Ekamantaü nisinne kho sunãdhavassakàre magadhamahàmatte bhagavà imàhi
gàthàhi anumodi:

37. “Yasmiü padese kappeti vàsaü paõóitajàtiyo,

Sãlavantettha bhojetvà sa¤¤ate brahmacàrayo 2.

38. Yà tattha devatà àsuü tàsaü dakkhiõamàdise,

Tà påjità påjayanti mànità mànayanti naü.

39. [PTS Page 230] [\q 230/] tato naü anukampanti màtà puttaü va orasaü,

Devatànukampito poso sadà bhadràni passatã” ti.

1. Vaõõippatho - katthaci. 2. “Brahmacàrino” si.

[BJT Page 578] [\x 578/]

40. Atha kho bhagavà sunãdhavassakàre magadhamahàmatte imàhi gàthàhi
anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi. Tena kho pana samayena sunãdhavassakàrà
mahadhamahàmattà bhagavantaü piññhito piññhito anubaddhà honti: “yena
ajja samaõo gotamo dvàrena nikkhamissati, taü gotamadvàraü nàma
bhavissati. Yena titthena gaïgaü nadiü uttarissati, taü gotamatitthaü
nàma bhavissatã” ti. Atha kho bhagavà yena dvàrena nikkhami, taü
gotamadvàraü nàma ahosi. Atha kho bhagavà yena gaïgà nadã,
tenupasaïkami. Tena kho pana samayena gaïgànadã pårà hoti samatittikà
kàkapeyyà. Manussà a¤¤e nàvaü pariyesanti, a¤¤e uëumpaü pariyesanti,
a¤¤e kullaü bandhanti orà pàraü gantukàmà.

41. Addasà kho bhagavà te manusse a¤¤e nàvaü pariyesante a¤¤e uëumpaü
pariyesante a¤¤e kullaü bandhante orà pàraü gantukàme. Disvàna
seyyathàpi nàma balavà puriso sammi¤jitaü và bàhaü pasàreyya, pasàritaü
và bàhaü sammi¤jeyya, evameva1 bhagavà gaïgàya nadiyà orimatãre
antarahito pàrimatãre paccuññhàsi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena. Atha kho
bhagavà etamatthaü viditvà tàyaü velàyaü imaü udànaü udànesi:

42. “Ye taranti aõõavaü saraü setuü katvàna visajja pallalàni,

Kullaü hi jano pabandhati 2 tiõõà medhàvino janà”ti.

43. Atha kho bhagavà yena koñigàmo tenupasaïkami. Tatra sudaü bhagavà
koñigàme viharati. Tatra kho bhagavà bhikkhå àmantesi: “catunnaü
bhikkhave, ariyasaccànaü ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü dãghamaddhànaü
sandhàvitaü saüsaritaü mama¤ceva tumhàka¤ca. Katamesaü catunnaü: ?
Dukkhassa bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü
dãghamaddhànaü sandhàvitaü saüsaritaü mama¤ceva tumhàka¤ca.
Dukkhasamudayassa ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü
dãghamaddhànaü sandhàvitaü saüsaritaü mama¤ceva tumhàka¤ca.
Dukkhanirodhassa ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà evamidaü
dãghamaddhànaü sandhàvitaü saüsaritaü mama¤ceva tumhàka¤ca.
Dukkhanirodhagàminiyà pañipadàya 3 ariyasaccassa ananubodhà appañivedhà
evamidaü dãghamaddhànaü sandhàvitaü saüsaritaü mama¤ceva tumhàka¤ca.
Tayidaü bhikkhave, dukkhaü ariyasaccaü [PTS Page 231] [\q 231/]
anubuddhaü pañividdhaü. Dukkhasamudayaü ariyasaccaü anubuddhaü
pañividdhaü. Dukkhanirodhaü ariyasaccaü anubuddhaü pañividdhaü.
Dukkhanirodhagàminãpañipadaü ariyasaccaü anubuddhaü pañividdhaü.
Ucchinnà bhavataõhà. Khãõà bhavanetti. Natthidàni punabbhavo” ti.

44. “Catunnaü ariyasaccànaü yathàbhåtaü adassanà,

Saüsitaü 4 dãghamaddhànaü tàsu tàsveva jàtãsu.

45. Tàni etàni diññhàni bhavanenti samåhatà,

Ucchinnaü målaü 5 dukkhassa natthidàni punabbhavoti.

1. “Evameva kho bhagavà” machasaü. 2. “Bandhati” machasaü.

3. “Dukkhanirodhagàminãpañipadà” sã mu. 4. “Sàsitaü” sã mu.

5. “Ucchinnamålaü” sã mu. To vi. Ja vi. Ma nu pa.

[BJT Page 580] [\x 580/]

46. Assosi kho ambapàli gaõikà “bhagavà kira koñigàmaü anuppatto” ti.
Atha kho ambapàli gaõikà bhadràni bhadràni yànàni yojàpetvà bhadraü
yànaü 1 abhiruhitvà bhadrehi bhadrehi yànehi vesàliyà niyyàsi
bhagavantaü dassanàya. Yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi, yànena gantavà yànà
paccorohitvà pattikàva yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho
ambapàliü gaõikaü bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi.
Samuttejesi. Sampahaüsesi. Atha kho ambapàlã gaõikà bhagavatà dhammiyà
kathàya sandassità samàdapità samuttejità sampahaüsità bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “adhivàsetu me bhante bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghenà”ti. Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho ambapàlã
gaõikà bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà uññhàyàsanaü bhagavantaü
abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkàmi.

47. Assosuü kho vesàlikà licchavã “bhagavà kira koñigàmaü anuppatto”
ti. Atha kho vesàlikà licchavã bhadràni bhadrani yànàni yojàpetvà
bhadraü bhadraü yànaü abhiråhitvà bhadrehi bhadrehi yànehi vesàliyà
nãyiüsu 2 bhagavantaü dassanàya. Appekacce licchavã nãlà honti nãlavaõõà
nãlavatthà nãlàlaïkàrà. Appekacce licchavã pãtà honti pãtavaõõà
pãtavatthà pãtàlaïkàrà. Appekacce licchavã lohitakà honti lohitakavaõõà3
lohitakavatthà lohitakàlaïkàrà. Appekacce licchavã odàtà honti
odàtavaõõà odàtavatthà odàtàlaïkàrà.

48. Atha kho ambapàlã gaõikà daharànaü licchavãnaü ãsàya ãsaü yugena
yugaü cakkena cakkaü akkhena akkhaü pativaññesi. [PTS Page 232] [\q
232/] atha kho te licchavã ambapàliü gaõikaü etadavocuü: “kissa je
ambapàli, amhàkaü4 daharànaü daharànaü licchavãnaü ãsàya ãsaü yugena
yugaü cakkena cakkaü akkhena akkhaü pativaññesã”ti. “Tathà hi pana mayà
ayyaputtà, svàtanàya buddhapamukho bhikkhusaïghe nimantito” ti. “Dehi je
ambapàli, amhàkaü etaü bhattaü satasahassenà” ti. “Sacepi me ayyaputtà
vesàliü sàhàraü dajjeyyàtha, neva dajjà bhatta” nti.

49. Atha kho te licchavã aïguliü poñhesuü: “paràjitambha 5 vata bho ambakàya. Paràjitambha vata bho ambakàyà” ti.

50. Atha kho te licchavã yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Addasà kho
bhagavà te licchavã dåratova àgacchante. Disvàna bhikkhå àmantesi: “yehi
bhikkhave, bhikkhåhi devà tàvatiüsà adiññhapubbà, oloketha bhikkhave,
licchaviparisaü. Apaloketha bhikkhave, licchaviparisaü. Upasaüharatha
bhikkhave, licchaviparisaü tàvatiüsaparisa” nti.

1. “Bhadraü bhadraü yànaü” to vi ma nu pa. 2. “Nãyàsu” ma cha saü. [P T S.]

3. “Lohitavaõõà” machasaü. [P T S. 4.] “Ambapàli daharànaü” machasaü

5. “Jitamha” machasaü. A vi to vi.

[BJT Page 582] [\x 582/]

51. Atha kho te licchavã yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi yànena gantvà yànà
paccorohitvà pattikàva yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Ekamantaü nisinno kho te
licchavã bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi.
Sampahaüsesi. Atha kho te licchavã bhagavatà dhammiyà kathàya sandassità
samàdapità samuttejità sampahaüsità bhagavantaü etadavocuü: adhivàsetu
no bhante bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà” ti.
“Adhivutthomhi licchavã, svàtanàya ambapàliyà gaõikàya bhatta” nti. Atha
kho te licchavã aïguliü poñhesuü: “paràjitamha vata bho ambakàya.
Paràjitamha vata bho ambakàyà”ti. Atha kho te licchavã bhagavato
bhàsitaü abhinanditvà anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
padakkhiõaü katvà pakkamiüsu.

52. Atha kho bhagavà koñigàme yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena nàtikà 1
tenupasaïkami. Tatra sudaü bhagavà nàtike viharati gi¤jakàvasathe. Atha
kho ambapàli gaõikà tassà rattiyà accayena sake àràme paõãtaü khàdanãyaü
bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo bhante,
niññhitaü bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà
pattacãvaraü àdàya yena ambapàliyà gaõikàya pañivesanà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena.

53. [PTS Page 233] [\q 233/] atha kho ambapàlã gaõikà buddhapamukhaü
bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà
sampavàretvà bhagavantaü bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinnà kho ambapàlã gaõikà bhagavantaü etadavoca: “imàhaü
bhante, ambavanaü buddha pamukhassa bhikkhusaïghassa dammã” ti.
Pañiggahesi bhagavà àràmaü.

54. Atha kho bhagavà ambapàliü gaõikaü dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà
samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà yena mahàvanaü
tenupasaïkami. Tatra sudaü bhagavà vesàliyaü viharati mahàvane
kåñàgàrasàlàyaü.

Licchavibhàõavàro tatiyo.

1. ‘Nàdikà” sã mu. “¥àtikà” [P T S.]

[BJT Page 584] [\x 584/]

1. Tena kho pana samayena abhi¤¤àtà abhi¤¤àtà licchavã santhàgàre 1
sannisinnà sannipatità anekapariyàyena buddhassa vaõõaü bhàsanti.
Dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. Saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsanti.

2. Tena kho pana samayena sãho senàpati nigaõñhasàvako tassaü
parisàyaü nisinno hoti. Atha kho sãhassa senàpatissa etadahosi:
“nissaüsayaü kho so bhagavà arahaü sammàsambuddho bhavissati. Tathà hi
me abhi¤¤àtà abhi¤¤àtà licchavã santhàgàre sannisinnà sannipatità
anekapariyàyena buddhassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. Dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsanti.
Saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. Yannånàhaü taü bhagavantaü dassanàya
upasaïkameyyaü arahantaü sammàsambuddha” nti.

3. Atha kho sãho senàpàti yena nigaõñho nàtaputto 2 tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà nigaõñhaü nàtaputtaü abhivàdetvà 3 ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinno kho sãho senàpati nigaõñhaü nàtaputtaü etadavoca:
“icchàmahaü bhante, samaõaü gotamaü dassanàya upasaïkamitu” nti. “Kiü
pana tvaü sãha, kiriyavàdo samàno akiriyavàdaü samaõaü gotamaü dassanàya
upasaïkamissasi? Samaõo hi sãha, gotamo akiriyavàdo akiriyàya dhammaü
deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã” ti. Atha kho sãhassa senàpatissa yo ahosi
gamikàbhisaïkhàro 4 bhagavantaü dassanàya so pañippassambhi.

4. Dutiyampi kho abhi¤¤àtà abhi¤¤àtà licchavã santhàgàre sannisinnà
sannipatità anekapariyàyena buddhassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. Dhammassa vaõõaü
bhàsanti. Saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. [PTS Page 234 [\q 234/] Textvvv
isvvv faulvvvtyvvv] tatiyampi kho abhi¤¤àtà abhi¤¤àtà licchavã
santhàgàre sannisinnà sannipatità anekapariyàyena buddhassa vaõõaü
bhàsanti. Dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. Saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsanti.
Tatiyampi kho sãhassa senàpatissa etadahosi: “nissaüsayaü kho so bhagavà
arahaü sammàsambuddho bhavissati. Tathà hi me abhi¤¤àtà abhi¤¤àtà
licchavã santhàgàre sannisinnà sannipatità anekapariyàyena buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsanti. Dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsanti. Saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsanti.
Kiü hi me karissanti nigaõñhà apalokità và anapalokità và? Yannånàhaü
anapaloketvà va nigaõñhe taü bhagavantaü dassanàya upasaïkameyyaü
arahantaü sammàsambuddha” nti.

5. Atha kho sãho senàpati pa¤cahi rathasatehi divàdivassa vesàliyà
nãyyàsi bhagavantaü dassanàya yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi yànena gantvà yànà
paccorohitvà pattikova yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho sãho
senàpati bhagavantaü etadavoca: “sutammetaü bhante, akiriyavàdo samaõo
gotamo akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetãti. Ye te bhante
evamàhaüsu: ‘akiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ ti. Ye te bhante evamàhaüsu: ‘akiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo
akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ ti. Kacci te bhante,
bhagavato vuttavàdino? Na ca bhagavantaü abhåtena abbhàcikkhanti?
Dhammassa cànudhammaü vyàkaronti? Na ca koci sahadhammiko vàdànuvàdo
gàrayhaü ñhànaü àgacchati? Anabbhakkhàtukàmà hi mayaü bhante bhagavanta”
nti.

1. “Sandhàgàre” machasaü. 2. “Nighaõñhanàtha” sã. Sã mu. “Nighaõñhanàña” machasaü.

3. “Abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho sãho senàpati
nigaõñhaü nàtaputtaü” iti ayaü pàñho na dissate marammakkharapotthake.
4. “Gamiyàbhisaïkhàro” 5. “Vàdànupàto” sabbattha.

[BJT Page 586] [\x 586/]

6. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya:
‘akiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti.

7. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya:
‘kiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo kiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti.

8. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya:
‘ucchedavàdo samaõo gotamo ucchedàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ti.

9. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya:
jegucchã samaõo gotamo jegucchitàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti.

10. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: venayiko samaõo gotamo vinayàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti.

11. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘tapassã samaõo gotamo tapassitàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ ti.

12. “Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘apagabbho samaõo gotamo apagabbhatàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ti.

13. ‘Atthi sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘assattho samaõo gotamo assàsàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti.

14. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘akiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo akiriyàya dhammaü [PTS Page 235] [\q
235/] deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ ti. Ahaü hi sãha, akiriyaü vadàmi
kàyaduccaritassa vacãduccaritassa manoduccaritassa. Anekavihitànaü
pàpakànaü akusalànaü dhammànaü akiriyaü vadàmi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo,
yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya: ‘akiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo
akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ ti.

15. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘kiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo kiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ ti. Ahaü hi sãha, kiriyaü vadàmi kàyasucaritassa
vacãsucaritassa manosucaritassa. Anekavihitànaü kusalànaü dhammànaü
kiriyaü vadàmi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà
vadamàno vadeyya: ‘kiriyavàdo samaõo gotamo. Kiriyàya dhammaü deseti.
Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ ti.

[BJT Page 588] [\x 588/]

16. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘ucchedavàdo samaõo gotamo ucchedàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ ti. Ahaü hi sãha, ucchedaü vadàmi ràgassa dosassa
mohassa. Anekavihitànaü pàpakànaü akusalànaü dhammànaü ucchedaü vadàmi.
Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya:
‘ucchedavàdo samaõo gotamo ucchedàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti.

17. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘jegucchã samaõo gotamo jegucchitàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ ti. Ahaü hi sãha, jigucchàmi kàya duccaritena
vacãduccaritena manoduccaritena. Anekavihitànaü pàpakànaü akusalànaü
dhammànaü samàpattiyà jigucchàmi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü
pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya: “jegucchã samaõo gotamo jegucchitàya
dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ ti.

18. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘venayiko samaõo gotamo vinayàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti. Ahaü hi sãha, vinayàya dhammaü desemi ràgassa dosassa
mohassa. Anekavihitànaü pàpakànaü akusalànaü dhammànaü vinayàya dhammaü
desemi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘venayiko samaõo gotamo vinayàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ti.

19. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘tapassã samaõo gotamo tapassitàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ti. Tapanãyàhaü sãha, pàpake akusale dhamme vadàmi
kàyaduccaritaü vacãduccaritaü manoduccaritaü. Yassa kho sãha, tapanãyà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà pahãõà ucchinnamålà tàlàvatthukatà anabhàvakatà1
àyatiü anuppàdadhammà, tamahaü tapassãti vadàmi. Tathàgatassa kho sãha,
tapanãyà pàpakà akusalà dhammà pahãõà ucchinnamålà tàlàvatthukatà
anabhàvakatà àyatiü anuppàdadhammà, ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü
pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya: tapassã [PTS Page 236] [\q 236/]
samaõo gotamo tapassitàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ti.

1. “Anabhàvaü katà” machasaü. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 590] [\x 590/]

20. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘apagabbho samaõo gotamo apagabbhatàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca
sàvake vinetã’ ti. Yassa kho sãha, àyatiü gabbhaseyyà
punabbhavàbhinibbatti pahãõà ucchinnamålà tàlàvatthukatà anabhàvakatà
àyatiü anuppàdadhammà, tamahaü apagabbhoti vadàmi. Tathàgatassa kho
sãha, àyatiü gabbhaseyyà punabbhavàbhinibbatti pahãõà ucchinnamålà
tàlàvatthukatà anabhàvakatà àyatiü anuppàdadhammà. Ayaü kho sãha,
pariyàyo yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya: ‘apagabbho samaõo
gotamo apagabbhatàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã’ ti.

21. “Katamo ca sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü pariyàyena sammà vadamàno
vadeyya: ‘assattho samaõo gotamo assàsàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake
vinetã’ ti. Ahaü hi sãha, assattho paramena assàsena. Assàsàya ca 1
dhammaü desemi. Tena ca sàvake vinemi. Ayaü kho sãha, pariyàyo, yena maü
pariyàyena sammà vadamàno vadeyya: ‘assattho samaõo gotamo assàsàya
dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã” ti.

22. Evaü vutte sãho senàpati bhagavantaü etadavoca: “abhikkantaü
bhante. Abhikkantaü bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pañicchannaü và vivareyya, måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya, andhakàre và
telapajjotaü dhàreyya: ‘cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintã’ ti, evamevaü
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante, bhagavantaü
saraõaü gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhagavà
dhàretu ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gata” nti.

23. Anuviccakàraü kho sãha, karohi. Anuviccakàro tumhàdisànaü
¤àtamanussànaü sàdhu hotã ti. Iminàpahaü bhante bhagavato vacanena
bhiyosomattàya 2 attamano abhiraddho, yaü maü bhagavà evamàha:
“anuviccakàraü kho sãha, karohi. Anuviccakàro tumhàdisànaü
¤àtamanussànaü sàdhu hotã”ti. Mamaü hi bhante a¤¤atitthiyà sàvakaü
labhitvà kevalakappaü vesàliü pañàkaü parihareyyuü: ’sãho3 amhàkaü
senàpati sàvakattaü upagato’ ti. Atha ca pana maü bhagavà evamàha:
“anuviccakàraü kho sãha, karohi. Anuviccakàro tumhàdisànaü
¤àtamanussànaü sàdhu hotã” ti. Esàhaü bhante dutiyampi bhagavantaü
saraõaü gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhagavà
dhàretu ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gata” nti.

1. “Assàsàya” machasaü. 2. “Bhagavato bhiyyosomantàya” machasaü. 3. “Sãho kho” machasaü.

[BJT Page 592] [\x 592/]

24. Dãgharattaü kho te sãha, nigaõñhànaü opànabhåtaü kulaü, yena
tesaü upagatànaü piõóakaü1 dàtabbaü ma¤¤eyyàsã ti. Iminàpahaü bhante,
bhagavato vacanena bhiyosomattàya attamano abhiraddho, yaü maü bhagavà
evamàha: “dãgharattaü kho te sãha, nigaõñhànaü opànabhåtaü kulaü, yena
tesaü upagatànaü piõóakaü dàtabbaü ma¤¤eyyàsã” ti.

25. Sutaü metaü bhante, “samaõo gotamo evamàha: mayhameva dànaü
dàtabbaü. Na a¤¤esaü dànaü dàtabbaü. Mayhameva sàvakànaü dànaü dàtabbaü.
Na a¤¤esaü sàvakànaü dànaü [PTS Page 237] [\q 237/] dàtabbaü. Mayhameva
dinnaü mahapphalaü. Na a¤¤esaü dinnaü mahapphalaü. Mayhameva sàvakànaü
dinnaü mahapphalaü. Na a¤¤esaü sàvakànaü dinnaü mahapphala” nti. Atha ca
pana maü bhagavà nigaõñhesupi dàne samàdapeti. Api ca bhante,
mayamettha kàlaü jànissàma. Esàhaü bhante, tatiyampi bhagavantaü saraõaü
gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhagavà dhàretu
ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gata nti.

26. Atha kho bhagavà sãhassa senàpatissa ànupubbãkathaü kathesi
seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü
saükilesaü. Nekkhamme ànisaüsaü pakàsesi. Yadà bhagavà a¤¤àsi sãha
senàpatiü kallacittaü muducittaü vinãvaraõacittaü udaggacittaü
pasannacittaü, atha yà buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü
pakàsesi: dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü maggaü. Seyyathàpi nàma suddhaü
vatthaü apagatakàëakaü sammadeva rajanaü patigaõheyya, evameva sãhassa
senàpatissa tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi:
“yaü ki¤ci samudayadhammaü sabbaü taü nirodhadhamma”nti.

27. Atha kho sãho senàpati diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyogàëhadhammo tiõõavicikiccho vigatakathaïkatho vesàrajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavoca: “adhivàsetu me bhante
bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà” ti. Adhivàsesi
bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho sãho senàpati bhagavato adhivàsanaü
viditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkàmi.

28. Atha kho sãho senàpati a¤¤ataraü purisaü àõàpesi: “gaccha bhaõe,
pavattamaüsaü jànàhã” ti. Atha kho sãho senàpati tassà rattiyà accayena
paõãtaü khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi:
“kàlo bhante, niññhitaü bhatta” nti. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü
nivàsetvà pattacãvaramàdàya yena sãhassa senàpatissa nivesanaü
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena.

1. “Piõóapàtaü” machasaü.

[BJT Page 594] [\x 594/]

29. Tena kho pana samayena sambahulà nigaõñhà vesàliyaü rathiyà
rathiyaü1 siïghàñakena siïghàñakaü bàhà paggayha kandanti: “ajja sãhena
senàpatinà thullaü pasuü2 vadhitvà samaõassa gotamassa bhattaü kataü.
Taü samaõo gotamo jànaü uddissakañaü maüsaü paribhu¤jati pañiccakamma”
nti.

30. Atha kho a¤¤ataro puriso yena sãho senàpati tenupasaïakami.
Upasaïkamitvà sãhassa senàpatissa upakaõõake àrocesi: “yagghe bhante,
jàneyyàsi? Ete sambahulà nigaõñhà vesàliyaü rathiyà rathiyaü
siïghàñakena siïghàñakaü bàhà paggayha kandanti: ajja sãhena senàpatinà
thullaü pasuü vadhitvà samaõassa gotamassa bhattaü kataü. Taü samaõo
gotamo jànaü uddissakañaü maüsaü paribhu¤jati pañiccakamma” nti.

31. “Alaü ayyo, dãgharattampi te àyasmantà avaõõakàmà buddhassa.
Avaõõakàmà dhammassa. Avaõõakàmà saïghassa. Na ca pana te àyasmantà
jãranti 3 taü bhagavantaü asatà tucchà musà abhåtena abbhàcikkhantà. Na
ca mayaü jãvitahetåpi sa¤cicca pàõaü jãvità voropeyyàmà” ti.

32. Atha kho sãho senàpati buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà [PTS Page 238] [\q 238/] santappetvà
sampavàretvà bhagavantaü bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho sãhaü senàpatiü bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya
sandassetvà samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

33. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü katvà
bhikkhå àmantesi: ” na bhikkhave, jànaü uddissakañaü maüsaü
paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, tikoñiparisuddhaü macchamaüsaü: adiññhaü asutaü aparisaïkita”
nti.

34. Tena kho pana samayena vesàlã subhikkhà hoti susassà4 sulabhapiõóà. Sukarà u¤chena paggahena yàpetuü.

35. Atha kho bhagavato rahogatassa patisallãnassa evaü cetaso
parivitakko udapàdi: “yàni tàni mayà bhikkhånaü anu¤¤àtàni dubbhikkhe
dussasse dullabhapiõóe anto vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü pakkaü,
uggahitapañiggahitakaü, tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü,
vanaññhaü pokkharaññhaü, ajjàpi nu kho tàni bhikkhå paribhu¤jantã”ti.

1. “Rathikàya rathikaü” machasaü. 2. “Thålaü pasuü” machasaü.

3. “Jãridanti” machasaü. 4. “Sussassà” sã mu.

[BJT Page 596] [\x 596/]

36. Atha kho bhagavà sàyaõhasamayaü patisallànà vuññhito ayasmantaü
ànandaü àmantesi: “yàni tàni ànanda, mayà bhikkhånaü anu¤¤àtàni
dubbhikkhe dussasse dullabhapiõóe anto vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü pakkaü,
uggahitapañiggahitakaü, tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü,
vanaññhaü, pokkharaññhaü, ajjàpi nu kho tàni bhikkhå paribhu¤jantã” ti.
“Paribhu¤janti bhagavà” ti.

37. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “yàni tàni bhikkhave, mayà bhikkhånaü anu¤¤àtàni
dubbhikkhe dussasse dullabhapiõóe anto vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü
pakkaü, uggahitapañiggahitakaü, tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü,
vanaññhaü, pokkharaññhaü, tànàhaü ajjatagge pañikkhipàmi. Na bhikkhave,
anto vutthaü anto pakkaü sàmaü pakkaü, uggahitapañiggahitakaü
paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Na ca bhikkhave,
tato nãhañaü, purebhattaü pañiggahitaü. Vanaññhaü, pokkharaññhaü
bhuttàvinà pavàritena anatirittaü paribhu¤jitabbaü. Yo paribhu¤jeyya,
yathà dhammo kàretabbo” ti.

38. Tena kho pana samayena jànapadà manussà bahuü loõampi telampi
taõóulampi khàdanãyampi sakañesu àropetvà bahàràmakoññhake
sakañaparivattaü karitvà acchanti: “yadà pañipàñiü labhissàma, tadà
bhattaü karissàmà” ti. Mahà ca [PTS Page 239] [\q 239/] megho uggato
hoti.

39. Atha kho te manussà yenàyasmà ànando tenupasaïkamiüsu.
Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü ànandaü etadavocuü: “idha bhante ànanda, bahuü
loõampi telampi taõóulampi khàdanãyampi sakañesu àropità1 tiññhanti.
Mahà ca megho uggato. Kathannukho bhante ànanda, 2 pañipajjitabba” nti.

40. Atha kho àyasmà ànando bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesi.
“Tenahànanda, saïgho paccantimaü vihàraü kappiyabhåmiü sammannitvà
tattha vàsetu, yaü saïgho àkaïkhati vihàraü và aóóhayogaü và pàsàdaü và
hammiyaü và guhaü và. Eva¤ca pana bhikkhave, sammannitabbo3 vyattena
bhikkhunà pañibalena saïgho ¤àpetabbo: “suõàtu me bhante, saïgho. Yadi
saïghassa pattakallaü, saïgho itthannàmaü vihàraü kappiyabhåmiü
sammanneyya, esà ¤atti. Suõàtu me bhante, saïgho. Saïgho itthannàmaü
vihàraü kappiyabhåmiü sammannati. Yassàyasmato khamati itthannàmassa
vihàrassa kappiyabhåmiyà sammuti, so tuõhassa. Yassa nakkhamati, so
bhàseyya. Sammato saïghena itthannàmo vihàro kappiyabhåmi. Khamati
saïghassa. Tasmà tuõhã. Evametaü dhàrayàmã” ti.

1. “âropetvà” sã mu. 2. “Bhante” machasaü.

3. “Sammannitabbà” machasaü.

[BJT Page 598] [\x 598/]

41. Tena kho pana samayena manussà tattheva sammutiyà1 kappiyabhåmiyà
yàguyo pacanti. Bhattàni pacanti. Såpàni sampàdenti. Maüsàni koññenti.
Kaññhàni phàlenti.

42. Assosi kho bhagavà rattiyà paccåsasamayaü paccuññhàya uccàsaddaü
mahàsaddaü kàkoravasaddaü. Sutvàna àyasmantaü ànandaü àmantesi: “kinnu
kho so ànanda uccàsaddo mahàsaddo kàkoravasaddo”? Ti. “Etarahi bhante,
manussà tattheva sammutiyà kappiyabhåmiyà yàguyo pacanti. Såpàni
sampàdenti. Maüsàni koññenti. Kaññhàni phàlenti. So eso bhagavà
uccàsaddo mahàsaddo kàkoravasaddo” ti.

43. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “na bhikkhave, sammutikappiyabhåmi
paribhu¤jitabbà. Yo paribhu¤jeyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, tisso kappiyabhåmiyo: ussàvanantikaü gonisàdikaü
gahapati”nti.

44. Tena kho pana samayena àyasmà yasojo gilàno hoti. Tassatthàya
bhesajjàni àharãyanti. Tàni bhikkhå bahi vàsenti. Ukkapiõóakàpi
khàdanti. Coràpi haranti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, sammutiü kappiyabhåmiü [PTS Page 240] [\q 240/]
paribhu¤jituü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, catasso kappiyabhåmiyo:
ussàvanantikaü gonisàdikaü gahapatiü sammuti” nti.

Sãhabhàõavàro catuttho.

1. “Sammatikàya si.

[BJT Page 600] [\x 600/]

1. Tena kho pana samayena bhaddiyanagare meõóako gahapati pañivasati.
Tassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo hoti: sãsaü nahàyitvà dha¤¤àgàraü
sammajjàpetvà padvàre1 nisãdati. Antaëikkhà dha¤¤assa dhàrà opatitvà
dha¤¤àgàraü påreti.

2. Bhariyàya evaråpo iddhànubhàvo hoti: eka¤¤eva àëhaka thàlikaü
upanisãditvà eka¤ca såpabhi¤jarakaü2 dàsakammakaraporisaü bhattena
parivisati. Na tàva taü khãyati3, yàva sà na vuññhàti.

3. Puttassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo hoti: ekaüyeva sahassatthavikaü
gahetvà dàsakammakaraporisassa chammàsikaü4 vetanaü deti. Na tàva taü
khãyati, yàvassa hatthagatà.

4. Suõisàya evaråpo iddhànubhàvo hoti: eka¤¤eva catudoõikaü pãñakaü
upanisãditvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü bãjabhattaü5 deti. Na
tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti.

5. Dàsassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo hoti: ekena naïgalena kasantassa satta sãtàyo gacchanti.

6. Assosi kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro “amhàkaü kira vijite
bhaddiyanagare meõóako gahapati pañivasati. Tassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo:
sãsaü nahàyitvà dha¤¤àgàraü sampajjàpetvà padvàre1 nisãdati. Antalikkhà
dha¤¤assa dhàrà opatitvà dha¤¤àgàraü påreti. Bhariyàya evaråpo
iddhànubhàvo: ekaüyeva àëhakathàlikaü upanisãditvà eka¤ca
såpabhi¤jarakaü2 dàsakammakaraporisaü bhattena parivisati. Na tàva taü
khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti. Puttassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: ekaüyeva
sahassatthavikaü gahetvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü vetanaü deti.
Na tàva taü khãyati, yàvassa hatthagatà. Suõisàya evaråpo iddhànubhàvo:
ekaüyeva catudoõikaü piñakaü upanisãditvà dàsakammakaraporisassa
jammàsikaü bãjabhattaü5 deti. Na tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti.
Dàsassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: ekena naïgalena kasantassa satta sãtàyo
gacchantã” ti.

7. Atha kho ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro a¤¤ataraü sabbatthakaü
mahàmattaü àmantesi: “amhàkaü kira bhaõe vijite bhaddiyanagare meõóako
gahapati pañivasati. Tassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: [PTS Page 241] [\q
241/] sãsaü nahàyitvà dha¤¤àgàraü sammajjàpetvà padvàre nisãdati.
Antalikkhà dha¤¤assa dhàrà opatitvà dha¤¤àgàraü påreti. Bhariyàya
evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: eka¤¤eva àëhakathàlikaü upanisãditvà eka¤ca
såpabhi¤jarakaü2 dàsakammakaraporisaü bhattena parivisati. Na tàva taü
khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti. Puttassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo hoti.
Ekaüyeva sahassatthavikaü gahetvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü
vetanaü deti. Na tàva taü khãyati, yàvassa hatthagatà. Suõisàya evaråpo
iddhànubhàvo hoti. Eka¤¤eva catudoõikaü piñakaü upanisãditvà
dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü bãjahattaü5 deti. Na tàva taü khãyati,
yàva sà na vuññhàti. Dàsassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: ekena naïgalena
kasantassa satta sãtàyo gacchantã” ti.

Gaccha bhaõe. Jànàhi yathà mayà sàmaü diññho, evaü tava diññho bhavissatã” ti.

1. “Bahidvàre” machasaü. 2. “Såpabhi¤janakaü” machasaü. 3. “Khãyati”
machasaü. Ma nu pa. ” “Såpavya¤janakaü” [P T S. 4.] “Jamàsikaü”
machasaü. 5. “Bãjabhattaü” - ettha “bãja” iti ånaü sabba potthakesu.
Dhammapadaññhakathàyaü ceva taüsãhalànuvàde
saddhammaratanàvalãnàmasãhalaganthe “bat bijuvaña” iti ca dissamànattà
taü idha yojitaü.

[BJT Page 602] [\x 602/]

8. “Evaü devà” tã kho so mahàmatto ra¤¤o màgadhassa seniyassa
bimbisàrassa pañissutvà caturaïginiyà senàya yena bhaddiyaü tena pàyàsi.
Anupubbena yena bhaddiyaü yena meõóako gahapati tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà meõóakaü gahapatiü etadavoca: “ahaü hi gahapati, ra¤¤à
àõatto “amhàkaü kira bhaõe, vijite bhaddiya nagare meõóako gahapati
pañivasati. Tassa evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: sãsaü nahàyitvà dha¤¤àgàraü
sammajjàpetvà padvàre nisãdati. Antaëikkhà dha¤¤assa dhàrà opatitvà
dha¤¤àgàraü påreti. Bhariyàya evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: eka¤¤eva
àëhakathàlikaü upanisãditvà eka¤ca såpabhi¤jarakaü2 dàsakammakaraporisaü
bhattena parivisati. Na tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti. Puttassa
evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: ekaüyeva sahassatthavikaü gahetvà
dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü vetanaü deti. Na tàva taü khãyati,
yàvassa hatthagatà. Suõisàya evaråpo iddhànubhàvo: eka¤¤eva catudoõikaü
piñakaü upanisãditvà dàsakammakaraporisassa jammàsikaü bãjabhattaü5
deti. Na tàva taü khãyati, yàva sà na vuññhàti. Dàsassa evaråpo
iddhànubhàvo: ekena naïgalena kasantassa satta sãtàyo gacchanti. ‘
Gaccha bhaõe, jànàhi. Yathà mayà sàmaü diññho, evaü tava diññho
bhavissatã” ti. Passàma te gahapati, iddhànubhàva nti.

9. Atha kho meõóako gahapati sãsaü nahàyitvà dha¤¤àgàraü
sammajjàpetvà padvàre nisãdi. Antalikkhà dha¤¤assa dhàrà opatitvà
dha¤¤àgàraü påresi.

10. “Diññho te gahapati, iddhànubhàvo. Bhariyàya te iddhànubhàvaü
passàmà” ti1. Atha kho meõóako gahapati bhariyaü àõàpesi: “tena hi
caturaïginiü senaü bhattena parivisà”ti. Atha kho meõóakassa gahapatissa
bhariyà ekaüyeva àëhakathàlikaü upanisãditvà eka¤ca såpabhi¤jarakaü
caturaïginiü senaü bhattena parivisi. Na tàva taü khãyi. 2 Yàva sà na
vuññhàsi. 3

11. “Diññho te gahapati bhariyàyapi iddhànubhàvo. Puttassa te
iddhànubhàvaü passàmà” ti. Atha kho meõóako gahapati puttaü àõàpesi:
“tena hi caturaïginiyà senàya jammàsikaü vetanaü dehã” ti. Atha kho
meõóakassa gahapatissa putto ekaüyeva sahassatthavikaü gahetvà
caturaïginiyà senàya chammàsikaü vetanaü adàsi. Na tàva taü khãyi,
yàvassa hatthagatà.

12. “Diññho te gahapati, puttassapi iddhànubhàvo. Suõisàya te
iddhànubhàvaü passamà” ti. Atha kho meõóako gahapati suõisaü àõàpesi:
“tena hi caturaïginiyà senàya chammàsikaü bãjabhattaü dehã” ti. Atha kho
meõóakassa gahapatissa suõisà ekaüyeva catudoõikaü piñakaü upanisãditvà
caturaïginiyà senàya chammàsikaü bãjabhattaü adàsi. Na tàva taü khãyi,
yàva sà na vuññhàsi.

13. “Diññho te gahapati, suõisàyapi iddhànubhàvo. Dàsassa te
iddhànubhàvaü passàmà” ti. “Mayhaü kho sàmi, dàsassa iddhànubhàvo khette
passitabbo”ti. “Alaü gahapati, diññho te dàsassapi iddhànubhàvo” ti.

14. Atha kho so mahàmatto caturaïginiyà senàya punadeva ràjagahaü
paccàga¤jã. Yena ràjà màgadho seniyo bimbisàro tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà ra¤¤o màgadhassa seniyassa bimbisàrassa etamatthaü
àrocesi.

1. “Passissàmàti” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “Khãyati” machasaü. [P T S.]

3. “Na vuññhàti” machasaü. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 604] [\x 604/]

15. [PTS Page 242] [\q 242/] atha kho bhagavà vesàliyaü
yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena bhaddiyaü tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà
bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehi.

16. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena bhaddiyaü tadavasari. Tatrasudaü bhagavà bhaddiye viharati jàtiyàvane.

17. Assosi kho meõóako gahapati “samaõo khalu bho gotamo sakyaputto
sakyakulà pabbajito bhaddiyaü anuppatto bhaddiye viharati jàtiyàvane.
Taü kho pana bhagavantaü gotamaü evaü kalyàõo kittisaddo abbhuggato:
“itipi so bhagavà arahaü, sammàsambuddho, vijjàcaraõasampanno, sugato,
lokavidå, anuttaro, purisadammasàrathã, satthà devamanussànaü, buddho,
bhagavà. 1 So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü sabrahmakaü,
sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü sadevamanussaü, sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà
pavadeti. So dhammaü deseti àdikalyàõaü majjhe kalyàõaü
pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü. Kevalaparipuõõaü parisuddhaü
brahmacariyaü pakàseti. Sàdhu kho pana tatharåpànaü arahataü dassanaü
hotã” ti.

18. Atha kho meõóako gahapati bhadràni yànàni yojàpetvà bhadraü yànaü
abhiråhitvà bhadrehi bhadrehi yànehi bhaddiyà nãyyàsi bhagavantaü
dassanàya.

19. Addasaüsu kho sambahulà titthiyà meõóakaü gahapatiü dåratova
àgacchantaü disvàna meõóakaü gahapatiü etadavocuü: kahaü tvaü gahapati,
gacchasã” ti. “Gacchàmahaü bhante, bhagavantaü samaõaü gotamaü2
dassanàyà”ti. “Kiü pana tvaü gahapati, kiriyavàdo samàno akiriyavàdaü
samaõaü gotamaü dassanàya upasaïkamissasi? Samaõo hi gahapati, gotamo
akiriyavàdo akiriyàya dhammaü deseti. Tena ca sàvake vinetã “ti.

20. Atha kho meõóakassa gahapatissa etadahosi: “nissaüsayaü kho so
bhagavà arahaü sammà sambuddho bhavissati, yathàpime3 titthiyà usåyantã”
ti. Yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi yànena gantvà yànà paccorohitvà pattikova
yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnassa kho meõóakassa gahapatissa
bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü kathesi seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü
saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü saükilesaü, nekkhamme ànisaüsaü
pakàsesi.

1. “Bhagavàti” machasaü. Ja vi. A vi. To vi. 2. “Bhante samaõaü gotamaü” sã mu. 3. “Yathaime” machasaü.

[BJT Page 606] [\x 606/]

21. Yadà bhagavà a¤¤àsi meõóakaü gahapatiü kallacittaü muducittaü
vinãvaraõacittaü udaggacittaü pasannacittaü, atha yà buddhànaü
sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü pakàsesi - dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü
maggaü. Seyyathàpi nàma suddhaü vatthaü apagatakàëakaü sammadeva rajanaü
patigaõheyya, evameva kho meõóakassa gahapatissa tasmiü yeva àsane
virajaü vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi: “yaü ki¤ci samudayadhammaü,
sabbaü taü nirodhadhamma” nti.

22. Atha kho meõóako gahapati diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyogàëhadhammo tiõõavicikiccho vigatakataïkatho vesàrajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavoca: “abhikkantaü bhante.
Abhikkantaü bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pañicchannaü và vivareyya, måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya, andhakàre và
telapajjotaü dhàreyya: “cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintã’ ti, evameva
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante, bhagavantaü
saraõaü gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhagavà
dhàretu ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü [PTS Page 243] [\q 243/] gataü.
Adhivàsetu ca me bhante bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghenà” ti. Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho meõóako
gahapati bhagavato adhivàsanaü viditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü
abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkàmi.

23. Atha kho meõóako gahapati tassà rattiyà accayena paõãtaü
khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo
bhante, niññhitaü bhatta” nti.

24. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà pattacãvaramàdàya yena
meõóakassa gahapatissa nivesanaü, tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte
àsane nisãdi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena.

25. Atha kho meõóakassa gahapatissa bhariyà ca putto ca suõisà ca
dàso ca yena bhagavà tenupasaïkamiüsu. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü
abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdiüsu. Tesaü bhagavà ànupubbikathaü kathesi
seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü
saïkilesaü, nekkhamme ànisaüsaü pakàsesi.

26. Yadà te bhagavà a¤¤àsi kallacitte muducitte vinãvaraõa citte
udaggacitte pasannacitte, atha yà buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà,
taü pakàsesi - dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü maggaü. Seyyathàpi nàma
suddhaü vatthaü apagatakàëakaü sammadeva rajanaü patigaõheyya, evameva
tesaü tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi: “yaü
ki¤ci samudayadhammaü, sabbaü taü nirodhadhamma’ nti.

[BJT Page 608] [\x 608/]

27. Te diññhadhammà pattadhammà viditadhammà pariyogàëhadhammà
tiõõavicikicchà vigatakathaïkathà vesàrajjappattà aparappaccayà
satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavocuü: abhikkantaü bhante. Abhikkantaü
bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante, nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya, pañicchannaü và
vivareyya, måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya, andhakàre và telapajjotaü
dhàreyya - ‘cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintã’ ti, evameva bhagavatà
anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Ete mayaü bhante, bhagavantaü saraõaü
gacchàma dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsake no bhagavà dhàretu
ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gate” ti.

28. Atha kho meõóako gahapati buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà, bhagavantaü
bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho
meõóako gahapati bhagavantaü etadavoca: “yàva bhante bhagavà bhaddiye
viharati tàva ahaü buddhapamukhassa bhikkhusaïghassa dhåvabhattenà” ti.
Atha kho bhagavà meõóakaü gahapatiü dhammiyà kathà sandassetvà
samàdapetvà samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

29. Atha kho bhagavà bhaddiye yathàbhirattaü viharitvà meõóakaü
gahapatiü anàpucchà yena aïguttaràpo tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Mahatà
bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi bhikkhåsatehã”.

30. Assosi kho meõóako gahapati “bhagavà kira yena aïguttaràpo tena
càrikaü pakkanto mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi
bhikkhåsatehã” ti.

31. Atha kho meõóako gahapati dàse ca kammakare ca àõàpesi: “tena hi
bhaõe, bahuü loõampi telampi madhumpi taõóulampi khàdanãyampi sakañesu
àropetvà àgacchatha. Aóóhateëasàni ca gopàlakasatàni aóóhateëasàni ca
dhenusatàni àdàya àgacchantu. Yattha mayaü bhagavantaü1 passissàma,
dhàruõhena2 khãrena bhojessàmà” ti.

32. Atha kho meõóako [PTS Page 244] [\q 244/] gahapati bhagavantaü
antaràmagge kantàre sambhàvesi. Atha kho meõóako gahapati yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü aññhàsi.
Ekamantaü ñhito kho meõóako gahapati bhagavantaü etadavoca: “adhivàsetu
me bhante bhagavà svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà” ti.
Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho meõóako gahapati bhagavato
adhivàsanaü viditvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà pakkàmi.

1. “Yattha bhagavantaü” machasaü. 2. ‘Taruõena’ machasaü.

[BJT Page 610] [\x 610/]

33. Atha kho meõóako gahapati tassà rattiyà accayena paõãtaü
khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo
bhante niññhitaü bhatta” nti.

34. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü nivàsetvà pattacãvaraü àdàya
yena meõóakassa gahapatissa parivesanaü tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü bhikkhusaïghena.

35. Atha kho meõóako gahapati aóóhateëasàni gopàlakasatàni àõàpesi:
“tena hi bhaõe, ekamekaü dhenuü gahetvà ekamekassa bhikkhuno
upatiññhatha. Dhàruõhena khãrena bhojessàmà” ti.

36. Atha kho meõóako gahapati buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappesi: sampavàresi dhàruõhena ca
khãrena. Bhikkhu kukkuccàyantà khãraü na patigaõhanti. “Patigaõhàtha
bhikkhave paribhu¤jathà” ti.

37. Atha kho meõóako gahapati buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà dhàruõhena ca
khãrena, bhagavantaü bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinno kho meõóako gahapati bhagavantaü etadavoca: “sanni
bhante, maggà kantàrà appodakà appabhakkhà na sukarà apàtheyyena gantuü.
Sàdhu bhante, bhagavà bhikkhånaü pàtheyyaü anujànàtå” ti. Atha kho
bhagavà meõóakaü gahapatiü dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà
samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

38. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, pa¤ca gorasekhãraü dadhi
takkaü navanãtaü sappi. Santi bhikkhave, maggà kantàrà appodakà
appabhakkhà na sukarà apàtheyyena gantuü. Anujànàmi. Bhikkhave,
pàtheyyaü pariyesituü. Taõóulo taõóulatthikena. Muggo muggatthikena.
Màse màsatthikena. Loõaü loõatthikena. [PTS Page 245] [\q 245/] guëo
guëatthikena. Telaü telatthikena. Sappi sappitthikena. Santi bhikkhave,
manussà saddhà pasannà. Te kappiyakarakànaü hatthe hira¤¤aü
upanikkhipanti: ‘iminà yaü ayyassa kappiyaü, taü dethà’ti. Anujànàmi
bhikkhave, yaü tato kappiyaü, taü sàdiyituü. 1 Na tvevàhaü bhikkhave,
kenaci pariyàyena jàtaråparajataü sàdiyitabbaü2 pariyesitabbanti.
Vadàmã” ti.

1. “Sàdituü” machasaü. To vi. 2. “Sàditabbaü” machasaü. [P T S.]

[BJT Page 612] [\x 612/]

39. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena àpaõaü,
tadavasari. Assosi kho keõiyo jañilo “samaõo khalu bho gotamo sakyaputto
sakyakulà pabbajito àpaõaü anuppatto àpaõe viharati. 1 Taü kho pana
bhavantaü gotamaü evaü kalyàõo

Kittisaddo abbhuggato: itipi so bhagavà arahaü sammàsambuddho
vijjàcaraõasampanno sugato lokavidå anuttaro purisadammasàrathi satthà
devamanussànaü buddho bhagavà. So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü
sabrahmakaü, sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü sadevamanussaü sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà pavadeti. So dhammaü deseti àdikalyàõaü majjhe kalyàõaü
pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü. Kevalaparipuõõaü parisuddhaü
brahmacariyaü pakàseti. Sàdhu kho pana tathàråpànaü arahataü dassanaü
hotã” ti.

40. Atha kho keõiyassa jañilassa etadahosi: “kinnu kho ahaü samaõassa
gotamassa haràpeyya” nti. Atha kho keõiyassa jañilassa etadahosi: “yepi
kho te bràhmaõànaü pubbakà isayo mantànaü kattàro mantànaü pavattàro,
yesamidaü etarahi bràhmaõà poràõaü mantapadaü gãtaü pavuttaü samãhitaü
tadanugàyanti, tadanubhàsanti, bhàsita manubhàsanti, vàcitamanuvàcenti.
Seyyathãdaü: aññako, vàmako, vàmadevo, vessàmitto, yamataggi2, aïgãraso,
bhàradvàjo, vàseññho, kassapo, bhagu, rattåparatà viratà vikàlabhojanà.
Te evaråpàni pànàni sàdiyiüsu. “Samaõopi gotamo rattåparato virato
vikàlabhojanà. Arahati samaõopi gotamo evaråpàni pànàni sàdiyitu” nti.
Pahåtaü pànaü pañiyàdàpetvà kàjehi gàhàpetvà yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavatà saddhiü sammodi. Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü
vãtisàretvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhito kho keõiyo jañilo
bhagavantaü etadavoca: “patigaõhàtu me bhavaü gotamo pàna” nti. “Tena hi
keõiya, bhikkhånaü dehã” ti. Bhikkhå kukkuccàyantà na patigaõhanti.
“Patigaõhàtha bhikkhave, paribhu¤jathà”ti.

41. Atha kho keõiyo jañilo buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü pahåtehi
pànehi sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà, bhagavantaü dhotahatthaü
onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho keõiyaü jañilaü
bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassesi. Samàdapesi. Samuttejesi.
Sampahaüsesi.

1. “âpaõe viharatã” ti natthi marammakkhara potthake 2. “Yamadaggi” ityapi.

[BJT Page 614] [\x 614/]

42. Atha [PTS Page 246] [\q 246/] kho keõiyo jañilo bhagavatà
dhammiyà kathàya sandassito samàdapito samuttejito sampahaüsito
bhagavantaü etadavoca: “adhivàsetu me bhavaü gotamo svàtanàya bhattaü
saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà”ti. “Mahà kho keõiya, bhikkhusaïgho.
Aóóhateëasàni bhikkhusatàni. Tva¤ca bràhmaõesu abhippasanno”ti.
Dutiyampi kho keõiyo jañilo bhagavantaü etadavoca: “ki¤càpi bho1 gotama,
mahà bhikkhusaïgho aóóhateëasàni bhikkhusatàni, ahaü ca bràmhaõesu
abhippasanno, adhivàsetu me bhavaü gotamo svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghenà”ti. “Mahà kho keõiya, bhikkhusaïgho. Aóóhateëasàni
bhikkhusatàni. Tvaü ca bràhmaõesu abhippasanno” ti. Tatiyampi kho keõiyo
jañilo bhagavantaü etadavoca: “ki¤càpi bho gotama, mahà bhikkhusaïgho
aóóhateëasàni bhikkhusatàni, ahaü ca bràhmaõesu abhippasanno, adhivàsetu
me bhavaü2 gotamo svàtanàya bhattaü saddhiü bhikkhusaïghenà” ti.
Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena. Atha kho keõiyo jañilo bhagavato
adhivàsanaü viditvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

43. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, aññha panàni: ambapànaü
jambupànaü vocapànaü mocapànaü madhupànaü3 muddikapànaü sàlåkapànaü
phàrusakapànaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabbaü phalarasaü ñhapetvà
dha¤¤aphalarasaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabbaü pattarasaü ñhapetvà
óàkarasaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabbaü puppharasaü ñhapetvà
madhukapuppharasaü. Anujànàmi bhikkhave ucchurasa” nti.

44. Atha kho keõiyo jañilo tassà rattiyà accayena sake assame paõãtaü
khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato kàlaü àrocàpesi: “kàlo
bho gotama, niññhitaü bhatta”nti. Atha kho bhagavà pubbaõhasamayaü
nivàsetvà pattacivaramàdàya yena keõiyassa jañilassa assamo
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena.

45. Atha kho keõiyo jañilo buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü paõãtena
khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà, bhagavantaü
bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho
keõiyaü jañilaü bhagavà imàhi gàthàhi anumodi: -

1. “Aggihuttamukhà ya¤¤à sàvitti chandaso mukhaü,

Ràjà mukhaü manussànaü nadãnaü sàgaro mukhaü.

11. Nakkhattànaü mukhaü cando àdicco tapataü mukhaü,

Pu¤¤amàkaïkhamànànaü4 saïgho ve yajataü mukha”nti.

1. “Ki¤càpi kho” machasaü. 2. Adhivàsetu bhavaü. Machasaü.

3. “Madhukapànaü” machasaü. 4. “Pu¤¤aü àkaïkhamànànaü” ma cha saü. [P T S.] To vi. Ja vi.

[BJT Page 616] [\x 616/]

46. Atha kho bhagavà keõiyaü jañilaü imàhi gàthàhi anumoditvà
uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi. [PTS Page 247] [\q 247/] atha kho bhagavà àpaõe
yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena kusinàrà, tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà
bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehi.

47. Assosuü kho kosinàrakà mallà “bhagavà kira kusinàraü àgacchati
mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehã”ti. Te
saïgaraü akaüsu: “yo bhagavato paccuggamanaü na karissati,
pa¤casatànissa daõóo” ti.

48. Tena kho pana samayena rojo mallo àyasmato ànandassa sahàyo hoti.
Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena kusinàrà, tadavasari.
Atha kho kosinàrakà mallà bhagavato paccuggamanaü akaüsu.

49. Atha kho rojo mallo bhagavato paccuggamanaü karitvà yenàyasmà
ànando, tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü ànandaü abhivàdetvà
ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü ñhitaü kho rojaü mallaü àyasmà ànando
etadavoca: “uëàraü kho te imaü àvuso roja, yaü tvaü bhagavato
paccuggagamanaü akàsã” ti. “Nàhaü bhante ànanda, bahukato buddhe và
dhamme và saïghe và1. Api ca ¤àtãhi saïgaro kato: ‘yo bhagavato
paccuggamanaü na karissati, pa¤casatànissa daõóo’ti. So kho ahaü bhante
ànanda, ¤àtãnaü daõóabhayà evàhaü bhagavato paccuggamanaü akàsi” nti.

50. Atha kho àyasmà ànandà anattamano ahosi: “kathaü hi nàma rojo
mallo evaü vakkhatã” ti. Atha kho àyasmà ànandà yena bhagavà
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.
Ekamantaü nisinno kho àyasmà ànando bhagavantaü etadavoca: “ayaü bhante
rojo mallo abhi¤¤àto ¤àtamanusso. Mahiddhiyo2 kho pana evaråpànaü
¤àtamanussànaü imasmiü dhammavinaye pasàdo. Sàdhu bhante, bhagavà tathà
karotu, yathà rojo mallo imasmiü dhammavinaye pasãdeyyà” ti. “Na kho taü
ànanda, dukkaraü tathàgatena yathà rojo mallo imasmiü dhammavinaye
pasãdeyyà” ti.

51. Atha kho bhagavà rojaü mallaü mettena cittena pharitvà
uññhàyàsanà vihàraü pàvisi. Atha kho rojo mallo bhagavatà3 mettena
cittena phuññho seyyathàpi nàma gàvã taruõavacchà4, evameva vihàrena
vihàraü pariveõena pariveõaü upasaïkamitvà bhikkhå pucchati: “kahannu
kho bhante etarahi so bhagavà viharati arahaü sammà sambuddho?
Dassanakàmà hi mayaü taü bhagavantaü arahantaü sammàsambuddha” nti.
“Esàvuso roja, [PTS Page 248] [\q 248/] vihàro saüvutadvàro. Tena
appasaddo upaïkamitvà ataramàno àlindaü pavisitvà ukkàsitvà aggaëaü
àkoñehi. Vivarissati te bhagavà dvàra”nti

1. “Buddhena và dhammena và saïghena và” sã mu 1 2. “Mahiddhiko”
machasaü. 3. “Bhagavato” machasaü to vi. 4. “Gàviü taruõavaccho”
machasaü.

[BJT Page 618] [\x 618/]

52. Atha kho rojo mallo yena so vihàro saüvutadvàro, tena appasaddo
upasaïkamitvà ataramàno àlindaü pavisitvà ukkàsitvà aggaëaü àkoñesi.
Vivari bhagavà dvàraü. Atha kho rojo mallo vihàraü pavisitvà bhagavantaü
abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnassa kho rojassa mallassa
bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü kathesi: seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü
saggakathaü, kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü saükilesaü, nekkhamme ànisaüsaü
pakàsesi.

53. Yadà bhagavà a¤¤àsi rojaü mallaü kallacittaü muducittaü
vinãvaraõacittaü udaggacittaü pasannacittaü, atha yà buddhànaü
sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà, taü pakàsesi: dukkhaü samudayaü nirodhaü
maggaü seyyathàpi nàma suddhaü vatthaü apagatakàëakaü sammadeva rajanaü
patigaõheyya, evameva kho rojassa mallassa tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü
vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü udapàdi: “yaü ki¤ci samudayadhammaü, sabbaü taü
nirodhadhamma” nti.

54. Atha kho rojo mallo diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyogàëhadhammo tiõõavicikiccho vigatakathaïkatho vesàrajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavoca: “sàdhu bhante ayyà
mama¤¤eva patigaõheyyuü
cãvarapiõóapàtasenàsanagilànappaccayabhesajjaparikkhàraü, no a¤¤esa”
nti. “Yesaü kho roja, sekhena ¤àõena sekhena dassanena dhammo diññho
seyyathàpi tayà, tesampi evaü hoti: ‘aho nåna ayya amhàka¤¤eva
patigaõheyyuü cãvarapiõóapàtasenàsanagilànappaccayabhesajjaparikkhàraü,
no a¤¤esa’ nti. Tena hi roja, tava ceva pañiggahessanti a¤¤esa¤cà” ti.

55. Tena kho pana samayena kusinàràyaü paõãtànaü bhattànaü
bhattapañipàñi aññhità hoti. Atha kho rojassa mallassa pañipàñiü
alabhantassa etadahosi: “yannånà haü bhattaggaü olokeyyaü, yaü bhattagge
nàssa, taü pañiyàdeyya” nti. Atha kho rojo mallo bhattaggaü olokento
dve nàddasa óàka¤ca piññhakhàdanãya¤ca. Atha kho rojo mallo yenàyasmà
ànando tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà àyasmantaü ànandaü etadavoca: “idha
me bhante ànanda, pañipàñiü alabhantassa etadahosi: ‘yannånàhaü
bhattaggaü olokeyyaü, yaü bhattagge nàssa, taü pañiyàdeyya’ nti. So kho
ahaü bhante ànanda, bhattaggaü olokento dve nàddasaü óàka¤ca
piññhakhàdanãya¤ca. Sacàhaü bhante ànanda, pañiyàdeyyaü óàka¤ca
piññhakhàdanãya¤ca, patigaõheyya me bhagavà”ti. “Tena hi roja,
bhagavantaü pañipucchissàmã”ti.

56. Atha kho àyasmà ànando bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesi. “Tenahànanda, pañiyàdetå” ti. “Tena hi roja, pañiyàdehã” ti.

[BJT Page 620] [\x 620/]

57. Atha kho rojo mallo tassà rattiyà accayena pahåtaü óàka¤ca
piññhakhàdanãya¤ca pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato upanàmesi “patigaõhàtu me
bhante bhagavà óàka¤ca piññhakhàdanãya¤cà” ti. “Tena hi roja, bhikkhånaü
dehã”ti *. Bhikkhu kukkuccàyantà na patigaõhanti. [PTS Page 249] [\q
249/] “patigaõaõhàtha bhikkhave, paribhu¤jathà” ti.

58. Atha kho rojo mallo buddhapamukhaü bhikkhusaïghaü pahåtehi óàkehi
ca piññhakhàdanãyehi ca sahatthà santappetvà sampavàretvà bhagavantaü
dhotahatthaü onãtapattapàõiü ekamantaü nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinnaü kho
rojaü mallaü bhagavà dhammiyà kathàya sandassetvà samàdapetvà
samuttejetvà sampahaüsetvà uññhàyàsanà pakkàmi.

59. Atha kho bhagavà etasmiü nidàne etasmiü pakaraõe dhammiü kathaü
katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabba¤ca óàkaü sabba¤ca
piññhakhàdanãya” nti.

60. Atha kho bhagavà kusinàràyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena àtumà,
tena càrikaü pakkàmi mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi
bhikkhusatehi.

61. Tena kho pana samayena a¤¤ataro buóóhapabbajito àtumàyaü
pañivasati nahàpitapubbo. Tassa dve dàrakà honti ma¤jukà pañibhàõeyyakà
dakkhà pariyodàtasippà sake àcariyake nahàpitakamme. Assosi kho so
buóóhapabbajito “bhagavà kira àtumaü àgacchati mahatà bhikkhusaïghena
saddhiü aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehã”ti.

62. Atha kho so buóóhapabbajito te dàrake etadavoca: “bhagavà kira
tàtà, àtumaü àgacchati mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi
bhikkhusatehi. Gacchatha tumhe tàtà, khurabhaõóaü àdàya. Nàëiyàvàpakena
anugharakaü1 àhiõóatha. Loõampi telampi taõóulampi khàdanãyampi
saüharatha. Bhagavato àgatassa yàgudànaü2 karissàmà”ti. “Evaü tàtà” ti
kho te dàrakà tassa buóóhapabbajitassa pañissutvà khurabhaõóaü àdàya
nàëiyà àvàpakena anugharakaü àhiõóanti loõampi telampi taõóulampi
khàdanãyampi saüharantà. Manussà te dàrake ma¤ajuke pañibhàõeyyake
passitvà yepi na kàràpetukàmà, tepi kàràpenti. Kàràpetvàpi bahuü denti.
Atha kho te dàrakà bahuü loõampi telampi taõóulampi khàdanãyampi
saühariüsu.

63. Atha kho bhagavà anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena àtumà tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà àtumàyaü viharati bhusàgàre.

* “Atha kho rojo mallaputto bhikkhånaü deti” machasaü. Ayaü pàñho
sãhalakkharapotthakesu na dissate. 1. “Anugharakaü anugharakaü”
machasaü. [P T S.] To vi. A vi. 2. “Yàgupànaü” machasaü. [P T S.] To vi.

[BJT Page 622] [\x 622/]

64. Atha kho so buóóhapabbajito tassà rattiyà accayena pahåtaü yàguü
pañiyàdàpetvà bhagavato upanàmesi: “patigaõhàtu me bhante bhagavà yàgu”
nti.

65. Jànantàpi [PTS Page 250] [\q 250/] tathàgatà pucchanti. Jànantàpi
na pucchanti. Kàlaü viditvà pucchanti. Kàlaü viditvà na pucchanti.
Atthasaühitaü tathàgatà pucchanti no anatthasaühitaü. Anatthasaühite
setughàto tathàgatànaü. Dvãhàkàrehi buddhà bhagavanto bhikkhå
pañipucchanti: “dhammaü và desessàma. Sàvakànaü và sikkhàpadaü
pa¤¤àpessàmà”ti.

66. Atha kho bhagavà taü buóóhapababajitaü etadavoca: “kutàyaü
bhikkhå yàgå”ti. Atha kho so buóóhapabbajito bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesi: vigarahi buddho bhagavà ‘ananucchaviyaü moghapurisa,
ananulomikaü appatiråpaü assàmaõakaü akappiyaü akaraõãyaü. Kathaü hi
nàma tvaü moghapurisa, pabbajite1 akappiye samàdapessasi2. Netaü
moghapurisa, appasannànaü và pasàdàya pasannànaü và bhiyyobhàvàya
vigarahitvà dhammiü kathaü katvà bhikkhå àmantesi: “na bhikkhave,
pabbajità akappiye samàdapetabbà3. Yo samàdapeyya, àpatti dukkañassa. Na
ca bhikkhave, nahàpitapubbena burabhaõóaü pariharitabbaü. Yo
parihareyya àpatti dukkañassà” ti.

67. Atha kho bhagavà àtumàyaü yathàbhirattaü viharitvà yena sàvatthi,
tena càrikaü pakkàmi. Anupubbena càrikaü caramàno yena sàvatthi,
tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà sàvatthiyaü viharati jetavane
anàthapiõóikasasa àràme.

68. Tena kho pana samayena sàvatthiyaü bahuü phalakhàdanãyaü uppannaü
hoti4. Atha kho bhikkhånaü etadahosi: “kinnu kho bhagavatà
phalakhàdanãya anu¤¤àtaü? Kiü ananu¤¤àta”nti. Bhagavato etamatthaü
àrocesuü. “Anujànàmi bhikkhave, sabbaü phalakhàdanãya” nti.

69. Tena kho pana samayena saïghikàni bãjàni puggalikàya bhåmiyà
ropãyanti. Puggalikàni bãjàni saïghikàya bhåmiyà ropãyanti. Bhagavato
etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Saïghikàni bhikkhave, bãjàni puggalikàyà bhåmiyà
ropitàni bhàgaü datvà paribhu¤jitabbàni. Puggalikàni bãjàni saïghikàya
bhåmiyà ropitàni bhàgaü datvà paribhu¤jitabbànã” ti.

1. “Pabbajito” machasaü. [P T S.] To vi. Sã mu. Imassa
buóóhapabbajitassa dve dàrakàpi pabbajità sàmaõerabhåmiyaü ñhitàti
dãghanikàyaññhakathàyaü vuttaü. Tasmà ettha “pabbajite” ti padaü
yuttameva. 2. “Samàdapesi” machasaü. 3. “Pabbajitena samàdapetabbà”
machasaü. [P T S.] To vi. To vi. Ja. Vi 4. “Ussannaü” machasaü.

[BJT Page 624] [\x 624/]

70. Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhånaü kismi¤ci kismi¤ci ñhàne
kukkuccaü uppajjati: “kinnu kho bhagavatà anu¤¤àtaü? Kiü ananu¤¤àta”
nti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü. “Yaü bhikkhave, mayà ‘idaü na
kappatã’ ti apañikkhittaü, [PTS Page 251] [\q 251/] taü ce akappiyaü
anulometi’ kappiyaü pañibàhati, taü vo na kappati. Yaü bhikkhave, mayà
‘idaü na kappatã’ ti apañikkhittaü, taü ce kappiyaü anulometi, akappiyaü
pañibàhati, taü vo kappati. Yaü bhikkhave, mayà ‘idaü kappatãti
ananu¤¤àtaü, taü ce akappiyaü anulometi, kappiyaü pañibàhati, taü vo na
kappati. Yaü bhikkhave, mayà ‘idaü kappatã’ ti ananu¤¤àtaü, taü ce
kappiyaü anulometi, akappiyaü pañibàhati, taü vo kappatã” ti.

71. Atha kho bhikkhånaü etadahosi: “kappati nu kho yàvakàlikena
yàmakàlikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàvakàlikena
sattàhakàlikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàvakàlikena
yàvajãvikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàmakàlikena
sattàhakàlikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho yàmakàlikena
yàvajãvikaü? Na nu kho kappati? Kappati nu kho sattàhakàlikena
yàvajãvikaü? Na nu kho kappatã? Ti. Bhagavato etamatthaü àrocesuü.
“Yàvakàlikena bhikkhave, yàmakàlikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü kàle kappati.
Vikàle na kappati. Yàvakàlikena bhikkhave, sattàhakàlikaü tadahu
pañiggahitaü kàle kappati. Vikàle na kappati. Yàvakàlikena bhikkhave,
yàvajãvikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü kàle kappati. Vikàle na kappati.
Yàmakàlikena bhikkhave, sattàhakàlikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü yàme kappati.
Yàmàtikkante na kappati. Yàmakàlikena bhikkhave, yàvajãvikaü tadahu
pañiggahitaü yàme kappati. Yàmàtikkante na kappati. Sattàhakàlikena
bhikkhave yàvajãvikaü tadahu pañiggahitaü sattàhaü kappati.
Sattàhàtikkante na kappatã” ti.

Bhesajjakkhandhako niññhito chaññho

[BJT Page 626] [\x 626/]

Imamhi khandhake vatthå ekasataü cha vatthå.

Tassa uddànaü:

Sàradike vikàlepi vasaü måle piññhehi ca,

Kasàvehi paõõaü phalaü jatu loõaü chakana¤ca.

Cuõõaü càlinã maüsa¤ca a¤janã1 upapiüsanã 2,

A¤janã ucca3 pàrutà salàkà salàkodhanã 4.

Thavikaü savaññakaü 5 suttaü muddhani tela6 natthu ca,

Natthukaraõã dhåma 7 netta¤ca pidhànaü yamakatthavi 8.

Telapàkesu majja¤ca atikkhittaü abbha¤janaü,

Tumbaü sedaü sambhàra¤ca mahàbhaïgodakaü tathà.

Dakakoññhaü lohita¤ca visàõaü pàdabbha¤janaü,

Pajjaü satthaü kasàva¤ca tilakakkaü kabalikaü.

[PTS Page 252] [\q 252/] colaü sàsapakuóóa¤ca 9 dhåmasakkharikàya ca,

Vaõatelaü vikàsikaü vikaña¤ca pañiggahaü.

Gåthaü karontà roëi¤ca khàraü muttahariñakã 10

Gandhà virecana¤ceva acchà kaña 11 kañàkañaü.

Pañicchàdanã pabbhàrà àràmà satà pa¤cahi 12

Guëaü muggaü sovãra¤ca sàmapàkà 13 punà pace.

Punànu¤¤àsi dubbhikkhe phala¤ca tilakhàdanã,

Purebhattaü kàyaóàho nibbañña¤ca bhagandalaü.

Vatthikamma¤ca suppã ca 14 manussamaüsameva ca,

Hatthi assà sunakhàhi 15 sãhabyagghaü ca dãpikaü. 16

Accha taraccha maüsa¤ca pañipàñi ca yàgu ca,

Taruõaü a¤¤atra guëaü sunãdhàvasathàgaraü. 17

Gaïgà koñi saccakathà ambapàlã ca licchavi,

Uddissa kañaü subhikkhaü punadeva pañikkhipi.

Megho yaso meõóako ca gorasaü pàtheyyakena ca,

Keõi ambo jambucoca mocamadhumuddikasàlukaü.

Phàrusakaü 18 óàkapiññhaü àtumàyaü nahàpito,

Sàvatthiyaü phalaü bãjaü kismiü ñhàne ca kàliketi.

1. “A¤janaü” machasaü. [P T S. 2.] “Upapãsanã” machasaü.
“Upapiüsanaü” si. [P T S. 3.] “Uccà” machasaü. To vi. 4. “Salàkañhàni”
machasaü.

5. “Sabandhakaü” machasaü “bandhakaü” [P T S. 6.] “Telaü” [P T S.]

7. “Dhåma¤ca” machasaü. [P T S.]

8. “Netta¤càpidha natthavi” machasaü. “Netta¤cà pidhànaü thavi” [P T S.]

9. “Sàsapakuññhaka¤ca” machasaü [P T S.] “Sàsapakuõóaüca” a vi. To vi.

10. “Haritakaü’ machasaü. 11. “Acchàkañaü machasaü.

12. “âràmasatthàhenaca” machasaü. 13. “Sàmaüpàkà” ma cha saü.

14. “Suppi¤ce” machasaü. Ja vi. A vi.

15. “Sunakhoca” machasaü. [P T S.] Ma nu pa.

16. “Abhisãha¤cadãpikaü” machasaü ja vi. Ma nu pa.

17. “Vasathàgàraü” machasaü. A vi. [P T S.] Ja vi.

18. “Phàrusakà” machasaü. Sã mu.

8  fNicAclaLFOlh’



*3( tl,ays jkdys Nd.Hj;a nqÈrcdKka jykafia ieje;a kqjr wfkamsZvq
uyisgdKka jsiska lrjk ,o fca;jkdrdufhys jdih lrkfial’ *4( ir;a l, Wmka
ms;a f,iska *tl,ays jeiafika f;usuo uZv mE.Suo w;r;2r ,efnk ;o wjqfjka
jsh

[ \ q 254 / ]
Tjzyq lDIjQjdyq” ÈrAjrAKjQjdyq”
yg.;a mZvq meye we;a;dyq” kyr b,amqKq YrSr we;a;dyqh’ blans;s ;ksj
jsfjzlhg ..shdyq Nd.H;2ka jykafia is;g fufia is;la jsh’

oeka
jkdyss ir;a ld,fhys jq wdndOhlska iamrAY lrk ,oaodyq NsCIQkag leË nS
l,la jukh fjhs’ n;a wkqNj l<;a jukh lrhs’ Tjqyq ta lrK fldg f.k
lDIjQjdyq” rECIjQjdyq” ÈrAjrAK jQjdyq yg .;a mZvq mey we;s wjhj we;a;dyq
kyr b,amqKq wjhj we;a;dyqh’ ” lsfulao uu NsCIQkag fnfy;a wkqokafkuzo “


hula fnfy;l2;a f,dalhdf.a fnfy;ahhs mss


fuz NsCIqkayg fuz mia fnfy;a iqÈiq l, ms


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ijia ld,fhys M, iuj;ska keZ.sgsfiala  fuz
isoaOsfhys fuz ksodkfhys oeyeuss l:d fldg NsCIQka wduka;1Kh l

[ \  q 255 / ]
fhda lshkqu ljryqo ‘
Wkajykafia,d th ir;a l, WmkakdjQ mss;a f,iskao fuz wdydr fkdosrSfukao hk
ta folsska iamrAIY l


ta iufhyss jkdys ..s,ka uyKqkayg jqreKq f;,a ms

[ \ q 256 / ]
,oafoao” miajre fmrk ,oafoao”
boska ta mrssfNda. lrkafka kuz Èl2,d weje;a folla fjz’ uyfKks” boska
fmrjre ms


” tl,ays jkdys ..s,ka NsCIQkag uq,a fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’
lido” bZ.2reo” jo lido” fy


tl,ays jkdys ..s,ka NsCIQkag uq,a fnfy;a jQ  msgsj,ska *pQK!lr.;a (
uq,a fnfy;ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l


tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag lig rih jQ fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdackh fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie,l


tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag fld< fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l


tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag f.vs fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh ie,l

[ \ q 257 / ]
id,ao” j.mq,ao” usrsiao” wrZMo” nqZMo” fk,a,so” l2l2ZMm;ao wkqoksus’ * fuys 6 *4((

-
tl,ays .s,ka NsCIQkag ,dgq fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh ie,l

3= 
tl,ayssss jkdysss ..s,ka NsCIQkag ,qKq fnfy;a j,ska m1fhdack fjz’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l

33 
tiufhys wdhqIau;a wdkFo f;rekaf.a WmdOHdhjQ wdhqIau;a fn,gzGsiSi
f;rekag uyd ms

( c ) 10
[ \ q 258 / ]
wms tajd f;u f;ud bj;a lruqhs ” *
fuys 3+8 *3(( ” uyfKks” huz uyfKl2yg lKavq;s frda.hla fyda fmd

34 
” fkd.s,kayg wia fngs wdosho uegso” rck ligo” wkqokssus’ msZvq msKsi
;euznQ ÊjH iqKqfldg fyda tu ÊjH fldgd fyda m11lD;sfhka weZ. .d kdk iqKq
jrA.hla fldgd j;2frka f;ud fyda weZ. .d kEuo wkqoksus’ uyfKks” jxf.vsh
yd fudfyd, wkqoksus’”

35 
tl,ays jkdys .s,ka NssCIQkayg fmrk ,o” pQK! lrk ,o fnfy;aj,ska m1fhdack
fjz’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l

36 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlayg wukqIHfhl2 jsiska lrk ,o f,vla fjz’ wdpdhH!
WmdOHdhjre Tyqg Wmia:dk lrkafkda frda ke;sfhl2 lrkag fkdyels jsh’ ta 
wukqIHdfjzI jQ uyK f;u yQre uia f,dUqjg f.dia wuq uiao lEfhah’ wuqf,a o
mdkh flf


wukqIHndOfhys wuq udxYo” wuq f,ao wkqoksus ” udxY wkqNjh yd f,a mdkh
NsCIQ f;fuz fkdflf

[ \ q 259 / ]

37 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlayg weia frda.hla fjz’ mejsoafoda ta uyK jg fldg
f.k u


uyfKks” lZM wÌkao fkdfhla ÊjH tl;2 fldg l< wÌkao” koSSs
fY1da;doSkays * fudah lgj,aj, ( Wmka wÌkao” iajK!f.rel wÌkao” myka
oe,af,ka yg.;a oe,sfhka l< wÌkao hk wÌka wkaoksushs ” jod

38 
wÌka msKsi wUrd .kakd ÊjHj,ska m1fhdack fjz’ *4( Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fiag
fuz ldrKh ie, l,dyqh’ *5( ” uyfKkss” iÌkao ;2jr,do lZMje,ao tkuz relao *
fuz rela jrA.h mss;a iukhg ys;lr fnfy;a jrA.hls’ ( juzuq;2o wkqoksushs ”
jod

39 
tl,ays NsCIQyq msgs wÌka ;egsssj,o u,djkayso ;n;a’ ta * Ndckfhda ( ;DK
pQK! *;K frdvq ( j,skao” miaj,sskao” * Èjs,ss(  j.2rejkq ,efn;a’* fuys
38 *4(( wÌ l2,d wkqoksus’

30 
tl,ays jkdys ij. NsCIQyq iajK!uh jQo rEmsh uh jQo Wia my;a wÌka l2,d
or;a’ usksiaiq luziem jsËskakdjQ .Dyia:fhda huzfiao tfuka lshd *4( ,dul
fldg is;;a’ ..rAyd flfr;a’ fodai m1ldY flfr;a’ *5( * fuys 38 *4((

” uyfKks” Wia my;a wÌka l2,d fkdoersh hq;af;dah’ huz uyfKla orkafka kuz Èl2,d weje;a fjz’ “

[ \ q 260 / ]

3- 
uyfKkss” *4( weg j.!hlska l

4= 
tl,ays jkdys wÌka l2,d fkdjik ,oafoa fj;a’ ;DK pQK!j,ska * ;K
frdvqj,skao( miaj,skao j.2rejkq ,efn;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” mshk
*wkqokssusshs jodf

43 
tl,ays jkdys NsCIQyq weZ.s,af,ka * wÌka ( .Eu flfr;a’ weia Èla we;af;da
fj;a *fuys 38 *4(( uyfKks” wÌk l@re wkqoksus’ ” tl,ays jkdys ij.
NsCIQyq f,dl2 l2vd rejkauh jQo” rsoSuh jQo” wÌka l@re or;a’ ukqIHfhda
ldufNda.S ..syshka fuka hhs fodia lsh;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( uyfKks” f,dl2
l2vd wÌka l@re fkdoerssh hq;a;dy’ hfula ord kuz Èl2,d weje;a fjz’
uyfKks” * fuys 3- *4((

44  tiufhys wÌka l@re fmdf

45 
tl,ays NsCIQyq wÌka l2,do wÌka l@reo w;ska mrsyrKh flfrA’ * fuys 38
*4((  wxijgzglfhla * Wrysiska oud .;a; mgshls’ ( fkdfjz’ * fuys 38 *4((
wxijgzglfh *th w[acksJ:jslfhys ( nËssk yqho” *Wrysiska oud .ekSug fhdok
,o miquzns wdosfhys mgssh’ ( wxijgzglh wkqoksus’ “

46 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a ms,sFosjpzP f;rekayg ysirohla f jz’ * fuys 38 *4((
uyfKks” ysfiys f;,a ..Eu wkqoksus’ bjish fkdyelafla fjz’ * fuys 38 *4((
kiH lu!h *wkqoksus’( kdisld f;dfuda je.sfrhhs’ * kdisldfjka neyer fnfy;a
je.sfrhs’ ( * fuys 38 *4(( kiH lrk Ndckhla wkqoksus’ “

[ \ q 261 / ]

47 
tl,ays ij. NsCIqyQ rejkska l

48 
tl,aysss ij. NsCIQyq * fuys 3- *4(( ukqIHfhda ldufNda.Ska fukehs fodia
lsh;a’  *fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” f,dl2 l2vd Èuz ke,s fkdoersh hq;a;dy’
hfula ord kuz Èl2,d weje;a fjz’ uyfKks” * fuys 3- *4(( ke,s mila
wkqoksus’ folla jQ kF:lrKShla wkqoksus’ fkdfjfyish yelsfjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( uyfKks” Èuz nSu wkqoksus’ ta Èuz jegshu o,ajd mdkh flfr;a’ fndgqj
oefjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( uyfKks” Èuz ke,s wkqoksus’ “

49 tiufhyss OQufk;a;fhda *mhsmam( fkdjik ,oafoda fj;a’ * mKqfjda msjsfi;a ( * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” mshkla wkqoksus’ “

40  tiufhyss NsCIQyq Èuz mhsmam w;ska f.k h;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” Èuz mhsmam fldmqjla wkqoksus’ “

4-  tiufhyss Èuz  *mhsmam( yd mshka tlg .efgz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” ldur fofla fldmqjlaa wkqoksus’ “

5=  wixjgzglhla * miqnsuz mgshla ( ke;af;a fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” uyfKks” wixjgzglhg nËsk kQ,la o wkqoksus’ “

53 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a mss

[ \ 262 / ]
tl, ij. NsCIQyq jevshla nyd,Q
uoH we;s f;,a msi;a’ ta f;,a nS u;a fj;a’ * fuys 38 *4(( “uyfKks”
jevshla uoH nyd,Q f;,a fkdmsh hq;2h’ hfula  mdkh lrkafka kuz weje;a jQ
fia lrjsh hq;2h’ weje;aks”  huz msiQ f;,l uoHhdf.a jrAKfhla fkdfmfkao
..fËla fkdfmfkao rifhla fkdfmfkao fuhdldrjQ uoHhla nyd,Q f;,a nSu
wkqoksus’ “

54 
tl,ays NsCIQkag jevshla  nyd,Q uoH we;s fndfyda f;,a msik ,oafoa fjz’
blans;s NsCIQkag ‘ flfia kuz jevshla nyd,Q uoH we;s f;f,ys ms

55
tl,ays jkdys wdhqIau;a ms

56 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a  ms

[ \ q 263 / ]

57 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a ms

58 
tla lf,lays tla;rd NssCIqjlayg .KavdndOfhla fjhs’ * fuys 38 *4((
“uyfKks” ie;aluz wkqoksus’ ” ie;aluz lig osfhka m1fhdack fjz’ ” uyfKks”
lig osh wkqokssus’ ” ;, l,alfhka m1fhdack fjz’ ” uyfKks” l, l,alh
wkqoksus’ ” jyka fnfy;ska m1fhdack fjz’ ” uyfKks” ln,sld wkqoksus’ ” jK
nËsk frosfhka m1fhdackfjz’ “jKnËsk  froaola wkqoksus’ ” jKh lihs’ ” wn
msgsfhka iamY! lsrSu * jKh u;2fhys wn l2vq oeuSu ( wkqoksushs ” jKh f;;a
fjhs’ ” * msKs nskaÈ fia Tzcdj u;2jsh ( “uyfKks” ÈuzlsrSu wkqoksus’ ”
wOsl udxY * weKhla fia ( Wvg k.shs’ ” ,qKq weg fhka isËSu wkqoksus’ ”
jKh iqj fkdfjhs’ jK le<, fkdueflhs’ ” uyfKks” jK f;,a wkqoksus’ ”
f;,a je.sfrhs’ ” * fuys 38 *4(( uyfKkss” f;,a kj;ajk froslvo ishZM 
j1Km1;slu!o wkqoksus’ “

59 
tl,ays tla;rd NssCIqjla im!hl2 jsiska oIag lrk ,oafoa fjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( uyfKks” wiqpso” uq;1o” wZMo” uegso hk i;r uyd jslgh oSug wkqoksus’
blans;s NssCIQkag ‘ fkdms

50 
tiufhys jkdys tla;rd mejsoafola jsiska jsi fndk ,oafoa fjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( ” wiqps fmjSu wkqoksus’ ” blans;s NsCIQkag ‘ fkdms

[ \ q 264 / ]
kej; ms

5- 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlg iroskakl wdndOhla * .Dy NdhH!djla jYSlrKh msKsi
fhÈ fnfy;la mdkh lsrSfuka yg.;a f,vla ( fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ”
iSS;df,da,Sh fmjSu wkqoksus’ ” * iS;df,da,S kuz kZ.2f,ka ydk l, ySjef,ys
t,aUqkq uegs j;2frka osh lr fmjSuh’ (

6= 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlg jsmhH!dimdld.aksh we;af;la fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ”
n;a wZM fmrE j;2r * jsh,s n;a mqZMiaid .;a wZM fmryfKys oud ta u;2fhys
j;2r j;a l< l, bka jEiafik j;2rh’ ( fmjSu wkqoksus’ “

63  tl,ayss tla;rd NsCIqjlayg mdKavqfrda.dndOhla fjz’ * fuys 38 *4(( ” f.da uQ;1fhys ,Q wrZM fmjSu wkqoksus’ “

64  tl,ays tla;rd NsCIqjlg Pjs fodaidndOhla fjz’ * isjsfhys fodia krlajSfuka yg .;a f,vla ( * fuys 38 *4(( .FOdf,amh wkqoksus’ “

65 
tl,aysss tla;rd NsCIqjlg wOslj fodia lsmqKq lh we;af;a fjz’ * fuys 38
*4(( jsfrApk fnfy;a nSu fmrd .;a leËj;2frka m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’
fmrd.;a leË j;2r Ère usrsia wdosh iuZ. fkdfhÈ uqx weg ;euznQ j;2frka
m1fhdack we;af;afjz’ wlg hqih uqx weg ;uznd weg ke;s fia fmrd .;a
j;2frka m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’ udxY rifhka m1fhdack we;af;a fjz’

66 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a ms

[ \ q 265 / ]
f;r f;fuz ‘uyrc” f,kla lrKq
leue;af;us” mnzNdrhla msrsisÈlrjushs ’ lSsfhah’ ‘iajduSks” wdhH!hka
jykafiag wdrduslfhl2 ksid jevla fjzoehs ’ jspdf

67 
blans;s wdhqIau;a msss

[ \ q 266 / ]
” foajhka jykai” wK l

68 
tiufhys jkdys wdhqIau;a ms

69 
tl, wdhqIau;a ms

[ \ q 267 / ]
oel2uz lghq;a;Sh’ meyeosu
t

60 
blans;s u.fOYajr jQ fiakd we;s nsuznsidr rc f;fuz ta wdrdusl l2,h nJOkh
lrjSh’ fofjks oskfhysu wdhqIau;a ms

6- 
blans;s wdhqIau;a msss

[ \ q 268 / ]

7= 
usksiaiq wdhH! jQ ms

* fnfy;a wkqo;a m

[ \ q 269 / ]

73 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ieje;a kqjr leue;s ;dla l,a jei rc.y kqjr
huz;efklayso tys pdrsldfjys jevsfial’ wdhqIau;ajQ lXzLdfrAj;  f;r f;fuz
w;ruZ. Wla Yd,djlg meusK Wlail2frys msgso wZMo nykakjqka Ègqfjzuh’ oel  ”
Wlail2re wlem fjz’ wdydr iys; fjz’ Wlail2re jsld,fhys je<ËSu fkdlem
fjzhhs ” l2l2ia lruska msrsia iys; jQfha Wla il2re fkdj<Ëhs’ huz
uyfKla Wkajykafiaf.a joka weish hq;2hhs i,l;ao f;ms Wkajkafia,do Wla
il2re fkdj<Ë;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz lreK ie,l

74 
wdhqIau;a lXzLdfrAj; f;r f;fuz w;ruZ.o jrApiays  yg.;a uqx * me, (
Ègqfhauh’ oel uqx wlem fj;a ‘ msiqjdjQo uqx *weg ( me,fj;ahhs l2l2ia
lruska msrsia iys; jqfha uqx *weg ( fkdj<Ëhs’ huzflfkla Wkajykafiag
weish hq;2 fldg is;;ao Tjqyqo uqx mrsfNda. fkdlr;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh ie, l

75 
tiufjys jkdys tla;rd uyfKl2yg nfvys jd; frda. fhla fjhs’ ta uyK f;fuz
,qKq ldvs mdkh flf

[ \ q 270 / ]
jdih lrkfial’ tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag nfvz jd lsmSfuka f,vla fjz’ tl,ays wdhqIau;a wkË f;r f;fuz fmro
Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fiaf.a Worjd;dndOh f;lgq,d hd.2fjka iqjjShhs * f;lgq,d
hd.2 hkq ;2ka jrA. hla usY1 lsrSSsfuka msik ,o leËls’ ( ;uka jsiska ;,o
iy,ao uqx o jskjd f.a ;2< ;nd we;2<; ;ud jsiska msi Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia f;lgq,d hd.2j j<Ëkfialajdhs Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
ms

76 
” uyfKks” f.a ;2< ;nk ,oafoao” we;2<; msik ,oafoao” ;uka jsiska
msik ,oafoao fkdje<Ësh hq;af;ah’ huz uyfKla j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d
weje;a fjz’ uyfKks” boska we;2<; ,nk ,oafoao” we;2<; msik ,oafoao”
;uka jsiska msik ,oafoao boska th j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d ;2kla fjz’
uyfKks” boska we;2<; ;nk ,oafoao” we;2<; msik ,oafoao” wkqka
jsiska msik ,oafoao” boska th j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d folla fjz’ uyfKks”
boska we;2<; ;nk

[ \ q 271 / ]
,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” ;uka
jsisska msik ,oafoao boska th j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d folla fjz’ uyfKks”
boska neyer ;nk ,oafoao” we;2,; msik ,oafoao” ;uka jsisska msik ,oafoao
boska th j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d folla fjz’ uyfKks” boska we;2<; ;nk
,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” wkqka jsisska msik ,oafoao boska th
j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d fjz’ uyfKks” boska neyer ;nk ,oafoao” we;2<;
msik ,oafoao” wkqka jsisska msik ,oafoao boska th j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d
weje;a fjz’ uyfKks” boska neyer ;nk ,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” ;uka
jsisska mssik ,oafoao boska th j<Ëkafka kuz Èl2,d fjz’ uyfKks” boska
neyer ;nk ,oafoao” nyer msik ,oafoao” wkqkaa jsisska msik ,oafoao boska
th j<Ëkafka kuz weje;a fkdfjzhhs ” * jod

tiufhys
NsCIQyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska ;ukaf.a msiSu f;u m1;sfCImlrk
,oafoahhs msiQ foh keje; msiSfuys l2l2ia fj;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz
ldrKh ie, l

77 
tiufhys jkdys rc.ykqjr ÈrANsCI fjz’ usksiaiq ,qKqo” f;,ao” iy,ao”
lEhq;2 foho wrug f.k t;a’ NsCIQyq Tjqka msg; ;nj;a’ n<,a uS wdoSyqo
l;a’ fidreo meyer .Ks;a’ bÌ,a lkafkda o meyer .Ks;a’ *4( Nd.Hj;2la
jykaafiag fuz ldrKh ie, l

[ \ 272 / ]

78 
tiufhys fndfyda NsCIQyq liSS okjzfjys jia jsiqfjda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
olakd msKsi rc.ykqjrg hkafkda w;ruZ.o rECIjQ fyda  m1KS; jQ fyda l2i
msrSug wdydrhla fkd,enqjdyqh’ fndfyda lE hq;2 f.vs jsh’ lem lrefjlao
fkdjSh’ tnejska mejsoafoda la,dka; iajNdj we;af;da rc .ykqjr msysgshd jQ
fjZMjkh huz;efklayso l,Folksjdmh f;u huz;efklayso Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
huz;efklayso  tys meusKshdyqh’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaa jeË tll;amfil
yqkakdyqh’ wd.lka;2l NsCIQka iuZ. i;2gq iduSps l:d lsrSu Nd.Hj;a
nqrcdKka jykafia,d jsiska mqreÈlrk ,oaodyqh’ blans;ss Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
ta NsCIQkag ” ” uyfKks” lsfulao $ bjish yelso $ lsfulao hemsh yelso $
lsful ksÈlska osla uZ. wdjyqo $ uyfKks” f;ms fldys isg tjzoehs $ ”
ms

79 
tl,ays tla;rd n1dyauKfhl2g w,q;a ;,o w,q;a uSo Wmkafkda fj;a’ tl, ta
nuqKqyg funÌ isf;la jsh’ ” uu w,q;a ;,o w,q;a uS o nqÈmdfudla nsla iZ.Kg
fokafkuz kuz fhfyls ’ lshdhs’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz ;efklayso
tys meusKsfhah’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iuZ. i;2gq jsh’ i;2gqjsh

[ \ q 273 / ]
hq;2jQ isys lghq;2jQ l:dj fldg
ksujd tl;amfil isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs ta n1dyauK f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag ” f.#;uhka jykafiaa nsla iZ.K iuZ. udf.a n; bjikfialajdhs ”
wdrdOkd lf

70 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia mQrAjdyaK ld,fhys yeË fmdrjd md;1 issjqre
f.k ta n1dyauKhdf.a jdiia:dkh huz;efklayso tys meusKsfhah’ meusK” mkjk
,o wiafkys NsCIqq ixhd iuZ. jevyqkafial’ blans;s ta n1dyauK f;u
nqoaOm1uqL NsCIq  ixhd m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 fohska nqosh hq;2 fohska issh;ska
j<Ëjd je<Ì md;1fhka wyl w; we;s l,ays tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil
isgs ta n1dyauKhdg Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia oeyeus l:d fjka bosrsfhys fuka
fldg olajd iudoka lrjd W;aidy jrAOkh lrjd i;2gq lrjd wiafkka keZ.sg
jevsfial’

7- 
blans;s nqÈrcdKka jykafia jevsss fkdfnda  fjz,dfjlska ta nuqKqyg funÌ
isf;la jsh’ ” w,q;a ;,o w,q;a uSo fokafkushs ” ud jsiska hula  msKsi
nqÈmdfudla nslaiZ.K f;fuz mjrK,oafoao” ug tajd oSug  isys uË jsh’ uu
w,q;a ;,o” w,q;a uSo  ie

(c)  11

[ \ q 274 / ]
nqoaO m1uqL NsCIq ixhd mjrK
,oafoaao udjsiska Wkajykafia,dg oSug wu;l lrK ,oS’ Nd.Hj;a f.#;u f;u
udf.a wZM;a ;,o wZM;a uSo ms

8= 
tl, NsCIQyq Ènssla l, iqZM muKla Èka l,aysÈ j,l;a’ * fumuKlskqÈ hemsh
yelaflah’ fiiai wkayg fjzjhs ( i

83 
tl,ays wdhqIau;a WmkFo YdlHmq;1f.a Wjegka lrk l2,hla iZ.k msKsi le hq;2
fohla msg;a flf

84 
blans;s YdlHmq;1jQ wdhqIau;a WmkFo f;r f;fuz fmjre l2,hka lrd  t

[ \ q 275 / ]
” uyfKkss” ms

85 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.ykqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei ieje;a kqjr
huz;efklaysssso tyss pdrsldfjys jevsfial’ l1ufhka pdrsldfjys
yeisfrkfiala ieje;a kqjr huz;efklayso tys jsiQfial’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta
ieje;a kqjr wfkamsZZvq uyisgdKka jsiska lrjd mQcd lrk ,o fcA;jkdrdufhys
jdih lrkfial’ wdhqIau;a YdrSmq;1 f;rekayg ldhdodydndOfhla fjhs’ tl,
wdhqIau;a uyd fud.a.,a,dk f;r f;u wdhqIau;a YdrSmq;1 f;r f;fuz
huz;efklayso tys t

86 
tl, wdhqIau;a uyd fud.a.,a,dk f;r f;fuz fojzruzys w;2reoyka jQfiala
uFodlsKs kuz fmdl2Kq f;r my

[ \ q 276 / ]
f;fuz n,j;a mqreIfhla yel2,Q
w;la osla lrkafkao osla l< w; yl2ZMjkafkao tfiau uFodlsKs fmdl2Kq f;r
w;2reoyka jQfha fcA;jkfhys my< jsh’ ta we;do uFodlsKs fmdl2Kq f;r
w;2reoyka jQfha fcA;jkfhys my< jsh’ blanss;s ta we;d wdhqIau;a
uyfud.a.,a,dk f;rekag fkZMuz w,o fkZMuz oZvqo ms

87 
tiufhys jkdys idjJ:s kqjfrys fndfyda lEhq;2 f.vs /ia lrk ,oafoa fjhs’
lem lrefjlao fkdfjz’ NssCIQyq iel lrkakdyq f.vs fkdj<Ë;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fuz lreK ie, lf

88 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ieje;a kqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei rc.y kqjr
huz;efklayso tys jevsfial’ ms

[ \ q 277 / ]
ta uyKyqf.a jsydrh huz;efklayso
tys meusKshy’ wdldYf.d;1 ffjoH f;fu wE; isg tk Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia oel
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” msKe;s f.dhquz f;fuz jvskfialajd’ f.dfhl2f.a uqjla
jeksjQ fuu mejsosyqf.a jrApia ud.!h n,djdhs ” tl, Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ”
fuz ysia mqrsia f;fuz ljgluz flfrAhhs ” thskau fmr

89 
tl,ays jkdys ij. NsCIQyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska Y,H lu!h j

[ \ q 278 / ]
jia;s lu! lrjkakdyqoehs *lrj;a
hkq ( * uyfKks” iuzndOhdf.a yd;a mi oEZ.2,lska we;2<; Y,H lu!hla fyda
jia;s lu!hla fyda fkdlrjsh hq;af;ah’ huz uyfKla lrjkafka kuz :q,eis
weje;a fjz’ “

80 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.ykqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei nrKeia kqjr
huz;efklayso tys pdrssldfjys jevsfial’ l1ufhka pdrssld lrk fiala nrKeia
kqjr huz;efklayso tys jsiQfial’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tys uss.odh kuzjQ
nrKei bism;kdrdufhys jdih lrkfial’ tl,ays jkdys nrKei iqmamsh kuz Wmdil
f;fuzo iqmamshd kuz Wmdisld f;dfudao fofok meyeÈfkda fj;a’ *f;rejkg(
fokafkda fj;a’ lghq;2 lrkafkda fj;a’ iZ.kg Wmia:dk lrkafkda fj;a’ tl,
iqmamshd kuz Wmdisld f;dfuda wdrduhg f.dia ldurfhka ldurh lrdo msrfjfKka
msrsssfjfK lrdo *  msrsfjka kuz wx. iuzmQK! mkai,ah( meusK” “iajduSks”
ljfrla .s,kafjzo$ ljfrl2yg l2ula f.fkkq ,efnzjdoehs ” NsCIQka jspdrhs’
tiufhys tla;rd uyfKl2 jsiska jsfrApk fnfy;la fndk ,oafoa fjz’ blans;s ta
uyK f;fuz iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldjg fufia lSfhah’


keZ.KShks” ud jsiska jsfrApk fnfy;la fndk ,oafoah’ udyg udxY rYfhka
m1fhdack fjzhhs ” ” iajduSks” hym; f.k tkq ,nkafkahhs” f.g f.dia
w;jeisfhl2 ,jd wKlrjSh’” fld,” hj ” mj;a; udxY okqjh ” wdhH!fjks” tfia
flfrushs ” lsshd ta mqrsi f;fu iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldjg ms

[ \ q 279 / ]

lsrSu
fyda jkafkah’ huz uu ms

8- 
tl, iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fuz f.g f.dia ‘ iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldj fldysoehs
’ odish w;ska jspdf

 [ \ q 280 / ]

9= 
blans;s iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fu ta rd;1shf.a wejEfuka m1KS; jQ lEhq;2
nqosh hq;2 foh ms

93 
blans;s iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fuz iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldj jgfldg f.k
f.kdfjzh’ nqÈrÈka oelSu iuZ. wef.a *4( tmuK uy;ajQ j1Kh jevqfka *
f.dvjQfha ( ukdj yg.;a isjs we;af;da yg .;a f,duz we;af;da *5( jsh’
blans;s iqmamsh kuz Wmdil f;fuzo iqmamshd kuz Wmdisld f;dfudao huz
fya;2jlska nqÈrÈka oelSu iuZ. * fuys *4(( jkafkao *ta fya;2j kuz (
;:d.;hka jykafiaf.a uy;a iDoaOs we;s njo uy;a wdkqNdj iuzmkak Ndjho fjz’
mskaj;aks” ta ldka;fhka wdYaphH! fjz’ nqÈrÈka oelSu iuZ. * fuys *4((
jkafkao” mskaj;aks” taldka;fhka fmr fkdjQjla hhs i;2gqjQjdyq TojevsshdjQ
nqoaO m1uqL NsCIq ixhd m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 fohska nqosh hq;2 fohska ish;skau
j<Ëjd mjrd je<Ì md;1fhka bj;g .;a w;a we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a
tl;amfil isgshdyqh’ blans;s iqmamsh Wmdilhdo iqmamshd Wmdisldjo *6(
oeyeus l:dfjka lreKq f.kyer olajd iudoka lrjd f;o .kajd i;2gq lrjd
wiafkka jevsfial’ * fuys 3+8 *3((

[ \q 281 / ]

94 
” uyfKks” ljr uyfKla iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldj udxY jskh jQfhysoehs ” fufia
jod< l, ” ta uyK f;fuz nqÈrÈkag fujoka ie, lf


uyK” kqU je<Ìfhyso $ ” ” Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” je<Ìfjushhs “  ” uyK”
kqU *lskuz udXYoehs( jspdf

95 
uyfKks” we;uz usksia flfkla Y1oaOd we;af;da meyeÈkdyq fj;a’ ta usksiqka
jsiska ;ukaf.au udxY mrss;Hd. lrk ,oaody’ uyfKks” ukqIH udxY
fkdje<Ësh hq;af;ah’ *huz uyfKla ( j<Ëkafka kuz :q,is weje;a fjz’
uyfKks” fkdjspdrd udxY fkdje<Ësh hq;af;ah’ huz uyfKla j<Ë kuz
Èl2,d weje;a fjz’”

96 
*3( tiufhys jkdys rcqf.a we;ayq uefr;a usiaiq Ènsla l, tu yia;s udxYh
wkqNj flfr;a’ msZvq isZ.d jvkdjQ NsCIQkag we;a udxY fo;a’ NsCIQyq we;a
udxY j<Ë;a’ ” usksiaiq flfia kuz NsCIQyq we;a uia j<Ëkakdyqoehs
fodia lsh;a’ we;a f;u rcqf.a fiakd wjhjhls’ boska rc f;fuz okafka kuz
Wkajykafia,dyg i;2gqjkafka fkdjkafkahhs ” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh
ie, l

97  * fuys 96 fPAoh fhoSfuzoS ‘ we;a ’ fjkqjg ‘wYaj’ lshd fhdod.; hq;2hs’(

98  *3( tl,ays jkdys ukqIHfhda ÈrANsssCIfhys nZM uia wkqNj lr;a’ msZvq msKsi yeisfrk NsCIQkag nZM uia

[ \ q 282 / ]
fo;a NsCIQyq nZM uia wkqNj lr;a’
” flfia kuz Y1uK YdlHmq;1fhda nZM uia wkNj flfr;aoehs ” fodia lsh;a’
*4( iqkL f;u .erysh hq;af;ah’ ms

99 
* fuys 98 *4( ‘ nZM ’ fjkqjg ‘ irAm ’ fhdokak’ ( iqMiai kuz kd rc f;fu
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz;efklayso tys meusKsfhah’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
jeË tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgs iqMiai kuz kdrc f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag ” iajduSsks” Y1oaOdj ke;s fkdmeyeÈk kd.hka we;a;dy’ Tjzyq
iaj,amhlskqÈ NsCIQkag ysrsyer lrkakdyqh’ iajduSks” wdhH!fhda irAm udxY
wkqNj fkdlrkakdyq kuz hym;ehs ” lSfhah’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iqMiai
kd. rdchd *4( oeyeus l:dfjka lreKq f.kyer oelajQy” iudoka lrjQy” f;o
.ekajQy” i;2gq l

90 
tl,ays jeoafoda isxyhka urd isxy uia wkqNj lr;a’ msZvq msKsi yeisfrk
NsCIQkag isxy udxY fo;a’ NsCIQyq isxy udxY j<Ëd jkfhys fjfi;a’
isxyfhda udxY ..FOfhka NsCIQka wUj;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie,
l

9-+03 * fuys 90 fPAoh fhoSfuzoS ‘ isxy ’ fjkqjg ‘ osjs ’ ‘ j,ia ’ ‘lrndkd j,iqka ’ fhdod fPAo ;2kla idod.; hq;2h’ (
 

[ \ 283 / \


,spzPjS nKjr


blans;ss Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia nrKeia kqjr leu;s;dla l,a jei wFoljsJoh
huz;efklayso wv f;f


blans;s ta n1dyauK f;u wdhqIau;a wkË f;reka huz;efklayso tys
meusKsfhah’ meusK” wdhqIau;a wkË f;rekag ‘ Nj;a wdkJo ia:jsfrfhks” fuys
jdrh fkd,nk ug * fuys 3 *4(( fuz is; jsh’ Nj;a wdkJofhks” ta uu okay,
n,kafka leËo uSmsZvqo hk foj.!hla fkdosgsu’ mskaj;a wdkJohka jykai”
bosks uu leË;a uS msZvq;a ms

[ \ q 284 / ]


blans;s ta nuqKq f;fuz ta /hf.a wejEfuka fndfyda leËo uS msZvqo
ms


blans;s ta nuqKq f;fuz nqÈka m1uqL NsCIq ixhd fndfyda jQ leËskao” uS
msZvqfhkao ish;ska j<Ëjd wjika fldg md;1fhka bj;a l< fiaÈ w;a we;s
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fj; meusK tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil yqka ta
n1dyauKhdg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ” leË ms

7  “  hfula wkqka jsiska fok ,oao j<ËkakdjQ ldh jd.a ixhufhka hqla; jQjkag iqÈiq l, ilia fldg leË foao lreKq oihla fjhs’

“wdhqIho”
isrer meyeho” iemho”  Yla;shoo foa’ Tyg kqjK Wmoshs” ta leË je<ËSfuz
fya;2fjka nv.skao msmdiho neyer flfrhs” jd;h wkqf,duz flfrhss” jia;sh
Y2oaO flfrA” j<Ëk ,o wdydr uqyql2re flfrhs” fuz leË Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
jsiska jK!kd l< fnfy;la fjhs’ tnejska iqj leue;sjQo” osjHuh jQ
iqjhla m;kakdjQo” usksiqka ms


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta nuqKyg  fuz .d:dj,ska wkqfudaokd fldg
yqkiafkka keZ.sg jevsfial’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz ksodkfhys fuz
isoaOsfhys oeyeus l:d fldg NsCIQka weu;@fial’ ” uyfKks” leËo” us msZvqo
wkqokussshs ‘” * jodf

[ \ 285 / ]

usksiaiq
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska NsCIQkag yq,qleka *leË( wkqokakd ,oafoahhs uS
msZvqo wkqokakd ,oafoa hhs weiqfjdauh’ ta *joka ( weiQ usksiaiq l,skau
wkqNj l


tl,ays tla;rd *iiafkys ( mykajQ ;reK uyweue;s fhl2 jsiska fig msKsi nqÈ
mdfudla  nsla iZ.k f;fuz mjrK ,oafoa fjhs’ blans;s m1ikakjQ ta ;reK uy
weue;syg funÌ isf;la jsh’ ‘ uu wv f;f

[ \ q 286 / ]


tl, myka ta ;reK uy weue;s f;u ” iajdusjre ud jsiska mjrk ,oafoda
wkslla yqf.a wkNj l

3= 
blans;s myka ta ;reK uyue;syg nqÈka jevs fkdfnda fjz,dfjloS *4( ‘ huz
uu *fuys - *4(( .sfhuzo * fuz lreK ( udyg taldka;fhka w,dNfhda  fj;a’
udyg taldka;fhka ,dNfhda fkdfj;a’ ud jsiska taldka;fhka whym;la ,nk
,oafoah’ ud jsiska taldka;fhka hym;la fkd,nk ,oafoah’ lsfulao $ ud
jsiska fndfyda mska fyda mjz  fyda /ialrk ,oafoaoehs ’ l2l2ila jQfhauh’
jsms

[ \ q 287 / ]
jsisska fndfyda mska fyda /ia
lrk ,oafoao mjz fyda /ia lrk ,oafoao $” lshdhss’ “weje;aks” huz osfkl
mgka kqU fig msKsi nsla iZ.k mjrk ,oafoao tosk mgka kqU jsiska fndfyda
mska /ialrk ,oafoah’ huz fjzf,l mgka tl tl mejsoafol2 jsisska kqUf.a tl
tl  n;a yq,la ms

33 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wJOljsJo rg leue;s;dla l,a jei rc.y kqjr
huz;efklayso tys wv f;f

[ \ q 288 / ]
kuz lpzpdk f;reka
*
oel u.ska bj;aj tl;a;rd .ila uq, jevyqkafial’ blans;s fn,gzG lpzpdk f;u
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz;efklayso tys meueKsfhah’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
jeË tl;amfil isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs fn,gzG lpzpdk f;u Nd.Hj;2ka jyka
fiag ” iajduSks” tl tl NsCIqyg tl tl Wlail2re l

* fm< yd iiËkak
[ \ q 289 / ]

blans;s fn,gzGlpzpdk f;fuz *4(
NsCIQka il2rska i;2gq lrjd Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag “iajduSks” NsCIQka
yl2rej,sska mskjk ,oS’ *5( fndfyda yl2re b;srsjssh’ iajduSks” uu flfia
ms

(c)  12
[ \ q 290 / ]

34 
tl, ta Wla yl2re *4( osfhys ouk ,oafoa pspzpsg hk wkqlrK flfrA’
psgspsgs hk wkqlrK flfrA’ yd;amiska Èudfha’ yd;a miska jevsh;a Èudfha’
*5( ojila r;a l

blans;s
fn,gzG lpzpdk f;fu yg.;a isf;a ;e;s.eKSuz we;af;a” f,duq veye.eKquz
we;af;a” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia  huz;efklayso t;ekg meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
jeË tl;amfil isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgshdjQu fn,gzGlpzpdhkhkag ms

[ \ 291 / ]
njg meusKsfha Ydia;D Ydikfhka
msg jsYajdihla ke;sjQfha Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuh ie, lf

35 
tl,ays tla;rd NsCIq kula .s,ka fjz’ NsCIQyq nqÈka jsiska .s,ka yg Wla
yl2re wkqokakd ,oafoah” fkd.s,kayg wkq fkdokakd ,oafoahhs l2l2ia
lrkafkda Wla yl2re fkdj<Ë;a’ NsCIQyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz lreKq
ie,l

36 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.y kqjr leue;s fia jei mdg,S .u
huz;efklayso tys iersird jevsfial’ mdG

[ \ q 292 / ]

mkjd
uy;a osh ie

37 
tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia yeË md;1 isjqre f.k NsCIq ixhd iuZ. wdjia:d
.drh huz;efklo tys meusK mdohka msrsisÈfldg f.k wdjia:d.drhg ueo lKqj
weiqre fldg fmr os.g wNsuqL jQfha jevyqkafial’ nsla iZ.k f;fuzo *4(
mdohka msrsisÈ fldg f.k wdji:d.drhg msjsi *5( miq ns;a;sh weiqre fldg
fmr os.g wNsuqL jQfha Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiau fmrgq fldg f.k jevyqkafial’
mdG

38  
blans;sss Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia mdG

[ ]\ q 293 /
.Dym;s msrsila lrd fyda boska
uyK msrsila lrd fyda hk huz huz msrsila lrdu t

39 
is,aj;ayqf.a iS, iuzm;a;sfhys fuz wdksYxifhda miafofkls’ ljr miafofklao
h;a $ *4( ..Dym;sfhks” is,a we;sfha iS,fhka hq;2jQfha *5( wm1udo
fya;2fjka uy;ajQ Ok rdYshlg meusfKa’ *6( fuh is,aj;ayqf.a iS,
iuzm;a;sfhys *7( m

30 
blsns;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia mdG

[ \ q 294 / ]
fndfyda fjz,djloS Y@kHd.drhg
msjsisfia’ tiufhys jkdys u.O rg uy weue;af;dajQ iqkSO+jiaildr hk fofok
*3( jcAcSka j,lkq msKsi mdG

[ \ q 295 / ]
ckhd flrkao jkafkah’ * fldgila .skafkka jskdY jSuo”  fldgila c,fhka jskdY jSuo fldgila  wiu.sfhka jskdY jSuo oelafjz’ (

3- 
blans;s iqkSO jiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz;efklayso
tys meusKshdyqh’   meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia iuZ. i;2gq jQjdyqh’ i;2gq
jsh hq;2jQ isys lghq;2 jQ l:dj  blaujd tl;amfil isgshdyqh’ tl;amfi isgs
iqkSOjiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” Nj;a f.#;uhka jyka fia
wo oji msKsi NsCIq ixhd iuZ. wmf.a odkh bjikfialjd ” *wheo isgshy’ (
blans;s iqkSOjiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a bjiSu oek
.shdyqh’ blans;s  iqkSOjiaildr u.O uydud;Hfhda m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 foh nqosh
hq;2 foh ms

4= 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fmrjre fjzf,ys yeË fmdrjd md;1 isjqre f.k iqkSO
jiaildr u.Ouydud;Hhkaf.a wkqNj lrk ;ek huz;efklayso  tys meusKsfial’
meusK mkjk ,o wiafkys NsCIq ixhd iuZ. jevisgsfial’ blans;s iqkSO jiaildr
u.O uydud;Hfhda nqÈka m1uqL NsCIq ixhd m1KS;jQ lEhq;2 fohska nqosh hq;2
fohska ish;ska j<Ëjd  wjika fldg je<Ì md;1fhka bj;a l< w;a
we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tl;am fil isgshdyqh’ tl;amfil isgs iqkSO jiaildr
u.O uy ud;Hhkag Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz .d:dj,ska wkqfudaokd l

‘ huz fmfofilays mKavs; iajNdj we;sfhla jsiSu flfrAo”  fuz fmfofiys jik ldh jdla ixhu jQ nUir yeisrSuz we;s is,aj;2ka j<Ëjd”’

‘ta
fmfofiys huz fojss flfkla jQjdyqo ta fojshkayg mska fokafkah’ mqok ,o
ta fojsfhda Tyqg mqo;a’ ie

[ \ q 296 / ]


blsns;s ujq f;dfuda ;uka l2i fyd;a mqf;l2g fia wkqluzmd flfr;a’ fojshka
jsiska wkqluzmd lrk ,o mqreI f;fuz ieu l, hym;la olShhs ’ *jod< fial
(

blans;s Nd.H;2ka jykafia u.O uydud;HjQ iqkSO jiaildrhkag fuz .d:dj,ska wkqfudaoka fldg yqkiafkka ke.sg jevsfial’

43 
tiufhys u.O uydud;HjQ iqkSO jiaildrfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia miqmiafia
.uka .;af;da  fj;a’ ” wo uyK f.dhquz f;fuz * kqjr ms

44 
tiu fhys jkdys ..x.d koS f;dfuda .x bjqr olajd msreks’ ljqvka jsiska
msj yels osh we;af;a fjz’ fuf.dvska tf.dv hkq leue;s jQ usksiaiq iuyr
flfkla kejz fidh;a’ iuyre myqre fidh;a’ iuyre myqre nËs;a’ fuf.dvska
tf.dvg hkq leue;sjQ kejz  fidhkakdjQ ta iuyr usksiqka o” myqqre
fidhkakdjq ta iuyr usksiqkao” myqre nËskakdjQ ta iuyre usksiqkao
Ègqfialauh’ huzfia n,j;a mqreIfhla yel2,Q w;la osla lrkafkao osla l<
w;la yl2,kafkao tfiau Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ..x.d kosfhys fuf.dv bjqfrka
tf.dv bjqfrys  nsla iZ.k iuZ. jev isgs fial’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
fuz ldrKh oek ta fjz,dfjys fuz m1S;s jdlHh my< l< fial’


huzflfkla ;DIaKd keue;s uy ihqr fyda koshla tf;r flfr;ao” *Tjzyq ;2uQ (
wdhH!ud.!h fya oKavla fldg l2vd js,a fkdfyd;a .x.d kosh jeks .x.djka
yer tf.dv jkakdy’ ck f;fuz myqre nËshs’ kqjKe;s ckfhda tf;rjQy’ “

[ \ q 297 / ]

45 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs .1duh huz;efklayso tys meusKsfial’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs ..1dufhys jevjik  fial’ tl, Nd.Hj;22ka jykafia
NsCIQka weu;@fial’ ” uyfKks” ud jsiskao f;dm jsiskao isjziia oyuz *4(
wjfndaO fkdlsrSSfuka m1;sfjzO fkdlsrS fuka fuz osla ld,hla uqZM,af,ys 
fuhdldrfhka ixOdjkh lrk ,oafoah” iersirK ,oafoah’ *5( ljr i;rlao h;a $
È%laLdhH! i;Hh” *fuys *4(( È%laL iuqohdhH! i;Hh” * fuys *4(( ÈlaL
ksfrOdhH! i;Hh” *fuys *4(( ÈlaL kssfrdaO.dusKS mgsmod wdhH! i;Hh * fuys
*4(( uyfKks” ta fuz È%laLdhH! i;Hh wjfndaO lrk ,oafoah’ m1;sfjzO lrk
,oafoah’ uyfKks” ta fuz È%laLiuqohdhH! i;hHh wjfndaO lrk ,oafoah’
m1;sfjzO lrk ,oafoah’ uyfKks” ta fuz È%laL ksfrdaOdhH! i;hHh wjfndaO lrk
,oafoah’ m1;sfjzO lrk ,oafoah’ uyfKks” ta fuz È%laL ksfrdaO.dusKS
mgsmodhH! i;hHh wjfndaO lrk ,oafoah’ m1;sfjzO lrk ,oafoah’ Nj ;DIaKd
f;dfuda isËsk ,oaoSh” Njh  keue;s /yek CIh lrk ,oaoSh’ oeka u;2 bmoSfula
ke;shhs isjziia oyuz we;s mrsos fkdoelafuka os.2l,la uqZM,af,yss ta ta
cd;SSkays ierssirk ,oafoah’ ta fuz p;2rdhH! i;Hhfhda udrAM, {dk fhka
olald ,oafodah’ Nj keue;s /yeka f;fuda kik ,oaoSh’ * ixidr ( Èl WÈrd ouk
,o uq,a we;af;dah’ oeka  mqkN!jhla ke;s’ ” * ry;a M, kqjK oelafjz’ (

46 
wuznmd,S ..Ksld f;dfuda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs.1duhg jevsfialahhs
weiqjduh’ tl, wuznmd,S ..Ksld f;dfuda hym;;a jQ hym;ajQ hdkdjka fhdojd
iqkaorjQ hdkdjlg keZ.SS iqkaorjQ iqkaorjQ hdkdj,ska hqla;j jsid,d
kqjrska Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia olakd msKsi kslau .shdh’ *4( hdkdjf.a nsu
huzmuK jSo tmuKla hdkfhka f.dia hdkfhka nei  md.uka we;a;Su Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia huz;efklayso tys meusKshdh’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jeË tl;amfil
isgshdh’ tl;amfil isgs wuznmd,S ..Ksldjg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia oeyeus
l:dfjka lreKq f.kyer oelajQy’ iudoka lrjQy’ f;o .ekajQy’ i;2gq l

[ \ q 298 / ]
f;dfuda Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia jsiska
oeyeus l:dfjka lreKq fmkajd i;2gq lrjk ,oaoS” iudoka lrjk ,oaoS” f;o
.kajk ,oaoS Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia fig ojig
NsCIq ixhd iuZ. udf.a odkh bjik fialajdhs ” lSjdh’ *5( Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
ksYaYnzoj bjiQfial’ blans;s wuznmd,S .Ksldj Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a bjiSu
oek wiafkka keZ.sg jeË meol2Kq fldg .shdh’

47 
jsYd,d kqjr ,spzPjSyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs.1duhg jevssfhahhs
weiqjdyqh’ blans;s jsYd,d kqjr ,spzPjSyq hym;a hym;a hdkd fhdojd hym;a
hym;a hdkd keZ.S hym;a hym;a hdkdj,ska jsYd,d uykqjrg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia
oelSu msKsi .shdy’

*4(
iuyr ,spzPjyq ks,a fj;a” kS, jK! we;af;da kS, jia;1 we;af;da kS,dNrK
me

48 
blans;s wuznmd,S ..Ksld f;dfuda ;reK ;reK ,spzPjSkaf.a *4( r: ysiska
r:ysio” jshoZvqfhka jshoKavo” frdaofhka frdaoho” wl2frka wl2ro iemqfhah’
*5( tl, ta ,spzPjSyq wuznmd,S kuz .Ksldjg fufia lSy’ ” fl,a,” wuznmd,S”
l2ula ksid wmf.a ” * fuys *4(( ” wdhH!mq;1jreks” ta tfiauh’ ud jsiska
fig msKsi nqÈmdfudla nsla iZ.k f;fuz mjrk ,oaoSh’ “


fl,a, wuznmd,sh” tu n; ,CIhlska wmg foj’ ” ” wdhH!mq;1jreks” boska ckmo
iys; jQ jsYd,d uykqjr fokakjzo” uu ta n; fkdfouzuhhs” lSh’ tl, ta
,spzPjSyq ” mskaj;” taldka;fhka ..eyeKshla jssiska mrojk ,lafoda fjuq’
mskaj;a;s”  .eyeKshla jsiska mrojk ,oafoa juqhs ” wiqr .eiQy’

49 
blanss;s ta ,sspzPjSyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia huz ;efklayso tys meusKshdyqh’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia Èr isg tk ,spzPjSka Ègqfial’ oel NsCIQka weu;@fial’

[ \ q 299 / ]
 ” uyfKks” huz NsCIQka jsiska
;jz;sid jeis fojsfhda fmr fkdÈgqfjdao” uyfKks” ,spzPjS msrsi n,jz’
,spzPjS msrsi ;jz;sid msrsiahhs i,ljz’ ” * jodf

40 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fldgs kuz .fuys leue;sfia  jei kosld kuz .u
huz;efklo tys meusKsfial’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta kosld kuz .fuys WZM f.hs
jev jikfial’ blans;s wuznmd,S .Ksldj ta rd;1shf.a wejEfuka iajlSh
ksjdifhys m1KS;jQ l@hq;2 foh nqosh hq;2 fh ms

[ \ q 300 / ]
 
 


6   iSy nKjr

3  tl, jkdys *4(
m1lgjq m1lgjQ ,spzPjSyq ika:d.dr Yd,dfjys ukd fldg yqkakdyq ukd fldg
/iajQjdyQ kka whqrska nqÈ .2K lsh;s’ oyuz .2K lsh;s’ iZ. .2K lsh;s’ *5(
tl,ays jkdys ks.KaG Y1djl jQ iSy kuz fiakdm;s f;fuz ta msssrssfiys
yqkafka fjz’ tl, *6( iSy kuz fiakdm;ssyg fuÌ is;la jsh’ ” ksielju ta
;:d.; f;fuzu Nd.Hj;a jQfha ry;a jQfha iuHla iuznqoaO jQfha jkafkah’
tnejskau fuz * fuys *4(( uu ry;a jQ iuzud iuznqÈjQ ta wrAy;a iuzud
iuznqoaO Nd.Hj;2ka olakd msKsi hkafkus kuz fhfyl ” lshdhs’

4
*3( blans;s iSSy fiakdm;s f;fuz ks.KaGkd:mq;a;hka jeË tl;amfil
isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs iSy fiakdm;s f;fuz ks.KaGkd:m1;1hkag ”
iajduSSks” uu Y1uK f.#;u f;u olakd msKsi t

*4(
” iSy kuz fiakdm;sh” l2ulg kqU lsrsh jdoS jQfha wlsrsh jdoSjQ uyK f.#;u
olakd msKsi t


blans;s iSy kuz fiakdm;s f;fuz mkaisshhla rshj,ska hq;2j ueos oj,a
nqÈka olakd msKsi jsYd,d uy kqjrska kslau .sfhah’ hdkhdf.a nsuz huz
muKjSo tmuKla hdkfhka f.dia hdkfhka nei md .uka we;af;a Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia huz;efklaysssso tys meusKsfhaah’ meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia jeË 
tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgs iSy kuz fiakdm;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fufia lSh’ ” iajduSks” *4( Y1uK f.#;u f;u wlsrsshjdo we;af;l’ fkdlsrSu
msKsi oyuz foik fial’ thskau ijzjka yslaujk

[ \ q 301/ ]
fialhhs *5( fuz jok ud jsiska
wik ,oafoah’ iajduSks” huz ta flfkla fufia lSyqo * fuys *4(( iajduSks”
lsfulao$ Tjqka Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia jsiska lshk ,oaola lshkafkdao $
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fndrefjka fkdlsh;ao $ Ou!hgo tlZ. jQjla m1ldY flfr;ao
$ lreKq iys;jQ lsis jdohla .erysh hq;2 lreKlg fkdmeusfKao $ huzfyhlska
iajduSks” wms Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfiag fndrefjka fpdaokd fkdlrkq leue;af;da
fjuqo” tfiafyhsks’ “


*3( ” iSy” huz m1l1drhlska ukdfldg lshk ;eke;af;a ‘ Y1uK f.#;u f;fuz
wlsrsh jdo we;af;l” fkdlsrSu msKsi oyuz foikfial” thskau ijzjka
yslaujkfialahhs ’ *4( ug lshkafkao tnÌ m1ldrfhla we;’ * fuys *3((
WpzfPAo jdo we;af;l’ isËSu msKsi ms

[ \ q 302 / ]
lshkafkao ta m1ldrh ljfrAo$ *8( lsrSu  msKsi ldh iqprs;ho” jd.a iqprs;;ho” ufkd iqprsho lsrSu l2i,a oyuz foius’

7  * fuys *6( *5( ( isËSuz jdo we;af;l’ isËSu msKsi * fuys 6 *7(( rd.ho” oafjzYho” fudayho isËSug oyuz foius’


* fuys 6 *5(( ms

9  * fuys 6 *5(( ks.1yhg iqÈiafil’ jsskdYh msKsi * fuys 6 *7(( oyuz foius’


* fuys 6 *5(( fmf


* fuys 6 *5(( bmoSuz ke;af;l’ bmoSu ke;slrkq msKsi wkd.;fhys .en jsiSuo
mqkre;am;a;sho” * ..nzNfihH hkafkka c,dnqc fhdaksho”
mqknzNjdNsksnzn;a;s hkafkka wKavc ixfioc Tmmd;ssl hk  fhdks ;2ko
m1ldYs;hs’(

3=  * fuys 6 *5(( wiajig meusKs we;af;l’ wiajig meusKSu msKsi uu W;2uzjQ iekiSfuka iekiSu we;sfhla fjus’

[ \ Q 303 / ]

33
fufia jod< l, iSy kuz fiakdm;ss f;u Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuh
ie,lf

[ \ q 304 / ]
lshdhs’ tfia kuqÈ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia ksjgqka flfryso oSfuys ud iudoka lrk fial’ ” iajduSks” tfia
jqj;a wms fuys l,a oka fouq’ ‘ iajduSks” ud ;2kafjks jro * fuys *4( *6((
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iSSy fiakdm;shdg ms

34 
blans;s iSy kuz fifkjs f;fuz tla;rd mqreIfhl2g wK flf

[ \ q 305 / ]
ta nqÈrÈkag wjsoHudkjQ ysiajQ
wiuzm1dma;shlska us:Hdjpkfhka lshkakdjQ ta wdhqIau;ajre fkdosr;a’ *
fndrejf.a fl

34 
blanss;s iSy kuz fifkjs f;fuz nqÈka m1uqL NsCIq ixhd *3( m1KS;jQ lEhq;2
fohska nqosh hq;2 fohska ish;ska i;mjd wjika fldg je<Ì  md;1fhka
bj;a fldg .; w;a we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fj; tl;am filg jS yqkafkah’
tl;amfil yqkakdjQ iSy kuz fifkjshd *4( Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia oeyeus l:dfjka
lreKq f.kyer olajd iudoka lrjd f;o .kajd i;2gq lrjd wiafkka keZ.sg
jevsfial’ *5( blaaans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz ksodkfhys fuz isoaOsfhys
oeyus l:d fldg NsCIQka weu;@fial’ ” uyfKks” f;fuz okafka ;uka Wfoid
l< udxY wkqNj fkdl< hq;2h’ hfula jËkafka kuz Èl2,d weje;a fjz’
uyfKks” ;uka jsiska fkdolakd ,oaodjQ o”;uka ksid urK ,oehs fkdwik ,oaod
jQo” iel fkdlrk ,oaodjQo hk ;1sfldags mdrsiqoaOjQ u;aiH udxY wkqoksus’”

36 
tiufhys jsYd,d uykqjr iqNsCI jQjd hym;a YiH we;a;S iqjfia ,ensh yels
wdydr we;a;S msZvq isZ.d hEfuka hemSug myiq jQjd fjz’ ;ksj jsfjzlhg .sh
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz is; jsh’ È,n nsla we;s l, f.dhuz ÈYH jQ l, È,n 
wdydr we;s l, *4( we;2<; ;nk ,oaoo” we;2<; msik ,oaoo” ;ud jsiska
msik ,oaoo” * W.a.ys;h ( kej; ms

( c )  13
[ \ q 306 / ]

flfr;ahhs
*6( blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ijia ld,fhys M, iuj;ska keZ.Sisgsfha
wdhqIau;a wkË f;reka weu;@2fial’ ” * fuys *4(( mrsfNda. flfr;ao$” ”
Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” mrsfNda. flfr;ahhss ” ms


uyfKks” je<Ì ;ekska f.fkk ,oaoo” fmr n; ms

37 
tl,ays jkdys okjq jeis ukqIHfhda fndfyda ,qKqo” f;,ao” iyy,ao” lEhq;2
foao .e,aj, mqrjd wdrdu fldIaGfhka msg; huz jsgu jdrh ,enqfKa kuz n;
msikafkushs .e,aj, lerSSu fldg fjfi;a’ uy;a fuzhlao Wvg kexf.a fjz’
blans;s ta ukqIHhfhda wdhqIau;a wkË f;reka huz;efklayso tys meusKshdyqh’
meusK” wdhqIau;a wkË f;rekag ” iajduSks” wkË f;rekss” fuys fndfyda
,qKqo” f;,ao” iy,ao” lEhq;2 foao .e,aj, mqrjd issgs;a’ uy;a fuzhla
kexf.a fjz’ iajduSks” wkË f;reks” flfia ms

[ \ q 307 / ]
fmdfydlsrSsu wkqoksus’ uyfKks”
fufiao jkdys iuzu; lghq;2hs’ m1;sn, jQ oCI uyKl2 jsiska ix f;u yeZ.jsh
hq;2h’ ‘ iajduSks ix f;fuz ud lshkakla widjd’ ixhdg  boska  meusKs l,a
we;af;a jS kuz fuz jssydr lem N@ush iuzu; lrkafkah’ fuz oekajSuhs’ ’ ‘ 
ixf;u ud lshkakla widjd’ ix f;u fuz jsydr lem N@ush iuzu; lrhs’ fuz
jsydr lem N@usf.a iuzu;h huz wdhqIu;a flfkl2g leue;ss fjz kuz fyf;u
ksYaYnzo jkafkah’ hful2g fkdleue;s fjz kuz fyf;u lshka fkah’ fuz jsydr
lem N@ush ixhd jsiska iuzu; lrk ,oS’ ixhd leue;s fjhs’ tfyhska ksYaYnzo
jsh’ fuh fufia orus ” hkqhs’

38 
tiufhys jkdys *3( usksiaiq tysu iuzu; lrk ,o lem N@usfhys leË msi;a”
n;a msi;a” iQmhka * fndk fydos ( imh;a” udxY fldgj;a” oej m,;a’
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ? wZMhuz fjzf,ys keZ.S isg *5( Wia yZvo uy;a yZvo
ljqvkaf.a uy;a *7( yZvo”wid wdhqIau;a wkË f;rekag l:d l


Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” * fuys *3(( fuz f;fuz ta Wia yZv fjz’ ta uy;a yZv fjz’
ta ljqvkaf.a uy;a yZv fjzhhs ” * ie, lf

39 
tiufhys wdhqIau;a hfidac kuz f;r f;fuz .s,ka fjz’ Wkajykafia msKsi
fnfy;a f.fkkq ,efn;a’ NsCIQyq th neyer ;nj;a’ n<,a uS wdoSyq l;a’
fidreo meyer .ks;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuh ie, lf

[ \ q 308 / ]
muK iSudjlg /iajQ iudk NsCIQka
yd jsiSuz we;af;a tmuKlska idu.a.shhs wkqoksus’ uyfKks” iuzu; lrk ,o lem
nsu mrsfNda. lSrSu wkqoksuss’ uyfKks” Wiaidjkka;slh” f.dksidoslh”
..Dym;sh” iuzuq;sh hk lem nsuz i;rla wkqoksus’ ” *jodf

* i;rfjkss iSy nKjr ksus’ (
 
 


miafjks nK jr

3  tiufhys jkdys *3(
Noaosh kqjr fuKavl kuz isgqjrfhla fjfihs’ ta isgqyqf.a *4( funÌ jQ
oshqKqj ms


tl,ays u.fOYajr fiakd we;s nsuznssidr rc tla;rd ishZM lghq;2 Ndr uy
weue;sfhl2 weu;2fjzh’ ” wmf.a rfgys * fuys 3 *3( *4( *5(( ” fld,” hj ”
okqj ud jsiska ;uka olakd ,oafoa huzfiao kqU jsiska olakd ,oafoa tmrsos
jkafkahhs “  ” foajhka jykai” tfiau flfrushs ” lshd ta uy weue;s f;fuz
u.fOYajr fiakd we;s ta nsuznssir rcyg

[ \ Q 309 / ]
mss


blans;s fuKavl issgq f;u iakdkh fldg OdkHd.drh yeuoSsu lrjd w.
fodrgqfjyss yqkafkah’ wyissska OdkH iuQyh jegS OdkHd.drh msrjSSSh’ ”
.Dym;ssh” kqUf.a iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafoah’ kqU nsrskaof.a *4( oshqKqj
ms


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;Syqf.a nssrskao f;fuda tlu ke


.Dym;sh” kqUf.a nsrskaof.a iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafous’ kqUf.a
mq;1hdf.a * fuys 5 *4(( tl, fuKavl isgq f;fuz mq;1hdg wK flf

[ \ q 310 / ]
iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafoah’”
iajdush” udf.a oiayqf.a oshqKqfjz Wiia nj fl;ays oelal hq;2h’”
..Dym;shdfKks” luz ke;’ kqUf.a oiayqf.a iDoaOHdkqNdjh olakd ,oafoahhs ”
isjzrZ.  fika mssrsjrd f.k keje;o rc.y kqjrg fmr,d wdfhah’ *4( rcq
huz;efklo tys meusKfhah’ meussK” u.fOYajr fiakd we;ss nsuzir rcqg fuz
ldrKh oekquz Èkay’


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsYd,d kqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei Noaosh kqjr
huz;efklayso tyss wv f;f


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;s f;fuz hym;a hym;a hdkd fhdod hym;a hdkdjlg keZ.S
hym;a hdkdjkaf.ka Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia olakg .sfhah’ fndfyda ;SJ:!lfhda
tkakdjQ fuKavl isgqyq ÈroSu Ègqfjdauh’ oel

[ \ q 311 / ]
fuKavl kuz ..eyejshdg fujoka
lSy’ ” .eyejsh kqU fld;ekays hkafkyso$” iajduSSsks uu Y1uK f.#;uhka
olakd msKsi hkafkushs ” lSfhah’ ” .Dym;sh” lsfulao $ Tn l11shdjdoS
jQfhau wlss1hjdoS jQ Y1uK f.#;uhka olakg hkafkyso $” .Dym;sh” Y1uK
f.#;ufhda fkdlsrSu msKsi oyuzfoi;a” bka ijzjka yslaujdh hs ” lSy’ tl,
fuKavl isgqyg funÌ is;la jsh’ ‘ huzm1ldrfhlska fuz ;SJ:!lfhda BIH!d
flfr;ao” *talreKskau(  ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia kssielju wy!;a iuzud iuznqÈ
jkafkahhs ’ *is;Sh( * fuys 5== msgqfjz 5 fPAofha ‘ .sfhah ’ hk ;ek isg
‘isgsfhah ’ hk ;ek olajd ( tl;amfil isgs fuKavl .Dym;shdg Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia mss

[ \ q 312 / ]
blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;s f;u olakd
,o Ou!h we;af;a” mrm1;Hh rys; jQfha” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” iajduSks” *
fuys 7+36 *4( *5( ‘ wms ’hkakg‘ud ’ fhosh hq;2hs’ 449 msgqj (
orkfialajd’ ” iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fig oji msKsi NsCIq ixhd iuZ.
udf.a odkh bjidjd ‘” blans;s fuKavl .Dym;s f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykaafiaf.a
bjiSu oek ..sfhah’ blans;s fuKavl .Dym;s f;fuz * fuys 40= mssgqfjz 9=
fjks fPAofha ‘ f;u ’ hk ;eka isg ( jevyqkafial’


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;shdf.a NdhH!jo” mq;1hdo” f,a,so” odihdo Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia huz;efklayso tys meussKshdyqh’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jeË
tl;amfil yqkakdyqh’ Tjqkag Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ms


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia Noaosh kqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei * Noaosh kqjr (
fuKavl kuz ..Dym;shd fkdjspdrd wXz.2 okjzj huz ;efklyso ” tys tlaoyia
foiSh mKyla jQ uy;a NsCIq iuQyhla iuZ. jevsfial’ fuKavl kuz .Dym;s f;fuz
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jkdys tlaoyia

[ \ q 313 // ]
foish mKyla muK uy;a NsCI
iuQyhd;a iuZ. wXz.2;drdm ckmoh huz;efklayso tys jevsfialehs weiqfjzh’
tl, fuKavl kuz .Dym;s f;fuz odihkago luzlrejkago wK lf

[ \ q 314 / ]


blans;s fuKavl ..Dym;sss f;fuz nqÈka  m1uqL NsCIq ixhd m1KS; jQ lE hq;2
fohsskao nqosh hq;2 fohskao fojQ WKqiquz lsfrkao je<Ì md;1fhka bj;a
fldg ..;a w;a we;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgss
fuKavl ..Dym;s f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia lSfjzh’ ” iajduSks” osh
ke;a;djQ” wdydr ke;a;djQ” u. jshouz ke;ss hdu myiq fkdjkakdjQ ldka;dr
udrA.fhda fj;a’ iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia NsCIQka yg u. jshouz
wkqokakdfiala kuz hym;ehs ” blans;s * fuyss 5=7 msgqfjys 35 fjkss
fPAofha *4( *5(( ” uyfKks” lsrso” oSo” fudareo” fjZvreo” .sf;,ao hk
miaf.da ri wkqoksus’ uyfKks” osh ke;s” wyr ke;ss ldka;dr udrA. we;af;ah’
udrAf.damlrK yer hdug fkdyelsh’ uyfKks” u. jshouz fijSu wkqoksus’ ”
iy,a leue;ayqf.a iy,a fijSuo” uqx leue;a;yqf.a uqx fijSuo” uE
leue;a;yqf.a uE fijSuo” ,qKq leue;a;yqf.a ,qKq fijSuo” Wla il2re
leu;a;yqf.a Wlail2re fijSuo” f;,a leue;a;yqf.a f;,a fijSuo” .sf;,a
leue;ayqf.a .sf;,a fijSuo” * wkqoksus’ (” “uyfKks” Y1oaOd we;s m1ikakjQ
huz usksiqka flfkla fj;ao$ ta usksiaiq lmamshldrlhka w;g uqo,a fo;a’ ”
fuhska iajduSka jykafiayg lemjQ huz fohla jS kuz th bgqlrjjz ” lshdhs’ ”
uyfKks” thska hula lem fjzo” th bjiSu wkqoksus’ uyfKks” lsishuz
mrssoafolska r;a;rka rsoS bjish hq;2h’ fijshh hq;2hhs uu fkdlshus’ ”
jod

3=  blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jyka fia l1ufhka pdrsld lrkfiala wdmKh huz;efklayso tys jsiQfial’ flaKsh

[ \ q 315 / ]
cgs, f;u YdlH l2,fhka mejssosjQ
YdlH mq;1 Y1uK Nj;a f.#;u f;fuz wdmKhg meussKsfha wdmKfhyss jdih lrhs ‘
ta Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafiaf.a funÌ hym;a lSSrA;s Ynzohla mek kexf.ah’ fuz
ldrKfhkao ta Nd.Hj;a iuHla iuznqÈrcdKka jykafia * fys 53= msgqfjys 7
fjks fPAofha *4( *5( *6((

33 
*3( blans;ss flaKsh kuz cgs,hdg funÌ isf;la jssh’*4( uu Y1uK f.#;uhkayg
l2ula kuz hjkafkuso $ * fuys *3(( nuqKkaf.a fjzofhka l*
hk fudjqyq fj;a’ * Tjqyq ;2uQ ( rd;1S fNdckfhka je

* fm< yd iiËkak
[ \ q 316 / ]

ukdfldg mjdrKh lrjd Nd.Hj;ayq
lrd meussK cgs,hd *4( Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska oeyeus l:dfjka bosrss
fuka fldg oelajQfial’ iudoka lrjQfial”W;aidy jrAOkh lrjQfial”  i;2gq
lrjQfial’ *5( fojkqj;a *6( flaKsh cgs, f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” Nj;a
f.#;uhka jykai” NsCIq ixhd jsYd,h’ tloyia foish mKyla muKs’ uu o nuqKka
flfryss w;sYshska meyeÈfkuss’ Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” fyg NssCIq ixhd iuZ.
udf.a odkh bjik fialajd’ ” *7(


flaKsh NsCIq ixhd uy;ah’ tloyia foisssh mKyla muKh’ Tno nuqKka flfrys
ukdj meyeÈfkahhs ” jod

34 
blans;s flaKsh cgs, f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a bjiSsu oek wiafkka
keZ.sg .sfhah’blans;s N.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz ksodkfhys fuz isoaOsfhys
oeyeus l:d fldg NsCIQka wduka;1Kh l

[ \ q 317 / ]

35
blans;s flaKsh cgs, f;fuz ta rd;1sh wejEfuka iajlSh wdY1ufhys m1Kss;
lEhq;2 foh nqosh hq;2foh m


hd.fhda .sks msoSu m1Odk fldg we;af;dah’ fjzohg idjs;1s kuz PFoi m1Odk
fjz’ rc f;fuz usksiqkayg m1Odk fjz’ ihqr koSskag m1Odk fjz’ pFÊhd
;drldjkag m1Odk fjz’ ysre ;dm lrjqkag m1Odk fjz’ mska leue;a;djQ
mqokakjqkag iZ.k taldka;fhka  m1Odk fjz hhs “

36 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia flaKsh cgs,hd fuz .d:djkaf.ka wkqfudaoka lrjd
yqka wiqfkka keZ.sg jevsfial’ l2iskdrd kqjr jeis u,a, rc orefjda
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wv f;f

37 
tl, jkdys frdac u,a, f;fuz wdhqIau;a wkË f;rKqjkaf.a iydhlfhls’ blans;s
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ms

[ \ q 318 / ]
f;reka ilid jeË tl;amfil
isgsfhah’ tl;amfil isgs frdac u,a,hdg wdhqIau;a wkË f;r f;fuz fufia
lSfhah’ ” weje;a frdacfhks” kqU Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag huz fmr .ukla
flf

38 
blans;s wdhqIau;a wkË f;r f;fuz flfia kuz frdac u,a, f;fuz fufia
lshkafkaoehs fkdi;2gq is;a we;sfhla jQfhah’ blans;s wdhqIau;a wdkFo
f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jyakfia huz;efklayso  tys meusKsfhah’ meusK” Nd.Hj;2ka
jykaafia jeË tl;amfil yqkafkah’ tl;amfil isgs wdhqIau;a wdkFo f;fuz
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag ” iajduSks” fuz frdac u,a,  f;fuz fjfiiska m1lg jQ
W.;a usksfil2 jQ funÌ W.;a usksiqkaf.a fuz iiafkys meyeoSu uy;a
oshqKqfjlau fjz’ iajduSks” frdac u,a, f;u fuz Ou! jskfhys huzm1ldrfhlska
myoskafkao Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tnÌ m1ldrfhla lrk fial kuz fhfylehs ”
lSfhah’ ” wdkFofhks” frdac u,a, f;fuz huzm1ldrfhlska fuz Ou! jskfhys
myoskafkao ;:d.;hkag tnÌ m1ldrhla lsrSu wmyiq fkdfjzuhhs ” * jodf

39 
blans;s nqÈrcdfKda frdac kuz u,a,hdg fu;a is;a m;2rjd yqkiafkka keZ.sg
fjfyrg jevsfial’ blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykaafia jsiska fu;a is;a iamY! lrk
,o frdac kuz u,a, f;u foka f;dfuda huzfia

[ \ q 319 / ]

30 
tl, frdac u,a, f;fu jik ,o oajdr we;s ta .Ëls

3- 
tl,ays jkdys l2iskdrd kqjr m1KS;jQ oka ms

[ \ q 320 / ]
uu oka Yd,dj n,kafkus’ th
ms

4= 
blaans;s wdhqIau;a wkË f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie, lf

43  blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia l2iskdrd kqqqqjr leue;s;dla l,a jei wd;2ud kqjr huz;efklayso tlaoyia

[ \ q 321 / ]
foish mKyla muKjQ uy;a NsCIq
iuQyhla iuZ. pdrsldfjka jevsfial’ tiufhys jkdys wd;2ud k.rfhys fmr
lrKjEusfhl2 jQ wm1lg jQ nqvzVmnzncs;fhla fjfihs’ Tyqf.a usssyssssrs joka
we;s ish ismays jegfyk kqjKe;s ksmqkjQ ish weÈrka i;2 lrKjEus luzys
ksfodiaj .;a isma we;s * idufKar jQ ( ore fofofkla fj;a’ ta nqvzVmnzncs;
f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wv f;f

44 
blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ms

(c)  14

[ \ Q 322 / ]
jykafia udf.a leË ms

45 
blans;ss Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wd;2ud kqjr leue;s ;dla l,a jei ieje;a kqjr
huz;efklayso tys pdrsldfjys jevsfial’ ms

[ \ q 323 / ]
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska lskuz
f.vs lEhq;2 f.vshhss  wkqokakd ,oafoao $ lskuz f.vs wkqfkdokakd ,oafoao $
’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh ie,lf

46 
tl, jkdys iZ. i;2 nScfhda  mqoa.,sl nsuzys frdamkh lrkq ,n;a’ mqoa.,ssl
nScfhda iZ. i;2 nsuzys frdamkh lrkq ,n;a’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh 
ie, l

47 
tiufhys jkdys NsCIQkag lsis lrefKlays iel Wmoshs’ ” lsful Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia jssiska wkqokakd ,oafoa fkdfjzo$’ ” lshdhs’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz ldrKh iel

[ \ q 324 / ]

48 
blans;s NsCIQkag funÌ isf;la jsh’ ” hdjld,slh yd usY1jQ hduld,slh
lemfjzo lem fkdfjzo $ hdjld,slh yd usY1jQ i;a;dyld,slh lem fjzo
lemfkdfjzo $ hdjld,slh yd usY1jQ hdcSjslh lem fjzo lem fkdfjzo $
hduld,slh yd usY1jQ i;a;dy ld,slh lem fjzo lem fkdfjzo $ hduld,slh yd
usY1 jQ hdjcSjslh lemfjzo lem fkdfjzo $ i;a;dyld,slh yd usY1jQ hdjcSjslh
lem fjzo lemfkdfjzo $” lshdhs’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fuz ldrKh
ie,l

* fNicAclaLJOlh ksus’ (
 
 


fNicAclaLJOl Woaodkh

ir;a iD;2fjys ms;a f,v
yg.ekSuo” ta ixisËjkq msKsi miajrefhys miafnfy;a wdosh wkqoekSuo”
jqreKq f;, fnfy;a je<ËSug wjir oSuo” uq,a fnfy;a

[ \ q 325 / ]
wkqoekSuo” uq,a pQK! l< msgs
wkqoekSuo” hqi fnfy;a wkqoekSuo” fld< fnfy;a je<ËSug wjir oSuo”
f.vs fnfy;a wkqoekSuo” ,dgqfnfy;a wkqoekSuo” ,qKq fnfy;a je<ËSug wjir
oSuo” fkd.s,kayg wia fngs wdosh weZ. .d kEug wjir oSuo”

.s,kqkag
iqjË iqKq wdosh weZ. .d kEug wjir oSuo” fmryk wkqoekSuo” wukqqIHdndOhla
we;s l, wuq udxY je<ËSug wjir oSuo” wÌka wkqoekSuo” wÌka iEoSug
..kakd ÊjH yd wÌka l2,d wkqoekSuo” iajK!doS wÌka l2,d ;ykuo” wÌkal2,d
mshko” wÌka .dk l@ro” wÌka l@re fldmqo wkqoekSuo” :jslho” wxijgzglh *
:jslh t,a,d.kakd mgs ( :jslh yd wixjgzglh tlg nËsk yqho” ysfiys f;,a
wdf,amho” kiHho” kJ:qlrKsho” * kiHlrk jsg fnfy;a j;a lrk Ndckhls’ (
OQufk;a;ho” OQufk;a;h jyk mshko” ldur fofla :jslho”

uoH
usY1 fldg f;,a  msiSSuo” wOsl uoH oeuQ f;,a mdkh fkdlsrSuo” wOsl uoH
we;s f;,a weZ. ..Euo”* f;,a j;a lssrSug ( f,daydosfhka l< ie

jK
nËk fros lvo” wn msgso” Èuz oSuo” ,qKq wegfhka lemSuo” jk f;,ao”
jsldislho” jslghkao” ..@: ms

[ \ q 326 / ]
mgspzPdokSho” mnzNdrhla iqoaO
lsrSuo” wdrduslhska mkiShla oSuo” .2<+uqx weg+ ,qKq ldvs+wkqoekSuo”
idumdlh ;ykuo” mqkmdlh wkqoekSuo”

ÈrANssCIfhys
kej; idumsldosh wkkqoekSuo” f.vs ;, yd LdokSh wkqoekSuo” *fmrjrefhys
fjfyrg f.kd ( wdydrdosh bryefrk ;2re je<ËSu” ldhvdyh” ksnzngzg nSch”
N.JO,dndOho”

jia;s
lu! ;ykuo” iqmamshd kuz Wmdisldjo” ukaIH+yia:s+wYaj+iqkL+irAm+
isxy+jHd1+oSms+j,ia+lrndk j,ia+hk fudjqkaf.a udxY ;ykuo” mgsldgsho” leË
wkqoekSuo” ;reK uydud;Hhdo” tl fjz,g fofmd,lska fkdje<ËSuo” Wla
il2re” iqkSOjiaildr fofokko” wdji:d.drho”

.x.d
kosh t;r lsrSsuo” fldgs .111duhg jevujSuo” p;2iai;Hh ms

fuzh
ksid lem ls

wuzn+cuznq+fpdp+fudp+uOquqoaosl+id,Ql+
Mdreil hk wIaGmdk wkqoekSuo” m
 
 





comments (0)