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1391 LESSON 20115 TUESDAY
- EASY FOR A 7 YEARS OLD BOY TO UNDERSTAND
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SIDDHA
National Institute of Siddha is offering Post Graduate
course in Siddha in six specialties, Ph.D programme and rendering
health care services through Siddha Medicine. The qualified faculty of
Siddha Medicine and inter disciplinary faculty are available for
imparting a high level of education and a well attended OPD / IPD with
diagnostic laboratory facilities for enhancing the learning and
acquiring knowledge and skills in clinical management. The students are
deputed to reputed institutions for participating in training /seminar /
workshop / conference on standardization of drugs, elemental analysis,
preclinical studies, research methodology and biostatistics, career
advancement training, general skills development etc for enhancing their
knowledge and skills.
|Born||May 20, 1845
|Known for||Punchmar (SC/ST) Buddhist movement|
Pandit C. Ayodhya Dasa (Tamil: அயோத்தி தாசர்) (May 20, 1845 – 1914) was a practitioner of Siddha medicine who is regarded as a pioneer of the Dravidian Movement.
He also founded the Punchmar Mahajana Sabha in 1891 along with
Rettaimalai Srinivasan. Punchamars are the 5th group in the varna system.
Iyothee Thass was born Kathavarayan on May 20, 1845 in a Tamil family from Coimbatore district. His grandfather worked for Lord Arlington and little Kathavarayan profitted immensely from this association.
Soon, he became an expert on Tamil literature, philosophy and indigenous
medicine and could speak Tamil, English, Sanskrit and Pali.
In the 1870s, Iyothee Thass organized the Todas and other tribes of the Nilgiri Hills into a formidable force. In 1876, Thass established the Advaidananda Sabha and launched a magazine called Dravida Pandian in collaboration with Rev. John Rathinam.
In 1886, Thass
issued a revolutionary declaration that untouchables were not
Hindus.Following this declaration, he established the Dravida Mahajana Sabha in 1891. During the 1891 census, he urged Aboriginal Buddhists Punchmar (SC/ST)s to register themselves as
“casteless Dravidians” instead of identifying themselves as Hindus.
Iyothee Thass met Colonel H. S. Olcott with his followers and expressed a sincere desire to convert to Buddhism. According to Thass, the Paraiyars of Tamilakam were originally Buddhists and owned the land which had later been robbed from them by aryan invaders. With Olcott’s help, Thass was able to visit Ceylon and obtain diksha from the Sinhalese Buddhist monk Bikkhu Sumangala Nayake. On returning, Thass established the Sakya Buddhist Society in Madras with branches all over South India. The Sakya Buddhist Society was also known as the Indian Buddhist Association. and was established in the year 1898 and
On June 19, 1907, Iyothee Thass launched a Tamil newspaper called Oru Paisa Tamizhan or One Paise Tamilian.In his later days, he was a vehement criticizer of brahmins.
Iyothee Thass died in 1914 at the age of 69.
Iyothee Thass remains the first recognized anti-Casteist leader of the Madras Presidency. In many ways, Periyar, Dravidar Kazhagam, Dr. Ambedkar, Manyawar Kanshram, Ms Mayawati and all their followers are inheritors of his legacy. He was also the first notable Aboriginal Buddhists Punchmar (Scheduled Caste) leader to embrace Buddhism.
However, Iyothee Thass was largely forgotten until recent times when the SC/ST Sahitya Academy, a publishing house owned by Scheduled Caste Ezhilmalai published his writings. Ezhilmalai, then the Union Health Minister, also made a desired to name
the planned National Center for Siddha Research after the leader.
However, the proposal did not come into effect until 2005, when
vehement protests by Se. Ku. Tamilarasan of the Republican Party of
India (RPI) forced the Government to take serious note of the matter. The institute for Siddha Research (National Institute of Siddha) was subsequently inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on September 3, 2005 and named the Dalit leader. At its inauguration, the hospital had 120 beds. The patients were treated as per the traditional system of Siddha medicine.
A commemorative postage stamp on him was issued on
21-October-2005. His works are nationalized and solatium was given to
their legal heirs in 2008.
The Siddha System of Medicine (Traditional Tamil System of medicine),
which has been prevalent in the ancient Tamil land, is the foremost of
all other medical systems in the world. Its origin goes back to B.C
10,000 to B.C 4,000. As per the textual and archeological evidences
which indicate the remote antiquity of the Dravidian civilization of the
erstwhile submerged land Kumarikandam, that is the Lemuria continent
situated in the Indian ocean, the Siddha System of Medicine is
contemporaneous with those of the submerged lands Egyptian,
Mesopotamian, Chinese and Grecian medicines. The uniqueness of Siddha
System is evident by its continuous service to the humanity for more
than 5000 years in combating diseases and also in maintaining its
physical, mental and moral health while many of its contemporaries had
become extinct long ago.
The roots of the ancient Siddha
System are intertwined with the mythology and culture of the ancient
Tamil civilization that existed in the southernmost tip of the Indian
peninsula, predating much of recorded history.
Siddha is a Tamil word derived from “siddhi” —
attaining perfection in life or Eternal bliss.
The system is
said to have emerged in antiquity, from the highly evolved consciousness
of the Siddhars. The clarified intellect and heightened intuition of
the Siddhars, resulting from their yogic powers, enabled them to explore
the world around them and exploit its natural resources for the sake of
humanity. Their findings on the characteristics of plants, metals and
minerals and their knowledge of the properties of
drugs, its purification, processing, fixing dosage, toxicity, antidote
and clinical application, were preserved in the form of verses for the
use of the posterity.
This unique legacy was bequeathed to
select disciples or “chidas” by word of mouth. It is believed that there
was a line of 18 siddhars, with Agasthya being the foremost and a large
portion of Siddha lore is credited to him. With time, this oral
tradition was transcribed on palm leaf manuscripts that now serve as the
major repository of the knowledge.
The contributors of Siddha
system, the Siddhars, of Tamil land, were mystics, yogis, poets,
devotees, seers and medical men of various combinations and various
statures. They were super human beings who possessed supernatural powers
(like Eight types of Siddhis). They were the greatest scientists of
ancient times and were the guardians of the world and they existed, and
still exist, for the benefit of the public at large. They were men of
great practical knowledge and wisdom. They had full awareness of the
nature and activities of all the objects in this planet and of all
times-past, present and future. They were mainly responsible for the
growth and development not only of Tamil medicine that includes alchemy,
medicine, yoga, kayakalpa (rejuvenation therapy), philosophy,
astronomy, astrology, varma, muppu, thokkanam etc., but also for many
other sciences of public utility.
According to the Siddha system, the individual is a microcosm of the
universe. The human body consists of the five primordial
elements-earth, water, fire, air and space, the three humours-vatha,
pitta and kapha and seven physical constituents. Food is the basic
building material of the human body and gets processed into humours,
tissues and wastes. The equilibrium of humours is considered as health
and its disturbance or imbalance leads to a diseased state; Saint
Thiruvalluvar has indicated the same view in his Thirukural,
“மிகினும் குறையினும் நோய்செய்யும் நூலோர்
வளிமுதலா எண்ணிய மூன்று.” - குறள் 941
“Three things beginning with wind, say experts,
In excess or lacking cause disease” - Kural 941
Reflecting this theory of cosmic oneness, the five senses are said to correspond with the five elements. Ether (Veli) is responsible for hearing; air (katru) for sense of touch; fire (thee) for sight; water (neer) for taste; and earth (mann) for the sense of smell.
Siddha is a comprehensive system that places equal emphasis on the
body, mind and spirit and strives to restore the innate harmony of the
individual. Treatment is aimed at restoring balance to the mind-body
system. Diet and lifestyle play a major role not only in maintaining
health but also in curing diseases. This concept of the Siddha medicine
is termed as pathiam and apathiam, which is essentially a list of do’s and don’ts.
“Food itself is medicine and medicine itself is food”
Drugs used by the Siddhars can be classified into three groups: Thaavaram (herbal product), Thaathu (inorganic substances), and Jangamam (animal products).
The diagnostic methodology in Siddha treatment is unique as it is
made purely on the basis of the clinical acumen of the physician. The
pulse, skin, tongue, complexion, speech, eye, stools and urine are
examined. This approach is collectively known as “Eight types of
examination”; and among the eight, the examination of pulse is very
important in confirming the diagnosis.
Treatment consists of three distinct categories: Deva Maruthuvam, (divine method); Maanida Maruthuvam (rational method); and Asura Maruthuvam
(surgical method). In the divine method, medicines like parpam,
chenduram, guru, kuligai prepared from mercury, sulphur and pashanams
are used. In the rational method, medicines prepared from herbs like
churanam, kudineer, vadagam are used. In surgical method, incision,
excision, heat application, bloodletting, leech application etc. are
The therapeutic treatment in Siddha could be further
categorized into Purgative therapy, Emetic therapy, Fasting therapy,
Steam therapy, Oleation therapy, Physical therapy, Solar therapy, Blood
letting therapy and Yoga therapy.
There is also a branch of the traditional science that deals with traumatology and accidental injuries called Varma.
This is based on the notion of more than 100 vital points that are
junctions of bones, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels and nerves called
Varma points. Pranic energy is found concentrated in these points which,
upon manipulation, produce curative effect.
Siddha system has
enormous pharmacopoeia containing vegetable, animal and mineral
products and treatment techniques consisting in use of 32 types of
internal medicines and 32 types of external medicines, application of
heat and cold, ointments, potions and poultice, blood letting, counter
irritation, bath, suction, manipulative processes such as thokkanam,
varma, yoga and concentration on hygiene and diet (pathiam),
periodical use of purgatives and emetics, use of drugs which include,
apart from herbs, preparations from metals and minerals such as copper,
silver, gold, lead and also Kayakalpa to prevent or postpone greying of hair,
formation of wrinkles and ageing, prevention or treatment of diseases,
and postponement of death (to any desired length of time). Some
empirical treatment techniques under the guise of magic exorcism,
incantation, pilgrimage, peregrinations, mountaineering and similar
activities have also been in practice since ages.
Siddha medicines may be roughly divided into three classes— (i)
Miracle medicines, (ii) Sophisticated medicines and (iii) Common
medicines. Miracle medicines are becoming rare and should be learnt
directly from the masters who, having undergone all forms of initiation
and hazards of apprenticeship, have reached perfection in all respects.
Sophisticated medicines may be scientifically prepared and used by the
well trained physicians without much risk. Common medicines are most
simple and cheap ones which were in wide use till the beginning of the
20th century and are still in use in remote rural areas of our country.
The Siddhars have evolved a special technique for attaining spiritual
awakening with awareness by rousing, with yoga techniques like Anapana sati, Vipassana meditation. Only by caring for his mortal inheritance, man is able to
arrive at the realization of his Eternal Bliss as Final Goal with the highest potentialities. By working in
unison with theology and philosophy, Siddha medicine aids bringing to
maturity the quiescent gem of immortal divine being in his mortal body.
The Siddha system of education in ancient India was not imparted or
organized on the scale of mass education like schools and colleges, but
the ideal of education was to treat it as a secret and sacred process,
for the reason that the process of an individual growth (especially the
inner growth) can only be achieved by a close and constant touch between
the teacher and the taught in their personal relationship from which
the whole world was excluded.
The teaching was imparted in the form of verses, many of them in ambiguous language and handed down to the posterity by the guru-sishya
(teacher-disciple) tradition. The sacred medicines and techniques were
taught only to a close circle of disciples and this trend continued to
exist till recently.
Siddha education has turned into a mass
institutional education around the middle of the 20th Century and has
been catering to the needs of the public. Developments in academic side
and also in scientific research have been coming up. A scientific
research of available Siddha literature may bring us precious truths,
methods of preparation of miracle medicines of mineral, vegetable and
animal origin and this would be a valuable contribution to the medical
world today. In addition to the literature written in palm leaf
manuscripts etc., there are many valuable medicines and treatment
techniques in practice. Steps are being taken by the government for
collecting, screening, analyzing and codifying the available
manuscripts, printed books, traditional recipes, medical secrets and
many other things found scattered in disciplines and activities
seemingly unconnected with medicine.
There has been a resurgence of traditional medical systems the world
over, based on the holistic nature of their approach to healing. The
efficacy of indigenous systems has been proved in various contexts.
They tend to use locally available, cost effective materials for
treatment. Hence, the Siddha system which also has strong cultural and
historical bonds with the people of Tamil Nadu is becoming increasingly
MOU signed with
National Institute of Siddha offers Post Graduate course
in Siddha Medicine through 6 specialties. The six specialties are 1)
Maruthuvam - 8 seats, 2) Gunapadam -8 seats, 3) Sirappu Maruthuvam - 8
seats, 4) Kuzhandai …
Siddha graduates with B.S.M.S / B.I.M Degrees are eligible to apply
for the Post graduate M.D (Siddha) degree courses. A Common Entrance
Examination for the selection of students for all the 6 Post-graduate
courses is conducted by NIS for every academic year. Based on the
entrance marks and academic marks and reservations, the students are
selected and admitted. One seat is allotted for a Siddha graduate from
other countries* (BIMSTEC) in any one branch cyclically every year.
The Post-graduate courses mentioned below have commenced at National
Institute of Siddha (from 30-09-2004) with an annual intake of 5
students for each branch, thus making a total intake of Post-graduate
students to 30 in all. The intake strength has been increased to 46 on
account of OBC 27% reservation from 2008-09 onwards.
The branches offered to PG programme in Siddha are:
Out of 46 seats permitted in MD(Siddha) course, 1 seat is reserved
for candidates from BIMSTEC Countries. Foreign candidates with the
required basic qualification in Siddha, namely, Bachelor of Indian
Medicine (B.I.M) or Bachelor of Siddha Medicine and Surgery (B.S.M.S) or
equivalent degree as approved by the Central Council of Indian Medicine
(CCIM)—have to submit their applications to the Indian Embassies in
their countries. The Indian Embassies will forward their applications to
the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) in New Delhi which in
turn will forward the applications to the National Institute of Siddha,
Chennai to consider for admission to the first year of 3-Year MD(Siddha)
A foreign (BIMSTEC) candidate seeking admission to I year M.D(Siddha)
degree course has to submit an application, along with all the original
documents, to The Registrar, The Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical
University, Guindy, Chennai – 600 032 for obtaining Eligibility
Certificate from the University.
National Institute of Siddha is undertaking research
works with budget grant from Department of AYUSH or through IMR support
from CCRS or any other government institutions for supporting the
research works. NIS is well equipped …
Antihypertensive Potential and Toxicological Evaluation of Kuruthi Azhal Chooranam in Rat Models (NIS/1/2010)
Preclinical safety and efficacy validation of Siddha Medicines proposed for Vitiligo management (NIS/3/2010)
Standardization and Evaluation of Siddha Purification Process of
Sulphur with Evaluation of Preclinical safety and in-vitro efficacy of
Ganthaga Mezhugu proposed for Psoriasis (Kalanjaga Padai) Management
Standardization and Evaluation of Purification Process of Veeram (Mercuric Per Chloride) Siddha Medicine(NIS/6/2010)
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SIDDHA
(An Autonomous body under the Department of AYUSH)
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare,
Govt. of India.
Chennai - 600 047,
Tamil Nadu, India.
* Mathumegam ( Diabetes Mellitus)
* Eraippu Irumal (Bronchial Asthma)
* Elaippu Irumal ( Pulmonary Tuberculosis)
* Iya Iraippu (Bronchial Asthma)
* Kaasam Irumal (Cough)
* Manthaarakaasam (Seasonal Bronchial Asthma)
* Suram (Fever)
* Vaatha Suram ( (ChikunGunya)
* Kaba Suram (Flu)
* Lasuna Thaabitham ( Tonsillitis)
* Peenisam (Sinusitis)
* Kuruthi Azhal Noi (Hypertension)
* Kurarkammal (Hoarseness of voice)
* Athi Veethana Noi (Hyperthyroidism)
* Kurai Veethana Noi (Hyperthyroidism)
* Suryaavartham ( Headache during daytime)
* Chandraavartham (Headache during nighttime)
* Pandu (Anaemia)
* Sobai(Oedema, dropsy)
* Kaamaalai (Jaundice)
* Gunmam (Peptic Ulcer, dyspepsia)
* Ajeeranam (Indigestion)
* Malakkattu ( Constipation)
* Kazhichal (Diarrhoea)
* Seetha Kazichal (Dysentery)
* Kuruthi Kazithal
* Kuruthi Moolam (Ano-rectal bleeding disease)
* Moolam ( Haemorrhoids)
* Pouthiram (Fistula - in - ano)
* Akkaram (Stomatitis)
* Kalleeral Noi (Liver Disease)
* Pithappai Kal (Cholelithiasis)
* Peruvairu (Ascites)
* Neer churukku (Moothira kireecharam (UTI)
* Kalladaippu (Urolithisis)
* Athithoola Rogam (Obesity)