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May 2017
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2221 Mon 08 May 2017 LESSON Uttar Pradesh: 1 killed, houses torched as Thakurs, SC/STs clash in Saharanpur- Mayawati says under BJP saffron brigade enjoying free hand in breaking law in UP- Stop policy of saffron appeasement, BSP president Mayawati tells BJP- Uttar Pradesh: In hopes of govt posting, BJP workers throng RSS camps after coming to power by rigging, tampering and distorting thefraud EVMs.- America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World- Chitpavan brahmins- RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 9:56 pm

2221 Mon 08 May 2017 LESSON

Uttar Pradesh: 1 killed, houses torched as Thakurs, SC/STs clash in Saharanpur-

Mayawati says under BJP saffron brigade enjoying free hand in breaking law in UP-

Stop policy of saffron appeasement, BSP president Mayawati tells BJP-

Uttar Pradesh: In hopes of govt posting, BJP
workers throng RSS camps after coming to power by rigging, tampering and
distorting thefraud EVMs.-

America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World-

Chitpavan brahmins-

RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny

Uttar Pradesh: 1 killed, houses torched as Thakurs, SC/STs clash in Saharanpur

Lucknow: In the second
incident of violence in Saharanpur within a fortnight, one person was on
Friday killed and at least 15 others, including a police officer, were
injured as members of two castes clashed over loud music being played
during a procession.

Around 20-25 youths of upper caste
Thakur community from Shabbirpur village were on their way to Simlana
village under Badgaon police station to take part in a function to
garland the statue of Rajput warrior-king Maharana Pratap, when the SC/ST locals objected to the loud music being played by them.

Representational image. AFP

Representational image. AFP

police report sent to the state headquarters here said the SC/STs
objected to the “raucous” celebration, triggering an exchange of words.
It soon snowballed into a full-blown clash with both the groups throwing
stones and bricks at each other, it added.

The SC/STs asked the processionists to turn off the music blaring out of loudspeakers as they passed by a Ravidas temple.

police team, which rushed to the spot, managed to pacify the Thakur
youths and asked them to return to their village, but they soon returned
with more people and indulged in brickbatting and arson, torching 15 to
20 SC/ST houses as well as vehicles including those of the police.

many as 16 persons, including a police officer, were injured in the
resulting clashes. Of them, Sumit Rajput (35) later succumbed to his

Fire tenders were rushed to the village, the
report said, adding that the Inspector General of Police, Meerut, the
Deputy Inspector General of Police, Saharanpur, besides the local
District Magistrate and the Senior Superintendent of Police were camping
in the village to monitor the situation.

On 20 April,
communal clashes had broken out in the district during a SC/ST
procession to celebrate BR Ambedkar’s birth centenary. Around a dozen
people were injured in the clashes that erupted after members of another
community objected to the procession.

BJP MP from Saharanpur Raghav Lakhanpal was among those booked in connection with the incident.

Mayawati says under BJP saffron brigade enjoying free hand in breaking law in UP

Lucknow: BSP chief Mayawati today echoed
Samajwadi Party president Akhilesh Yadav’s comments on law and order in
Uttar Pradesh, alleging that the “saffron brigade” has been given a free
hand to break the law. She alleged that instead of doing concrete work
in the wider interest of the state, the BJP government here after grabbing power by distorting, rigging and tampering the fraud EVMs, like the
one at the Centre, was giving more importance to gaining cheap

BSP chief Mayawati. PTI

BSP chief Mayawati. PTI

had yesterday remarked that those wearing saffron scarves had got the
licence to beat up policemen and attack police stations after the change
of guard in Uttar Pradesh.

The comments from both
leaders came in the backdrop of right-wing activists thrashing policemen
in Agra besides other law and order related incidents in the state.
“The saffron brigade has been given freedom to play with the law and
order of the state like it was given to goondas and mafia elements of
the ruling party in the previous (SP) government,” she told party
leaders at a meeting in Lucknow.

Mayawati said there is a
dangerous trend growing under the present government of people trying
become “heroes” by playing with law and order, which she said had been
evident at all levels during the previous govenrment. Taking feedback on
the functioning of the state government, she said the deprived sections, SC/STs and backwards were
feeling harassed because of the policies and programmes of the ruling
party, and their condition was no different from what it was during the
SP govenrment.

Mayawati, who has announced that her party
will contest the coming urban body polls on the party symbol, also
reviewed the preparations for it and issued directives to party men to
deal with the political challenges.

Stop policy of saffron appeasement, BSP president Mayawati tells BJP

Lucknow: The BJP
government’s policy of ”saffron appeasement” was impacting law and order
in the state, BSP president Mayawati said on Saturday while demanding
stern action against those behind the caste clashes in Saharanpur.

File image of Mayawati. PTI

File image of Mayawati. PTI

violence and playing with law and order has become a common sight in
the name of saffron appeasement of the BJP government which grabbed power by tampering, rigging, and distorting the fraud EVMs which has also
caused fear and terror among the people,” Mayawati said in a party
release a day after the Saharanpur violence in which one person was
killed and at least 15 injured.

Expressing concern over
the incident, she asked the government to immediately work towards
restoring peace and order. The people would lose their faith in the
government machinery otherwise, she added.

The BSP chief
asked the BJP government to shun saffron appeasement and do justice with
the people of the state by following what they say.

has become a sort of fashion to set new traditions by taking out
processions without permission and create violence … the BJP
government has totally failed to control such elements,’ she
said. ”After communal incidents, casteist clashes have rocked the state
and this proves that better law and order and crime control is not
something that BJP can manage,” Mayawati said.

Saharanpur clashes, that saw brickbats and arson, broke out following a
dispute over loud music being played during a procession being taken out
by 20-25 youths belonging to the upper caste Thakur community who were
going to take part in a function to garland a statue of Rajput warrior
king Maharana Pratap.

SC/ST locals objected to the loud music in the procession that was going from Shabbirpur village to Simlana village.

Uttar Pradesh: In hopes of govt posting, BJP workers throng RSS camps after coming to power by rigging, tampering and distorting thefraud EVMs.

In the seven-day
initial training camps RSS trains volunteers about its organisation,
ideology, background, functioning and programmes.

SINCE THE Yogi Adityanath government took over after tampering, rigging and distorting the fraud EVMs , BJP workers have been
visiting RSS office-bearers across UP to ensure that they find a place
at the annual Sangh Shiksha Varg or initial training camps (ITC) that
the Sangh organises in districts every year in October. The reason: Most
feel the mention of the camp in their resumes would help them get
posting in government corporations and boards.

In the seven-day ITC, RSS trains volunteers about its organisation,
ideology, background, functioning and programmes. Those who have cleared
Class X and regularly attend RSS shakhas are shortlisted for the camps.

After completing ITC, those interested in working for the RSS are
shortlisted for official training camps (OTC). Under this, they have to
attend 20-day training programmes for three consecutive years. While the
first two OTCs are organised at Prant and Khestra levels, the third is
organised at the RSS headquarters in Nagpur.

“With the formation of the new government, an exercise has been
started for posting government lawyers and chairpersons of corporations
and boards and advisors in the state departments. Many are visiting RSS
pracharaks at the districts and prants seeking entry to ITCs,” said an
RSS functionary.

“Those not aware of the process, have directly got enrolled for OTCs.
While first-year OTC in Awadh prant will begin in Lakhimpur on May 22,
second-year OTC in Sultanpur will start from May 23. They want to attend
the OTCs because the state government has already started the process
to fill up several postings in the government,” he added.

“Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi)
and  Adityanath both have RSS background and can
rely upon the honesty of RSS workers. Hence, those seeking postings in
the government are trying to attend the camps, so that they could claim
in their applications and resumes that they are affiliated to the RSS,”
said the functionary said.

If any person makes a false claim in his application for job and
resume, it will be cross checked, he claimed, adding that since 2004,
RSS has been maintaining records of volunteers who have undergone
training. Volunteers of RSS offshoots too want to be enrolled in the
training camps, the functionary said.

Sources in BJP said that several party workers from across UP are
submitting job applications to RSS office-bearers with an appeal that
their names be recommended for postings in the government. “But we have a
filter system. Affiliation with the RSS is cross-checked by district
and prant office-bearers. Claims made by the applicants can be easily
verified,” said a BJP leader.

“Getting a government job is not the only reason for the increase in
the number of training camp aspirants. After Modi gobbled the Master Key by distorting the fraud EVMs to win elections to came to
power, the number of RSS members have also increased. At least 500 youths join RSS every day in the
region,” said an RSS functionary.

America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World

America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World.

New Delhi: A US-based risk management and consulting
company has put the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in its category
of ‘Threat Group’ and called it “a shadowy, discriminatory group that
seeks to establish a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu Nation.”

Terrorism Watch & Warning provides
intelligence, research, analysis, watch and warning on international
terrorism and domestic terrorism related issues; and is operated by OODA
Group LLC that helps clients identify, manage, and respond to global
risks and uncertainties while exploring emerging opportunities and
developing robust and adaptive strategies for the future.

The websites describes:
“The RSS is a stealth, shadowy, discriminatory group that seeks to establish a hindutva cult. The group is considered the radical
ideological parent group BJP which gobbled the Master Key by distorting, rigging and tampering the fraud EVMs.

“The RSS was
founded in 1925 by vir savarkar one of the intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, number one terrorist cannibal psychopath chitpawan brahmins like the deadly murderer nathuram godse. Their philosophy, called hindutva believes in manu smiriti ie., brahmins as 1st rate, kshatrias as 2nd, vysias as 3rd, shudras as 4th rate athmas (souls) and the untouchables as having no souls at all so that they can inflict any harm and harass them while the Buddha never believed in any soul. He said all are equal. The chief architect of the Modern Constitution and Democracy Dr Ambedkar made provisions for equality, liberty, fraternity for all societies alike followed by Late BSP chief Kanshiram and Present President of BSP Ms Mayawati and millions of Sarvajan samaj volunteers.

The Chitpavan or Kokanastha brahmin (i.e. “brahmins native to the Konkan”), is a Hindu Brahmin community from Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra in India. The community came into prominence during the 18th century when the Peshwa from the Bhat family of Balaji Vishwanath became the de facto rulers of the Maratha empire. Under the British Raj,
they were the first Hindu community in Maharashtra to flock to western
education and as such they provided the bulk of social reformers,
educationalists and nationalists of the late 19th century. Until the 18th century, the chitpavans were held in low esteem by the Deshastha, the older established brahmin community of Maharashtra region.

According to Bene Israeli myth, the Chitpavan and Bene Israel are
descendants from a group of 14 people shipwrecked off the Konkan coast.
One group converted to hindutva as chitpavan brahmins, the other
remained Jewish or Bene Israel.

Originally the myth pertained to Chitpavans only, but a certain section
of society was obsessed with their lineage, hence furthered the name of
Bene israel.

Role in Indian politics

After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the Chitpavans lost
their political dominance to the British. The British would not
subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the
Peshwas had done in the past. Pay and power was now significantly
reduced. Poorer chitpavan students adapted and started learning English
because of better opportunities in the British administration.

Some of the prominent figures in the Hindu reform movements of the 19th and 20th centuries came from the Chitpavan Brahmin community. These included Dhondo Keshav Karve, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Vinoba Bhave.
Some of the strongest resistance to change also came from the very same
community.The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. D. K.
Karve was ostracised. Even Tilak offered penance for breaking caste or
religious rules.One was for taking tea at Poona Christian mission in
1892 and the second was going overseas to England in 1919.

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition:
Gopal Krishna Gokhale whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and
Vinoba Bhave, one of his outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave
as the Jewel of his disciples, and recognized Gokhale as his
political guru. However, strong opposition to Gandhi also came from
within the chitpavan community. V D Savarkar, the founder of the hindutva cult ,
was a chitpavan brahmin. Several members of the chitpavan community
were among the first to embrace the hindutva cult, which they
thought was a logical extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and
caste-fellow Tilak.
These chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Mahatama Phule and the politics of Mahatama Gandhi.
Large numbers of the community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.

Though the RSS opposed the EVMs while the BJP was in Opposition now after gobbling the Master Key they have become part of the government.


RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny

Joining the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic
Voting Machines (EVMs) which have been questioned by political
parties, the RSS today asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert
back to tried and tested paper ballots and subject EVMs to public
scrutiny whether these gadgets are tamper proof. In an editorial
titled ‘Can we trust our EVMs?’, The Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece,
noted it was a fact that till date an absolutely tamper-proof machine
had not been invented and credibility of any system depends on
‘transparency, verifiability and trustworthiness’ than on blind and
atavistic faith in its infallibility. The issue is not a ‘private
affair’ and it involves the future of India. Even if the EVMs were
genuine, there was no reason for the EC to be touchy about it, the
paper commented. The Government and the EC can’t impose EVMs as a fait
accompli on Indian democracy as the only option before the voter.
There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus voting,
tampering and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system of
polling leading the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these
problems were relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the
counting stage. What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that
all aberrations were taking place before the public eye and hence open
for corrections whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in
the hands of powers that be and the political appointees manning the
sytem, the paper commented. The EVM has only one advantage —
’speed’ but that advantage has been undermined by the staggered polls
at times spread over three to four months. ‘’This has already killed
the fun of the election process,'’ the paper noted. Of the dozen
General Elections held in the country, only two were through the EVMs
and instead of rationally addressing the doubts aired by reputed
institutions and experts the Government has resorted to silence its
critics by ‘intimidation and arrests on false charges’, the paper
observed, recalling the arrest of Hyederabad-based technocrat Hari
Prasad by the Mumbai Police. Prasad’s research has proved that the
EVMs were ‘vulnerable to fraud’. The authorities want to send a
message that anybody who challenges the EC runs the risk of
persecution and harassment, the RSS observed. Most countries
around the world looked at the EVMs with suspicion and countries like
the Netherlands, Italy, Germany and Ireland had all reverted back to
paper ballots shunning EVMs because they were ‘easy to falsify, risked
eavesdropping and lacked transparency’. Democracy is too precious
to be handed over to whims or an opaque establishment and network of
unsafe gizmos. ‘’For the health of Indian democracy it is better to
return to tried and tested methods or else elections in future can
turn out to be a farce,'’ the editorial said.

— (UNI) — 28DI28.xml

In its ‘Intel analysis,’ it further adds, “The RSS was banned in 1948
following the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi by an ex-RSS member,
Nathuram Godse.

RSS Featured as ‘Threat Group’ on US-based Terrorism Watch List

Describing violence as ‘Group Activities’ for the RSS, the site
further says, “Violence has been a strategy for the Sangh movement  has been clear about the need for violence, particularly
communal riots and caste conflicts. The Sangh has incited rioting to cause further chasms
between religions and castes  and thus a further separation of religions, and to
rally the  philosophy of hindutva.”

The Terrorism Watch & Warning database contains over 1,00,000
Open source intelligence (OSINT) excerpts from 1999 to present on
terrorism and security related issues, attack database of over 10,000
attacks, original terrorism analysis, terrorism document repository,
Homeland Security Fact Sheets and profiles over 500 Terrorist/Threat

Daily News and Analysis


Former top cop SM Mushrif claims RSS is ‘India’s number 1 terrorist organisation’

DNA Web Team |
Fri, 27 Nov 2015-05:06pm , DNA webdesk

Former Maharashtra inspector general of police SM Mushrif on Thursday
described the activists of RSS as ‘India’s number one terrorist
organisation’. Mushrif was quoted saying at an event in Kolkata: “RSS
activists have been chargesheeted in at least 13 cases of terror acts in
which RDX has been used. If organisations like Bajrang Dal are taken
into the account, then the number of such cases goes up to 17.”

“The RSS is India’s number one terrorist organisation, there is no
doubt on this,” said Mushrif, referring to the 2007 Mecca Masjid bombing
in Hyderabad, the 2006 and 2008 Malegaon blasts in Maharashtra and the
2007 Samjhauta Express bombings among others.

He also added that the RSS as a terror organisation had nothing to
do with political power. “The RSS as a terror organisation has nothing
to do with political power. It is immaterial which party is in power. It
is the system that is working, it’s the Brahminical system. And when I
say Brahminical, it doesn’t mean the Brahmin, it’s the mentality, the
attitude to dominate and oppress,” he said.

However, Mushrif was not in agreement with the view that intolerance
was rising in recent times. “Intolerance has been going on for a long
time. There have been many severe bigger incidents earlier, I don’t
understand why it is being highlighted now,” he asked.

He also reiterated his claim that the Intelligence Bureau (IB)
masterminded the killing of Hemant Karkare, who was probing the
involement of Hindu radicals during the the Mumbai terror attack in
2008. He said: “There is clinching evidence about the IB’s involvement
but all efforts to establish that have been defeated. Our efforts to
call for an independent probe have always been defeated. Unless there is
a massive public movement, this will never be established,” said
Mushrif, who made the sensational claims in his book “Who Killed

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2221 Mon 08 May 2017 LESSON Tipitaka-Therigatha-Subha: The Goldsmith’s Daughter Manimekalai Transcript of Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai The desecration of Buddhist temples in South India in 01) Classical English,86) Classical Somali-Qadiimiga ah Soomaali,87) Classical Spanish-Clásico Español,88) Classical Sudanese-Klasik Sunda,89) Classical Swahili-Classical Kiswahili,90) Classical Swedish-) Klassisk svenska,91) Classical Tajik- Tajik классикӣ
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 5:08 pm

2221 Mon 08 May 2017 LESSON

Tipitaka-Therigatha-Subha: The Goldsmith’s Daughter


Transcript of Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai

Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai

The desecration of Buddhist temples in South India

in 01) Classical English,86) Classical Somali-Qadiimiga ah Soomaali,87) Classical Spanish-Clásico Español,88) Classical Sudanese-Klasik Sunda,89) Classical Swahili-Classical Kiswahili,90) Classical Swedish-) Klassisk svenska,91) Classical Tajik- Tajik классикӣ

Thig 13.5

Subha: The Goldsmith’s Daughter

translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2000

“I was a child, with clean clothes,

when I first heard the Dhamma.

And within me, heedful,

was a break-through to the truth.

Then I arrived

at an enormous dissatisfaction

with all sensuality.

Seeing the danger

in self-identity,

I longed only

for renunciation.

Leaving my circle of relatives,

slaves, workers,

prosperous villages & fields,

delightful, enticing possessions,

I went forth,

abandoning not-insignificant wealth.

Having gone out through conviction

in the well-taught true Dhamma,

it wouldn’t be proper for me —

aspiring to nothingness —

having cast off gold & silver

to take them back.

Gold & silver

don’t buy Awakening,

don’t buy peace.

This (gold) isn’t proper for monks.

This isn’t noble wealth.

This is

greediness, intoxication,

delusion, bondage to dust,

suspicion, many troubles.

There’s no lasting stability here.

It’s to this extent that many, many men

— heedless, their hearts defiled —

opposing one another, create

conflicts, murder, bondage,

calamity, loss, grief, & lamentation.

Many misfortunes are seen

for those head-over-heels in sensuality.

So, my relatives:

Why do you, like enemies,

try to bind me to sensuality?

You know I’ve gone forth,

seeing the danger in sensuality.

Gold coin & bullion

can’t put an end to fermentations.

Sensuality is an enemy,

a murderer,

hostile, arrows & bonds.

So, my relatives:

Why do you, like enemies,

try to bind me to sensuality?

You know I’ve gone forth

with shaven head, wrapped in a patchwork cloak.

Leftover alms-scraps, gleanings,

a robe made from cast-off cloth:

That’s what’s proper for me —

the requisites of one with no home.

The great seers have rejected sensuality,

both human & divine.

Released are they, in the place of security.

Arrived are they, in unshakeable ease.

So may I not come into union

with sensuality, in which no shelter is found.

It’s an enemy, a murderer

— sensuality —

painful, like a mass of flame.


an obstacle, fearful, threatened,

full of thorns,

very out-of-tune,

a great cause of delusion.


a frightening attack,

like a snake’s head

in which fools delight —

blinded, run-of-the-mill.

Because many people in the world

are stuck in the mud of sensuality,


they don’t realize the end of birth & death.

Many people follow the path

to bad destinations

because of sensuality,

bringing disease on themselves.

Thus sensuality creates enemies.

It burns, is defiled.

It’s the bait of the world,

constraining, the bondage of death,

maddening, deceptive, agitating the mind.

It’s a net cast by Mara

for the defilement of living beings:

with endless drawbacks, much pain,

great poison,

giving little enjoyment, creating conflict,

drying up the good side (of the mind).

I, having caused much trouble like this

because of sensuality,

will not return to it,

as I always delight in Unbinding.

Doing battle with sensuality

in hopes of the cool state,

I will stay heedful, finding delight

in the ending of fetters.

I follow the path —

eightfold, straight,

griefless, stainless, secure —

over which great seers

have crossed.”

See this Subha, the goldsmith’s daughter,

standing firm in the Dhamma,

entering the imperturbable state,

doing jhana at the foot of a tree.

This is the eighth day of her going forth

confident, beautiful through the true Dhamma.

Trained by Uppalavanna,

she’s a three-knowledge woman

who’s left death behind;

freed from slavery, debtless,

a nun with developed faculties,

set loose from all ties,

her task done,


Sakka, lord of beings,

with his community of devas,

approaching her through supranormal power,

pays homage to her:

Subha the goldsmith’s daughter.

Notes: See MN 106. She has achieved restraint over her sense
faculties, or that she has fully developed the faculties of conviction,
persistence, mindfulness, concentration, and discernment. See. SN 48.10
and AN 4.37.


Topics in Tamil literature

Sangam Literature
The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature
Silappatikaram Manimekalai
Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi Valayapathi
Bhakthi Literature
Tevaram Divya Prabandha
Tamil people
Sangam Sangam landscape
Tamil history from Sangam literature Ancient Tamil music

Manimekalai (Tamil: மணிமேகலை),by the poet Chithalai Chathanar, is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos. Its story is a sequel to another of the Five Great Epics, Silappatikaram, and tells the story of the conversion from Jainism to Buddhism of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi.

The Author and period of composition

composed in the 6th century CE. According to Hikosaka (1989),
Manimekalai was written between A.D. 890 and 950, an inference based on
linguistic assessment.

The aim of the author, Cīttalai Cāttanār was to compare Buddhism favourably with the
other prevailing religions in South India in order to propagate
Buddhism. While
exposing the weaknesses of the other contemporary Indian religions, he
praises the Buddha’s Teaching, the Dhamma, as the most perfect religion.

The Epic

As a continuation of Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்),
this epic describes how Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of Kovalan
and Madhavi, follower of local deities later included in Hinduism,
converts to Buddhism. According to the poem, Maṇimekalai studies the
six systems of philosophy of Hinduism and other prevalent religions of
the time and compares them to the teachings of the Buddha. She is most
impressed with Buddhism which treats everyone equal with loving kindness
and fraternity. Later, upon hearing doctrinal expositions from the
Buddhist teacher Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, she becomes a dedicated Bhikkuni or Buddhist nun.
Manimekhalai fully practices the Buddha’s teachings and attains the
highest stage of Buddhist spiritual knowledge or attainment, i.e. she
became an arhant.
The Manimekhalai poem thus is an example of female spiritual
empowerment within a culture wherein otherwise there were few options
for women. Pandit Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) revealed more about Manimekalai as “Arachchelvi” (Female Arhant) and documented original poems written by Seeththalai Saththanar, which are not available in the Menimekalai edited by U.V. Swaminatha Iyer who allegedly left out some of the original poems.

The epic gives much information on the history of Tamil Nadu, Buddhism
and its place during that period, contemporary arts and culture, and
the customs of the times. The exposition of the Buddhist doctrine in the
poem deals elegantly with the Four Noble Truths (ārya-satyāni), Dependent Origination (pratītyasamutpāda), mind (citta) and Buddhist practices like virtue (Śīla) and non-violence (ahimsa).


The poem is set in both the harbour town of Kāveripattinam, the modern town of Poompuhar in Tamil Nadu, and in Nainatheevu of NākaNadu, a small sandy island of the Jaffna Peninsula in modern Sri Lanka.
The story runs as follows: The dancer-courtesan Manimekalai is pursued
by the amorous Cholan prince Udyakumāran, but rather wants to dedicate
herself to a religious celibate life. The sea goddess Manimegala Theivam
or Maṇimekhalai Devī puts her to sleep and takes to the island
Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). After waking up and wandering about the
island Maṇimekalai comes across the Dhamma-seat, the seat on which
Buddha had taught and appeased two warring Naga princes, and placed there by the God Indra.
Those who worship it miraculously know their previous life. Manimekalai
automatically worships it and recollects what had happened in her
previous life. She then meets the guardian goddess of the Dhamma seat,
Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā) who explains her the significance of the
Dhamma seat and lets her acquire the magic never-failing begging bowl (cornucopia)
called Amṛta Surabhi (”cow of abundance”), which will always provide
food to alleviate hunger. The goddess also predicts that Bhikkhu Aravaṇa
Aḍigal in her native town will teach her more. Manimekalai then used
the mantra which the sea goddess had given her and returns to
Kāveripattinam, where she meets the Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, who expounds
her the Buddha’s Teaching and advices her about the nature of life. She
then becomes a Buddhist nun or Bhikkhuni and practices to rid herself from the bondage of birth and death and attain Nibbana.

Notable characters

  • Manimekalai - The daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, who was born with bravery and virtues.
  • Udhayakumaran - The Chola King, who was mad in love with
    Manimekalai. He was a foolish king, who wanted things done only in the
    way he wanted them to be. He also had a thug life

  • Sudhamadhi - Manimekalai’s most faithful and trustworthy friend.
  • Manimekala - The sea goddess who protects the heroine.
  • Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Goddess of the Dhamma seat. She was
    born in the town of Puhar and got married to a merchant. Her husband
    once travels to trade. Even after so many days he didn’t return. Feared
    and worried that her husband might have died she tries to give away her
    life. (Not by suicide but by doing “sathiya paritchai” i.e. praying God
    to take away her life due to the death of her husband) Suddenly she
    hears a voice from the sky which says that her husband is alive and he
    will come back. But Deeva Teelakai expresses her disinterest in a family
    life and her interest in spirituality. She then gets the Amirta Surabhi
    and was also guided by the voice to travel to the Dhamma seat and
    protect it until she meets her destiny.

Disappearance of Kāveripattinam or Puhar

The poem relates that the town Kāveripattinam or Puhār was swallowed up by the sea (i.e. destroyed by a tsunami
or flood) due to the Cholan King not holding the annual Indra festival
and thereby causing the wrath of the sea goddess Manimekalai. This
account is supported by archeological finds of submerged ruins off the
coast of modern Poompuhar. Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th century Buddhist
monastery, a Buddha statue,
and a Buddhapada (footprint of the Buddha) were also found in another
section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram. The town of
Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared in between the 3rd and
the 6th century CE.

Buddhist School Affiliation

The work contains no direct references to Mahayana as propagated by Nagarjuna, etc., and appears to be a work of an early Buddhist, Sravakayana school such as the Sthavira or Sautrantika school. According to Aiyangar, the emphasis on “the path of the Pitakas of the Great One” (i.e. Tipitaka) and the exposition of Dependent Origination, etc., in Chapter 30, could suggest that it is work of the Sautrantika school. A.K. Warder instead suggests that the poem may be affiliated with Theravada school.

In the conclusion of the poem, Aravaṇa Aḍigal encourages full liberation from the three roots of evil—greed, hatred (rāga, dosa, moha).
The final sentence of the poem states that Maṇimekhalai strove to rid
herself of the bondage of birth. This emphasis on liberation from the
defilements (kilesa), ending the cycle of birth, old age and death (samsara), and becoming an arahant,
also suggests that the author of the poem was affiliated to an early
Sravakayana Buddhist school.Aiyangar (p. 80) suggests that the Buddhist logic as expounded by Aravaṇa Aḍigal in Chapter 29 of the Maṇimekhalai antedates the logic of Dignāga and his school.

Survival of Text

Manimekhalai is the only extant Tamil Buddhist literary work of what
once was an extensive literature. The reason for its survival is
probably its status as the sequel to the Silapathikaram or Sīlappadhikāram.
Tamil Nadu produced many Buddhist teachers who made valuable
contributions to Tamil, Pali  literature. Reference to their
works is found in Tamil literature and other historical records. Lost
Tamil Buddhist works are the poem Kuṇḍalakesī by Nāgaguttanār, the grammar Vīrasoliyam, the Abhidhamma work Siddhāntattokai, the panegyric Tiruppadigam, and the biography Bimbisāra Kadai.


The first translation of Manimekalai by R. B. K. Aiyangar, was published in Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting. Extracts of this were republished in Hisselle Dhammaratana’s Buddhism in South India. A more recent translation of the poem was done by Alain Daniélou with the collaboration of T.V. Gopala Iyer. There is also a Japanese translation by Shuzo Matsunaga, published in 1991.

Publishing in modern times

A palm leaf manuscript with ancient Tamil text

U. V. Swaminatha Iyer
(1855-1942 CE) resurrected the first three epics of Tamil literature
from appalling neglect and wanton destruction of centuries. He reprinted
these literature present in the palm leaf form to paper books. Ramaswami Mudaliar, a Tamil scholar first gave him the palm leaves of Civaka Cintamani to study.
Being the first time, Swaminatha Iyer had to face lot of difficulties
in terms of interpreting, finding the missing leaves, textual errors and
unfamiliar terms. He set for tiring journeys to remote villages in search of the missing manuscripts. After years of toil, he published Civaka Cintamani in book form in 1887 CE followed by Silapadikaram in 1892 CE and Manimekalai in 1898 CE.
Along with the text, he added lot of commentary and explanatory notes
of terms, textual variations and approaches explaining the context.

Criticism and Comparison

To some critics, Manimekalai is more interesting than Silappadikaram.
The story of Manimekalai with all its superficial elements seems to be
of lesser interest to the author himself whose aim was pointed toward
spreading Buddhism. In the former, ethics and religious doctrine are
central, while in the latter poetry and storyline dominate. Manimekalai also preaching the ideals of Buddhism as it downplays human interests in favor of supernatural features. The narration in akaval meter moves on in Manimekalai without the relief of any lyric, which are the main features of Silappadikaram. Manimekalai in puritan terms is not an epic poem, but a grave disquisition on philosophy. There are effusions in the form of a song or a dance, which style may
not go well with western audience as they are assessed to be inspired on
the spur of the moment. According to Calcutta review, the three epics on the whole have no plot and no characterization for an epic genre. The plot of Civaka Cintamani is monotonous and deficient in variety in strength and character and does not stand the quality of an epic.

Transcript of Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai

Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai
was found at the base of a mango tree (amba). She grew up to be very
beautiful and graceful. Many princes desired to marry her, so she was
made a state courtesan to avoid any disputes. Later in life she got the
opportunity to serve the Buddha food; she decided to follow the Buddhist
path and leave her position as courtesan.
Poem about impermanence
Contrast of past beauty (using similes) to her current old age.
as casket of perfumes, as full of sweet blossoms the hair of me. All
with the waste of the years now rank as the odour of hare’s fur. Such
and not otherwise runneth the rune, the word of the Soothsayer. (253)”
attained nirvana after saying these verses; became an arahant
Chapter 2
Rumors are going around that Madhavi won’t be participating in dances at the festival for Indra
her friend Vasantamala goes to talk to her about it
embodied the ideals of a perfect courtesan: she had mastered the arts
of dance, music, and sex, and also studied other skills
she talks about how her lover died, and she could not mourn him as a his wife did, since she was not an “honest woman”.
came to Aravana Adigal in her sorrow, and he advocated to her the
Buddhist way so she could have a way to escape from suffering (through
the 4 truths and 5 rules of conduct)
she wants this to be her and her daughter’s way of life
doesn’t want Manimekhalai to be involved with the worldly charms of the courtesan life
Manimekhalai’s grandmother comes to know that she is surviving by the Temple of Heaven by begging and living as a Buddhist nun.
goes to the prince, who was impressed by Manimekhalai’s beauty, and
tells him to go and bring Manimekhalai back to the court and the family
of the courtesans.
He goes and speaks to her (against custom) and asks why she is living that life.
replies (she feels obliged to reply since he was her husband in a past
life) that the human body is full of anguish and suffering, and she
chose to renounce that kind of life (and worldly pleasures) and help
others instead.
she goes into the temple and changes her appearance so the prince is left looking for her.
Chapter 18
was a goldsmith’s daughter, and she was very beautiful. She was named
Subha because she was thought of as ‘lucky’. She was introduced to
Buddhism when a sage came to her town and spoke about the spiritual
Verses spoken after she reaches nirvana
about how worldly desires are bad and she chose to forsake them for the happiness she finds in the Buddhist path
As a goldsmith’s daughter, she was surrounded by gold and ornaments but she chose to leave them for the Way
reached nirvana on the eight day of learning to be a nun
was the daughter of a king. She would go to hear the teachings of
Buddhism as a child. When her parents chose to give her away to a
prince, she decided she wanted to follow the path of Buddhism (’My duty
lies not in the life of the house’). She cuts off her hair and leaves
the house.
These versus are spoken after she becomes an arahant.
She describes her story
man she was supposed to marry tries to entice her with the promise of a
wealthy lifestyle, with jewels and riches, but she is relentless.
Also talks about how material wealth and desires are impermanent, and she has no need for that kind of life
the poised heads of snakes prepared to dart. Like blazing torches…”
Reference to snakes and fire in comparison to the instability of desire
Chapter 6
goddess Manimekhala comes to Manimekhalai and advises her to go to the
Temple of Heaven to protect her from the desires of the prince
plot of land with wall around it, dedicated to the dead. Each corner
was a gateway and pointed to the four cardinal directions. Has places to
bury, cremate, or just leave the dead. There seems to be a special
place for women who died to rejoin their husbands in death. The area is
very creepy, with sounds and sights related to death (skulls, vultures,
prayers, cries of kin). This is why it’s called the City of the Dead.
accidentally entered the walls and a sorceress stole his soul. His
mother Gotami asked the goddess of the city to give him his soul back.
She said she couldn’t do it. She called upon the gods that reign the
heavens, who also said they couldn’t do it. Gotami accepted her and her
son’s fate. A temple was created next to the walls, called the Temple of
Manimekhala took sleeping Manimekhalai to another island.
Important things that stood out
Manimekhalai: the ideal woman (courtesan vs. wife)
Chapters 2 and 18 - the ideal courtesan
master of different arts and skills (dance, music, sex)
dances publicly, aims to arouse passion, gets money until the man can has nothing more to give
“attract men with their charms and bind them with their arts” pg. 74
Chitrapati says they “play an essential part in a properly organized society.”
courtesan deviating from her duty is scandalous (when Madhavi’s friend
is talking to her and Chitrapati talking about courtesan life)
Chapters 2, 6 and 18 - the ideal wife
a devoted wife suffers when her husband dies (the wife of Madhavi’s lover)
they throw themselves in the funeral pyre of their husbands (the City of the Dead has a special place for these devoted women)
women from proud families have their chastity strictly guarded
throughout their life; a husband is a wife’s god (Chitrapati talking to
the prince)
It seems like it is no woman’s duty to devote herself to
an ascetic life (Ambapali was a courtesan, Subha was the daughter of a
goldsmith, Sumedha the daughter of a king)
Questions and Answers
What is the recurring theme?
heroine deviates from her role in society to follow Buddhism, and forgo
material/worldly pleasures (courtesan life, wealth and jewels)
What is normal to society and how does the text deviate from that?
have strict ideals (like those of the courtesan and the women of noble
families). The texts depict women who chose to live their own (ascetic)
lives even when society looked down upon them and did not approve of
their actions.
It is interesting how Buddhism was respected, but not women devoting themselves to the Way.
Also interesting how the courtesans were a considered a disgrace to their society for choosing a spiritual life.
How is the heroine represented?
is represented as strong and independent. All four of them had a strong
desire to forsake worldly pleasure for their greater good. They end up
choosing that path regardless of what people around them think.
What did you think?
Did anything stand out to you?

Manimekhalai by Merchant-Prince
Therigata composed by Buddhist nuns×386.gif
Ambapali: pragalbha (mature in the art of love)
Manimekhalai, Subha, Sumedha: Mugdha

(and Madhavi) could be proshitapathikas, because they felt loss for
their lovers. None of the others would really fit into the naikas.

The desecration of Buddhist temples in South India

  1. In Kumbakaonam Nageswaran thirumanjana veedhi, there was a buddha
    statue called bagavarishi. The Nigandu says that Buddha was called by
    the name Vinayaka. In later periods many Buddha temples were converted
    as Vinayaka temples.

  2. The Chinese traveller who visited Kancheepuram in 640 AD, has
    recorded that Kanchi was having hundred Buddha temples and thousand

  3. According to Ananatha nayinar (1932 ), in Kanchi Kacheeswar
    temple Buddha images were found in the foundation base of the gopuram.
    The lake on the west of the temple was called as Buththeri and the
    street as Buththeriththeru. But when I visited that temple those stones
    could not be identified. I could see Buddha images only in the pillars.

  4. I visited Pallavapuram near Kanchi on 15.7.1946. Nearby in
    Kinikiluppai, a Buddha statue was found on the banks of a lake in the
    same village, I could find the base of the Buddha statue very near the
    Vinayaka temple. There was also a standing stone with Dharma Chakra.
    They had constructed Vinayaka temple by demolishing Buddha temple.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy has collected many more information in his
book describing evidence of the existence of Buddha temples and the
conversion of those temples into Jain or Hindu temples.

………..Originally Kamatchi amman temple was a Buddhist temple.There
were many Buddha images in this temple. One of the images of Buddha, a 6
feet standing statue is now in the Chennai Museum. The statues of
Buddha found in the temple tank could not be found now. Once I myself
saw some other stone statues of Buddha in good condition in this temple.
Later I found the same images broken into pieces.. Now I could not
trace the same………

……….Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi were the deivams worshipped by
Buddhists in Tamil Nadu. Later these goddess were taken over by Hindus
and renamed as Kali, Pidari and Throubathai. Researches say that the
Annapoorani amman in Kamatchi Amman temple is actually Manimehalai, who
attained Veeduperu at Kancheepuram and the Kamatchi Amman temple is
actually Tharadeviamman temple belonging to Buddhists.

your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your
timeline. You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

RSS has always
had an upper caste leadership and bias. In its existence of almost one century,
it never had one ST or SC or OBC as its chief (Mirror image of CPI-Marxists).
The only time it had a non-Brahmin chief was when Rajendra Singh (Raju Bhaiya)
became its chief. And Rajendra Singh was a Dwija (Rajput). 

Until recently, when
the politically
inspired project of SC/ST co-option began,
RSS was consistently critical of Ambedkar. On
February 6, 1950, just a few
days after the Constitution was promulgated, RSS mouthpiece Organiser carried
an article by Justice Sankar Subba Aiyar, titled ‘Manu Rules our Hearts’. Aiyar
was explicit: ‘Even though Dr Ambedkar is reported to have recently stated in
Bombay that the days of Manu have ended it is nevertheless a fact that the
daily lives of Hindus are even at present day effected by the principles and
injunctions contained in the Manusmriti.’

Anyone even
remotely familiar with Manusmriti knows with what contempt it treats Sudras, SC/STs
and women.

WhatsApp DOWN – Messaging Service NOT WORKING For Millions Of Users

WhatsApp DOWN – Messaging Service NOT WORKING For Millions Of UsersUnquestionably
the popular instant messaging application WhatsApp is one of the best
services for users to exchange messages worldwide. But, recently
WhatsApp goes down and social media erupts as millions of users left ‘in

WhatsApp DOWN – Messaging Service NOT WORKING For Millions Of Users

WhatsApp is unquestionably one of the
best services for users to exchange messages. According to company data,
there are more than 1 billion active users monthly, more than 42
billion messages are sent each day and more than 1.6 billion photos
shared (also per day).

If your Whatsapp has stopped working,
find out that the fault is not on your side. The problem is worldwide
and is affecting millions of users.

This Wednesday the Whatsapp messaging
service started to have some flaws, getting even offline for millions of
users. According to our tests, the service is not accessible via 3G/4G
or Wi-Fi. We also tested the mobile version and the Web version as well
without success.

The information that exists is that this
failure is not affecting all users. The Down Detector site, which
aggregates user complaints about services, reveals that at present there
are some areas of the globe that are more affected than others.

According to reports, users are “in
shock” because this is one of the main tools for exchanging messages. So
far there is still no official information on what will happen to this

So, what do you think about this outage? Simply share your views and thoughts in the comment section below.

Source by techviral…

86) Classical Somali
86) Qadiimiga ah Soomaali

Vinaya Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka

[Info icon]

Thig 13.5
Dhco: Thig 339-367
Subha: Gabadhay The Goldsmith ee
turjumay ka Pali ah by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000

“Ilmo yar ahaan jiray, dhar nadiif ah,

markii aan maqlay Dhamma ah.

Oo igu dhex, Qalbigiisu joogo,

ahayd a jabsaday iyada oo si dhab ah.

Markaas ayaan soo gaaray

at qanacsanayn weyn

la ficiladooda nijaasta oo dhan.

Maxaa yeelay, khatarta


Waxaan u xiisooday oo kaliya

waayo, renunciation.

Tegida aan goobada of qaraabada,

addoomo, shaqaalaha,

tuulooyinka barwaaqo & beeraha,

farxad, hanti sasabasho,

Waxaan soo baxay,

tagis Xoolo ma-aan qiimo lahayn.

Markuu soo baxay iyada oo loo xukumay

in Dhamma si fiican u baray run,

ma uusan noqon laheyn habboon ii -

ka go’neyd in uu nothingness -

isagoo dahab & lacag iska tuuray

in ay dib u qaadan.

Gold & lacag

ma iibsan Baraaruga,

nabad kuma iibsan.

Tani (dahab) ma aha habboon ee suufiyadoodii.

Tani ma aha sharaf Xoolo.

Kani waa

hunguriweynaan, sarkhaan,

dhagar, addoonsiga ciid,

shaki, dhibaatooyin badan.

Ma jiro halkan xasillooni waarta.

Waa ilaa xad in badan, rag badan

- halmaansanyihiin, Quluubtooda nijaasowday -

mid ka mid kale oo ka soo horjeeda, loo abuuro

khilaafaadka, dil, addoonsiga,

belaayaysan yihiin, khasaare, murug, iyo baroor.

Dhibba badan ayaa lagu arkay

kuwa madaxa-badan-u gaddoomaysaan Cidhibtiinii in ficiladooda nijaasta.

Sidaas daraaddeed, qaraabada iga dambaysa:

Waa maxay sababta aad samayn, sida cadaawayaashayda,

isku day in laygu xidho si ay ficiladooda nijaasta?

Waad og tahay waxaan u soo baxay,

maxaa yeelay, khatarta ah in ficiladooda nijaasta.

qadaadiic Gold & buljoonka

ma gelin karaan in la joojiyo fermentations.

Ficiladooda nijaasta waa cadow,


colaad, War fallaadhihii & bonds.

Sidaas daraaddeed, qaraabada iga dambaysa:

Waa maxay sababta aad samayn, sida cadaawayaashayda,

isku day in laygu xidho si ay ficiladooda nijaasta?

Waad og tahay waxaan u soo baxay

madaxa xiirto, ku duudduubtay oo dhar oo kala qoqobo.

sadaqad-haraaga hadhay, xaaxaabka,

khamiis ka maro kabka-off ka dhigay:

Taasi waxa habboon ii -

sahqada ka mid ah guriga ma.

The ugu digi weyn ayaa diiday ficiladooda nijaasta ah,

labada aadanaha iyo rabaani ah.

Sii daayay ay yihiin, meeshii ay ammaanka.

Yimid ay yihiin, in istareexsan Saacid.

Sidaas ma aha inaan ku iman karta ururka

la ficiladooda nijaasta ah, kuwaas oo hoy lahayn waxaa laga helaa.

Waa cadow, gacankudhiigle

- ficiladooda nijaasta -

xanuun badan, sida mass ah olol.


caqabad, cabsi, hanjabay,

buuxa qodxan,

aad out-of-habayn,

Jidka weyn ee dhagar.

ficiladooda nijaasta:

weerar cabsi leh,

sida madaxa abeeso ee

taas oo nacasyadu wuxuu ku farxi -

tiray, ordo-of-the-dhagax.

Maxaa yeelay, dad badan oo adduunka ah

ku xayiran yihiin dhoobada ah ficiladooda nijaasta ah,


iyagu ma ay ogayn dhamaadka dhalashada & dhimashada.

Dad badan ayaa raacina Jidka

meelo xun

sababta oo ah ficiladooda nijaasta ah,

keeno cudur isu on.

Sayidka ficiladooda nijaasta abuuraa cadaawayaashooda.

Waa u qaxmayaa, wuu nijaasoobay.

Waa sed dunida,

caqabad, addoonsiga dhimashada,

maddening, khiyaano, qas iyo maskaxda.

Waa shabag by Mara tuuray

waayo, nijaasta ah xayawaankii:

la cillado aan dhammaadka lahayn, xanuun badan,

sun weyn,

la siiyo raaxo yar, la abuuro colaad,

qalajinta ilaa dhinaca wanaagsan (fikir).

isagoo dhib badan sidan oo kale aan, ka dhigay

sababta oo ah ficiladooda nijaasta ah,

ma in ay soo noqon doonaa,

sidii aan mar walba ku farxaan Unbinding.

Sameynta dagaal la ficiladooda nijaasta

oo rajaynaya in gobolka qabow,

Waxaan sii joogi doono Qalbigiisu joogo, raadinta ku farxaa

in dhammaaneysa ee silsilado.

Waxaan raacina Jidka -

eightfold, si toos ah,

griefless, ahama, ammaan -

badan oo wax arkayaashii weyn

ayaa gudbay. “

Eeg this Subha, gabadhii dahabtumayaasha,

Buuro ee Dhamma ah,

galaya gobolka imperturbable,

samaynayaan jhana at cagta ee geed.

Tani waa maalinteedii siddeedaad iyada soo baxdo

kalsooni, qurux badan iyada oo loo marayo Dhamma runta ah.

Tababartay Uppalavanna,

gabar saddex-aqoonta

kaasoo ka tagay dhimashada,

ka addoonsiga sii daayay, debtless,

Nuun a kulliyado horumariyo,

dabacsan dhigay ka xiriirka oo dhan,

iyada hawsha sameeyey,


Sakka, sayidkaygiiyow uxuu,

iyadoo uu bulshada ee devas,

iyada socdo xoogga supranormal,

bixiya qadarin iyadii:

Subha gabadhii dahabtumayaasha.

Eeg MN 106. Waxay gaadhay kursiga badan kulliyadaha dareen iyada, ama
in ay si buuxda u horumariyay Caqlina xukun, ku dheganaanta,
mindfulness, fiirsashada, iyo waxgarashada.
Arag. SN 48,10 iyo 4,37 AN.


Mowduucyada suugaanta Tamil

(Tamil: மணிமேகலை), by Abwaan Chithalai Chathanar, waa mid ka mid ah The
Five Epics Great of Suugaanta Tamil sida uu sheegay ka dib Tamil
suugaanta tradition.Manimekalai waa gabay 30 cantos.
Its story waa cidhibta ah si kale oo Five Epics weyn,
Silappatikaram, iyo sheekada ee diinta ka Jainism in Budhiism of
gabadhii Kovalan iyo Madhavi.

    1 The Author iyo muddo ka kooban
2 Epic The
2.1 Goobta
2.2 characters laga xusi karaa
2.3 ka lumay ee Kāveripattinam ama Puhar
3 Buddhist School xiriir
4 Badbaadada ee Text
5 Tarjumidda
6 Publishing ee jeer casriga ah
7 Naqdiga iyo Isbarbar
8 Oo weliba Arag
9 Tixraacyada
10 Raadraaca

The Author iyo muddo ka kooban
Wuxuu ka koobnaa in CE qarnigii 6aad. Sida laga soo xigtay Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai la qoray u dhexeeya CD 890 iyo 950, Belel ah oo ku salaysan qiimaynta luqadda.

qoraaga, Cīttalai Cāttanār ahayd inay is barbar dhigaan Budhiism
wanaagsan la diimaha kale ka jirta South Hindiya si ay dacaayad
Iyadoo ku tiriska ah ee ku liitaan oo ka mid ah diimaha Indian kale oo
casri ah, wuxuu ammaanay Teaching ee Buddha ee, Dhamma ah, sida diinta
ugu kaamil ah.
Epic The

la sii wado Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), Tacaddi this
sharaxayaa sida Manimekalai, gabadhii quruxda badan ee Kovalan iyo
Madhavi, raacsane ilaahyo maxalliga ah ka dib waxaa ka mid ahaa in
Hinduism, diinta Budhiism.
ay maansadu, Maṇimekalai daraasaad lixda nidaamka falsafada ah Hinduism
iyo diimaha kale ee ku baahday waqti iyo iyaga oo la barbardhigay
waxbarista Buddha ah.
Iyadu waa ugu dhicin Budhiism oo daawaynaya qof walba loo siman yahay raxmad iyo bahda jecel. Later,
maqlay Bannaanbaxyada caqiido ka macalinka Buddhist Bhikkhu Aravaṇa
Aḍigal, waxa uu noqonayaa mid Bhikkuni ah dadaalka badan ama Nuun
si buuxda u dhaqma wax baridda Buddha iyo ka gaadhaan heerka ugu
sareeya ee aqoonta Buddhist ruuxi ah ama Liibaan, i.e. iyana waxay
noqotay arhant ah.
Manimekhalai The sidaas waa tusaale ka mid ah awoodsiinta ruuxi dumar
ah gudahood dhaqan diidanyihiin haddii kale waxaa jiray fursado dhowr
loogu tala galay dumarka.
Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) ka badan oo ku saabsan shaaca ka qaaday
Manimekalai sida “Arachchelvi” (Female Arhant) iyo diiwaan gabayo asalka
qoray Seeththalai Saththanar, taas oo aan la heli karaa in Menimekalai
ah edited by U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer kuwaas oo la sheegay in laga saaray qaar ka mid ah gabayo asalka ah.

wuxuu ku siinayaa macluumaad badan oo ku saabsan taariikhda Tamil Nadu,
Budhiism iyo meesheeda inta lagu jiro xilliga in, farshaxanka casriga
ah iyo dhaqanka, iyo caadooyinkii wakhtiyada.
hadalkay ee cilmiga Buddhist in heshiisyo gabay wato la Noble Afar
runta (ārya-satyāni), OrigiNation Tiirsan (pratītyasamutpāda), maanka
(Citta) iyo ku dhaqanka Buddhist sida falku (Śīla) oo aan rabshado
(ahimsa) ah.


lagu wadaa in labada magaalada dekedda ah ee Kāveripattinam, magaalada
casriga ah ee Poompuhar ee Tamil Nadu ee, iyo in Nainatheevu of
NākaNadu, a jasiiradda yar bacaadka of Peninsula Jaffna ee casriga ah
Sri Lanka.
waxay waddaa sida soo socota: qoob-courtesan The Manimekalai waxaa
raaciyey ku amorous Cholan amiir Udyakumāran, laakiin uu doonayo in uu
nafteeda quduus uga dhigeen si nolol diinta celibate.
badda Manimegala Theivam ama Maṇimekhalai Devi dhigeysa iyada in ay
seexdaan iyo qaadataa in jasiiradda Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu).
dib soo tooso iyo Baadi ku saabsan jasiiradda Maṇimekalai yimaado guud
ahaan kursigii Dhamma, kursiga on taas oo Buddha bareenba iyo cadho laba
dagaallamaya amiirradii Naga, oo waxaa ag dhigay Indra Ilaaha.
Kuwa caabudaan mucjisooyin ogaado noloshooda hore. Manimekalai si toos ah u sujuudaa oo Ka Sheekeeyay wixii dhacay in noloshiisa hore. Waxay
ka dibna la kulmay ilaahadda mas’uulka kursiga Dhamma ah,
Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā) oo iyada sharaxayaa muhiimadda ay kursiga
Dhamma iyo ogolaanaysaa iyada u bartaan oo Sixira marna-ku
guuldareysteen dawarsanayay baaquli (cornucopia) yeedhay Amṛta Surabhi (
“sac oo barwaaqo ah”
), taas oo had iyo jeer ku siin doonaa cunto si loo yareeyo gaajada. ilaahadda ayaa sidoo kale saadaaliyay in Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal in iyada magaalada hooyo iyada oo dheeraad ah ku bari doonaa. Manimekalai
ka dibna loo isticmaalo dheg ah oo ilaahadda badda iyada la siiyo oo la
soo laabtay Kāveripattinam, halkaas oo ay ku la kulmay Aravaṇa Bhikkhu
ku Aḍigal, oo iyada expounds Teaching ee Buddha iyo iyada Talooyin ku
saabsan nooca nolosha.
ka dibna waxa uu noqonayaa mid Nuun a Buddhist ama Bhikkhuni iyo
dhaqanka isku takhaluso ka addoonnimada dhalashada iyo dhimashada iyo
gaadhi Nibbana.

characters caan ah

    Manimekalai - Gabadha of Kovalan iyo Madhavi, kii u dhashay la geesinimada iyo wanaagga.
Udhayakumaran - King Chola The, kuwaas oo ahaa waalan jacayl la Manimekalai. Wuxuu ahaa boqorkii nacas ah, kuwaas oo wax ku sameeyey oo kaliya in jidka uu doonayo iyaga u noqon rabay. Waxa uu sidoo kale lahaa nolosha tuug la

    Sudhamadhi - Manimekalai saaxiibkiis ugu aaminka ah oo lagu kalsoonaan karo.

Manimekala - ilaahadda The badda kuwaas oo ka ilaaliya halyeeyad ah.
Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Goddess kursiga Dhamma ah. Waxay ku dhalatay magaalada Puhar iyo guursadey baayacmushtari. Ninkeeda mar safri ganacsiga. Xitaa maalmaha aad u badan ka dib markii uu ma soo celin. Ka cabsada oo ka walwalsan in ninkeeda laga yaabo in ay ku dhinteen ayay isku dayo inuu siiyo nolosheeda. (Aan
by ismiidaamin ah laakiin adigoo samaynaya “sathiya paritchai” i.e.
Ilaah tukanayay qaado noloshiisa ay sabab u tahay dhimashada ninkeedii)
si kedis ah ayay maqlaa cod samada oo sheegay in ninkeeda waa nool yahay
oo uu ku soo noqon doonaan ka.
Laakiin Deeva Teelakai muujinayaa iyada fasirtaan in nolosha qoyska iyo danayntii cibaadaysi. Waxay markaas helo Surabhi Amirta iyo waxaa sidoo kale haga codkii ay u
safraan kursiga Dhamma oo ilaaliyo ilaa ay la kulmay iyada aayahooda.

Ka lumay ee Kāveripattinam ama Puhar

la xidhiidha in magaalada Kāveripattinam ama Puhār waxaa liqay, by
badda (i.e. burburiyey tsunami ama daadka) ay sabab u tahay King Cholan
ma haysta iidda Indra sanadlaha ah, Kuna keenaya cadhada badda ilaahadda
account waxaa taageersan helaa archeological burbur ah biyaha hoostooda xeebaha Poompuhar casriga ah. arkaynin
Guryohoodii mooyee da’da keniisad a qarnigii 4aad-5aad Buddhist,
taalada Buddha ah, iyo Buddhapada ah (raad of Buddha ah) ayaa sidoo kale
ugu Pallavanesvaram helay qaybta kale ee magaalada qadiimiga ah, hadda.
Magaalada Kāveripattinam la rumeysan yahay in ay la waayay ee u dhexeeya 3 iyo CE qarnigii 6aad.

Buddhist School xiriir

waxaa ku qoran ma tixraacyo si toos ah Mahayana sida faafin by
Nagarjuna, iwm, oo u muuqda in ay shaqada ka mid ah dugsiga hore
Buddhist, Sravakayana sida dugsiga Sthavira ama Sautrantika ah.
laga soo xigtay Aiyangar, culeeska la saaray “Jidka Pitakas Kan weyn”
(i.e. Tipitaka) iyo Fasiraadda ee OrigiNation Tiirsan, iwm, Cutubka 30,
soo jeedin laga yaabaa in ay tahay shaqada dugsiga Sautrantika ah.
A.K. Wardheer halkii soo jeedisay in gabay la jaalka ah waxaa laga yaabaa in dugsiga Theravada.

la soo gabagabeeyo gabayga, Aravaṇa Aḍigal dhiiri xoreynta buuxa oo ka
socda saddex xididdada xun-bakhayli, nacayb (rāga, Dosa, Moha).
xukunka ugu dambeeya ee gabay uu dhigayaa in Maṇimekhalai qasbay inay nafteeda uga takhalusi addoonnimada dhalashada. Tani
waxa ay xoojinaysaa xoraynta ka nijaasta ah (kilesa), afjaridda
wareegga dhalashada, gabow iyo dhimasho (samsara), iyo noqoshada arahant
ah, ayaa sidoo kale soo jeedisay in qoraaga of gabay la xulufo la ah
hore Sravakayana Buddhist school.Aiyangar (p
. 80) soo jeedisay in macquulka Buddhist sida fasiray by Aravaṇa
Aḍigal cutubka 29 ee Maṇimekhalai ku antedates macquulka ah ee Dignāga
iyo dugsiga.

Badbaadada ee Text

Manimekhalai waa Tamil Buddhist shaqada kaliya ee extant suugaanta ee waxa mar ahaa suugaanta ballaaran. Sababta ay badbaado u badan tahay waa ay xaaladda sida cidhibta in Silapathikaram ama Sīlappadhikāram. Tamil Nadu soo saaray macalimiinta badan Buddhist kaasoo sameeyey darsaday qiimo leh suugaanta Tamil, Pali. Tixraaca shuqulladooda waxaa laga helaa suugaanta Tamil iyo diiwaanada kale ee taariikhiga ah. Badiyay shuqullada Tamil Buddhist waa gabay Kuṇḍalakesī by
Nāgaguttanār, naxwaha Vīrasoliyam, Abhidhamma shaqeeyaan
Siddhāntattokai, Tiruppadigam ku gabyaa, iyo Biography ah Bimbisāra
turjumaad hore ee Manimekalai by R. B. K. Aiyangar, waxaa la daabacay Maṇimekhalai in ay Dejinta Historical. Qeybaha of this ayaa republished in Budhiism Hisselle Dhammaratana ee South Hindiya. A turjumaad more dhawaan Gabay waxaa lagu sameeyey by Alain Daniélou la kaashanaysa ee T.V. Gopala Iyer. Waxa kale oo jira waa turjumaad Japan by Shuzo Matsunaga, lagu daabacay 1991.

Daabacaadda ee jeer casriga ah
qoraal gacmeedka A caleen cawbaar ah la qadiimiga text Tamil

V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 CE) Bixin saddexda epics ugu horeysay ee
suugaanta Tamil ka xun oo dayacay iyo burburinta ismuujinayn qarniyo.
Waxa uu daabacay joogo suugaanta, kuwaas oo qaab caleen cawbaar ah in ay buugaagta warqad. Ramaswami Mudaliar, aqoonyahan Tamil ugu horeysay isaga siiyey caleemo timireed ee Civaka Cintamani ah inaad wax ka barato. In
markii ugu horeysay, Swaminatha Iyer lahaa in ay la kulmaan wax badan
oo ka mid ah dhibaatooyinka la eego turjumidda, helidda caleemaha maqan,
khaladaad qoraal ah iyo shuruudaha la aqoon.
Waxa uu qarka u saaran daaliyaa jireen sodcaalladoodii oo tuulooyinka fogfog ee search of qoraal gacmeedyada la la’yahay. Ka
dib markii sano ee hawsha, uu daabacay Civaka Cintamani qaab buug ee
1887 CE raacay by Silapadikaram ee 1892 CE iyo Manimekalai ee 1898 CE.
Oo ay la socdaan qoraal ah, ayuu hadalkiisa ku daray badan oo ka mid
ah faallo iyo qoraalada sharaxaadda ah marka la eego, kala duwanaansho
qoraal ah iyo habab sharxaya macnaha.

Naqdiga iyo Isbarbar

Si aad u dhaleeceeya qaar ka mid ah, Manimekalai waa u xiiso badan ka badan Silappadikaram. Sheekada
of Manimekalai leh dhamaan qaybaha ay maqaar saar u muuqataa in ay
xiiso yaruna u qoraaga qudhiisa oo ujeeddadiisa waxaa tilmaamay xagga
faafo Budhiism.
In hore, anshaxa iyo cilmiga diinta yihiin dhexe, halka in gabayada dambe iyo qisada ka maamulaan. Manimekalai sidoo kale ku wacdiyi jiray hadafyada ah

Transcript of Xulashada ka Therigatha iyo Manimekhalai
Doorashada ka Therigatha iyo Manimekhalai


Waxay waxaa laga helay salka geedka cambe ah (amba). Waxay koray in ay aad u qurux badan oo quruxsan. amiirradii
badan ayaa doonay inuu guursado, sidaas darteed ayay la sameeyey
courtesan gobolka si looga fogaado wax kasta oo khilaafaadka.
Later nolosha iyadu heshay fursad ay ku adeegtaan cunto Buddha ah; waxay go’aansatay inay raacina Jidka Buddhist iyo ka tago iyada booska sida courtesan.

Gabayga ku saabsan impermanence

Marka la barbardhigo quruxda ee la soo dhaafay (isticmaalaya masaallo) si ay u da’weyn hadda.

sida naxashka carfa, sida buuxda ubax macaan timaha iga. All qashinka
ee sano ee hadda falan sida caraf udgoon ee dhogorta bakaylaha ee.
Noocan oo kale ah oo aan haddii kale orodday Rune ah, erayga faaliyaha.

gaadhin nirvana ka dib ku yidhi aayadahan, noqday arahant ah

Cutubka 2aad

Wararka xanta ah ayaa la agagaarka socday in Madhavi looma ka qayb qoob at iidda, waayo, Indra
iyada saaxiib Vasantamala aado hadasho iyada oo ku saabsan
Madhavi bixitaankii ah hadafyada of courtesan kaamil ah, iyada oo
baasana farshaxanka ee qoob ka ciyaarka, muusikada, iyo jinsiga, iyo
sidoo kale bartay xirfadaha kale
ayay ka hadlayaa sida iyada lover dhintay, oo iyana ma barooran kari
waayeen sida naagtii ku sameeyey, tan iyo markii ay ma ahaa “naag daacad
waxay Aravana Adigal yimid iyada murug, oo wuxuu iyada ku dooday in
jidka Buddhist si ay ku yeelan karto hab ay ku baxsadaan ka silica
(iyada oo 4 xaqiiqooyinka iyo 5 xeerarka ku dhaqanka)
rabo si ay iyada iyo hab gabadheeda nolosha noqon
ma doonayo Manimekhalai inay ku lug leeyihiin ka qardhaasaha Dhaw nolosha courtesan ah
ayeeyo Manimekhalai ee yimaado in la ogaado in iyadu ay ka badbaaday
by macbudka jannada by dawarsanayay iyo ku nool sida Nuun a Buddhist.
Waxay la geeyo, oo amiir u ahaa oo soo jiitay by quruxda Manimekhalai,
oo isagii ku sheegayaa inaan tago oo dib ugu maxkamadda iyo qoyska of
courtesans ka keeni Manimekhalai.
Tagaa oo wuxuu ku hadlaa iyadii (ka dhanka ah caadada) iyo weydiiyo sababta ay iyada la nool oo nolosha.
Waxay jawaabay (iyada oo ku baaqaayo waajib ku ah inay jawaab tan iyo
markii uu ninkeeda nolosha ah ee la soo dhaafay ahayd) in jidhka
bini’aadamka waxaa ka buuxa cidhiidhi iyo dhibaato, oo waxay doorteen
inay joojiyaan noocaas ah ee nolosha (iyo farxadda dhaw) iyo caawiyaan
dadka kale, halkii.
ayay tagaa galay macbudka oo badala iyada muuqaalka si amiirka waxaa hadhay raadinaya iyada.

Cutubka 18

Waxay ahayd gabadh dahabtume, oo iyana waxay ahayd mid aad u qurux badan. Waxay ahayd mid la odhan jiray Subha maxaa yeelay, waxay ahayd fikir ah sida ‘nasiib’. Waxay la soo bandhigay in Budhiism markii xikmadda ah in iyada magaalada yimid oo la hadlay oo ku saabsan Jidka ruuxiga ah.
Aayadaha hadlay ka dib markii ay gaadho nirvana
ku saabsan sida damacyada dunida diidno ku xun yihiin oo waxay u doortay inuu ka tegi waayo farxad ayay ka heli Jidka Buddhist
Sida gabadhii dahabtume ee, iyada waxaa ku hareereysan dahab iyo sharraxay laakiin waxay u doortay inuu u daysaan Jidka
nirvana gaaray on siddeed maalinta waxbarashada in ay Nuun a
Sumedha ahayd boqorka gabadhiisii ​​waxay a. Waxay u geli lahaa inuu maqlo waxbarista Budhiism sida ilmo. Markii
waalidkeed u doortay inuu iska amiir ah siin, waxay go’aansatay ay
doonaysay in ay raacaan jidka Budhiism ( ‘My waajib ma been nolosha
Waxay gooyo timaheeda iyo baxo guriga.
oo ay kasoo horjeeddo Kuwan waxaa hadlay ka dib waxa uu noqonayaa mid arahant ah.
Waxay qeexayaa iyada story
Ninka ayay ahayd in ay guursadaan isku day in ay iyada soo sasabaya la
yabooha nololeed barwaaqo ah, oo leh alaab iyo maal, laakiin iyadu waa
naxariis darro.
Sidoo kale waxa uu ka hadlayaa sida wax xoolo iyo hawadooda waa impermanent, oo iyana uma baahna noocaas ah ee nolosha
“Like madaxdii qarka u of masaska diyaar u yihiin inay hoto. Like
qoryihii Saciira …” Tixraaca in masaska iyo dab oo u qalma in ay
xasilooni darro ka damac

Cutubka 6

ilaahadda Manimekhala u imanayaa inuu Manimekhalai iyo iyada la
taliyaa si ay u tagaan guriga jannada in ay iyada ka doonayaan, oo amiir
u ilaaliyaan
Story: shirqool dalkii la derbiga ku wareegsan, oo heegan u dhintay. geeska kasta oo ay ahayd albaab ah oo tilmaamay in afarta jiho jiifoo. Miyuu meelaha ay ku kala xabaalaan, gubida, ama iska daa meydadku. Waxaa muuqataa in ay meel gaar ah loogu tala galay dumarka kuwaas oo ku dhintay laabtay dambeeyeen nimankooda xagga dhimashada. Meesha
waa mid aad u creepy, iyadoo dhawaaqa iyo indhaha la xiriira dhimashada
(skulls, ayaa gorgorraduna, salaadda, oohin Qaraabada).
Tani waa sababta loogu bixiyey magaalada Dhimatay.
Shankalan filaan ah galay derbiyada dhinacooda iyo Saaxirad xadday naftiisa. Oo hooyadiis Gotami weydiiyay ilaahadda magaalada si uu naftiisa u celin. Waxay sheegtay in aanay u qaban karaa. Waxay ku dul ilaahyadii xukumi Samooyinka, oo sidoo kale sheegay in aysan u qaban karaa yeedhay. Gotami aqbalay iyada iyo Wiilkeeda ayaa qaddar. macbudka A waxaa la abuuray ee soo socota si ay darbiyada, loo yaqaan Temple jannada.
Manimekhala qaaday hurdada Manimekhalai jasiirada kale.
wax muhiim ah in baxay istaagay
Manimekhalai: naag ku haboon (courtesan vs. xaaskiisa)
Cutubyada 2 iyo 18 - courtesan ku haboon
sayidkiisa farshaxanka iyo xirfadaha kala duwan (qoob, music, galmada)
qoob fagaare ah, looga golleeyahay in lagu kiciyo hamiday, uu helo lacag ilaa ninkii karaan wax ka badan in la siiyo
“Jiitaan ragga la qardhaasaha iyo xidha iyagoo farshaxanka” bogga. 74

fageen The macbudyo Buddhist ee South Hindiya

    In Kumbakaonam Nageswaran veedhi thirumanjana, waxaa jiray taalo Buddha yeedhay bagavarishi ah. Nigandu ayaa sheegay in Buddha waxaa loo bixiyey magaca Vinayaka. In muddo ka dib macbudyo badan Buddha ayaa diinta sida macbudyo Vinayaka.

    socotada Shiinaha booqday Kancheepuram ee 640 AD, ayaa
diiwaangeliyey in Kanchi isagoo boqol oo macbudyo Buddha iyo kun

laga soo xigtay Ananatha nayinar (1932), ee images Kanchi Kacheeswar
macbudka Buddha laga helay saldhigga aasaaska ee gopuram ah.
gudubno, galbeedna waxay ku macbudka waxaa loo bixiyey sida Buththeri iyo wadada sida Buththeriththeru. Laakiin markii aan macbudka in booqday kuwa dhagaxyada laga yaabaa in aan la aqoonsan. Waan arki karaa images Buddha kaliya ee tiirarka.

    Waxaan soo booqday Pallavapuram dhow Kanchi on 15.7.1946. Dhow
ee Kinikiluppai, taalada Buddha ah ayaa laga helay on bangiyada of
gudubno, a ee ku yaalla tuulada la mid ah, ayaan ka heli karaa salka
taalada Buddha aad u dhow macbudka Vinayaka ah.
Waxa kale oo jiray dhagax taagan la Dharma Chakra. Waxay dhisay macbudka Vinayaka by burburiyeen macbudka Buddha.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy uruuriya macluumaad dheeraad ah oo ku badan in
uu buugga caddayn ku tilmaamay jiritaanka macbudyo Buddha iyo
beddelidda ee macbudyo kuwa galay Jain ama macbudyo Hindu.

……… macbudka ..Originally Kamatchi Amman ahaa Buddhist temple.There ah ayaa images badan Buddha macbudka this. Mid ka mid ah images of Buddha, 6 feet taallo taagan hadda waa in Museum Chennai ee. The Sidaana of Buddha helay taangiga macbudkana kama ay tahay in hadda la heli karo. Marka aniga qudhaydu waxaan arkay qaar ka mid ah Sidaana kale dhagax of Buddha xaalad wanaagsan macbudka this. Later waxaan helay images isku jebiyey burburi .. Hadda anigu ma aan isku raad yaabaa ………

……… .Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi ahaayeen deivams caabuday by budista ee Tamil Nadu. Later ilaahadda ka mid ah ayaa la wareegay magaalada Lahore iyo baxshay sidii Kali, Pidari iyo Throubathai. Cilmibaarisyadii
u sheegaya in Annapoorani Amman ee Kamatchi macbudka Amman waa dhab
Manimehalai, kaasoo gaadhin Veeduperu at Kancheepuram iyo macbudka
Kamatchi Amman dhab yahay macbudka Tharadeviamman tirsan budista.

87) Classical Spanish
87) Clásico Español

Vinaya Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka

[Info icon]

Thig 13.5
PTS: Thig 339 - 367
Subha: La hija del orfebre
Traducido del Pali por
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000

“Yo era un niño, con ropa limpia,

Cuando escuché por primera vez el Dhamma.

Y dentro de mí, atento,

Fue una ruptura con la verdad.

Entonces llegué

En una enorme insatisfacción

Con toda la sensualidad.

Viendo el peligro

En la identidad propia,

Solo anhelo

Para la renuncia.

Dejando mi círculo de parientes,

Esclavos, trabajadores,

Pueblos prósperos y campos,

Encantadoras, tentadoras posesiones,


Abandonando una riqueza no insignificante.

Habiendo salido por convicción

En el Dhamma verdadero bien enseñado,

No sería apropiado para mí -

Aspirando a la nada -

Habiendo arrojado oro y plata

Para llevarlos de vuelta.

Oro plata

No compre el Despertar,

No compre la paz.

Esto (oro) no es apropiado para los monjes.

Esto no es riqueza noble.

Esto es

Avaricia, intoxicación,

Ilusión, esclavitud al polvo,

Sospecha, muchos problemas.

Aquí no hay una estabilidad duradera.

Es en esta medida que muchos, muchos hombres

- descuidado, sus corazones contaminados -

Oponiéndose mutuamente, crear

Conflictos, asesinato, esclavitud,

Calamidad, pérdida, dolor y lamentación.

Se ven muchas desgracias

Para aquellos de cabeza en los talones en la sensualidad.

Entonces, mis parientes:

¿Por qué, como enemigos,

Tratar de unirme a la sensualidad?

Usted sabe que he salido adelante,

Viendo el peligro en la sensualidad.

Moneda de oro y lingotes

No puede poner fin a las fermentaciones.

La sensualidad es un enemigo,

un asesino,

Hostiles, flechas y enlaces.

Entonces, mis parientes:

¿Por qué, como enemigos,

Tratar de unirme a la sensualidad?

Sabes que he salido

Con la cabeza rapada, envuelto en una capa de remiendo.

Las sobras de limosna, restos,

Una túnica hecha de tela desechada:

Eso es lo que es apropiado para mí -

Los requisitos de uno sin casa.

Los grandes videntes han rechazado la sensualidad,

Tanto humanos como divinos.

Liberados son ellos, en el lugar de la seguridad.

Llegados son ellos, en una facilidad inquebrantable.

Así que no puedo entrar en la unión

Con sensualidad, en la que no se encuentra refugio.

Es un enemigo, un asesino


Doloroso, como una masa de llama.


Un obstáculo, temeroso, amenazado,

Lleno de espinas,

Muy fuera de tono,

Una gran causa de ilusión.


Un ataque espantoso,

Como la cabeza de una serpiente

En la que los tontos deleitan -

Cegados, corriendo de la fábrica.

Porque muchas personas en el mundo

Están atrapados en el fango de la sensualidad,

Sin saberlo

No se dan cuenta del fin del nacimiento y la muerte.

Muchas personas siguen el camino

A malos destinos

Debido a la sensualidad,

Trayendo la enfermedad sobre sí mismos.

Así la sensualidad crea enemigos.

Se quema, se contamina.

Es el cebo del mundo,

Constreñimiento, la esclavitud de la muerte,

Enloquecedor, engañoso, agitando la mente.

Es una red emitida por Mara

Por la contaminación de los seres vivos:

Con inconvenientes sin fin, mucho dolor,

Gran veneno

Dando poco disfrute, creando conflicto,

Secando el lado bueno (de la mente).

Yo, habiendo causado muchos problemas como este

Debido a la sensualidad,

No volverá a ella,

Como siempre me deleito en Unbinding.

Hacer batalla con la sensualidad

En las esperanzas del estado fresco,

Me quedaré atento, encontrando placer

En el final de los grilletes.

Yo sigo el camino -

Ocho veces, derecho,

Griefless, inoxidable, seguro -

Sobre los cuales grandes videntes

Han cruzado “.

Vea esta Subha, la hija del orfebre,

Firmes en el Dhamma,

Entrando en el estado imperturbable,

Haciendo jhana al pie de un árbol.

Este es el octavo día de su salida

Seguro, hermoso a través del verdadero Dhamma.

Entrenado por Uppalavanna,

Ella es una mujer de tres conocimientos

Quien ha dejado atrás a la muerte;

Liberado de la esclavitud, sin deuda,

Una monja con facultades desarrolladas,

Suelta de todos los lazos,

Su tarea hecha,

Sin fermentación.

Sakka, señor de los seres,

Con su comunidad de devas,

Acercándose a ella a través del poder supranormal,

Le rinde homenaje:

Subha, la hija del orfebre.

Ver MN 106. Ha alcanzado la moderación sobre sus facultades
sensoriales, o que ha desarrollado plenamente las facultades de
convicción, persistencia, atención plena, concentración y
Ver. SN 48,10 y AN 4,37.



Temas de la literatura tamil

(Tamil: மணிமேகலை), por el poeta Chithalai Chathanar, es una de las
cinco grandes épicas de la literatura tamil de acuerdo a la posterior
tradición literaria tamil. Manimalkalai es un poema en 30 cantos.
Su historia es una secuela de otra de las Cinco Grandes Épocas,
Silappatikaram, y cuenta la historia de la conversión del jainismo al
budismo de la hija de Kovalan y Madhavi.

    1 Autor y periodo de composición
2 La Épica
2.1 Configuración
2.2 Personajes notables
2.3 Desaparición de Kāveripattinam o Puhar
3 Afiliación a la Escuela Budista
4 Supervivencia del texto
5 Traducciones
6 Publicación en los tiempos modernos
7 Crítica y comparación
8 Ver también
9 Referencias
10 Bibliografía

El autor y período de composición
Fue compuesto en el siglo VI dC. Según Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai fue escrito entre 890 y 950 dC, una inferencia basada en la evaluación lingüística.

objetivo del autor, Cīttalai Cāttanār era comparar el budismo
favorablemente con las otras religiones predominantes en el sur de la
India con el fin de propagar el budismo.
Al exponer las debilidades de las otras religiones indias
contemporáneas, elogia la Enseñanza del Buda, el Dhamma, como la
religión más perfecta.
Lo épico

continuación de Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), esta epopeya
describe cómo Manimekalai, la bella hija de Kovalan y Madhavi, seguidor
de las deidades locales posteriormente incluidas en el hinduismo, se
convierte al budismo.
el poema, Maṇimekalai estudia los seis sistemas de filosofía del
hinduismo y otras religiones predominantes de la época y los compara con
las enseñanzas del Buda.
Ella está muy impresionada con el budismo que trata a todos iguales con bondad amorosa y fraternidad. Más
tarde, al escuchar exposiciones doctrinales de la maestra budista
Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, se convierte en una Bhikkuni dedicada o monja
practica completamente las enseñanzas del Buda y alcanza el nivel más
alto del conocimiento o logro espiritual budista, es decir, se convirtió
en un arhant.
poema de Manimekhalai es así un ejemplo de empoderamiento espiritual
femenino dentro de una cultura en la que de otro modo había pocas
opciones para las mujeres.
Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) reveló más sobre Manimekalai como
“Arachchelvi” (Female Arhant) y documentó poemas originales escritos por
Seeththalai Saththanar, que no están disponibles en el Menimekalai
editado por U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer, que supuestamente dejó fuera algunos de los poemas originales.

epopeya da mucha información sobre la historia de Tamil Nadu, el
budismo y su lugar durante ese período, las artes y la cultura
contemporáneas, y las costumbres de la época.
La exposición de la doctrina budista en el poema trata con elegancia
las Cuatro Nobles Verdades (ārya-satyāni), Origen Dependiente
(pratītyasamutpāda), mente (citta) y prácticas budistas como la virtud
(Śīla) y la no-violencia (ahimsa).


poema está situado en la ciudad portuaria de Kāveripattinam, la moderna
ciudad de Poompuhar en Tamil Nadu, y en Nainatheevu de NākaNadu, una
pequeña isla de arena de la península de Jaffna en Sri Lanka moderna.
historia se desarrolla de la siguiente manera: El bailarín-cortesana
Manimekalai es perseguido por el amoroso príncipe Cholan Udyakumāran,
pero más bien quiere dedicarse a una vida religiosa célibe.
La diosa del mar Manimegala Theivam o Maṇimekhalai Devī la pone a dormir y lleva a la isla Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). Después
de despertar y vagar por la isla, Maṇimekalai se encuentra con el
asiento del Dhamma, el asiento en el que Buda había enseñado y
apaciguado a dos príncipes Naga en guerra, y colocado allí por el Dios
Aquellos que lo adoran saben milagrosamente su vida anterior. Manimekalai automáticamente lo adora y recuerda lo que había sucedido en su vida anterior. Ella
entonces se encuentra con la diosa guardián del asiento del Dhamma,
Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā) quien le explica el significado del
asiento del Dhamma y le permite adquirir el cuenco de mendicidad que
nunca falla (cornucopia) llamado Amṛta Surabhi (”vaca de abundancia”
), Que siempre proporcionará alimentos para aliviar el hambre. La diosa también predice que Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal en su ciudad natal le enseñará más. Manimekalai
usó entonces el mantra que la diosa del mar le había dado y regresa a
Kāveripattinam, donde conoce al Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, quien le explica
la Enseñanza del Buda y le advierte sobre la naturaleza de la vida.
Entonces se convierte en una monja budista o Bhikkhuni y practica para
librarse de la esclavitud de nacimiento y muerte y alcanzar Nibbana.

Personajes notables

    Manimekalai - La hija de Kovalan y Madhavi, que nació con valentía y virtudes.
Udhayakumaran - el rey de Chola, que era enojado en amor con Manimekalai. Era un rey tonto, que quería que las cosas se hicieran sólo de la manera en que él quería que fueran. También tuvo una vida de matón

    Sudhamadhi - el amigo más fiel y digno de confianza de Manimekalai.
Manimekala - La diosa del mar que protege a la heroína.
Deeva Teelakai - Diosa Guardián del asiento del Dhamma. Nació en la ciudad de Puhar y se casó con un comerciante. Su marido una vez viaja al comercio. Incluso después de tantos días no regresó. Temido y preocupado de que su esposo podría haber muerto, trata de dar su vida. (No
por suicidio, sino por hacer “sathiya paritchai”, es decir, orando a
Dios para quitarle la vida debido a la muerte de su marido) De repente
ella oye una voz del cielo que dice que su marido está vivo y él
Pero Deeva Teelakai expresa su desinterés en la vida familiar y su interés por la espiritualidad. Ella entonces obtiene la Amirta Surabhi y también fue guiada por la
voz para viajar al asiento del Dhamma y protegerlo hasta que conozca su

Desaparición de Kāveripattinam o Puhar

poema relata que el pueblo Kāveripattinam o Puhār fue tragado por el
mar (es decir, destruido por un tsunami o una inundación) debido al Rey
Cholan no celebrar el festival anual de Indra y por lo tanto causando la
ira de la diosa del mar Manimekalai.
Esta cuenta es apoyada por hallazgos arqueológicos de las ruinas sumergidas de la costa de Poompuhar moderno. También
se encontraron ruinas antiguas de un monasterio budista del siglo IV-V,
una estatua de Buda y una Buddhapada (huella del Buda) en otra sección
de la antigua ciudad, ahora en Pallavanesvaram.
Se cree que la ciudad de Kāveripattinam desapareció entre el siglo III y el siglo VI.

Afiliación a la Escuela Budista

obra no contiene referencias directas a Mahayana como propagadas por
Nagarjuna, etc., y parece ser una obra de una escuela budista temprana,
Sravakayana, como la escuela Sthavira o Sautrantika.
Aiyangar, el énfasis en “el camino de los Pitakas del Grande” (es
decir, Tipitaka) y la exposición de Origen Dependiente, etc., en el
Capítulo 30, podrían sugerir que es obra de la escuela Sautrantika.
ALASKA. Warder en su lugar sugiere que el poema puede ser afiliado con la escuela Theravada.

la conclusión del poema, Aravaṇa Aḍigal alienta la liberación total de
las tres raíces del mal: la codicia, el odio (rāga, dosa, moha).
La última frase del poema afirma que Maṇimekhalai se esforzó por librarse de la esclavitud del nacimiento. Este
énfasis en la liberación de las impurezas (kilesa), poner fin al ciclo
de nacimiento, vejez y muerte (samsara), y convertirse en un arahant,
también sugiere que el autor del poema fue afiliado a una escuela
budista temprana Sravakayana.
80) sugiere que la lógica budista expuesta por Aravaṇa Aḍigal en el
capítulo 29 del Maṇimekhalai antecede a la lógica de Dignāga y su

Supervivencia del texto

El Manimekhalai es la única obra literaria tamil budista existente de lo que una vez fue una extensa literatura. La razón de su supervivencia es probablemente su estado como la secuela del Silapathikaram o Sīlappadhikāram. Tamil Nadu produjo muchos maestros budistas que hicieron valiosas contribuciones a la literatura Tamil, Pali. La referencia a sus obras se encuentra en la literatura tamil y otros registros históricos. Las obras budistas tamiles perdidas son el poema Kuṇḍalakesī de
Nāgaguttanār, la gramática Vīrasoliyam, la obra Abhidhamma
Siddhāntattokai, el panegírico Tiruppadigam, y la biografía Bimbisāra
La primera traducción de Manimekalai por R. B. K. Aiyangar, fue publicada en Maṇimekhalai en su Contexto Histórico. Extractos de esto fueron reeditados en el budismo Hisselle Dhammaratana en el sur de la India. Una traducción más reciente del poema fue realizada por Alain Daniélou con la colaboración de T.V. Gopala Iyer. También hay una traducción japonesa de Shuzo Matsunaga, publicada en 1991.

Publicación en los tiempos modernos
Un manuscrito de hoja de palma con texto tamil antiguo

V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 dC) resucitó las tres primeras epopeyas
de la literatura tamil de un desasosiego atroz y la destrucción ilícita
de siglos.
Reimprimió esta literatura presente en la hoja de palma a los libros de papel. Ramaswami Mudaliar, un erudito tamil primero le dio las hojas de palma de Civaka Cintamani para estudiar. Siendo
la primera vez, Swaminatha Iyer tuvo que enfrentarse a muchas
dificultades en términos de interpretación, encontrar las hojas que
faltan, los errores de texto y términos desconocidos.
Se preparó para viajes agotadores a pueblos remotos en busca de los manuscritos desaparecidos. Después
de años de trabajo, publicó Civaka Cintamani en forma de libro en 1887
CE seguido por Silapadikaram en 1892 CE y Manimekalai en 1898 CE.
Junto con el texto, agregó mucho comentario y notas explicativas de
términos, variaciones textuales y enfoques que explican el contexto.

Crítica y comparación

Para algunos críticos, Manimekalai es más interesante que Silappadikaram. La
historia de Manimekalai con todos sus elementos superficiales parece
ser de menor interés para el propio autor, cuyo objetivo era apuntar a
la difusión del budismo.
En el primero, la ética y la doctrina religiosa son centrales, mientras que en el segundo la poesía y el argumento dominan. Manimekalai también predicaba los ideales de


Transcripción de Selecciones de Therigatha y Manimekhalai
Selecciones de Therigatha y Manimekhalai


Fue encontrada en la base de un mango (amba). Ella creció para ser muy hermosa y elegante. Muchos príncipes deseaban casarse con ella, por lo que se hizo una cortesana estatal para evitar cualquier disputa. Más tarde en la vida tuvo la oportunidad de servir la comida de Buda; Ella decidió seguir el camino budista y dejar su posición como cortesana.

Poema sobre impermanencia

Contraste de la belleza pasada (usando símiles) a su vejez actual.

como un ataúd de perfumes, tan lleno de flores dulces, el cabello de
mi, todo con el derroche de los años, ahora es como el olor de la piel
de liebre.” Tal y no otra forma corre la runa, la palabra del Adivino.

Alcanzado el nirvana después de decir estos versos; Se convirtió en un arahant

Capitulo 2

Se rumorea que Madhavi no participará en bailes en el festival de Indra
Su amiga Vasantamala va a hablar con ella sobre ello
Madhavi encarnaba los ideales de una cortesana perfecta: había
dominado las artes de la danza, la música y el sexo, y también había
estudiado otras habilidades
Ella habla de cómo su amante murió, y ella no podía llorar él como lo hizo su esposa, ya que ella no era una “mujer honesta”.
Ella vino a Aravana Adigal en su dolor, y él abogó a ella la manera
budista así que ella podría tener una manera de escapar del sufrimiento
(con las 4 verdades y 5 reglas de la conducta)
Ella quiere que este sea el modo de vida de ella y de su hija
No quiere que Manimekhalai se involucre con los encantos mundanos de la vida cortesana
La abuela de Manimekhalai llega a saber que ella está sobreviviendo
por el Templo del Cielo mendigando y viviendo como una monja budista.
Ella va al príncipe, que fue impresionado por la belleza de
Manimekhalai, y le dice que vaya y traiga a Manimekhalai de nuevo a la
corte ya la familia de las cortesanas.
Él va y habla con ella (contra la costumbre) y le pregunta por qué está viviendo esa vida.
Ella responde (se siente obligada a responder ya que él era su marido
en una vida pasada) que el cuerpo humano está lleno de angustia y
sufrimiento, y ella decidió renunciar a esa clase de vida (y placeres
mundanos) y ayudar a otros en su lugar.
Ella entra en el templo y cambia su apariencia así que el príncipe se queda buscando ella.

Capítulo 18

Ella era hija de un orfebre, y ella era muy hermosa. Ella fue nombrada Subha porque se la consideraba ‘afortunada’. Ella fue introducida al budismo cuando un sabio vino a su pueblo y habló sobre el camino espiritual.
Versos hablados después de llegar al nirvana
Sobre cómo los deseos mundanos son malos y ella optó por abandonarlos por la felicidad que encuentra en el camino budista
Como hija de un orfebre, estaba rodeada de oro y adornos, pero eligió dejarlos por el Camino
Alcanzó el nirvana en los ocho días de aprender a ser monja
Sumedha era la hija de un rey. Ella iría a escuchar las enseñanzas del budismo como un niño. Cuando
sus padres decidieron entregarla a un príncipe, decidió que quería
seguir el camino del budismo («Mi deber no reside en la vida de la
Se corta el pelo y sale de la casa.
Estos contra se hablan después de que ella se convierte en un arahant.
Ella describe su historia
El hombre al que se suponía que iba a casarse trataba de atraerla con
la promesa de un estilo de vida rico, con joyas y riquezas, pero ella es
También habla sobre cómo la riqueza material y los deseos son impermanentes, y ella no tiene necesidad de ese tipo de vida
“Como las cabezas de serpientes preparadas para dardos, como antorchas
encendidas …” Referencia a serpientes y fuego en comparación con la
inestabilidad del deseo

Capítulo 6

La diosa Manimekhala viene a Manimekhalai y le aconseja ir al Templo del Cielo para protegerla de los deseos del príncipe
Historia: parcela de tierra con muro a su alrededor, dedicada a los muertos. Cada esquina era un portal y señalaba las cuatro direcciones cardinales. Tiene lugares para enterrar, cremar, o simplemente dejar a los muertos. Parece haber un lugar especial para las mujeres que murieron para reunirse con sus maridos en la muerte. La
zona es muy espeluznante, con sonidos y vistas relacionadas con la
muerte (cráneos, buitres, oraciones, gritos de parentesco).
Por eso se llama la Ciudad de los Muertos.
Shankalan accidentalmente entró en las paredes y una hechicera robó su alma. Su madre Gotami le pidió a la diosa de la ciudad que le devolviera su alma. Dijo que no podía hacerlo. Ella invocó a los dioses que reinan los cielos, que también dijeron que no podían hacerlo. Gotami aceptó el destino de ella y de su hijo. Un templo fue creado al lado de las paredes, llamado el Templo del Cielo.
Manimekhala llevó a dormir a Manimekhalai a otra isla.
Cosas importantes que se destacaron
Manimekhalai: la mujer ideal (cortesana vs. esposa)
Capítulos 2 y 18 - la cortesana ideal
Maestro de diferentes artes y habilidades (danza, música, sexo)
Baila públicamente, apunta a despertar pasión, consigue dinero hasta que el hombre puede no tiene nada más que dar
“Atraer a los hombres con sus encantos y atarlos con sus artes” pg. 74


La profanación de los templos budistas en el sur de la India

    En Kumbakaonam Nageswaran thirumanjana veedhi, había una estatua de Buda llamada bagavarishi. El Nigandú dice que Buda fue llamado por el nombre Vinayaka. En épocas posteriores muchos templos de Buda fueron convertidos como templos de Vinayaka.

    El viajero chino que visitó Kancheepuram en 640 dC, ha registrado que Kanchi tenía cien templos de Buda y mil monjes.

Ananatha nayinar (1932), en el templo de Kanchi Kacheeswar se
encontraron imágenes de Buda en la base de la fundación del gopuram.
El lago al oeste del templo fue llamado como Buththeri y la calle como Buththeriththeru. Pero cuando visité ese templo, esas piedras no pudieron ser identificadas. Sólo pude ver las imágenes de Buda en los pilares.

    Visité Pallavapuram cerca de Kanchi el 15.7.1946. Cerca
de Kinikiluppai, una estatua de Buda se encontró en las orillas de un
lago en el mismo pueblo, pude encontrar la base de la estatua de Buda
muy cerca del templo de Vinayaka.
También había una piedra de pie con Dharma Chakra. Habían construido el templo de Vinayaka demoliendo el templo de Buda.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy ha recopilado mucha más información en su
libro que describe la evidencia de la existencia de templos de Buda y la
conversión de esos templos en templos jainistas o hindúes.

……… ..Originalmente Kamatchi amman templo era un templo budista. Había muchas imágenes de Buda en este templo. Una de las imágenes de Buda, una estatua de pie de 6 pies está ahora en el Museo de Chennai. Las estatuas de Buda encontradas en el tanque del templo no se podían encontrar ahora. Una vez que vi otras estatuas de piedra de Buda en buenas condiciones en este templo. Más tarde encontré las mismas imágenes rotas en trozos .. Ahora no podía seguir el mismo ………

……… .Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi fueron los deivams adorados por los budistas en Tamil Nadu. Más tarde estas diosas fueron tomadas por los hindúes y renombrados como Kali, Pidari y Throubathai. Investigaciones
dicen que el amman Annapoorani en Kamatchi Amman templo es en realidad
Manimehalai, que alcanzó Veeduperu en Kancheepuram y el Kamatchi Amman
templo es en realidad Tharadeviamman templo perteneciente a los

88) Classical Sudanese
88) Klasik Sunda

Vinaya Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka

[Info ikon]

Thig 13,5
PTS: Thig 339-367
Subha: Putri The Goldsmith urang
ditarjamahkeun tina Pali ku
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000

“Kuring pun anak, sareng baju beresih,

lamun kuring mimiti ngadéngé Dhamma.

Tur aya dina kuring, heedful,

éta putus-liwat kana bebeneran.

Saterusna kuring anjog

dina hiji dissatisfaction pisan

sareng sadaya sensuality.

Ningali bahaya

di timer identitas,

Kuring longed wungkul

pikeun renunciation.

Ninggalkeun bunderan abdi baraya,

budak, pagawe,

desa sejahtera & sawah,

pikaresepeun, possessions enticing,

Ku margi mudik,

abandoning kabeungharan moal-kalindih.

Sanggeus Isro kaluar ngaliwatan dmana

dina Dhamma leres well-ngajar,

eta moal bakal jadi ditangtoskeun pikeun kuring -

aspiring mun nothingness -

sanggeus tuang kaluar emas & pérak

nyandak éta deui.

Emas & pérak

teu mésér Awakening,

teu mésér karapihan.

Ieu (emas) henteu ditangtoskeun pikeun Monks.

Ieu teu kabeungharan mulya.


greediness, kaayaan mabok,

delusion, tindakan ngajadikeun babu pikeun lebu,

kacurigaan, loba troubles.

Aya henteu stabilitas langgeng di dieu.

Ieu mun extent ieu nu loba, loba lalaki

- heedless, hate maranéhanana najis -

nentang karana nyieun

bentrok, pembunuhan, tindakan ngajadikeun babu,

calamity, rugi, duka, & lamentation.

Loba misfortunes nu katempo

pikeun maranéhanana sirah-leuwih-heels di sensuality.

Ku kituna, baraya kuring:

Naha anjeun, kawas musuh,

coba mun ngabeungkeut kuring keur sensuality?

Nyaho geus Isro mudik,

ningali bahaya di sensuality.

Emas koin & bullion

moal bisa nyimpen hiji tungtung nepi fermentasi.

Sensuality mangrupa musuh,

a murderer,

mumusuhan, panah & beungkeut.

Ku kituna, baraya kuring:

Naha anjeun, kawas musuh,

coba mun ngabeungkeut kuring keur sensuality?

Nyaho geus Isro mudik

kalawan sirah shaven, dibungkus dina cloak patchwork.

Leftover zakat-scraps, gleanings,

a jubah dijieun tina lawon matak-off:

Éta naon ditangtoskeun pikeun kuring -

nu requisites tina salah jeung henteu imah.

The seers hébat geus ditolak sensuality,

duanana manusa & ketuhanan.

Dileupaskeun aranjeunna, di tempat kaamanan.

Anjog aranjeunna, dina betah unshakeable.

Ku kituna bisa jadi teu datang kana rugbi

kalawan sensuality, nu euweuh panyumputan ieu kapanggih.

Ieu musuh, mangrupa murderer

- sensuality -

nyeri, kawas massa seuneu.


halangan, fearful, kaancam,

pinuh ku cucuk,

pisan kaluar-of-Ngepaskeun,

ngabalukarkeun agung delusion.


serangan frightening,

kawas sirah hiji oray urang

nu fools delight -

dilolongan, ngajalankeun-of-nu-ngagiling.

Kusabab loba jalma di dunya

anu nyangkut dina leutak tina sensuality,


aranjeunna teu sadar tungtung kalahiran & maot.

Loba jalma nuturkeun jalur

nepi ka maksud goréng

kusabab sensuality,

bringing kasakit dina diri.

Kituna sensuality nyiptakeun musuh.

Ieu nundutan, anu najis.

Ieu teh bait di dunya,

constraining, anu tindakan ngajadikeun babu pati,

maddening, nu nipu, agitating pikiran.

Téh mangrupa net tuang ku Mara

keur defilement tina mahluk hirup:

kalawan drawbacks sajajalan, loba nyeri,

racun hébat,

méré saeutik enjoyment, nyieun pasea,

drying nepi ka sisi alus (tina pikiran).

Kuring, sanggeus disababkeun teuing gangguan kawas kieu

kusabab sensuality,

moal balik deui ka dinya,

sakumaha Abdi salawasna delight di Unbinding.

Lakukeun perangna kalawan sensuality

di amoy tina kaayaan tiis,

Kuring bakal tetep heedful, nyungsi delight

dina ending of fetters.

Kuring nuturkeun jalur -

eightfold, lempeng,

griefless, steel, aman -

leuwih nu seers hébat

geus meuntas “.

Tempo Subha ieu putri teh Goldsmith urang,

nangtung teguh dina Dhamma,

nuliskeun kaayaan imperturbable,

lakukeun jhana di suku hiji tangkal.

Ieu dinten kadalapan nya bade mudik

percaya diri, geulis liwat Dhamma leres.

Dilatih ku Uppalavanna,

manehna hiji awéwé tilu-pangaweruh

saha nu ninggalkeun maot balik;

dibébaskeun tina perbudakan, debtless,

a nun kalawan fakultas dimekarkeun,

Nyetél leupas tina sagala dasi,

tugas nya rengse,


Sakka, lord of mahluk,

kalayan komunitas-Na devas,

approaching dirina ngaliwatan kakuatan supranormal,

bayaran ngajenan ka dirina:

Subha putri Goldsmith urang.

Tingali Bungbulang 106. Manehna geus kahontal restraint leuwih fakultas
rasa dirina, atawa yén Aisyah geus pinuh mekarkeun fakultas of dmana,
kegigihan, mindfulness, konsentrasi, jeung discernment.
Tempo. SN 48,10 jeung AN 4,37.


Jejer dina sastra Tamil

(Tamil: மணிமேகலை), ku pujangga Chithalai Chathanar, nyaéta salah sahiji
The Lima Great Epics of Tamil Sastra nurutkeun engké sastra
tradition.Manimekalai Tamil nyaéta sajak dina 30 cantos.
carita na mangrupakeun sequel ka sejen tina Lima Great Epics,
Silappatikaram, sarta ngabejaan carita konversi ti Jainism ka Budha ti
putri Kovalan na Madhavi.

    1 The Author sarta periode komposisi
2 The epik
2.1 setting
2.2 karakter Sipat
2.3 leungit Kāveripattinam atanapi Puhar
3 Budha Sakola karaketan
4 survival téks
5 Translations
6 Publishing dina jaman moderen
7 Kritik jeung Bandingan
8 Baca ogé
9 Rujukan
10 Bibliografi

The Author sarta periode komposisi
Ieu diwangun dina abad CE 6. Numutkeun Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai ieu ditulis antara A.D. 890 sarta 950, hiji inferensi dumasar assessment linguistik.

tina nyeratna, Cīttalai Cāttanār éta pikeun ngabandingkeun Budha
favorably jeung agama prevailing lianna di India Selatan guna propagate
Bari exposing kelemahan sahiji agama India kontemporer sejenna,
anjeunna praises Ngajar Buddha urang, anu Dhamma, salaku ageman paling
The epik

tuluyan tina Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), epik ieu
ngajelaskeun kumaha Manimekalai, putri geulis ti Kovalan na Madhavi,
follower ti deities lokal engké kaasup dina hindu, ngarobah kana Budha.
sajak, Maṇimekalai ngulik genep sistem filsafat agama Hindu jeung agama
kaprah sejenna waktu jeung compares aranjeunna kana ajaran Buddha.
Manehna teh paling impressed kalawan Budha nu Ngaruwat dulur sarua kalayan asih kahadean tur fraternity. Engké,
sanggeus pamariksaan expositions doctrinal ti guruna Budha Bhikkhu
Aravaṇa Aḍigal, manéhna janten dedicated Bhikkuni atanapi nun Budha.
pinuh lila ajaran Buddha sarta attains tahap pangluhurna pangaweruh
spiritual Budha atanapi attainment, i.e. manehna janten hiji arhant.
Manimekhalai sajak sahingga conto pemberdayaan spiritual bikang dina
hiji budaya wherein disebutkeun aya sababaraha pilihan pikeun awéwé.
Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) wangsit ngeunaan Manimekalai salaku
“Arachchelvi” (bikang Arhant) jeung documented sajak aslina ditulis ku
Seeththalai Saththanar, anu henteu sadia dina Menimekalai diédit ku U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer anu disangka ninggalkeun kaluar sababaraha sajak aslina.

méré loba informasi dina sajarah Tamil Nadu, Budha jeung tempatna dina
mangsa éta, seni kontemporer budaya, jeung adat nu kali.
The éksposisi tina doktrin Budha dina poéna sajak elegantly jeung Opat
Noble Truths (Arya-satyāni), depéndensi Origination
(pratītyasamutpāda), akal (citta) jeung lila Budha kawas kahadean (Śīla)
jeung non-kekerasan (ahimsa).


diatur dina duanana kota palabuhan di Kāveripattinam, kota modérn
Poompuhar di Tamil Nadu, sarta di Nainatheevu of NākaNadu, hiji pulo
keusik leutik di jazirah Jaffna dina modern Sri Lanka.
ngalir saperti kieu: nu ngibing-courtesan Manimekalai geus neruskeun ku
amorous Cholan pangeran Udyakumāran, tapi rada hayang ngahaturanan
sorangan ka hirup celibate ibadah.
Déwi laut Manimegala Theivam atanapi Maṇimekhalai Devi nyimpen nya bobo jeung nyokot ka Pulo Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). Saatos
bangun up na wandering ngeunaan pulo Maṇimekalai asalna peuntas
Dhamma-korsi, jok on nu Buddha kungsi mengajar sarta appeased dua Perang
Naga pangéran, sarta ditempatkeun di dinya ku Gusti Indra.
Jalma anu ibadah eta miraculously nyaho hirup maranéhna saméméhna. Manimekalai otomatis worships dinya na recollects naon anu lumangsung dina kahirupan dirina saméméhna. Manehna
lajeng meets Déwi wali tina korsi Dhamma, Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā)
anu ngécéskeun dirina significance tina korsi Dhamma tur ngidinan
dirina acquire gaib pernah-gagal begging mangkok (cornucopia) disebut
Amṛta Surabhi ( “sapi kaayaanana”
), nu bakal salawasna nyadiakeun dahareun keur alleviate lapar. Déwi ogé prédiksi yén Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal di kota asli nya bakal ngajarkeun dirina leuwih. Manimekalai
lajeng dipaké dina mantra nu Déwi laut sempet dibikeun nya jeung mulih
deui ka Kāveripattinam, dimana manehna meets nu Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal,
anu expounds dirina Ngajar Buddha sarta advices dirina ngeunaan alam
Manehna lajeng janten nun Budha atanapi Bhikkhuni sarta lila-mun
leupas sorangan tina tindakan ngajadikeun babu kalahiran jeung pati na
attain Nibbana.

karakter kasohor

    Manimekalai - The putri Kovalan na Madhavi, anu lahir ku kawani na virtues.
Udhayakumaran - The Chola Raja, anu éta mad asih Manimekalai. Anjeunna raja foolish, nu miharep hal dipigawé ngan di jalan manéhna hayang aranjeunna janten. Anjeunna oge kagungan hirup preman

    Sudhamadhi - sobat paling satia tur dipercaya Manimekalai urang.

Manimekala - The dewi laut anu ngajaga Srikandi teh.
Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Dewi tina korsi Dhamma. Manehna lahir di kota Puhar tur meunang nikah ka sudagar a. salakina sakali ngumbara dagangan. Malah sanggeus jadi loba dinten anjeunna teu balik. Takwa tur hariwang yén salakina bisa tos maot manehna nyoba méré jauh hirup nya. (Teu
ku diri tapi ku lakukeun “sathiya paritchai” i.e. sholat Gusti nyandak
jauh hirup nya alatan pupusna salakina) Ujug-ujug manehna hears hiji
sora ti langit nu nyebutkeun yen salakina geus hirup na anjeunna bakal
datang deui.
Tapi Deeva Teelakai expresses disinterest dirina dina kahirupan kulawarga jeung kapentingan dirina di spiritualitas. Manehna lajeng meunang Amirta Surabhi na ieu ogé dipandu ku sora anu
ngarambat kana korsi Dhamma sarta ngajaga eta dugi manehna meets takdir

Leungit Kāveripattinam atanapi Puhar

hubungan nu kota nu Kāveripattinam atanapi Puhār ieu swallowed up ku
laut (i.e. ancur ku tsunami atanapi banjir) alatan Cholan Raja teu
nyekel festival Indra taunan jeung kukituna ngabalukarkeun murka ti Déwi
laut Manimekalai.
Akun ieu dirojong ku manggih arkeologi ti ruruntuhan submerged kaluar basisir Poompuhar modern. ruruntuhan
kuno hiji biara abad ka-4-5 Budha, patung Buddha, sarta Buddhapada
(tapak suku nu Buddha) anu ogé kapanggih dina bagian sejen dina kotana
kuna, ayeuna di Pallavanesvaram.
Kota Kāveripattinam dipercaya geus ngiles di antara 3rd jeung abad CE 6.

Budha Sakola karaketan

ngandung euweuh rujukan langsung ka Mahayana sakumaha propagated ku
Nagarjuna, jeung sajabana, sarta eta nembongan jadi hiji karya hiji
sakola mimiti Budha, Sravakayana kayaning sakola Sthavira atanapi
Aiyangar, tekenan dina “jalur tina Pitakas tina Great Hiji” (i.e.
Tipitaka) jeung éksposisi tina Origination depéndensi, jeung sajabana,
dina Bab 30, bisa nyarankeun yén éta téh pagawéan anu sakola
A.K. Warder gantina nunjukkeun yen sajak bisa jadi gawe bareng sakola Theravada.

Dina kacindekan tina sajak, Aravaṇa Aḍigal nyorong pembebasan pinuh ti tilu akar jahat-karanjingan, hatred (Raga, dosa, moha). Kalimah ahir sajak nyebutkeun yén Maṇimekhalai strove mun leupas sorangan tina tindakan ngajadikeun babu kalahiran. tekenan
ieu dina pembebasan ti defilements (kilesa), tungtung daur lahir, umur
heubeul jeung pati (samsara), sarta jadi hiji arahant, ogé nunjukkeun
yen panulis sajak ieu gawe bareng ka mimiti Sravakayana Budha
school.Aiyangar (p
. 80) nunjukkeun yen logika Budha saperti expounded ku Aravaṇa Aḍigal
in Chapter 29 sahiji Maṇimekhalai antedates logika Dignāga jeung

Survival téks

The Manimekhalai téh hijina extant Tamil Budha karya sastra tina naon sakali éta hiji pustaka éksténsif. Alesan keur survival nyaeta meureun statusna salaku sequel ka Silapathikaram atanapi Sīlappadhikāram. Tamil Nadu dihasilkeun loba guru Budha anu dijadikeun kontribusi berharga pikeun literatur Tamil, Pali. Rujukan pikeun karya maranéhanana kapanggih dina basa Tamil pustaka jeung catetan sajarah lianna. Leungit karya Tamil Budha anu sajak Kuṇḍalakesī ku Nāgaguttanār, anu
grammar Vīrasoliyam, anu Abhidhamma dianggo Siddhāntattokai, anu
Tiruppadigam panegyric, sarta biografi Bimbisāra Kadai.
The panarjamahan Vérsi mimiti Manimekalai ku R. B. K. Aiyangar, ieu diterbitkeun dina Maṇimekhalai di setting sajarah na. Extracts ieu anu republished di Budha Hisselle Dhammaratana di India Kidul. Hiji deui tarjamahan panganyarna sajak ieu dilakukeun ku Alain Daniélou jeung kolaborasi tina T.V. Gopala Iyer. Aya ogé tarjamahan Jepang ku Shuzo Matsunaga, diterbitkeun taun 1991.

Medarkeun di kali modern
Hiji naskah daun palem jeung téks Tamil kuna

V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 CE) resurrected tilu epics mimiti
literatur Tamil ti matak gehger ngalalaworakeun sarta karuksakan wanton
tina abad.
Anjeunna reprinted hadir pustaka ieu dina bentuk daun lontar pikeun buku kertas. Ramaswami Mudaliar, saurang sarjana Tamil munggaran eweh daun lontar ngeunaan Civaka Cintamani kana diajar. Keur
pertama kali, Swaminatha Iyer kapaksa nyanghareupan loba kasusah dina
watesan alih basa, nyungsi daun leungit, kasalahan tékstual tur istilah
Anjeunna ngatur pikeun tiring journeys ka desa terpencil di pilarian teh naskah leungit. Sanggeus
taun toil, anjeunna diterbitkeun Civaka Cintamani dina formulir buku
dina 1887 CE dituturkeun ku Silapadikaram dina 1892 CE na Manimekalai
dina 1898 CE.
Marengan téks, manéhna nambahan loba commentary jeung catetan
explanatory istilah, variasi tékstual jeung ngadeukeutan dijelaskeun
kontéks éta.

Kritik jeung Bandingan

Pikeun sababaraha kritik, Manimekalai téh leuwih narik ti Silappadikaram. Carita
Manimekalai kalawan sakabeh elemen deet na sigana jadi dipikaresep
Lesser ka pangarang nyalira anu Tujuan ieu nunjuk ka arah nyebarkeun
Dina urut, étika sarta doktrin agama aya sentral, bari dina pantun dimungkinkeun sarta storyline ngadominasi. Manimekalai ogé da’wah éta cita

Transcript of selections ti Therigatha na Manimekhalai
Selections ti Therigatha na Manimekhalai


Manéhna kapanggih nu aya dina dasar hiji tangkal pelem (amba). Manehna tumuwuh nepi ka jadi geulis pisan sarta anggun. Loba pangéran nu dipikahoyong nepi ka nikah nya, jadi manéhna nyieun courtesan kaayaan ulah sengketa nanaon. Engké dina kahirupan manehna ngagaduhan kasempetan pikeun ngawula kadaharan Buddha; manehna mutuskeun pikeun nuturkeun jalur Budha jeung ninggalkeun posisi dirina salaku courtesan.

Sajak ngeunaan impermanence

Jelas kaéndahan kaliwat (maké similes) kana umur heubeul nya ayeuna.

sakumaha peti keur mayit tina parfum, sakumaha pinuh ku blossoms amis
nu bulu tina kuring. Kabéh ku runtah nu taun ayeuna pangkat salaku bau
tina bulu hare urang. Saperti teu disebutkeun runneth nu rune, kecap
tina Soothsayer. (253)

attained sorga sanggeus nyebutkeun ayat ieu; janten hiji arahant

bab 2

Rumor bade sabudeureun éta Madhavi moal milu dina tarian dina festival pikeun Indra
sobat nya Vasantamala mana ngobrol jeung dirina ngeunaan eta
Madhavi embodied cita ngeunaan hiji courtesan sampurna: manehna sempet
mastered kasenian tari, musik, jeung jenis kelamin, sarta ogé diulik
kaahlian sejen
manehna ceramah ngeunaan kumaha lover nya maot, sarta manehna teu bisa
milu sedih anjeunna salaku pamajikanana tuh, saprak manéhna henteu hiji
“awéwé jujur”.
manehna sumping ka Aravana Adigal di ngenes nya, sarta anjeunna
advocated nya cara Budha sahingga manehna bisa boga jalan kabur ti
penderitaan (ngaliwatan 4 truths na 5 aturan ngalaksanakeun)
manehna hayang ieu janten nya jeung cara putri nya ngeunaan kahirupan
teu hayang Manimekhalai bisa aub jeung charms duniawi tina kahirupan courtesan
nini Manimekhalai urang datang ka nyaho yén Aisyah keur salamet ku Bait Surga ku begging na tinggal salaku nun Budha.
Manehna mana anu ka pangeran, anu impressed ku kageulisan Manimekhalai
urang, sarta ngabejaan manehna pikeun balik sarta mawa Manimekhalai
deui ka pangadilan tur kulawarga tina courtesans.
Anjeunna mana na speaks ka dirina (ngalawan custom) jeung miwarang naha manehna geus hirup anu hirup.
Manehna balesan (manehna karasaeun wajib ngawalon saprak anjeunna
salakina dina kahirupan kaliwat) yén awak manusa pinuh tina anguish
jeung sangsara, jeung manehna milih renounce yén jenis kahirupan (jeung
pleasures duniawi) jeung nulungan batur gantina.
manehna mana kana kuil jeung robah penampilan dirina jadi pangeran anu kenca pilari nya.

bab 18

Manéhna putri anu Goldsmith urang, sarta manéhna pohara geulis. Manéhna ngaranna Subha sabab manéhna dianggap salaku ‘untung’. Manehna dipikawanohkeun ka Budha nalika sage anu sumping ka kota nya jeung spoke ngeunaan jalur spiritual.
Ayat diucapkeun sanggeus manehna ngahontal sorga
ngeunaan kumaha kahayang duniawi anu goréng jeung manehna milih
forsake aranjeunna pikeun kabagjaan manehna manggih di jalur Budha
Salaku putri hiji Goldsmith urang, manéhna ieu dikurilingan ku emas
jeung ornamén tapi manehna milih ninggalkeun aranjeunna keur Jalan
ngahontal sorga dina dalapan poe learning janten nun hiji
Sumedha éta putri raja. Manehna bakal balik ngadangu ajaran Budha saperti anak. Lamun
kolotna milih masihan dirina jauh ka pangeran a, manehna mutuskeun
manehna hayang nuturkeun jalur tina Budha ( ‘tugas abdi perenahna henteu
di hirup imah’).
Manehna potongan kaluar rambut nya jeung daun imah.
versus ieu diucapkeun sanggeus manehna jadi hiji arahant.
Manehna ngajelaskeun carita nya
lalaki éta manéhna sakuduna dituju nikah nyoba entice dirina jeung
janji hiji gaya hirup jegud, kalawan jewels na riches, tapi manehna geus
Also Talks About kumaha bahan kabeungharan jeung kahayang téh taya nu langgeng, tur manehna boga kabutuhan anu jenis kahirupan
“Resep kana huluna poised sahiji oray disiapkeun keur DART. Kawas
blazing obor …” Rujukan ka oray jeung seuneu di ngabandingkeun kana
instability kahayang

bab 6

Déwi Manimekhala datang ka Manimekhalai na advises nya balik ka Bait Surga ngajaga dirina tina kahayang pangeran
Carita: plot taneuh kalawan témbok sabudeureun éta, dedicated ka maot. Unggal pojok éta gateway sarta adzab ka opat arah Cardinal. Boga tempat keur ngubur, meuleumkeun mayit, atawa ngan ninggalkeun paéh. Aya sigana janten tempat husus pikeun awéwé anu maot keur ngumpulkeun deui salaki maranéhanana di pati. Wewengkon pisan creepy, kalawan sora jeung wisata patali pati (tangkorak, vultures, solat, cries of kin). Ieu naha ayeuna teh disebut Kota tina Dead.
Shankalan ngahaja diasupkeun dinding na sorceress a salempang jiwa-Na. indungna Gotami nanya Déwi kota méré anjeunna jiwa na deui. Manehna ngomong manehna teu bisa ngalakukeun hal eta. Manehna disebut kana dewa nu kakuasaan langit, anu ogé ngomong maranéhna teu bisa ngalakukeun hal eta. Gotami katampa nya jeung putra nya urang nasib. Hiji kuil dijieun gigireun tembok, disebut Bait Surga.
Manimekhala nyandak saré Manimekhalai ka pulo sejen.
hal penting nu ngadeg kaluar
Manimekhalai: Wanoja milik idéal (pamajikan courtesan vs.)
Bab 2 jeung 18 - nu courtesan idéal
master seni jeung kaahlian béda (tari, musik, kelamin)
tarian masarakat awam, boga tujuan pikeun ngahudangkeun gairah, meunang duit dugi lalaki nu bisa geus euweuh deui masihan
“Mikat lalaki kalawan charms maranéhanana sarta ngabeungkeut aranjeunna kalayan maranéhanana seni” pg. 74

The desecration sahiji candi Budha di India Selatan

    Dina Kumbakaonam Nageswaran veedhi thirumanjana, aya patung Buddha disebut bagavarishi. The Nigandu nyebutkeun yen Buddha katelah ku ngaran Vinayaka. Dina période engké loba candi Buddha anu dirobah jadi candi Vinayaka.

    The traveler Cina anu dilongok Kancheepuram dina 640 Maséhi, geus
dirékam yén Kanchi ieu ngabogaan saratus Buddha candi jeung sarébu

    Numutkeun Ananatha nayinar (1932), dina gambar Kanchi Kacheeswar kuil Buddha nu kapanggih di dasar pondasi gopuram nu. Danau dina kuloneun kuil ieu disebut salaku Buththeri jeung jalan sakumaha Buththeriththeru. Tapi nalika kuring dilongok kuil yen jalma batu teu bisa dicirikeun. Kuring bisa ningali Buddha gambar ukur dina pilar.

    Kuring dilongok Pallavapuram deukeut Kanchi on 15.7.1946. Dayeuh
Nu Caket di Kinikiluppai, patung Buddha ieu kapanggih di tepi hiji
danau di Desa sami, abdi bisa manggihan dasar Buddha patung pisan
deukeut kuil Vinayaka.
Aya ogé batu nangtung kalawan Dharma Cakra. Maranehna diwangun kuil Vinayaka ku demolishing kuil Buddha.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy geus dikumpulkeun informasi leuwih loba dina
buku bukti na ngajéntrékeun ngeunaan ayana candi Buddha sarta konversi
jalma candi kana Jain atanapi candi Hindu.

……… kuil ..Originally Kamatchi amman éta hiji temple.There Budha anu loba gambar Buddha di kuil ieu. Salah sahiji gambar di Buddha, a 6 kaki nangtung patung téh ayeuna di Museum Purwakarta. The arca Buddha kapanggih dina bak kuil teu bisa kapanggih ayeuna. Sakali Kuring sorangan ningal sabagian arca batu séjén Buddha dina kaayaan alus di kuil ieu. Engké abdi kapanggih gambar sarua pegat jadi buah .. Ayeuna kuring teu bisa ngabasmi sami ………

……… .Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi éta deivams disembah ku Budha di Tamil Nadu. Engké dewi kasebut direbut ku Hindu jeung diganti jadi Kali, Pidari na Throubathai. Researches
nyebutkeun yén Annapoorani amman di Kamatchi kuil Amman sabenerna
Manimehalai, anu attained Veeduperu di Kancheepuram jeung kuil Kamatchi
Amman sabenerna kuil Tharadeviamman milik Budha.

89) Classical Swahili
89) Classical Kiswahili

Vinaya Pltaka
Sutta Pltaka

[Maelezo icon]

Thig 13.5
PTS: Thig 339-367
Subha: Goldsmith Binti
kutafsiriwa kutoka Pali na
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000

“Nilikuwa mtoto, pamoja na nguo safi,

wakati mimi kwanza kusikia Dhamma.

Na ndani ya mimi, kukumbuka,

Ilikuwa mwanzo wa mabadiliko ya ukweli.

Basi mimi aliwasili

katika kutoridhika mkubwa

na ufisadi wote.

Kuona hatari

katika binafsi utambulisho,

Nilitamani tu

kwa kujinyima.

Kuondoka mduara wangu wa jamaa,

watumwa, wafanyakazi,

mafanikio vijiji & mashamba,

kufurahisha sana, kuvutia mali,

Nilienda mbele,

kuacha mali si-insignificant.

Baada imeenea hatia

katika vizuri kufundisha Dhamma kweli,

itakuwa ni sahihi kwa ajili yangu -

wanaotaka kugombea nothingness -

baada ya kutupwa mbali dhahabu & fedha

kuchukua yao nyuma.

Gold & fedha

wala kununua Awakening,

wala kununua amani.

Hii (dhahabu) si sahihi kwa ajili ya watawa.

Hii si mali ya vyeo.

Hii ni

kutamani, ulevi,

udanganyifu, kifungo cha vumbi,

tuhuma, wengi matatizo.

Hakuna utulivu wa kudumu hapa.

Ni kwa kiasi hiki kwamba wengi, watu wengi

- kughafilika, mioyo yao unajisi -

kupinga mtu mwingine, kujenga

migogoro, mauaji, utumwa,

msiba, hasara, huzuni, & maombolezo.

misiba mingi zinaonekana

kwa wale kichwa-juu-visigino sana ngono.

Kwa hiyo, ndugu yangu:

Kwa nini wewe, kama adui,

jaribu kumfunga mimi ufisadi?

Unajua nimekuwa wamekwenda mbele,

kuona hatari sana ngono.

Gold sarafu & bullion

hawezi kukomesha fermentations.

Ufisadi ni adui,


uadui, mishale na vifungo.

Kwa hiyo, ndugu yangu:

Kwa nini wewe, kama adui,

jaribu kumfunga mimi ufisadi?

Unajua nimekuwa wamekwenda nje

na kichwa kunyolewa, amefungwa kwa weneywe joho.

Iliyobaki sadaka-masalio, masazo,

kanzu alifanya kutoka kitambaa kutupwa-off:

Hiyo ni nini sahihi kwa ajili yangu -

requisites ya mmoja bila ya nyumbani.

waonaji kubwa, kwa kukataa ufisadi,

kibinadamu na Mungu.

Ilitolewa ni wao, katika mahali ya usalama.

Aliwasili ni wao, kwa urahisi usioweza kutikisika.

Hivyo naomba si kuja katika muungano

na ufisadi, ambapo hakuna makazi hupatikana.

Ni adui, muuaji

- ufisadi -

chungu, kama wingi wa moto.


kikwazo, hofu, kutishia,

kamili ya miiba,

sana nje ya tune,

sababu kubwa ya udanganyifu.


kutisha mashambulizi,

kama kichwa ya nyoka

ambao wajinga furaha -

kupofushwa, kukimbia-ya-ya kinu.

Kwa sababu watu wengi katika dunia

ni kukwama katika matope ya ufisadi,


hawana kutambua mwisho wa kuzaliwa & kifo.

Watu wengi kufuata njia

kwenda nchi mbaya

kwa sababu ya ufisadi,

kuleta ugonjwa wenyewe.

Hivyo ufisadi inajenga adui.

Ni nzito, hutiwa unajisi.

Ni chambo ya dunia,

yanayokwamisha, utumwa ya kifo,

maddening, ya udanganyifu, wakaanza kufanya fujo akili.

Ni wavu kutupwa na Mara

kwa unajisi wa viumbe hai:

na vikwazo kutokuwa na mwisho, maumivu mengi,

sumu kubwa,

kutoa ni starehe ya, kujenga migogoro,

kukauka upande nzuri (ya akili).

I, baada unasababishwa matatizo mengi kama hii

kwa sababu ya ufisadi,

si kurudi yake,

kama mimi daima furaha katika Unbinding.

Kufanya vita na ufisadi

kwa matumaini ya hali baridi,

Mimi kukaa kukumbuka, kutafuta furaha

katika mwisho wa minyororo.

Mimi ni wa njia -

Nane, moja kwa moja,

griefless, pua, salama -

juu ya ni waonaji kubwa

wamevuka. “

Angalia hii Subha, binti wa mafundi wa dhahabu,

kusimama imara katika Dhamma,

kuingia katika hali imperturbable,

kufanya Jhana chini ya miti.

Hii ni siku ya nane ya kwenda kwake nje

ujasiri, nzuri kwa njia ya Dhamma kweli.

Mafunzo na Uppalavanna,

yuko mitatu maarifa mwanamke

ambaye aliondoka kifo nyuma;

huru na utumwa, debtless,

mtawa na vitivo zilizoendelea,

kuweka huru kutoka mahusiano yote,

Kazi zake kufanyika,

Fermentation ya bure.

Sakka, Bwana wa viumbe,

na jamii yake ya Devas,

inakaribia yake kwa njia ya nguvu supranormal,

pays heshima kwa wake:

Subha binti wa mafundi wa dhahabu.

Angalia MN 106. Amekuwa mafanikio kujizuia zaidi maana vitivo yake, au
kwamba yeye kikamilifu vitivo ya hatia, usugu, mindfulness, ukolezi, na
Kuona. SN 48.10 na 4.37.


Mada katika Tamil fasihi

(Kitamil: மணிமேகலை), na mshairi Chithalai Chathanar, ni moja ya Tano
Kubwa epics ya Tamil Literature kulingana na baadaye Tamil fasihi
tradition.Manimekalai ni shairi katika 30 cantos.
hadithi yake ni mwema kwa nyingine ya Tano Kubwa epics,
Silappatikaram, na inaeleza hadithi ya kubadilika kutoka Jainism kwa
Ubuddha wa binti ya Kovalan na Madhavi.

    1 Mwandishi na muda wa utungaji
2 Epic
2.1 Mazingira
2.2 wahusika mashuhuri
2.3 Upotevu wa Kāveripattinam au Puhar
3 Wabuddha Shule Ushirikishwaji
4 Maisha ya Nakala
5 Tafsiri
6 Publishing katika nyakati za sasa
7 Upinzani na kulinganisha
8 Tazama pia
9 Marejeo
10 Bibliography

Mwandishi na muda wa utungaji
Ilitungwa katika karne ya 6 BK. Kwa mujibu wa Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai iliandikwa kati ya AD 890 na 950, inference kutokana na utafiti uliofanywa lugha.

la mwandishi, Cīttalai Cāttanār ilikuwa kulinganisha Ubuddha vibaya na
dini nyingine uliopo nchini India ili kueneza Ubuddha.
Wakati kuwasababishia udhaifu wa wengine kisasa dini ya Hindi, yeye sifa kufundisha Buddha, Dhamma, kama dini kamilifu zaidi.

mwendelezo wa Silappatikaram (Kitamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), Epic hii
inaeleza jinsi Manimekalai, binti mzuri wa Kovalan na Madhavi, mfuasi wa
miungu mitaa baadaye ni pamoja na katika Uhindu, wanajiunga na Ubuddha.
mujibu wa shairi, Maṇimekalai anasoma mifumo sita ya falsafa ya Kihindu
na dini nyingine umeenea muda na kulinganisha yao na mafundisho ya
Yeye ni zaidi sana na Ubuddha ambayo hutibu kila mtu sawa na fadhili na udugu. Baadaye,
baada ya kusikia fafanuzi mafundisho kutoka kwa mwalimu Wabuddha
Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, yeye anakuwa kujitolea Bhikkuni au Wabuddha
kikamilifu na mazoea ya kufanya mafundisho ya Buddha na afike hatua ya
juu ya Wabuddha maarifa ya kiroho au kufikia, yaani akawa arhant.
shairi hivyo ni mfano wa uwezeshaji kike kiroho katika utamaduni ambayo
vinginevyo kulikuwa na wachache chaguzi kwa wanawake.
Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) wazi zaidi kuhusu Manimekalai kama
“Arachchelvi” (Mwanamke Arhant) na kumbukumbu mashairi ya awali
imeandikwa na Seeththalai Saththanar, ambayo si inapatikana katika
Menimekalai mwisho na U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer ambaye inadaiwa kushoto nje baadhi ya mashairi ya awali.

inatoa habari nyingi katika historia ya Tamil Nadu, Ubuddha na nafasi
yake katika kipindi hicho, sanaa ya kisasa na utamaduni, na desturi za
ufafanuzi wa mafundisho ya Kibuddha katika mikataba shairi elegantly
na Nne Adimu (Arya-satyāni), tegemezi Origination (pratītyasamutpāda),
akili (Citta) na mazoea Wabuddha kama fadhila (Sila) na yasiyo ya vurugu


ni kuweka katika wawili mji bandari ya Kāveripattinam, mji wa kisasa wa
Poompuhar katika Tamil Nadu, na katika Nainatheevu ya NākaNadu, ndogo
ya mchanga kisiwa cha Jaffna Peninsula kisasa Sri Lanka.
kama ifuatavyo: mchezaji-courtesan Manimekalai ni kuifuata kwa amorous
Cholan mkuu Udyakumāran, bali anataka kujitolea mwenyewe kwa dini maisha
bahari goddess Manimegala Theivam au Maṇimekhalai Devi unaweka yake kulala na inachukua kisiwa Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). Baada
ya kuamka na Mabedui kuhusu kisiwa Maṇimekalai kuja hela Dhamma kiti,
kiti ambayo Buddha alikuwa kufundisha na shiba mbili zinazopigana Naga
wakuu, na kuwekwa huko kwa Mungu Indra.
Wale ambao ibada hiyo kujua kimiujiza maisha yao ya awali. Manimekalai moja kwa moja akaiabudu, recollects kilichotokea katika maisha yake ya awali. Kisha
hukutana mlezi mungu wa kiti Dhamma, Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā)
ambaye anaelezea yake umuhimu wa kiti Dhamma na inakuwezesha yake kupata
uchawi kamwe-kushindwa kuomba bakuli (cornucopia) inayoitwa Amṛta
Surabhi ( “ng’ombe ya wingi”
), ambayo daima kutoa chakula ili kupunguza njaa. goddess pia anatabiri kwamba Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal katika mji nchi yake ya kufundisha yake zaidi. Manimekalai
hutumiwa mantra ambayo bahari goddess alimpa na anarudi Kāveripattinam,
ambako hukutana Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, ambaye anafafanua yake
kufundisha Buddha na ushauri wake juu ya asili ya maisha.
Kisha inakuwa mtawa Kibudha au Bhikkhuni na mazoea ya kuondoa mwenyewe
kutoka katika utumwa wa kuzaliwa na kifo na kupata Nibbana.

wahusika mashuhuri

    Manimekalai - binti wa Kovalan na Madhavi, ambaye alizaliwa na ushujaa na fadhila.
Udhayakumaran - Chola King, aliyekuwa kichaa kwa upendo na Manimekalai. Alikuwa mfalme wajinga, ambao walitaka mambo kufanyika tu kwa njia alitaka wao kuwa. Pia alikuwa na maisha thug

    Sudhamadhi - ya kweli na ya kuaminika rafiki Manimekalai ya.

Manimekala - bahari goddess ambaye kulinda heroine.
Deeva Teelakai - Guardian mungu wa kiti Dhamma. Alizaliwa katika mji wa Puhar na got ndoa kwa mfanyabiashara. Mumewe mara moja husafiri kwa biashara. Hata baada ya siku nyingi hakuwa kurudi. Waliogopa na wasiwasi kwamba mume wake anaweza kuwa alifariki yeye anajaribu kutoa mbali maisha yake. (Si
kwa kujiua lakini kwa kufanya “sathiya paritchai” yaani kuomba Mungu
kuchukua maisha yake kutokana na kifo cha mume wake) Ghafla anasikia
sauti kutoka mbinguni ambayo inasema kuwa mume wake yuko hai na yeye
kuja nyuma.
Lakini Deeva Teelakai huonyesha disinterest wake katika maisha ya familia na maslahi yake katika hali ya kiroho. Hon kisha anapata Amirta Surabhi na pia kuongozwa na sauti kusafiri
kwenda kiti Dhamma na kuilinda mpaka yeye hukutana hatima yake.

Upotevu wa Kāveripattinam au Puhar

huamini kwamba mji Kāveripattinam au Puhar kimeangamizwa na bahari
(yaani kuharibiwa na tsunami au mafuriko) kutokana na Cholan King si
kufanya kila mwaka Indra tamasha na hivyo kusababisha ghadhabu ya bahari
goddess Manimekalai.
Akaunti hii ni mkono na hupata archeological ya magofu iliyokuwa karibu na pwani ya Poompuhar kisasa. magofu
ya kale ya karne ya 4-5 Buddhist monasteri, Buddha sanamu, na
Buddhapada (nyayo za Buddha) walikuwa pia hupatikana katika sehemu
nyingine ya mji wa kale, sasa katika Pallavanesvaram.
mji wa Kāveripattinam inaaminika kuwa kutoweka katika kati ya 3 na 6 BK.

Wabuddha Shule Ushirikishwaji

haina kumbukumbu moja kwa moja na Mahayana kama ulienezwa na Nagarjuna,
nk, na inaonekana kuwa kazi ya shule mapema Kibuddha Sravakayana kama
vile Sthavira au Sautrantika shule.
mujibu wa Aiyangar, mkazo juu ya “njia ya Pitakas wa Great One” (yaani
Tipitaka) na uwazi wa origination tegemezi, nk, katika Sura ya 30,
inaweza zinaonyesha kwamba ni kazi ya shule Sautrantika.
A.K. Mlinzi badala unaonyesha kuwa shairi anaweza uhusiano na Theravada shule.

Katika mwisho wa shairi, Aravaṇa Aḍigal moyo ukombozi kamili kutoka mizizi tatu ya wenye uchoyo, chuki (Raga, dosa, Moha). hukumu ya mwisho ya shairi inasema kwamba Maṇimekhalai kutoa malalamiko yao kwa kuondoa mwenyewe ya watumwa ya kuzaliwa. Msisitizo
huu wa ukombozi kutoka katika uchafu (kilesa), kukomesha mzunguko wa
kuzaliwa, uzee na kifo (samsara), na kuwa na arahant, pia inaonyesha
kwamba Mwandishi wa shairi mara kuviimarisha na mapema Sravakayana
Wabuddha school.Aiyangar (p
. 80) unaonyesha kuwa Wabudha mantiki kama kuelezwa na Aravaṇa Aḍigal
katika Sura ya 29 ya Maṇimekhalai antedates mantiki ya Dignāga na shule

Maisha ya Nakala

Manimekhalai tu extant Tamil Wabuddha fasihi kazi ya nini mara moja alikuwa fasihi kina. Sababu ya maisha yake pengine hali yake kama mwema kwa Silapathikaram au Sīlappadhikāram. Tamil Nadu zinazozalishwa walimu wengi Wabuddha aliyefanya mchango muhimu wa Tamil, Pali fasihi. Kumbukumbu ya kazi zao hupatikana katika Tamil vitabu na rekodi nyingine ya kihistoria. Waliopotea Tamil Wabuddha kazi ni shairi Kuṇḍalakesī na Nāgaguttanār,
sarufi Vīrasoliyam, Abhidhamma kazi Siddhāntattokai, panegyric
Tiruppadigam, na wasifu Bimbisāra Kadai.
tafsiri ya kwanza ya Manimekalai na R. B. K. Aiyangar, ilichapishwa mwaka Maṇimekhalai katika Mazingira yake ya kihistoria. Dondoo ya hii walikuwa kuchapishwa katika Ubuddha Hisselle Dhammaratana ya nchini India. tafsiri ya hivi karibuni ya shairi ulifanywa na Alain Daniélou kwa ushirikiano wa T.V. Gopala Iyer. Pia kuna tafsiri Japan na Shuzo Matsunaga, iliyochapishwa mwaka 1991.

Kuchapisha katika nyakati za sasa
kiganja jani mswada kwa kale Tamil maandishi

V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 CE) watafufuliwa kwanza epics tatu za
Tamil fasihi kutoka mbaya kutelekezwa na uharibifu mkubwa wa karne
Yeye kuchapishwa hivi sasa fasihi katika kiganja jani fomu kwa vitabu karatasi. Ramaswami Mudaliar, Tamil msomi kwanza alimpa majani kiganja cha Civaka Cintamani kusoma. Kuwa
mara ya kwanza, Swaminatha Iyer alikuwa na uso mengi ya matatizo katika
suala la kutafsiri, kutafuta majani kukosa, makosa textual na masharti
Aliweka kwa chovu safari ya vijiji vilivyo mbali katika kutafuta miswada haipo. Baada
ya miaka ya kazi ngumu, alichapisha Civaka Cintamani katika mfumo
kitabu mwaka 1887 CE ikifuatiwa na Silapadikaram mwaka 1892 CE na
Manimekalai mwaka 1898 BK.
Pamoja na maandishi, aliongeza mengi ya ufafanuzi na maelezo maelezo ya maneno, maandishi tofauti na njia kueleza muktadha.

Uhakiki na kulinganisha

Kwa baadhi wakosoaji, Manimekalai kuvutia zaidi Silappadikaram. hadithi
ya Manimekalai na mambo yake yote juu juu inaonekana kuwa ya manufaa
kidogo kwa mtunzi mwenyewe ambao lengo ilikuwa alisema kwa kueneza
Katika zamani, maadili na mafundisho ya dini ni muhimu, wakati katika mashairi mwisho na storyline kutawala. Manimekalai pia kuhubiri maadili ya

Nakala ya Uchaguzi kutoka Therigatha na Manimekhalai
Uteuzi kutoka Therigatha na Manimekhalai


Yeye alionekana katika wigo wa mwembe (amba). Alikulia kuwa nzuri sana na graceful. wakuu wengi hamu ya kumuoa, hivyo yeye ilitolewa hali courtesan kuepuka migogoro yoyote. Baadaye katika maisha yeye got nafasi ya kuwatumikia Buddha chakula, yeye aliamua kufuata njia ya Kibuddha na kuondoka nafasi yake kama courtesan.

Shairi kuhusu impermanence

Tofauti uzuri siku za nyuma (kwa kutumia hiyo mifano) na umri wake wa sasa wa zamani.

nzuri kama Jeneza la manukato, kama kamili ya maua tamu nywele yangu.
Yote na kupoteza miaka sasa cheo kama harufu ya manyoya ya sungura. Kama
na si vinginevyo mbio hadi Rune, neno la kuhani. (253)

kufika nirvana baada ya kusema aya hizi, akawa arahant

Sura ya 2

Uvumi wanaenda sana kuhusu jambo hilo Madhavi hawatashirikishwa katika ngoma katika tamasha kwa Indra
rafiki yake Vasantamala huenda kuzungumza na yake kuhusu hilo
Madhavi ilivyo fikra za courtesan kamili: yeye alikuwa mastered sanaa ya ngoma, muziki, na jinsia, na pia alisoma ujuzi mwingine
yeye mazungumzo juu ya jinsi mpenzi wake alikufa, na hakuweza
kuomboleza yeye kama mke wake alifanya, kwa kuwa yeye hakuwa “waaminifu
yeye alikuja Aravana Adigal katika huzuni yake, na yeye alitetea yake
njia Wabuddha hivyo yeye inaweza kuwa njia ya kuepuka mateso (kupitia
ukweli 4 na 5 ya sheria za maadili)
yeye anataka hii kuwa yeye na njia ya binti yake wa maisha
hataki Manimekhalai ya kushiriki na hirizi ya kidunia ya maisha courtesan
bibi Manimekhalai huja kujua kwamba yeye kuishi kwa hekalu ya Mbinguni na kuomba na kuishi kama mtawa Kibudha.
Yeye huenda kwa mkuu, ambaye alikuwa hisia na uzuri Manimekhalai, na
anamwambia kwenda na kuleta Manimekhalai nyuma mahakamani na familia ya
Anaendelea na anaongea na yake (dhidi ya desturi) na anauliza kwa nini yeye anaishi kuwa maisha.
Yeye majibu (yeye anahisi wajibu wa kujibu kwa vile yeye ni mume wake
katika maisha zamani) kuwa mwili wa binadamu ni kamili ya dhiki na
mateso, na aliamua kujinyima aina hiyo ya maisha (na anasa za kidunia)
na kusaidia wengine badala yake.
yeye huenda katika hekalu na kubadilisha muonekano wake ili mkuu itaachwa kutafuta yake.

Sura ya 18

Ni binti wa mafundi wa dhahabu, na yeye ni mzuri sana. Yeye alikuwa mmoja aitwaye Subha kwa sababu alikuwa na mawazo ya kama ‘bahati’. Yeye kuletwa kwa Ubuddha wakati sage kufika katika mji wake na alizungumza kuhusu njia ya kiroho.
Mistari amesema baada fika nirvana
jinsi tamaa za dunia ni mbaya na yeye aliamua kuwaacha furaha yeye anaona katika njia Wabuddha
Kama binti wa mafundi wa dhahabu, yeye kuzungukwa na dhahabu na mapambo lakini yeye aliamua kuondoka nao kwa njia
kufikiwa nirvana siku nane za elimu ya kuwa mtawa
Sumedha alikuwa binti wa mfalme. Angeweza kwenda kusikia mafundisho ya Ubuddha kama mtoto. Wakati
wazazi wake waliamua kutoa wake mbali na mkuu, yeye aliamua alitaka
kufuata njia ya Ubuddha ( ‘wajibu wangu uongo si katika maisha ya
Yeye huliondoa nywele zake na kuacha nyumba.
Hizi dhidi zinazungumzwa baada inakuwa arahant.
Yeye anaeleza habari yake
mtu yeye ilitakiwa kuoa anajaribu kushawishi yake kwa ahadi ya maisha tajiri, na vyombo na mali, lakini yeye ni relentless.
Pia mazungumzo juu ya jinsi ya utajiri wa mali na tamaa ni impermanent, na hana haja ya aina hiyo ya maisha
“Kama viongozi ipo katika nafasi ya nyoka tayari kwa dart. Like mkali
mienge …” Kumbukumbu ya nyoka na moto kwa kulinganisha na kuyumba

Sura ya 6

goddess Manimekhala suala la Manimekhalai na kushauri yake kwenda hekalu ya Mbinguni kulinda yake kutoka tamaa ya mkuu
Story: njama ya nchi na ukuta pembezoni, wenye lengo la amekufa. Kila kona ilikuwa gateway na kwa uhakika kwa pande nne Kardinali. Ina maeneo ya kuzika, cremate, au kuondoka amekufa. Inaonekana kuna sehemu maalum kwa ajili ya wanawake ambao walikufa kujiunga tena waume zao katika kifo. eneo ni creepy sana, pamoja na sauti na vituko kuhusiana na kifo (fuvu, tai, na sala, kilio jamaa). Hii ni kwa nini ni kuitwa mji wa wafu.
Shankalan ajali aliingia kuta na mwanamke mchawi aliiba nafsi yake. Mama yake Gotami aliuliza mungu wa mji kumpa roho yake nyuma. Alisema hakuweza kufanya hivyo. Yeye aliwaita miungu ambayo kutawala mbinguni, ambaye pia alisema hawakuweza kufanya hivyo. Gotami kukubaliwa hatma yake na mtoto wake. hekalu iliundwa karibu na kuta, aitwaye hekalu la mbinguni.
Manimekhala alichukua kulala Manimekhalai kwa kisiwa kingine.
Vitu muhimu waliosimama nje
Manimekhalai: mwanamke bora (courtesan vs mke)
Sura ya 2 na 18 - courtesan bora
bwana wa sanaa mbalimbali na ujuzi (ngoma, muziki, ngono)
ngoma hadharani, lengo la kumfanya shauku, anapata fedha mpaka mtu anaweza ina hakuna kitu zaidi ya kutoa
“Kuvutia wanaume walio na mapambo yao na kumfunga yao na sanaa zao” uk. 74

kunajisiwa Buddhist nchini India

    Katika Kumbakaonam Nageswaran thirumanjana veedhi, kulikuwa na buddha sanamu aitwaye bagavarishi. Nigandu anasema kuwa Buddha aliitwa kwa jina Vinayaka. Katika vipindi wengi Buddha mahekalu waliookolewa Vinayaka mahekalu.

    msafiri Kichina waliotembelea Kancheepuram katika 640 AD, ameandika kwamba Kanchi mara baada mia Buddha mahekalu na watawa elfu.

    Kwa mujibu wa Ananatha nayinar (1932), katika Kanchi Kacheeswar hekalu Buddha picha walikutwa katika msingi chini ya Gopuram. ziwa magharibi ya hekalu iliitwa kama Buththeri na mtaani kama Buththeriththeru. Lakini nilipotembelea kwamba hekalu mawe wale haikuweza kutambuliwa. Mimi naweza kuona Buddha tu picha za nguzo.

    Nilitembelea Pallavapuram karibu Kanchi juu 1946/07/15. Karibu
katika Kinikiluppai, Buddha sanamu ya kupatikana kwenye kingo za ziwa
katika kijiji hicho, mimi naweza kupata chini ya sanamu Buddha karibu
sana hekalu Vinayaka.
Pia kulikuwa na jiwe amesimama na Dharma Chakra. Walikuwa kujengwa Vinayaka hekalu na kubomoa Buddha hekalu.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy imekusanya taarifa nyingi zaidi katika kitabu
chake kuelezea ushahidi wa kuwepo kwa Buddha mahekalu na kubadilishwa
kwa mahekalu hayo kuwa Jain au mahekalu Hindu.

……… ..Originally Kamatchi amman lililokuwa Wabuddha temple.There walikuwa wengi Buddha picha katika hekalu hili. Moja ya picha ya Buddha, 6 miguu amesimama sanamu sasa ni Chennai Museum. sanamu za Buddha kupatikana katika tank hekalu haikupatikana sasa. Mara baada ya mimi mwenyewe kuona baadhi sanamu nyingine ya mawe ya Buddha katika hali nzuri katika hekalu hili. Baadaye nilipata picha hiyo kuvunjwa katika vipande .. Sasa mimi sikuweza kufuatilia huo ………

……… .Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi walikuwa deivams anayeabudiwa na Mabudha katika Tamil Nadu. Baadaye hawa mungu yamechukuliwa na Wahindu na jina kama Kali, Pidari na Throubathai. Tafiti
wanasema kwamba Annapoorani amman katika Kamatchi Amman Hekalu kweli
Manimehalai, ambaye kufika Veeduperu katika Kancheepuram na hekalu
Kamatchi Amman kweli Tharadeviamman hekalu mali ya Mabudha.

90) Classical Swedish
90) Klassisk svenska

Vinaya Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka
Det jag

[Info icon]

Thig 13.5
PTS: Thig 339-367
Subha: Guldsmedens dotter
Översatt från Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000

“Jag var ett barn, med rena kläder,

När jag först hörde Dhamma.

Och inom mig, uppmärksam,

Var en genombrott till sanningen.

Då kom jag fram

Vid ett enormt missnöje

Med all sensualitet.

Se faran

I självidentitet,

Jag längtade bara

För avstående.

Lämnar min familjemedlem,

Slavar, arbetare,

Välmående byar och fält,

Härliga, lockande ägodelar,

Jag gick ut,

Överge icke obetydlig rikedom.

Har gått ut genom övertygelse

I den välutbildade sanna Dhamma,

Det skulle inte vara bra för mig -

Strävar efter ingenting -

Ha avstängt guld och silver

Att ta tillbaka dem.

Guld silver

Köp inte Awakening,

Köp inte fred.

Detta (guld) är inte lämpligt för munkar.

Detta är inte ädla rikedom.

Detta är

Girighet, förgiftning,

Illusion, bondage till damm,

Misstanke, många problem.

Det finns ingen bestående stabilitet här.

Det är så mycket att många, många män

- heedless, deras hjärtan förorenade -

Motsätta varandra, skapa

Konflikter, mord, bondage,

Olycka, förlust, sorg och lamentation.

Många olyckor ses

För de överkropparna i sensualitet.

Så, mina släktingar:

Varför gör du, som fiender,

Försök att binda mig till sensualitet?

Du vet att jag har gått ut,

Ser faran i sensualitet.

Guldmynt & Guld

Kan inte sätta stopp för fermentationer.

Sensualitet är en fiende,

en mördare,

Fientliga, pilar och obligationer.

Så, mina släktingar:

Varför gör du, som fiender,

Försök att binda mig till sensualitet?

Du vet att jag har gått ut

Med rakat huvud, inslaget i en lappkrok.

Överblivna alms-skrotor, gleanings,

En mantel av gjutduk:

Det är vad som är bra för mig -

Kraven på en utan hem.

De stora tittarna har avvisat sensualitet,

Både mänsklig och gudomlig.

Släppt är de, i stället för säkerhet.

Anlänt är de i oförskräcklig lätthet.

Så får jag inte komma in i fackförbundet

Med sensualitet, där inget skydd finns.

Det är en fiende, en mördare

- sensualitet -

Smärtsam, som en flammemassa.


Ett hinder, rädsla, hotat,

Full av tornar,

Mycket out-of-tune,

En stor orsak till illusion.


En skrämmande attack,

Som en ormans huvud

I vilka dårar glädje -

Blindad, löpning.

Eftersom många människor i världen

Sitter fast i modet av sensualitet,


De inser inte slutet på födelse och död.

Många följer stigen

Till dåliga destinationer

På grund av sensualitet,

Bringa sjukdom på sig själva.

Sålunda skapar sensualitet fiender.

Det brinner, är smutsat.

Det är världens bete,

Begränsa, dödens bondage,

Galen, bedräglig, upprörande sinnet.

Det är en nätgjuten av Mara

För utrotning av levande varelser:

Med oändliga nackdelar, mycket smärta,

Stort gift,

Ger liten njutning, skapar konflikter,

Torka upp den goda sidan (i sinnet).

Jag har orsakat mycket besvär så här

På grund av sensualitet,

Kommer inte tillbaka till det,

Som jag alltid glädjer mig i att binda upp.

Kämpa mot sensualitet

I hopp om det kalla tillståndet,

Jag kommer att vara uppmärksam och finna glädje

I slutet av fetters.

Jag följer vägen -

Åttafaldiga, raka,

Sorglös, rostfri, säker -

Över vilka stora seare

Har korsat. “

Se denna Subha, guldsmedens dotter,

Stående fast i Dhamma,

Kommer in i det obestridliga tillståndet,

Gör jhana vid foten av ett träd.

Det här är den åttonde dagen då hon går ut

Säker, vacker genom den sanna Dhamma.

Utbildad av Uppalavanna,

Hon är en kunskapskvinna med tre kunskaper

Vem har lämnat döden bakom

Befriad från slaveri, skuldlös,

En non med utvecklade fakulteter,

Lossna från alla band,

Hennes uppgift gjord,

jäsning fria.

Sakka, herre av varelser,

Med sin gemenskap av devas,

Närmar sig henne genom supranormal kraft,

Hylla henne:

Subha guldsmedens dotter.

Se MN 106. Hon har uppnått behärskning över hennes
känslighetsfakulteter, eller att hon har fullt utvecklat fakta om
övertygelse, uthållighet, mindfulness, koncentration och discernment.
Se. SN 48,10 och AN 4,37.


Ämnen i tamilsk litteratur

(Tamil: மணிமேகலை), av dikteren Chithalai Chathanar, är en av de fem
stora epikerna av tamilsk litteratur enligt senare tamilsk litteratur.
Mannimekalai är en dikt i 30 cantos.
Dess historia är en uppföljare till en annan av de fem stora
epikerna, Silappatikaram, och berättar historien om omvandlingen från
jainismen till buddhismen av dottern till Kovalan och Madhavi.

    1 Författaren och sammansättningsperioden
2 Den episka
2.1 Inställning
2.2 Anmärkningsvärda tecken
2.3 Försvinnande av Kāveripattinam eller Puhar
3 buddhistiska skolans anslutning
4 Överlevnad av text
5 översättningar
6 Publicering i moderna tider
7 Kritik och jämförelse
8 Se också
9 referenser
10 Bibliografi

Författaren och sammansättningsperioden
Var sammansatt i 6th century CE. Enligt Hikosaka (1989) skrevs Manimekalai mellan A.D. 890 och 950, en inferens baserad på språklig bedömning.

med författaren, Cīttalai Cāttanār, var att jämföra buddhismen positivt
med de andra rådande religionerna i södra Indien för att sprida
Medan han utsätter svagheterna hos de andra samtida indiska
religionerna, lovar han Buddhas undervisning, Dhamma, som den mest
perfekta religionen.
Den episka

en fortsättning av Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்) beskriver
denna episka hur Manimekalai, den vackra dottern till Kovalan och
Madhavi, följare av lokala gudar som senare ingår i hinduismen,
omvandlar till buddhismen.
dikten studerar Maṇimekalai de sex system av filosofi om hinduism och
andra framträdande religioner av tiden och jämför dem med Buddhas
Hon är mest imponerad av buddhismen som behandlar alla lika med kärleksfull vänlighet och broderskap. Senare,
efter att ha hört doktrinära utställningar från den buddhistiska
läraren Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, blir hon en dedikerad Bhikkuni eller
buddhistisk nonna.
praktiserar fullt ut Buddhas läror och uppnår den högsta etappen av
buddhistisk andlig kunskap eller uppnåelse, dvs hon blev en arhant.
är sålunda ett exempel på kvinnlig andlig bemyndigande inom en kultur
där det annars fanns några alternativ för kvinnor.
Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) avslöjade mer om Manimekalai som
“Arachchelvi” (Female Arhant) och dokumenterade originaldikt skrivna av
Seeththalai Saththanar, som inte är tillgängliga i Menimekalai redigerad
av U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer som påstås lämna ut några av de ursprungliga dikterna.

ger mycket information om Tamil Nadu, Buddhisms historia och dess plats
under den perioden, samtida konster och kultur och tidernas tider.
Utställningen av den buddhistiska doktrinen i dikten behandlar elegant
med de fyra ädla sanningarna (ārya-satyāni), beroende av ursprung
(pratītyasamutpāda), sinne (citta) och buddhistiska metoder som dygd
(Śīla) och icke-våld (ahimsa).


ligger i både hamnstaden Kāveripattinam, den moderna staden Poompuhar i
Tamil Nadu och i Nainatheevu av NākaNadu, en liten sandig ö på
Jaffnahalvön i modern Sri Lanka.
går enligt följande: Dansare-Courtsan Manimekalai förföljas av den
amorösa Cholanprinsen Udyakumāran, men vill hellre ägna sig åt ett
religiöst celibatliv.
Havsgudinnan Manimegala Theivam eller Maṇimekhalai Devī lägger henne i sömn och tar till ön Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). Efter
att vakna och vandra om ön, kommer Maṇimekalai över Dhamma-sätet, sätet
på vilket Buddha hade läst och åtskötat två stridande Naga-prinsar och
placerades där av Gud Indra.
De som tillber det mirakulöst känner till sitt tidigare liv. Manimekalai utmärker sig automatiskt och minns vad som hände i hennes tidigare liv. Hon
möter sedan vårdnadsgudinnan i Dhamma-sätet, Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa
Tilakā) som förklarar henne betydelsen av Dhamma-sätet och låter henne
förvärva den magiska, ofullständiga tiggskålen (hörselnäring) som heter
Amṛta Surabhi (”överflödet”
), Som alltid kommer att ge mat för att lindra hunger. Gudinnan förutspår också att Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal i hennes hemstad kommer att lära henne mer. Manimekalai
använde sedan den mantra som havsgudinnan hade gett henne och
återvänder till Kāveripattinam, där hon träffar Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal,
som förklarar henne Buddhas undervisning och rådgivar henne om livets
Hon blir då en buddhistnun eller Bhikkhuni och praktiserar sig för att
befria sig från födelse och döds bondage och uppnå Nibbana.

Anmärkningsvärda tecken

    Manimekalai - Dotter till Kovalan och Madhavi, som föddes med mod och dygder.
Udhayakumaran - The Chola King, som var galen kär i Manimekalai. Han var en dum king, som ville ha gjort saker bara på det sätt som han ville att de skulle vara. Han hade också ett livslångt liv

    Sudhamadhi - Manimekalai mest trofasta och pålitliga vän.

Manimekala - Havsgudinnan som skyddar hjälten.
Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Goddess of Dhamma seat. Hon föddes i staden Puhar och blev gift med en köpman. Hennes man reser en gång till handel. Även efter så många dagar återvände han inte. Rädd och orolig att hennes man kan ha dött försöker hon ge bort sitt liv. (Inte
av självmord utan genom att göra “sathiya paritchai”, dvs att be Gud
att ta bort sitt liv på grund av hennes mans död) Plötsligt hör hon en
röst från himlen som säger att hennes man lever och han kommer tillbaka.
Men Deeva Teelakai uttrycker sin ointressen i ett familjeliv och hennes intresse för andlighet. Hon får då Amirta Surabhi och styrdes också av röst för att resa till Dhamma-sätet och skydda det tills hon möter sitt öde.

Försvinnande av Kāveripattinam eller Puhar

berättar att staden Kāveripattinam eller Puhār svalkades vid havet (det
vill säga förstört av en tsunami eller översvämning) på grund av att
Cholan King inte håller den årliga Indra-festivalen och därigenom
orsakar havets gudinna Manimekalais vrede.
Detta konto stöds av arkeologiska fynd av nedsänkt ruiner utanför kusten av moderna Poompuhar. Forntida
ruiner av buddhistiska kloster från 4: e-5: a århundradet, en
Buddha-staty och en Buddhapada (Buddha fotavtryck) hittades också i en
annan del av den antika staden, nu vid Pallavanesvaram.
Staden Kāveripattinam tros ha försvunnit mellan 3: e och 6: e århundradet CE.

Buddhistiska skolans anslutning

innehåller inga direkta referenser till Mahayana som förökats av
Nagarjuna, etc., och verkar vara ett arbete av en tidig buddhistisk,
Sravakayana-skola, såsom Sthavira eller Sautrantika-skolan.
Aiyangar kan betoningen på “Den Storas Pitakas väg” (det vill säga
Tipitaka) och utställningen av beroende ursprung, etc., i kapitel 30,
föreslå att det är Sautrantikaskolans arbete.
A.K. Warder föreslår istället att dikten kan vara ansluten till Theravada-skolan.

I diktens slut uppmuntrar Aravaṇa Aḍigal fullständig befrielse från de onda girighetens tre rötter, hat (raga, dosa, moha). Diktens sista mening säger att Maṇimekhalai strävade för att befria sig från födelsens bondage. Denna
betoning på frigörelse från föroreningarna (kilesa), som slutar
födelsevården, ålderdom och död (samsara), och blir en arahant, föreslår
också att diktens författare var ansluten till en tidig
Sravakayana-buddhistskola.Aiyangar (p.
. 80) föreslår att den buddhistiska logiken, som utspelas av Aravaṇa
Aḍigal i kapitel 29 i Maṇimekhalai, motverkar Dignāgas och hans skolas

Överlevnad av text

Manimekhalai är det enda existerande tamilska buddhistiska litterära arbetet som en gång var en omfattande litteratur. Anledningen till överlevnaden är förmodligen dess status som uppföljaren till Silapathikaram eller Sīlappadhikāram. Tamil Nadu producerade många buddhistiska lärare som gjorde värdefulla bidrag till tamil, pali-litteraturen. Hänvisning till deras verk finns i tamilsk litteratur och andra historiska dokument. Förlorade tamilska buddhistiska verk är diktet Kuṇḍalakesī av
Nāgaguttanār, grammatiken Vīrasoliyam, Abhidhamma-arbetet
Siddhāntattokai, den panegyriska Tiruppadigam och biografin Bimbisāra
Den första översättningen av Manimekalai av R. B. K. Aiyangar, publicerades i Maṇimekhalai i dess historiska inställning. Extrakt av detta publicerades i Hisselle Dhammaratana’s buddhism i södra Indien. En senare översättning av dikten gjordes av Alain Daniélou i samarbete med T.V. Gopala Iyer. Det finns också en japansk översättning av Shuzo Matsunaga, publicerad 1991.

Publicering i moderna tider
Ett palmblad manuskript med gammal tamil text

V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 CE) uppståndde de första tre epicerna av
den tamilska litteraturen från skrämmande försummelse och vilseledande
förstörelse av århundraden.
Han återtryckte denna litteratur som presenteras i palmbladet till pappersböcker. Ramaswami Mudaliar, en tamilskolär, gav honom först Civaka Cintamanias palmblad att studera. För
första gången måste Swaminatha Iyer möta många svårigheter när det
gäller tolkning, hitta de saknade löven, textfel och okända villkor.
Han satte sig för tröttsamma resor till avlägsna byar på jakt efter de saknade manuskripten. Efter åratals år publicerade han Civaka Cintamani i bokform 1887 CE följt av Silapadikaram 1892 CE och Manimekalai 1898 CE. Tillsammans med texten lade han till sig många kommentarer och
förklarande anteckningar av termer, textvariationer och metoder som
förklarar sammanhanget.

Kritik och jämförelse

För vissa kritiker är Manimekalai mer intressant än Silappadikaram. Historien
om Manimekalai med alla dess ytliga element verkar vara av mindre
intresse för författaren själv vars syfte var att sprida buddhismen.
I det förra är etik och religiös doktrin centralt, medan i senare dominera poesi och storyline. Manimekalai predikar också idealerna för

Transkript av selekteringar från Therigatha och Manimekhalai
Val av Therigatha och Manimekhalai


Hon hittades vid basen av ett mangoträ (amba). Hon växte upp för att vara väldigt vacker och graciös. Många prinsar önskade gifta sig med henne, så hon blev gjord av en statlig courtesan för att undvika tvister. Senare i livet fick hon möjlighet att betjäna Buddha mat; Hon bestämde sig för att följa den buddhistiska vägen och lämna sin position som courtesan.

Poem om impermanence

Kontrast av tidigare skönhet (med hjälp av likheter) till hennes nuvarande ålderdom.

som parfymkista, som full av söta blommar håret av mig. Allt med årens
slöseri nu rankas som lukt av hare päls. Således och inte på annat sätt
löper runan, Soothsayerens ord. (253)

Uppnått nirvana efter att ha sagt dessa verser; Blev en arahant

kapitel 2

Rykten omger att Madhavi inte kommer att delta i danser på festivalen för Indra
Hennes vän Vasantamala går och pratar med henne om det
Madhavi förklarade idealerna för en perfekt courtesan: hon hade
behärskat dansen, musiken och könets konst och studerade också andra
Hon pratar om hur hennes älskare dog och hon kunde inte sörja honom som en fru gjorde, eftersom hon inte var en “ärlig kvinna”.
Hon kom till Aravana Adigal i sin sorg och förespråkade henne det
buddhistiska sättet så att hon kunde få ett sätt att fly från lidande
(genom de 4 sanningarna och 5 uppförandekoder)
Hon vill att detta ska vara hennes och hennes dotters livsstil
Vill inte att Manimekhalai ska vara inblandad i den världsliga charmen av det courtesanska livet
Manimekhalais mormor kommer att veta att hon överlever vid Himlens tempel genom att be och leva som en buddhistisk nonna.
Hon går till prinsen, som var imponerad av Manimekhalai skönhet och
berättar att han ska gå och ta Manimekhalai tillbaka till domstolen och
familjen av courtesans.
Han går och talar till henne (mot sedvanlig) och frågar varför hon lever det livet.
Hon svarar (hon känner sig skyldig att svara eftersom han var hennes
man i ett förflutet liv) att människokroppen är full av ångest och
lidande, och hon valde att avstå sådant slags liv (och världsliga nöjen)
och hjälpa andra istället.
Hon går in i templet och ändrar sitt utseende så prinsen är kvar och letar efter henne.

Kapitel 18

Hon var en guldsmed dotter, och hon var väldigt vacker. Hon heter Subha eftersom hon troddes som “lycklig”. Hon introducerades till buddhismen när en salvie kom till sin stad och talade om den andliga vägen.
Verser som talas efter att hon når nirvana
Om hur världsliga begär är dåliga och hon valde att överge dem för den lycka som hon finner på den buddhistiska vägen
Som guldsmed dotter var hon omgiven av guld och ornament, men hon valde att lämna dem för vägen
Nirvana nådde den åtta dagen att lära sig vara en nonne
Sumedha var dotter till en kung. Hon skulle gå för att höra buddhismens läror som barn. När
hennes föräldrar valde att ge henne en prins, bestämde hon att hon
ville följa buddhismens väg (”Min plikt ligger inte i husets liv”).
Hon skär av hennes hår och lämnar huset.
Dessa kontra är talade efter att hon blir en arahant.
Hon beskriver sin historia
Mannen hon skulle gifta sig med, försökte locka henne med löftet om en
rik livsstil, med juveler och rikedomar, men hon är obeveklig.
Talar också om hur materiella rikedomar och önskningar är impermanenta, och hon behöver inget sådant liv
“Som de snabba ormarna som är beredda att darra. Som gnistrande
facklor …” Hänvisning till ormar och eld i jämförelse med
ostabiliteten av lust

Kapitel 6

Gudinnan Manimekhala kommer till Manimekhalai och råder henne att gå
till himlens tempel för att skydda henne från prinsens önskningar
Story: tomt med vägg runt det, tillägnad de döda. Varje hörn var en gateway och pekade mot de fyra kardinalriktningarna. Har platser att begrava, kremera eller bara lämna de döda. Det verkar finnas en särskild plats för kvinnor som dog att återkomma till sina män i döden. Området är väldigt otrevligt, med ljud och sevärdheter relaterade till döden (kranier, gribbar, böner, släktingar). Därför kallas den dödas stad.
Shankalan gick av misstag till väggarna och en trollkarl stal sin själ. Hans moder Gotami frågade gudinnan i staden för att ge honom sin själ tillbaka. Hon sa att hon inte kunde göra det. Hon uppmanade gudarna som regerar himlen, som också sa att de inte kunde göra det. Gotami accepterade henne och hennes sons öde. Ett tempel skapades bredvid väggarna, kallade Himlens tempel.
Manimekhala tog sova Manimekhalai till en annan ö.
Viktiga saker som stod ut
Manimekhalai: den idealiska kvinnan (courtesan vs fru)
Kapitel 2 och 18 - den perfekta courtesan
Mästare i olika konst och färdigheter (dans, musik, sex)
Dansar offentligt, syftar till att väcka passion, får pengar tills mannen kan ha inget mer att ge
“Locka män med sina charmar och binda dem med sin konst”, s. 74

Utläggningen av buddhistiska tempel i södra Indien

    I Kumbakaonam Nageswaran thirumanjana veedhi fanns en buddha staty kallad bagavarishi. Nigandu säger att Buddha kallades av namnet Vinayaka. I senare perioder konverterades många Buddha tempel som Vinayaka tempel.

    Den kinesiska resenären som besökte Kancheepuram år 640 e.Kr har
registrerat att Kanchi hade hundra buddha tempel och tusen munkar.

    Enligt Ananatha nayinar (1932), i Kanchi Kacheeswar tempel Buddha bilder hittades i grunden bas av gopuram. Sjön väster om templet kallades Butththeri och gatan som Buththeriththeru. Men när jag besökte det templet kunde dessa stenar inte identifieras. Jag kunde bara se Buddha bilder bara i pelarna.

    Jag besökte Pallavapuram nära Kanchi den 15.7.1946. I
närheten av Kinikiluppai, en Buddha staty hittades på stranden av en
sjö i samma by, kunde jag hitta basen av Buddha statyn väldigt nära
Vinayaka templet.
Det fanns också en stående sten med Dharma Chakra. De hade byggt Vinayaka tempel genom att riva Buddha tempel.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy har samlat in mycket mer information i sin bok
som beskriver bevis för existensen av Buddha tempel och omvandlingen av
dessa tempel till Jain eller hinduiska tempel.

……… .. Ursprungligen Kamatchi amman tempel var ett buddhistiskt tempel. Det fanns många Buddha-bilder i det här templet. En av bilderna av Buddha, en 6 fot stående staty är nu i Chennai-museet. Buddhas statyer som finns i templetanken kunde inte hittas nu. En gång såg jag själv andra stenstatyer av Buddha i gott skick i det här templet. Senare hittade jag samma bilder brutna i bitar .. Nu kunde jag inte spåra samma ………

……… .Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi var deividerna som dyrkades av buddhister i Tamil Nadu. Senare togs dessa gudinnor över av hinduerna och omnämndes som Kali, Pidari och Throubathai. Forskningar
säger att Annapoorani amman i Kamatchi Amman tempel är faktiskt
Manimehalai, som uppnådde Veeduperu vid Kancheepuram och Kamatchi Amman
tempel är faktiskt Tharadeviamman tempel som tillhör buddhister.

91) Classical Tajik
91) Tajik классикӣ

Vinaya Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka

[Тасвири маълумоти]

Thig 13.5
PTS: Thig 339-367
Subha: Духтари The Goldsmith кард
аз Pali аз тарафи тарҷума
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000

«Ман фарзанди бо либоси пок буд,

Вақте ки ман бори аввал шунидам Dhamma.

Ва дар ман, панд гиред,

як танаффуси тавассути ба ҳақиқат буд.

Пас аз он ман омад

дар як норозигӣ бузург

бо ҳар sensuality.

Дидани хатар

дар худшиносиву худогоҳӣ,

Ман танҳо матлуби

барои рад.

Тарк доираи ман хешовандон,

ғуломон, коргарон,

деҳаҳои ободу & майдонҳои,

дилпазире, молу мулки дилфиреб,

Ман берун рафта,

тарк молу не-ночиз.

Бо тавассути маҳкум рафт

дар Dhamma ҳақиқӣ хуб медод,

на он мебуд, дуруст барои ман -

майлдошта ба nothingness -

Чун рад тилло нуқра &

онҳо ба бозгардониданашон сазовортаранд.

Gold & нуқра

Оё бедории харида намешавад,

Оё сулҳ харида намешавад.

Ин (тилло) аст, ки барои дуруст обидон нест.

Ин аст, молу наҷиб нестед.

Ин аст,

хироҷе, мастии,

Барои фиреби, асорати ба хок,

ба гумони, бисёр нохушиҳо.

Русия нест субот дар ин ҷо нест.

Ин ба ин андозае кард, ки бисёре, бисёр мардон

- ғофил, дилҳои худро палид -

мухолиф ба якдигар, эҷод

муноқишаҳо, куштор, ғуломӣ,

мусибате, талафоти, ғаму, & нола.

Бисёре аз мусибате дида шудаанд,

барои касоне, сардори-бар-шу мо дар sensuality.

Пас, хешовандони ман:

Чаро шумо мекунед, монанди душман,

кӯшиш кунед, ки Ман ба бибандад sensuality?

Шумо медонед, ки ман берун кардам,

дид, хатар дар sensuality.

танга Gold & млрд

метавонад хотима fermentations таваккал накунем.

Sensuality душман аст,


душманона, гаравбандӣ & вомбаргҳо.

Пас, хешовандони ман:

Чаро шумо мекунед, монанди душман,

кӯшиш кунед, ки Ман ба бибандад sensuality?

Шумо медонед, ки ман берун кардам

бо сари сартарошида, дар як ҷомаи чуқуриҳои печонд.

закот-пораву Leftover, gleanings,

либоси дод аз матои меандохтанд-истироҳат:

Ин чӣ дуруст барои ман -

ба реквизит яке бо нест хона.

Дар seers бузург sensuality рад кардаанд,

њам инсон & илоҳӣ.

Озодшуда онҳо, дар ҷои амният.

ки онҳо ташриф ҳастанд, ки дар тавонгариву побарҷо мемонад.

Пас, то ки ман ба иттифоқи на барои он омад

бо sensuality, ки дар он ҳеҷ паноҳгоҳ ёфт.

Ин душмани, қотил аст

- sensuality -

дардовар, мисли оммавии шӯълаи.


монеаи, даҳшатангез, таҳдид,

пур аз хор бофта,

хеле берун аз ҷӯр,

як кори бузург фиребанда нест.


як ҳамлаи метарсонад,

монанди сари мор кард

ки дар он аблаҳон лаззат -

кӯр, давида-аз-ба-осиёб.

Зеро бисёр одамон дар ҷаҳон

дар лой аз sensuality мекашид,


онҳо дар охири таваллуд & марг дарк намекунанд.

Бисёр одамон аз роҳи пайравӣ

ба самтҳои бад

аз сабаби sensuality,

овардани беморӣ дар бораи худ.

Ҳамин тавр sensuality душманони меорад.

Сӯзонандаи пӯст аст, наҷис мешавад.

Ин доми ин ҷаҳон аст,

ки маҳдудияти, ба асорати марг,

maddening, фиреб, табъ ва фикри.

Ин соф андохта аз тарафи Мара кард

барои нопок шудани одамон зиндагии:

бо норасоиҳои беохир, дарди зиёд,

заҳр бузург,

додан бархурдорип андакест эҷоди муноқишаҳо,

хушк, то дар канори хуб (аз хотир).

Ман, чун боиси ташвиши зиёд ин

аз сабаби sensuality,

нест, ба он бозмегардонад,

чунон ки Ман ҳар вақт дар Unbinding хурсандӣ.

Пешбурди мубориза бо sensuality

дар умеди давлат сард,

Ман панд гиред хоҳад монд, ёфтани хурсандӣ

Дар хотимаи завлона.

Ман пайрави роҳи -

eightfold, рост,

griefless, зангногир, бехатар -

бар он seers бузург

убур кардаанд. “

Бингар, ки ин Subha, духтари goldsmith кард,

истода устувор дар Dhamma,

дохил шудан ба давлати imperturbable,

кор jhana дар пои дарахти.

Ин дар рӯзи ҳащтум аз рафтан вай берун аст,

боварӣ, зебо ба воситаи Dhamma ҳақиқӣ.

Таълим аз тарафи Uppalavanna,

Вай як зани се дониш аст

, ки Русия марг мондаи;

озод аз ғуломии, debtless,

як роҳиба бо факултетҳо тањия,

танзим фуҷур аз тамоми робитаҳо,

Вазифаи вай кардааст,

озод fermentation.

Sakka, Парвардигори ҷаҳониён,

бо ҷомеаи худ devas,

наздик ӯ ба воситаи қудрати supranormal,

месупорад саҷда ба вай:

Subha духтари goldsmith мекунад.

нигаред МН 106. Вай маҳдуд кардани беш аз факултаҳои ҳисси вай ба даст,
ё ки пурра таҳия кардани факултаҳои маҳкум, шилқинии, mindfulness,
консентратсияи, ва хирад.
Нигаред. SN 48,10 ва AN 4.37.


Мавзӯҳо дар адабиёт тамилӣ

(тамилӣ: மணிமேகலை), ки аз ҷониби шоири Chithalai Chathanar, яке аз панҷ
Epics бузурги адабиёти тамилӣ тибқи баъдтар тамилӣ адабии
tradition.Manimekalai шеъри дар 30 cantos аст.
достони он як оқибати дигари аз панҷ Epics Бузург, Silappatikaram
аст, ва достони табдили аз Jainism ба буддизм духтари Kovalan ва Madhavi
нақл мекунад.

    1 Муаллиф ва мӯҳлати њайати
2 ҳамосавии
2.1 Муқаррар
2.2 аломатҳои назаррас
2.3 бедаракшавии аз Kāveripattinam ё Puhar
3 буддоӣ Мактаби љои
4 зиндамонии аз матнӣ
5 тарҷумаҳо
6 Нашри дар замони муосир
7 Танқиди ва Муқоиса
8 Ҳамчунин нигаред
9 Адабиёт
10 Адабиёти

Дар Муаллиф ва мӯҳлати њайати
Дар эраи мо асри 6 иборат буд. Бино ба Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai байни A.D. 890 ва 950, як inference дар асоси арзёбии забонӣ навишта шуда буд.

муаллиф, Cīttalai Cāttanār муқоиса буддизм рағбат бо динҳои дигар
афзалиятнокро дар Ҳиндустон Ҷанубӣ бо мақсади паҳн буддизм буд.
Дар ҳоле, фош камбудиҳои дигар динҳои муосири Ҳиндустон, ӯ ситоиш таълим ба Буддо кард, ки Dhamma, ҳамчун дини комил бештар.
Дар ҳамосавии

идомаи Silappatikaram (тамилӣ: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), ин ҳамосавии тасвир, ки
чӣ тавр Manimekalai, духтари зебои Kovalan ва Madhavi, пайрави худоёни
маҳаллӣ дертар дар ҳиндуизм дохил, табдил ба буддизм.
ба шеър, Maṇimekalai меомӯзад шаш системаи фалсафаи ҳиндуизм ва дигар
динҳои паҳн кардани вақт ва онҳоро муқоиса ба таълимоти Буддо.
Вай бештар ба ҳайрат бо буддизм, ки ҳар кас бо муҳаббат ва меҳрубонӣ fraternity баробар муносибат аст. Баъдтар,
бар шунидани expositions фиқҳӣ аз муаллим буддоӣ Bhikkhu Aravaṇa
Aḍigal, вай Bhikkuni бахшидашуда ё роҳиба буддоӣ мегардад.
пурра дин ба таълимоти Буддо дар Русия ва булуғаш баландтарин зинаи
дониши рӯҳонӣ буддоӣ ва ё комёбии, i.e. ў arhant шуд.
тавр шеъри Manimekhalai намунаи тавонмандсозии рӯҳонӣ зан дар дохили як
фарҳанги он тартиби дигаре буданд, якчанд имконоти барои занон вуҷуд
Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) бештар дар бораи Manimekalai ҳамчун
“Arachchelvi» (Зан Arhant) ошкор ва ҳуҷҷатгузорӣ шеърҳои аслии навиштаи
Seeththalai Saththanar, ки дар Menimekalai таҳрири U.V. дастрас нест
Swaminatha Iyer, ки гӯё тарк баъзе аз шеърҳои аслии.

ҳамосавии медиҳад маълумоти зиёд оид ба таърихи Тамилӣ Nadu, буддизм ва
ҷои онро дар давоми ин муддат санъати муосир, фарҳанг, ва гумрукии
Дар сухани пешиннён ва аз таълими буддоӣ дар аҳдҳои шеър elegantly бо
чор Noble ҳақиқатҳои (ārya-satyāni), Origination тобеи
(pratītyasamutpāda), хотир (citta) ва равишҳои буддоӣ мисли Оне (Śīla)
ва ғайри-зӯроварӣ (ahimsa).


шеър аст, ки дар ду шаҳри бандарии Kāveripattinam, шаҳри замонавии
Poompuhar дар Тамилӣ Nadu гузошт, ва дар Nainatheevu аз NākaNadu, як
ҷазираи хокӣ хурди нимҷазираи Jaffna дар муосир, Шри-Ланка.
достони нашрҳои зайл аст: Дар раққоси-courtesan Manimekalai аз ҷониби
amorous Cholan мири Udyakumāran таъқиб, балки мехоҳад, ки ба худаш
бахшидан ба зиндагии муҷаррад динӣ.
олиҳаи баҳр Manimegala Theivam ё Maṇimekhalai Devī мегузорад вай ба хоб
ва фаро мегирад, то дар ҷазираи Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu).
аз бедорӣ ва саргардон дар бораи ҷазираи Maṇimekalai меояд, дар
саросари Dhamma курсии, курсии, ки Буддо таълим дода буданд, ва ду
мебинам, ҳокимони Naga тахтаҳоро, ва дар он ҷо аз ҷониби Худои Indra
љойгир карда шавад.
Касоне, ки дар он ибодат ба таври мӯъҷиза ҳаёти гузашта худро намедонанд. Manimekalai ба таври худкор онро мепарастад ва панд чӣ дар зиндагии гузашта ӯ рӯй дода буд. Вай
пас аз мулоқот олиҳаи васии аз курсии Dhamma, Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa
Tilakā), ки вай мефаҳмонад, аҳамияти курсии Dhamma ва мегузорад, вай ба
даст ҷодугарӣ ҳеҷ гоҳ-failing гадоӣ косаи (хезанд) номида мешавад Amṛta
Surabhi ( «гов зиёдатии”
), ки ҳамеша хӯрок коҳиш гуруснагӣ таъмин хоҳад кард. Дар олиҳаи ҳамчунин пешгӯӣ намуд, ки Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal дар шаҳри модарии вай вай бештар таълим хоҳад кард. Manimekalai
он гоҳ, ки mantra олиҳаи баҳр ба вай дода буд ва ба Kāveripattinam, ки
дар он ӯ ҷавобгӯ Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, ки вай expounds таълим ба Буддо
кард ва ба ў маслиҳати дар бораи табиати зинда мегардонад истифода
бурда мешавад.
Вай пас аз як роҳиба буддоӣ мегардад ё Bhikkhuni ва амалияҳои ба худаш
аз бандагии фано халосй таваллуд ва марг халос ва расидан ба Nibbana.

аломатҳои назаррас

    Manimekalai - духтари Kovalan ва Madhavi, ки бо шуҷоат ва мабоди таваллуд шудааст.
Udhayakumaran - The Chola Подшоҳи, ки дар муҳаббат бо Manimekalai девона шуд. Ӯ подшоҳи нодоне, ки мехостанд, чи танҳо дар роҳи Ӯ мехост, ки онҳо ба иҷро мекунад. Ӯ ҳамчунин як зиндагии thug буд

    Sudhamadhi - дӯсти содиқ бештар ва боваринок Manimekalai мекунад.

Manimekala - The олиҳаи баҳр, ки heroine муҳофизат мекунад.
Deeva Teelakai - ёвари олиҳаи курсии Dhamma. Ӯ дар шаҳри Puhar таваллуд шуд ва ба тоҷирест, оиладор шуд. Шавҳари вай як бор сафар ба тиҷорат. Ҳатто пас аз ин қадар рӯз барнагардонидааст. Тарсиданд ва хавотиранд, ки шавҳараш то вафот кардаанд, вай мекӯшад, ки ба дод дур ҳаёти вай. (Не
аз тарафи худкушӣ балки бо кор «sathiya paritchai” i.e. Худо дуо гуфтан
дур ҳаёти ӯро бо сабаби ба марги шавҳараш) Ногаҳон зан мешунавад овозе
аз осмон, ки мегӯяд, ки шавҳараш зинда аст ва баргашта фаро хоҳад расид.
Аммо Deeva Teelakai изҳор disinterest ӯ дар як зиндагии оилавӣ ва таваҷҷӯҳи ӯро ба маънавиёт буданд. Вай пас меорад Amirta Surabhi, инчунин овози роҳнамоӣ мекард, ба сафар
ба курсии Dhamma ва муҳофизат аз он даме ки вай ҷавобгӯ сарнавишти вай.

Бедарак шудани Kāveripattinam ё Puhar

шеър нақл мекунад, ки дар шаҳри Kāveripattinam ё Puhār то баҳр (i.e.
нобуд аз тарафи сунамӣ ва ё обхезӣ) бо сабаби ба Cholan Подшоҳи
гузаронидани нест, фестивал Indra солонаи ва ба ин васила боиси ғазаби
олиҳаи баҳр Manimekalai фурӯ бурд шуд.
Ин ҳисоби аст, бозёфтҳои бостоншиносӣ аз харобаҳои монда хомӯш соҳили Poompuhar муосир дастгирӣ карда мешавад. харобаҳои
қадим як дайр асри 4-5 буддоӣ, як ҳайкали Буддо ва Buddhapada
(фарогирии аз Буддо) низ дар фасли дигари шаҳри қадимаи дар
Pallavanesvaram пайдо шуда, ҳоло.
Дар шаҳри Kāveripattinam, имон аст, ки дар байни 3-юм ва дар асри яки эраи мо 6 нопадид шудааст.

Буддоӣ Мактаби љои

кор бар мегирад, нест, маълумотномаҳо бевосита ба Кобули аз тарафи
Nagarjuna ва ғайра тарuиб намуд, ва чунин ба назар бошад, кори мактаби
аввали буддоӣ, Sravakayana ба монанди мактаб Sthavira ё Sautrantika.
ба Aiyangar, ки диққати оид ба «роҳи ба Pitakas аз як Бузург» (i.e.
буддоӣ) ва сухани пешиннён ва аз Origination вобаста аст, ва ғайра, ки
дар боби 30, метавонад ишора мекунанд, ки дар он кори мактаб Sautrantika
A.K. Нестӣ ҷои нишон медиҳад, ки шеъри метавонад бо мактаб Theravada вобастагӣ доранд.

Дар хулосаи шеър, Aravaṇa Aḍigal бармеангезад озодшавњ пурра аз се решаҳои бад-ҳирсу тамаъ, кина (rāga, dosa, moha). Дар ҳукми ниҳоии шеъри гуфта мешавад, ки Maṇimekhalai ҷиҳод ба худаш аз ғуломӣ таваллуд халос. Ин
такя ба озодшавњ аз defilements (kilesa), хотима давраи таваллуд, пирӣ
ва марг (samsara), ва табдил arahant, ҳамчунин нишон медиҳад, ки
муаллифи шеър ба аввали Sravakayana буддоӣ school.Aiyangar вобаста шуд
. 80) нишон медиҳад, ки мантиқи буддоӣ ҳамчунин аз тарафи Aravaṇa
Aḍigal ки дар боби 29 Maṇimekhalai ки ояҳояш ба antedates мантиќи
Dignāga ва мактаби ӯ.

Зисти матнӣ

Дар Manimekhalai танҳо Казуарҳо Тамилӣ буддоӣ кори адабӣ чӣ бор як адабиёти васеъ буд, мебошад. Сабаби зинда мондани он аст, шояд мавқеи худро чун поёни ба Silapathikaram ё Sīlappadhikāram. Тамилӣ Nadu ба бисёр омўзгорон буддоӣ, ки саҳми арзишманд ба адабиёти тамилӣ, Pali дод истеҳсол. Маълумотнома аъмоли онҳо аст, ки дар адабиёти тамилӣ дигар сабти таърихӣ ёфт. Маҳрум корҳои Тамилӣ буддоӣ мебошанд шеъри Kuṇḍalakesī аз тарафи
Nāgaguttanār, ки грамматикаи Vīrasoliyam, ки Abhidhamma кор
Siddhāntattokai, ки Tiruppadigam panegyric, ва ба тарҷимаи ҳоли
Bimbisāra Kadai.
Дар аввал тарҷумаи Manimekalai аз тарафи Р. Б. К. Aiyangar, дар Maṇimekhalai дар Муқаррар таърихии он нашр шуд. Иќтибосњоро аз ин дар буддизм Hisselle Dhammaratana дар Ҳиндустон Ҷанубӣ republished шуданд. Дар тарҷумаи охир бештар аз шеър аз тарафи Ален Daniélou бо ҳамкории T.V. Gopala Iyer гузаронида шуд. низ тарҷумаи Ҷопон аз тарафи Shuzo Matsunaga, ки дар соли 1991 нашр нест.

Нашр дар замони муосир
A Дастнависи барге хурмо бо матни тамилӣ қадим

V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 эраи мо) ин се epics аввали адабиёти
тамилӣ аз бадҳайбат беэътиноӣ ва ҳалокати ки зинатҳои садсолаҳо зинда.
Ӯ дар ин замон адабиёт дар шакли барге аз хурмо ба китобҳои коғазӣ Ояндасоз Садо. Ramaswami Mudaliar, олими тамилӣ аввал ба ӯ додем, баргҳои хурмо аз Civaka Cintamani ба таҳсил мекунанд. Ки
бори аввал, Swaminatha Iyer буд, рӯ ба рӯ бисёр мушкилиҳо дар робита ба
тафсири, дарёфти барг гумшуда, хатоҳои матнии ва шартҳои ношинос.
Ӯ хаста манзилгоҳҳои ба деҳаҳои дурдаст дар ҷустуҷӯи аз дастнависҳои бедарак муқаррар карда мешавад. Баъд
аз солҳои ранҷе, ки ӯ Civaka Cintamani дар шакли китоб дар 1887-и эраи
мо аз тарафи Silapadikaram дар 1892-и эраи мо ва Manimekalai аз паи, дар
соли 1898-уми эраи мо чоп карда мешавад.
Дар баробари бо матни Вай афзуд, бисёр тафсир ва қайдҳои фаҳмондадиҳӣ шартҳои, вариантҳои Номгузории ва наздик баёни шароити.

Танқид ва Муқоиса

Барои баъзе мунаққидон, Manimekalai ҷолиб зиёда аз Silappadikaram аст. Дар
достони Manimekalai бо ҳамаи унсурҳои рӯякӣ он назар мерасад, ки ба
таваҷҷӯҳи камтар ба муаллиф худ, ки мақсади онҳо ба паҳн буддизм зикр
гардид бошад.
Дар собиқ, ахлоқ ва таълимоти динӣ марказии ҳастанд, дар ҳоле, ки дар шеърҳо охирин ва storyline тасаллут ёбад. Manimekalai низ мавъиза ғояҳои

Баҳо додани интихобҳо аз Therigatha ва Manimekhalai
Интихобҳо аз Therigatha ва Manimekhalai


Вай дар пойгоҳи дарахти манго (amba) пайдо шуд. Вай афзуд, то бошад, хеле зебо ва ширин. Бисёр ҳокимони мехост уро ба занӣ гирад, то вай courtesan давлатӣ бо мақсади канорагирӣ аз баҳсҳо шуда буд. Баъдтар дар ҳаёти ӯ имконияти ба хизмат ғизо Буддо гирифтор шудаанд; Вай қарор кард, ки аз паи роҳи буддоӣ ва мавқеи вайро courtesan тарк.

Шеър дар бораи impermanence

Баръакси зебогии гузашта (бо истифодаи масалҳо) ба пирӣ ҷорӣ вай.

чун щутӣ атторї, ки пур аз blossoms ширин мӯи ман. Ҳамаи бо партовҳои
солҳои ҳоло ҳамчун бӯи курку харгӯш кард болоянд. Чунин ва на тартиби
дигаре машк ба rune, каломи коҳине. (253)

нирвана пас гуфт: ин оятҳоро расидааст; як arahant шуд

Боби 2

Овозаҳо рафта атрофи ки Madhavi дар рақсҳои карда намешавад иштирок дар ин ҷашнвора барои Indra
Дӯсти ў Vasantamala меравад сӯҳбат ба вай дар бораи он
Madhavi таҷассум ғояҳои як courtesan комил: зан санъати рақс, мусиқӣ
ва алоқаи ҷинсӣ азхуд карда буд, инчунин малакаҳои дигар омӯхта
ӯ дар бораи чӣ гуна дӯст медоранд, вай мурд сӯҳбат, ва ӯ метавонад ба ӯ
мотам на ҳамчун як зани худ кард, зеро ў буд, «зан ростқавл” нест.
ӯ ба Aravana Adigal дар ғами худ омаданд, ва Ӯ ба вай ҳимоят роҳи
буддоӣ, то вай метавонад як роҳи фирор аз азоби (ба воситаи 4 ҳақиқатҳои
ва 5 қоидаҳои рафтори) доранд,
ӯ мехоҳад, ки ин ба вай ва ба роҳи духтараш дар ҳаёт бошад,
намехоҳад, Manimekhalai бо тӯмору дунё ҳаёти courtesan ба ҷалб карда шаванд
бибии Manimekhalai меояд, то бидонед, ки ӯ аз ҷониби маъбад Осмон зиндамонда аз тарафи гадоӣ ва зиндагӣ ҳамчун роҳиба буддоӣ.
Вай ба мири, ки аз тарафи зебоии Manimekhalai Русия хеле маъқул буд,
меравад ва ба ӯ мегӯяд, ки рафта Manimekhalai бозгардонид ба суд ва
оилаи courtesans.
Ӯ меравад ва мегӯяд, ба вай (бар зидди урфу одат) ва мепурсад, ки чаро ӯ зинда, ки ба ҳаёт.
Вай љавоб (ӯ эҳсос вазифадор ҷавоб зеро ӯ ба шавҳараш дар як зиндагии
гузашта буд), ки дар бадани инсон аст, пур аз он андӯҳ ва ранҷу азоб, ва
ӯ интихоб кашад, ки ба гуна ҳаёт (ва ҳаловати дунё) ва ба ҷои кӯмак ба
Вай ба маъбад меравад ва тағйир намуди зоҳирии ӯ, то мири аст чап ҷустуҷӯ барои вай.

Боби 18

Ӯ духтари як goldsmith буд, ва ӯ хеле зебо буд. Вай Subha ном дошт, зеро вай аз ҳамчун «бахти» фикр карда шуд. Вай буддизм ҷорӣ карда шуд, вақте ки як Sage ба шаҳри вай омада, дар бораи роҳи рӯҳонӣ сухан мегуфт.
Оёти гуфта баъди нирвана мерасад
дар бораи чӣ гуна хоҳишҳои дунё бад ва ӯ интихоб кард, то ба онҳо тарк барои хушбахтии ӯ дар роҳи буддоӣ меёбад
Тавре ки духтари як goldsmith кард, вай аз тилло ва зару зевари он
иҳота шуд, вале ӯ интихоб кард, то онҳоро вогузорад ва барои роҳи
нирвана расидааст оид ба ҳашт рӯзи омӯзиши бошад роҳиба
Sumedha духтари подшоҳ буд. Вай боз ба шунидани таълимоти буддизм монанди кӯдак. Вақте
ки волидон ӯро интихоб кард, то ӯро дур ба шоҳзодаи дод, ӯ қарор вай
мехост, ки ба пайравӣ аз роҳи буддизм ( ‘битарсед ман дурӯғ дар ҳаёти
хона нест’).
Вай ќатъ хомӯш мӯи худ ва тарк хона.
Ин дар баробари ҳарф мезананд, пас ў arahant мегардад.
Вай достони вай тасвир
Он мард зан гумон буд, ки издивоҷ мекӯшад, ки ба вай фирефтани бо
ваъдаи ҳаёти сарватманд, ки бо сангҳои ва сарват, вале беист аст.
Ҳамчунин дар бораи чӣ гуна маводи молу хоҳишҳои impermanent ҳастанд сӯҳбат, ва ӯ дорад, ҳеҷ зарурате нест, ки дар гуна ҳаёт
«Мисли роҳбарони намебинанд мору омода ба дихед. Мисли сӯзон машъалҳо
…« маълумотнома ба мору ва оташ дар муқоиса ба ноустувории хоҳиши

Боби 6

Дар олиҳаи Manimekhala меояд Manimekhalai ва вай маслиҳат рафта, ба маъбад Осмон барои ҳифзи ӯ аз хоҳишҳои мири
Ҳикояи: ќитъаи замин бо девори атрофи он, бахшида ба мурда. Ҳар як гӯшаи дарвоза буд ва таъкид ба чор самт куллан. Дорои ҷойҳои дафн, сӯзондан, ё танҳо тарк мурдагон. Ба назар мерасад, ҷои махсус барои заноне, ки мурд ба якьо шудан ба шавҳарони худ марг нест. Дар майдони хеле creepy аст, бо садоҳои ва ҳодисоти марбут ба марг (skulls, vultures дуоҳо, нолаҳои хешованди). Ин аст, ки чаро он шаҳр мурдагон номида мешавад.
Shankalan тасодуфан дохил девор ва як sorceress ҷони худ дуздидааст. Модараш пурсид Gotami олиҳаи шаҳр ба Ӯ ҷони худро медиҳам. Вай гуфт, ин корро карда наметавонист. Вай бар худоёне, ки ба осмон, ки ҳамчунин гуфт, ки онҳо ин корро карда наметавонист подшоҳй номида мешавад. Gotami худ ва писараш ба тақдири қабул кард. Дар маъбади навбатӣ ба деворҳои, даъват маъбад Осмон таъсис дода шудааст.
Manimekhala гирифта хоб Manimekhalai ба ҷазираи дигар.
он чи муҳим аст, ки дар берун истода,
Manimekhalai: зани беҳтарин (courtesan vs. зан)
Бобњои аз 2 то 18 - ба courtesan беҳтарин
устоди санъат ва малакањои гуногун (рақс, мусиқӣ, ҷинс)
рақсҳои ошкоро Ҳадафи шавқи оташи, соҳиби пул то кас кардааст, чизе бештар диҳад
«Ҷалби одамон бо тӯмору ва бибандад онҳо бо санъати худ” pg. 74

Дар desecration маъбадҳо буддоӣ дар Ҳиндустон Ҷанубӣ

    Дар Kumbakaonam Nageswaran thirumanjana veedhi буд, ҳайкали Будда ном bagavarishi нест. Дар Nigandu мегӯяд, ки Буддо бо номи Vinayaka номида шуд. Дар давраи баъд аз бисёр маъбадҳои Буддо ҳамчун маъбадҳои Vinayaka табдил шуданд.

    Ба мусофирон Чин, ки дар 640 милодӣ Kancheepuram ташриф оварда,
қайд намуд, ки Kanchi буд, ки сад маъбадҳои Буддо ва ҳазор обидон.

    Бино ба Ananatha nayinar (1932), ки дар тасвирҳои Kanchi Kacheeswar маъбади Буддо дар заминаи таҳкурсии gopuram пайдо шуданд. Дар кӯл дар ғарб маъбад мисли Buththeri ва дар кӯча ҳамчун Buththeriththeru номида шуд. Аммо, чун, ки маъбад дидан касоне, сангҳои карда наметавонистанд муайян карда шавад. Ман тасвирҳои Буддо танҳо дар сутунҳои дид.

    Ман Pallavapuram наздик Kanchi оид ба 15.7.1946 ташриф овард. Дар
шафати дар Kinikiluppai, як ҳайкали Буддо дар бонкҳо як кӯли дар ҳамон
деҳа пайдо шуд, ман ба пойгоҳи ҳайкали Буддо хеле наздик маъбад Vinayaka
низ санге истода, бо Dharma Chakra буд. Онҳо ба маъбад Vinayaka бо demolishing маъбади Буддо сохта буд.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy бисёр маълумоти бештар дар китоби далели
тасвир ӯ аз мавҷудияти маъбадҳои Буддо ва табдили онон маъбадҳои ба Jain
ё маъбадҳои ҳиндуҳо ҷамъоварӣ кардааст.

……… ..Originally Kamatchi Амман маъбад як temple.There буддоӣ бисёре аз тасвирҳои Буддо дар ин маъбад буд шуданд. Яке аз тасвири Буддо, ки 6 фут тандиси истода аст, ки ҳоло дар Осорхонаи Ченнай. Дар суратҳо аз Буддо дид, ки дар зарфи маъбад карда наметавонистанд ҳоло пайдо шавад. Боре ман худам баъзе суратҳо санги дигар Буддо дар ҳолати хуб дар ин маъбад дид. Баъдтар ман тасвирҳои ҳамон шикаста пора .. Акнун ман ба ҳамон пайгирӣ не ………

……… .Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi ба deivams аз тарафи Buddhists дар Тамилӣ Nadu саҷда буданд. Баъдтар ин олиҳаи бар ҷониби ҳиндуҳо гирифта ва номгузорӣ ҳамчун Kali, Pidari ва Throubathai шуданд. Тадқиқотҳои
мегӯянд, ки Annapoorani Амман дар Kamatchi Амман маъбад воқеан
Manimehalai, ки Veeduperu дар Kancheepuram расидааст ва маъбад Kamatchi
Амман аст, дар асл маъбади Tharadeviamman тааллуқ Buddhists аст.

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