LESSON 2927 Sun 10 Mar 2019
(Discourse on the Net of Perfect Wisdom )
in 29) classical English, Roman,52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
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How To Create Animated GIFs & BOOST Your Social Media Engagement
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Published on Mar 27, 2018
Animated GIFs are one of the most popular communication tools in social media 🗣️
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0:37 | Why make animated GIFs
1:55 | Important rules to make GIFs
2:25 | Step-by-Step Guide to make GIFs
It is actually pretty easy to make animated GIFs, and you can increase
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You can easily create your face gif by using this apploication..
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How to Make Fading Animated GIFs With GIMP (FREE!)
Published on Dec 27, 2013
In this tutorial, I show how I created an animated GIF with fading images, using the free image editing software, GIMP!
(Also, see my tutorial for creating animated fading GIFs using Photoshop Elements 7.0:
Have fun creating your own fading GIFs for Tumblr, or anywhere else animated GIFs are supported!
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You Need To See This Hand-Drawn Animated GIF
Published on Jun 28, 2018
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Learn Kurmanji Online
A comprehensive, online, free source for English speakers who want to learn Kurmanji Kurdish.
This site is designed to teach Kurmanji Kurdish in small bite-sized
increments using a systematic, step by step approach. As much as
possible, we aim to explain things in everyday terms, give real life
examples, and provide vocabulary and exercises with each lesson.
Lesson 15 has been added! This lesson covers the present tense verb, both present simple and present continuous.
Features of This Site
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Features of LearnKurmanji.com
A systematic approach, beginning with the basic building blocks of
Kurmanji and progressing to advanced structures and topics. It may be
tempting to jump straight into the verb tenses, but you’ll regret it,
especially if you skip over lessons 8-11!
Grammar in Everyday Language
Learning grammar, one way or another, is a necessary element of
learning language. As much as possible, our lessons aim to explain how
Kurmanji works in everyday terms. But on occasion, we’ll give some
slightly fuller explanations for the grammar geeks as well.
Lots of Audio
Virtually every lesson includes audio of native speakers. Whether it’s
vocabulary lists, example sentences, dialogues, or texts, you can hear
the sounds of Kurmanji and download recordings for listening practice.
Links for audio files are included on the Lessons page.
From our Quizlet account, we’ve made flashcards for most of our
lessons. These are embedded in the lessons but can also be downloaded to
smart phones and tablets via the Quizlet app, which is available in the
Google Play Store and the App Store.
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Exercises for Practice
Applying what you study is the only way to learn, especially when it
comes to language. Our lessons include exercises to encourage you to
practice. These exercises, also done with Quizlet flashcards, allow you
to create various types of tests for yourself and get immediate feedback
which shows questions missed and correct answers. See this page for
instructions on creating tests with these Quizlet exercises.
Texts and Dialogues
After laying some foundational building blocks, a number of lessons
include texts and dialogues to help you learn everything in context.
These texts cover a range of topics to build vocabulary and also focus
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A01 Introduction to Abhidhamma - 1
Published on May 31, 2012
presents to you the Dhamma talks on Introduction to Abhidhamma, by
Venerable Sayādaw U Sīlānanda, given at Zen Center, San Francisco.
The Basket of Abhidhamma
Editor’s note: There are currently no translations from the Abhidhamma at Access to Insight.
The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the third division of the
Tipitaka, offer an extraordinarily detailed analysis of the basic
natural principles that govern mental and physical processes. Whereas
the Sutta and Vinaya Pitakas lay out the practical aspects of the
Buddhist path to Awakening, the Abhidhamma Pitaka provides a theoretical
framework to explain the causal underpinnings of that very path. In
Abhidhamma philosophy the familiar psycho-physical universe (our world
of “trees” and “rocks,” “I” and “you”) is distilled to its essence: an
intricate web of impersonal phenomena and processes unfolding at an
inconceivably rapid pace from moment to moment, according to precisely
defined natural laws.
According to tradition, the essence of the
Abhidhamma was formulated by the Buddha during the fourth week after his
Enlightenment. Seven years later he is said to have spent three
consecutive months preaching it in its entirety in one of the deva
realms, before an audience of thousands of devas (including his late
mother, the former Queen Maya), each day briefly commuting back to the
human realm to convey to Ven. Sariputta the essence of what he had just
taught. Sariputta mastered the Abhidhamma and codified it into
roughly its present form. Although parts of the Abhidhamma were recited
at the earlier Buddhist Councils, it wasn’t until the Third Council (ca.
250 BCE) that it became fixed into its present form as the third and
final Pitaka of the canon.
Despite its relatively late
entrance into the Canon, the Abhidhamma stands as an essential pillar of
classical Theravada Buddhist thought. Its significance does, however,
vary considerably across regional and cultural boundaries. In Thai
Buddhism, for example, the Abhidhamma (and, for that matter, many of the
Commentaries as well) play a relatively minor role in Buddhist doctrine
and practice. In Sri Lanka and Myanmar (Burma), however, they hold the
same venerated status as the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas themselves. The
modern Burmese approach to the teaching and practice of Satipatthana
meditation, in particular, relies heavily on an Abhidhammic
interpretation of meditative experience. Regardless of the Abhidhamma’s
position on the shelf of Buddhist canonical texts, the astonishing
detail with which it methodically constructs a quasi-scientific model of
mind (enough, by far, to make a modern systems theorist or cognitive
scientist gasp in awe), insures its place in history as a monumental
feat of intellectual genius.
The seven books
Pitaka is divided into seven books, although it is the first
(Dhammasangani) and last (Patthana) that together lay out the essence of
Abhidhamma philosophy. The seven books are:
I. Dhammasangani (”Enumeration of Phenomena”).
This book enumerates all the paramattha dhamma (ultimate realities)
to be found in the world. According to one such enumeration these
52 cetasikas (mental factors), which, arising together in various combination, give rise to any one of…
…89 different possible cittas (states of consciousness)
4 primary physical elements, and 23 physical phenomena derived from them
Buddhist Psychological Ethics, translated from the Pali by C.A.F. Rhys Davids (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1900).
II. Vibhanga (”The Book of Treatises”).
This book continues the analysis of the Dhammasangani, here in the form of a catechism.
The Book of Analysis, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Thittila (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1969).
III. Dhatukatha (”Discussion with Reference to the Elements”).
A reiteration of the foregoing, in the form of questions and answers.
Discourse on Elements, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1962).
IV. Puggalapaññatti (”Description of Individuals”).
Somewhat out of place in the Abhidhamma Pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a number of personality-types.
A Designation of Human Types, translated from the Pali by B.C. Law (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1922).
V. Kathavatthu (”Points of Controversy”).
Another odd inclusion in the Abhidhamma, this book contains
questions and answers that were compiled by Moggaliputta Tissa in the
3rd century BCE, in order to help clarify points of controversy that
existed between the various “Hinayana” schools of Buddhism at the time.
Points of Controversy, translated from the Pali by S.Z.
Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1915).
VI. Yamaka (”The Book of Pairs”).
This book is a logical analysis of many concepts presented in the
earlier books. In the words of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an eminent 20th century
Pali scholar, the ten chapters of the Yamaka amount to little more than
“ten valleys of dry bones.”
VII. Patthana (”The Book of Relations”).
This book, by far the longest single volume in the Tipitaka (over
6,000 pages in the Siamese edition), describes the 24 paccayas, or laws
of conditionality, through which the dhammas interact. These laws, when
applied in every possible permutation with the dhammas described in the
Dhammasangani, give rise to all knowable experience.
Conditional Relations (vol I), translated from the Pali by
Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1969). Part I of the
Tika-patthana section of the Patthana.
Relations (vol II), translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford:
Pali Text Society, 1981). Part II of the Tika-patthana section of the
A Guide to Conditional Relations, translated
from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1978). An
introduction and guide to the first 12 pages (!) of the Patthana.
The Abhidhamma Pitaka has a well-deserved reputation for being dense
and difficult reading. The best way to begin studying Abhidhamma is not
to dive right into its two key books (Dhammasangani and Patthana), but
to explore some of the more modern — and readable — commentarial texts.
These will help you get oriented to the Abhidhamma’s challenging
The Abhidhamma in Practice, by N.K.G. Mendis (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society Wheel Publication 322, 1985).
Buddhist Philosophy of Relations, by Ven. Ledi Sayadaw (Wheel
publication No. 331; Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1986). An
excellent introduction to the Patthana, the most difficult of the
Abhidhamma books, which explains each of the 24 conditional relations by
which the dhammas interact.
Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma,
A: The Abhidhamma Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.
(Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993). This book, an expanded
treatment of Ven. Narada’s classic A Manual of Abhidhamma (see below),
should be required reading for every Abhidhamma student. It gives a
remarkably lucid and insightful overview of Abhidhamma philosophy. Even
if you read no further than the Introduction, your efforts will be well
Dhamma Theory, The: Philosophical Cornerstone of the
Abhidhamma, by Y. Karunadasa (Wheel publication No. 412/413; Kandy:
Buddhist Publication Society, 1996). The Dhamma Theory is the
fundamental principle on which the entire Abhidhamma is based: that all
empirical phenomena are made up of a number of elementary constituents —
dhammas — the ultimate realities that lie behind manifest phenomena.
This short book offers a good overview of the philosophical and
analytical methods used in Abhidhamma.
Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka, by Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).
Manual of Abhidhamma, A: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha of
Anuruddhacariya (fourth edition), translated from the Pali by Ven.
Narada Maha Thera (Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1979).
Available online at BuddhaSasana. A classic work that provides an
excellent introduction to the essentials of Abhidhamma study. Largely
superseded by Bhikkhu Bodhi’s expanded and more thoroughly annotated A
Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhamma Sangaha of Acariya
Anuruddha (see above) but useful in its compactness.
and Philosophy of Buddhism, The: An Introduction to the Abhidhamma, by
Dr. W.F. Jayasuriya (Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1988).
Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne, 1994), p. 1.
From the Atthasalini, as described in Great Disciples of the
Buddha, by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Somerville: Wisdom
Publications, 1997), pp. 45-46.
composed during the Third Council, was the final addition to the
Abhidhamma Pitaka. See Guide Through the Abdhidhamma Pitaka, by
Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983), p xi.