Free Online FOOD for MIND & HUNGER - DO GOOD 😊 PURIFY MIND.To live like free birds 🐦 🦢 🦅 grow fruits 🍍 🍊 🥑 🥭 🍇 🍌 🍎 🍉 🍒 🍑 🥝 vegetables 🥦 🥕 🥗 🥬 🥔 🍆 🥜 🎃 🫑 🍅🍜 🧅 🍄 🍝 🥗 🥒 🌽 🍏 🫑 🌳 🍓 🍊 🥥 🌵 🍈 🌰 🇧🇧 🫐 🍅 🍐 🫒Plants 🌱in pots 🪴 along with Meditative Mindful Swimming 🏊‍♂️ to Attain NIBBĀNA the Eternal Bliss.
Kushinara NIBBĀNA Bhumi Pagoda White Home, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru, Prabuddha Bharat International.

March 2019
« Feb   Apr »
LESSON 2928 Mon 11 Mar 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Abhidhamma Pitaka in Brief The Basket of Abhidhamma Brahmajālasuttaṃ Paribbājakakathā Brahmajala Sutta (Discourse on the Net of Perfect Wisdom ) in 29) classical English, Roman,60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 4:45 pm

LESSON 2928 Mon 11 Mar 2019
Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Outline of Buddhism



Brahmajala Sutta
(Discourse on the Net of Perfect Wisdom )

60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
Tipiaka (Mla)
1 Brahmajlasutt
🔴 Relaxing Meditation Music 24/7, Relaxing Music, Sleep Music, Meditation Music, Study Music
YellowBrickCinema - Relaxing Music
Started streaming on Mar 5, 2019
Relaxing Meditation Music 24/7, Relaxing Music, Sleep Music, Meditation
Music, Study Music - Yellow Brick Cinema’s 24/7 meditation music videos
provide calming music to promote inner peace. Use our music for
meditation as background music to bring soothing relaxation to your
body-mind. This peaceful music is ideal relaxing music for autogenic
practice and music for stress relief. Our instrumental music is deep
healing music releasing positive energy and clearing subconscious
negativity and therefore is ideal yoga music. When you need music for
insomnia, our relaxing sleep music with its ambient, soothing sounds,
will help you fall asleep. This soft, sleep meditation music with its
embedded delta waves, is essential deep sleep music. So, you can choose
to use our beautiful music as meditation music, relaxation music, music
for sleep, healing music or yoga music.

Thanks for tuning in to
our relaxing meditation music! Introduce yourself to the Yellow Brick
Cinema community in the chat box and let us know where in the world
you’re listening from. Enjoy! Love, Margie.

Be sure to visit and subscribe to Yellow Brick Cinema to enjoy our full selection of relaxing music. SUBSCRIBE:

To listen to Yellow Brick Cinema’s music offline, buy our music on iTunes:

Yellow Brick Cinema’s music for meditation will support your meditation
practice, providing you with unobtrusive instrumental music to help you
focus as you develop your meditative mind. Our meditation music can
support your personal practice whether it be om mantra meditation,
chakra balancing, shamanic healing energy rituals or developing
mindfulness. Our peaceful music provides background music for you to
relax to while you remove negative energy from various parts of your
body and inhale positive energy. Should you decide to use sleep
meditation music as part of your sleep meditation practice, this calming
music will gently soothe your body-mind. This meditation and healing
time prior to sleep can profoundly alter your state of inner peace.
Experience our sleeping music and notice how you feel more grounded,
centred and full of positive energy.

Yellow Brick Cinema’s
relaxation music is peaceful music that can be used for soothing
relaxation or as study music. Because our calming music uses soft
instrumental music and beautiful piano music, it is deeply relaxing
music. As such it is ideal music for stress relief, with the ambient
music soothing your tiredness and tension as you unwind. Use this
relaxation music as background music when you study, and you will find
that you can concentrate more easily. Its relaxing sounds make it
perfect sleep music, lulling you away from insomnia and into dreamland.
If you want sleeping music for your baby, then our instrumental new age
music will tenderly help calm and relax your little one.

Brick Cinema’s meditation music can be used to support many healing
practices. Our deep healing music uses solfeggio frequencies to bring
about inner balance and positive energy. Use this relaxing music as
background music to remove negative energy and let the healing music
bring soothing stress relief. Our healing meditation music, with its
528hz miracle tone, can support you on your journey to inner peace and
aid your meditation practice. Soothing music that doesn’t distract can
assist you on our journey to developing a meditative mind. Meditation
and healing are supported when we rest and relax mind, body and soul.
Use our relaxation music to help you unwind and enter a sleep meditation
state. Then let our sleep music, which is healing music for body and
soul, revitalise you.

Yellow Brick Cinema’s instrumental music
for meditation can be combined with yoga to facilitate healing,
relaxation and focus. Meditation music as background music during a yoga
workout, helps practitioners to find stillness and flow in their
movements. This calming music is positive energy music, making poses
feel effortless. The binaural beats embedded in our music for yoga will
let you deepen your yoga meditation practice. Find beautiful flute
instrumental Indian music, dream music for soothing relaxation, chakra
healing music or guided meditations to enhance your yoga journey.

Yellow Brick Cinema’s Shamanic meditation music and Tibetan music
provides soothing music for meditation. The Shamanic music uses a
continuous sound and nature sounds which you can use as new age healing
music or as yoga music. The Tibetan flute music, which incorporates
Tibetan bowls sounds is powerful Himalayan music.

To listen to our other relaxing music, check out the playlists on our homepage:


Relaxing Meditation Music 24/7, Relaxing Music, Sleep Music, Meditation Music, Study Music
Relaxing Meditation Music 24/7, Relaxing Music,…

61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,…
Tipiṭaka (mula)
1. Brahmajālasuttaṃ
Sleep Meditation Music, Meditation Relax Music, Sleeping Music, Calming Music - #109
Jason Stephenson - Sleep Meditation Music
Published on Mar 6, 2019
Wishing you better sleep, peaceful meditations before sleep and inspired living. Click here to subscribe to our channel:… Please reach out and say hello on our other social media platforms listed below:

~ iTunes Store:
~ YOUTUBE SUBSCRIBE: sleep meditation channel:
~ YOUTUBE SUBSCRIBE: Life Expansion:
~ YOUTUBE SUBSCRIBE: Binaural Beats Sounds:
~ Instagram: @jasonstephensonmeditation

Jason Stephenson’s Life Expansion Merchandise Store:

© JASON STEPHENSON & RELAX ME ONLINE AUSTRALIA PTY LTD Copyright 2018 All rights reserved.

This work is not intended to substitute for professional medical or
counselling advice. If you suffer from a physical or mental illness,
please always seek professional help.

For professional online therapy. I recommend trained counsellors from “Better Help”:
(Please note: I do not work for these guys. I am an affiliate. (Plans
start at $35.00 per week.) I have suggested many people to them and from
all reports, they match the best counsellor with the client. All
therapists are PROFESSIONAL COUNSELLORS. ) Being transparent to you, if
you sign up with them, I am offered a small percentage of the fee -
however, please be assured, I am only recommending them due to their
worthiness and the feedback I have received from my subscribers.


Wishing you better sleep, peaceful meditations before sleep and inspired living. Click here to subscribe to…

Outline of Buddhism
Connected to: Buddhism Gautama Buddha Buddhahood
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dharmacakra, symbol of the Dharma, the Buddha’s teaching of the path to enlightenment
Dharmacakra, symbol of the Dharma, the Buddha’s teaching of the path to enlightenment

Buddhism (Pali/Sanskrit: बौद्ध धर्म Buddha Dharma) is a religion and
philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices,
largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly
known as the Buddha, “the awakened one”.

The following outline is provided as an overview of, and topical guide to, Buddhism.
The Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha

Tathāgata — meaning “Thus Come One” and “Thus Gone One”
simultaneously, the epithet the Buddha uses most often to refer to
himself; occasionally it is used as a general designation for a person
who has reached the highest attainment
Buddha’s Birthday
The Four Sights — observations that affected Prince Siddhartha deeply
and made him realize the sufferings of all beings, and compelled him to
begin his spiritual journey
An old man
A sick man
A dead man
An ascetic
Qualities of the Buddha
Abandonment of all defilements (kilesa — principally greed,
hatred and delusion) together with their residual impressions (vasana)
All defilements have been abandoned totally — all defilements have been destroyed with none remaining
All defilements have been abandoned completely — each defilement has been destroyed at the root, without residue
All defilements have been abandoned finally — no defilement can ever arise again in the future
Acquisition of all virtues
Great Wisdom (Mahapaññā)
Extensiveness of range — understanding the totality of existent phenomena
Profundity of view — understanding the precise mode of existence of each phenomenon
Great Compassion (Maha-karuṇā)
Physical characteristics of the Buddha
Buddha footprint
Buddha statue (Buddharupa)
Iconography of Gautama Buddha in Laos and Thailand
Depictions of Gautama Buddha in film
Miracles of Gautama Buddha
List of places where Gautama Buddha stayed
Colours of Buddha’s aura (prabashvara)
Sapphire blue (nila)
Golden yellow (pita)
Crimson (lohita)
White (odata)
Scarlet (manjesta)
Family of Gautama Buddha
Śuddhodana (father)
Māyā (mother)
Yasodharā (wife)
Rāhula (son)
Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī (foster mother)
Nanda (half-brother)
Ānanda (cousin)
Anuruddha (cousin)
Devadatta (cousin)
Teachers of the Bodhisatta Gotama
Āḷāra Kālāma — taught Gautama the Jhanic Stage of nothingness
Uddaka Rāmaputta — taught Gautama the Jhanic Stage of neither perception nor non-perception
Gautama Buddha in world religions
Gautama Buddha in Hinduism

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of…

Branches of Buddhism
Schools of Buddhism

Schools of Buddhism

Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE)

450 BCE[note 1] 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE[note 2]



Early Buddhist schools Mahāyāna Vajrayāna

Sri Lanka &
Southeast Asia


Tibetan Buddhism




East Asia

Early Buddhist schools
and Mahāyāna
(via the silk road
to China, and ocean
contact from India to Vietnam)


Nara (Rokushū)


Thiền, Seon
Tiantai / Jìngtǔ




Central Asia & Tarim Basin


Silk Road Buddhism

450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE
Legend: = Theravada = Mahayana = Vajrayana = Various / syncretic

Theravada — literally, “the Teaching of the Elders” or “the Ancient
Teaching”, it is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in
India. It is relatively conservative, and generally closer to early
Buddhism,[2] and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of
Sri Lanka (now about 70% of the population[3]) and most of continental
Southeast Asia.

Sangharaj Nikaya
Mahasthabir Nikaya
Thudhamma Nikaya
Vipassana tradition of Mahasi Sayadaw
Shwekyin Nikaya
Dvaya Nikaya or Dvara Nikaya
Sri Lanka:
Siam Nikaya
Amarapura Nikaya
Ramañña Nikaya
Maha Nikaya
Dhammakaya Movement
Thammayut Nikaya
Thai Forest Tradition
Tradition of Ajahn Chah


Mahayana — literally the “Great Vehicle”, it is the largest school of
Buddhism, and originated in India. The term is also used for
classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. According to the
teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, “Mahāyāna” also refers to the path of
seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings,
also called “Bodhisattvayāna”, or the “Bodhisattva Vehicle.”[4][5]

Sanlun (Three Treatise school)
Maha-Madhyamaka (Jonangpa)
Cittamatra in Tibet
Wei-Shi (Consciousness-only school) or Faxiang (Dharma-character school)
Daśabhūmikā (absorbed into Huayan)
Huayan (Avataṃsaka)
Chán / Zen / Seon / Thien
Keizan line
Jakuen line
Giin line
Won Buddhism: Korean Reformed Buddhism
Pure Land (Amidism)
Jodo Shu
Jodo Shinshu
Tiantai (Lotus Sutra School)
Tendai (also contains Vajrayana elements)
Nichiren Shū
Nichiren Shōshū
Nipponzan Myōhōji
Soka Gakkai


The vajra, a distinct symbol of Vajrayana
The vajra, a distinct symbol of Vajrayana

Tibetan Buddhism
New Bön (synthesis of Yungdrung Bön and Nyingmapa)
Shangpa Kagyu
Marpa Kagyu:
Rechung Kagyu
Dagpo Kagyu:
Karma Kagyu (or Kamtshang Kagyu)
Tsalpa Kagyu
Baram Kagyu
Pagtru Kagyu (or Phagmo Drugpa Kagyu):
Taglung Kagyu
Trophu Kagyu
Drukpa Kagyu
Martsang Kagyu
Yerpa Kagyu
Yazang Kagyu
Shugseb Kagyu
Drikung Kagyu
Rime movement (ecumenical movement)
Japanese Mikkyo

Image may contain: 1 person, indoor

Early Buddhist schools

Early Buddhist schools

Ekavyahārikas (during Aśoka)
Golulaka (during Aśoka)
Bahuśrutīya (late third century BCE)
Prajñaptivāda (late third century BCE)
Caitika (mid-first century BCE)
Apara Śaila
Uttara Śaila
Pudgalavāda (’Personalist’) (c. 280 BCE)
Vatsīputrīya (during Aśoka) later name: Saṃmitīya
Vibhajjavāda (prior to 240 BCE; during Aśoka)
Theravāda (c. 240 BCE)
Mahīśāsaka (after 232 BCE)
Dharmaguptaka (after 232 BCE)
Sarvāstivāda (c. 237 BCE)
Kāśyapīya (after 232 BCE)
Sautrāntika (between 50 BCE and c. 100 CE)
Mūlasarvāstivāda (3rd and 4th centuries)

Buddhist modernism

Buddhist modernism

Humanistic Buddhism
Sōka Gakkai
Vipassana movement
New Kadampa Tradition
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order
Fo Guang Shan

Buddhism worldwide

Buddhism by country
Percentage of formal/practicing Buddhists by the numbers of registered adherents (according to the least estimates).
Percentage of formal/practicing Buddhists by the numbers of registered adherents (according to the least estimates).
Percentage of cultural/nominal adherents of combined Buddhism with its related religions (according to the highest estimates).
Percentage of cultural/nominal adherents of combined Buddhism with its related religions (according to the highest estimates).

Buddhism by country
Buddhism in the East
Buddhism in South Asia
Tamil Buddhism
Buddhism in Central Asia
Buddhism in Southeast Asia
East Asian Buddhism
Buddhism in the Middle East
Buddhism in the West
Buddhism in the Americas
Buddhism in Central America
Buddhism in Australia
Buddhism in Europe
Buddhism in Africa

Buddhism in Africa
Buddhism in North America
Buddhism in South America
Buddhism in Asia
Buddhism in Europe
Buddhism in Oceania

Navaneetham Chandrasekharan
Write a comment…

Buddhist scriptures and texts

Buddhist texts
Theravada texts

Pali literature
A collection of the Pali canon.
A collection of the Pali canon.

Pāli Canon (Tipitaka)
Vinaya Pitaka — Basket of Discipline
Patimokkha — Buddhist Monastic Code
Sutta Pitaka — Basket of Discourses
Digha Nikaya — the Long Discourses
Brahmajala Sutta — Discourse on the Net of Perfect Wisdom
Samaññaphala Sutta — The Fruit of Contemplative Life Discourse
Kevatta Sutta
Mahaparinibbana Sutta — The Last Days of the Buddha
Mahasatipatthana Sutta — The Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness
Aggañña Sutta
Sigalovada Sutta
Majjhima Nikaya — the Middle-length Discourses
Sammaditthi Sutta — Discourse on Right View
Satipatthana Sutta — The Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness
Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta
Anapanasati Sutta — Discourse on Mindfulness of Breathing
Samyutta Nikaya — the Connected Discourses
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta — Setting Rolling the Wheel of Truth (Buddha’s first discourse)
Anattalakkhana Sutta — The Nonself Characteristic (Buddha’s second discourse)
Fire Sermon — Buddha’s third discourse
Anguttara Nikaya — the Numerical Discourses
Dighajanu Sutta
Dona Sutta
Kalama Sutta
Upajjhatthana Sutta — Subjects for Contemplation
Khuddaka Nikaya — the Minor Collection
Mangala Sutta
Ratana Sutta
Karaṇīya Mettā Sutta — The Hymn of Universal Love
Dhammapada — The Path of Truth
Udana — Inspired utterances
Uraga Vagga
Rhinoceros Horn Sutra
Metta Sutta
Cula Vagga
Ratana Sutta
Mangala Sutta
Dhammika Sutta
Maha Vagga
Atthaka Vagga
Parayana Vagga
Theragatha — Verses of the Elder Monks
Therigatha — Verses of the Elder Nuns
Jataka tales — Buddha’s former lives
Patisambhidamagga — Path of discrimination
Abhidhamma Pitaka — Basket of Ultimate Doctrine
Anupitaka — non-canonical or extra-canonical Pāli literature
Paracanonical texts
Commentaries — commentaries on the Tipitaka
Subcommentaries — commentaries on the commentaries on the Tipitaka
Visuddhimagga — The Path of Purification, considered the most
important Theravada text outside of the Tipitaka canon of scriptures
Vimuttimagga — The Path of Freedom, manual of meditation
Abhidhammattha Sangaha — A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma

Navaneetham Chandrasekharan

Mahayana texts
The Tripitaka Koreana in storage at Haeinsa.
The Tripitaka Koreana in storage at Haeinsa.

Mahayana sutras
Angulimaliya Sutra
Brahmajala Sutra
Innumerable Meanings Sutra
Lalitavistara Sutra
Lankavatara Sutra
Lotus Sutra
Perfection of Wisdom sutras (Prajñāpāramitā)
Diamond Sutra
Heart Sutra
Ten Stages Sutra
Vimalakirti-nirdesa Sutra
Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment
Platform Sutra
Amitabha Sutra
Avatamsaka Sutra
Contemplation Sutra
Infinite Life Sutra
Mahaparinirvana Sutra
Mahasamnipata Sutra
Sanghata Sutra
Shurangama Sutra
Sutra of Forty-Two Sections
Sutra of Golden Light
Sutra of The Great Vows of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva
Ullambana Sutra
Chinese Buddhist canon
Tripitaka Koreana

Navaneetham Chandrasekharan
Write a comment…

Vajrayana texts

Buddhist Tantras
Guhyasamāja Tantra
Mahavairocana Tantra
Vajrasekhara Sutra
Hevajra Tantra
Cakrasaṃvara Tantra
Guhyagarbha tantra
Shurangama Sutra
Kalachakra Tantra
Nyingma Gyubum
Guhyagarbha tantra
Kulayarāja Tantra
Seventeen tantras of Dzogchen
Vima Nyingtik
Longchen Nyingthig
Tibetan Buddhist canon
Terma (hidden treasure) literature
Bardo Thodol

History of Buddhism

History of Buddhism

Timeline of Buddhism
Early Buddhism
Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhist councils
First Buddhist council
Second Buddhist council
Third Buddhist council
Fourth Buddhist council
Fifth Buddhist council
Sixth Buddhist council
World Buddhist Forum, 2006
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
History of Buddhism in India
Decline of Buddhism in India
Buddhism and the Roman world
Buddhist crisis

Doctrines of Buddhism
Core Buddhist concepts and their relationships
Core Buddhist concepts and their relationships
The relationship between the major concepts in Buddhism
The relationship between the major concepts in Buddhism

Main articles: Dharma (Buddhism) and Glossary of Buddhism
Three Jewels (Tiratana • Triratna)
The triratna, a symbol of the Three Jewels
The triratna, a symbol of the Three Jewels

Three Jewels

Buddha — Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One, the Awakened One, the Teacher
Accomplished (arahaṃ • arhat)
Fully enlightened (sammā-sambuddho • samyak-saṃbuddha)
Perfect in true knowledge and conduct (vijjā-caraṇa sampanno • vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpanna)
Sublime (sugato • sugata)
Knower of the worlds (lokavidū • loka-vid)
Incomparable leader of persons to be tamed (anuttaro purisa-damma-sārathi • puruṣa-damya-sārathi)
Teacher of devas and humans (satthā deva-manussānaṃ • śāsta deva-manuṣyāṇaṃ)
The Enlightened One (buddho)
The Blessed One (bhagavā • bhagavat)
Dhamma (Dharma) — the cosmic principle of truth, lawfulness, and
virtue discovered, fathomed, and taught by the Buddha; the Buddha’s
teaching as an expression of that principle; the teaching that leads to
enlightenment and liberation
Well expounded by the Blessed One (svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo • svākhyāta)
Directly visible (sandiṭṭhiko • sāṃdṛṣṭika)
Timeless (akāliko • akālika)
Inviting one to come and see (ehi-passiko • ehipaśyika)
Worthy of application (opanayiko • avapraṇayika)
To be personally experienced by the wise (paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi • pratyātmaṃ veditavyo vijñaiḥ)
Saṅgha (Saṃgha) — the spiritual community, which is twofold (1) the
monastic Saṅgha, the order of monks and nuns; and (2) the noble Saṅgha,
the spiritual community of noble disciples who have reached the stages
of world-transcending realization
Practicing the good way (supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka-saṅgho)
Practicing the straight way (ujupaṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka-saṅgho)
Practicing the true way (ñāyapaṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka-saṅgho)
Practicing the proper way (sāmīcipaṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka-saṅgho)
Worthy of gifts (āhuṇeyyo)
Worthy of hospitality (pāhuṇeyyo)
Worthy of offerings (dakkhiṇeyyo)
Worthy of reverential salutation (añjalikaraṇīyo)
The unsurpassed field of merit for the world (anuttaraṃ puññākkhettaṃ lokassā)

Navaneetham Chandrasekharan
Write a comment…


our Noble Truths (Cattāri ariyasaccāni • Catvāri āryasatyāni)

Four Noble Truths
1. The Noble Truth of Suffering (Dukkha ariya sacca)

Suffering (dukkha • duḥkha) — to be fully understood (pariññeyya)
Dukkha as intrinsic suffering, as bodily or mental pain (dukkha-dukkha)
birth (jāti)
old age (jarā)
illness (byādhi)
death (maraṇa)
sorrow (soka)
lamentation (parideva)
pain (dukkha)
grief (domanassa)
despair (upāyāsā)
Dukkha due to change (vipariṇāma-dukkha)
Association with the unpleasant (appiyehi sampayogo)
Separation from the pleasant (piyehi vippayogo)
Not to get what one wants (yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi)
Dukkha of conditioned formations (saṅkhāra-dukkha)
Five aggregates of clinging (pañcupādānakkhandha)
material form (rūpa)
feeling (vedanā)
perception (saññā • samjñā)
mental formations (saṅkhāra • samskāra)
consciousness (viññāṇa • vijñāna)

2. The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (Dukkha samudaya ariya sacca)

Craving (taṇhā • tṛṣṇā) (samudaya) — to be abandoned (pahātabba)
Craving for sensual pleasures (kāma taṇhā)
Craving for existence (bhava taṇhā)
Craving for non-existence (vibhava taṇhā)

3. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Dukkha nirodha ariya sacca)

Nirvana (Nibbāna • Nirvāṇa) (nirodha) — to be realized (sacchikātabba)
Nibbāna element with residue remaining (sa-upādisesa nibbānadhātu • sopadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa)
Nibbāna element with no residue remaining (anupādisesa
nibbānadhātu • nir-upadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa) — Parinirvana (parinibbāna •

4. The Noble Truth of the Path of Practice leading to the Cessation of Suffering (Dukkha nirodha gāminī paṭipadā ariya sacca)

Noble Eightfold Path (Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo • Ārya ‘ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ) — to be developed (bhāvetabba)
Right view
Right intention
Right speech
Right action
Right livelihood
Right effort
Right mindfulness
Right concentration

Three Characteristics of Existence (Tilakkhaṇa • Trilakṣaṇa)

Three marks of existence

Impermanence (anicca • anitya)
Suffering (dukkha • duḥkha)
Nonself (anattā • anātman)

Five Aggregates (Pañca khandha • Pañca-skandha)


Form (rūpa)
Four Great Elements (mahābhūta)
Earth element (paṭhavī-dhātu)
Water (or liquid) element (āpo-dhātu)
Fire (or heat) element (tejo-dhātu)
Air (or wind) element (vāyo-dhātu)
Feeling (vedanā)
Pleasant feeling (sukha)
Painful feeling (dukkha • duḥkha)
Neither-painful-nor-pleasant (neutral) feeling (adukkham-asukhā)
Perception (saññā • samjñā)
Mental formations (saṅkhāra • samskāra) — see below
Consciousness (viññāṇa • vijñāna)

Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppāda • Pratītyasamutpāda)

Main article: Pratītyasamutpāda
Specific Conditionality (Idappaccayatā)

Main article: Idappaccayatā
When this is, that is.
From the arising of this comes the arising of that.
When this isn’t, that isn’t.
From the cessation of this comes the cessation of that. Imasmiṃ sati, idaṃ hoti.
Imass’ uppādā, idaṃ uppajjati.
Imasmiṃ asati, idaṃ na hoti.
Imassa nirodhā, idhaṃ nirujjhati.
Twelve Links (Nidāna)

Main article: Twelve Nidānas

Describes how suffering arises.

Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
Not knowing suffering
Not knowing the origin of suffering
Not knowing the cessation of suffering
Not knowing the way leading to the cessation of suffering
Volitional formations (saṅkhāra • saṃskāra)
Bodily formation
Verbal formation
Mental formation
Consciousness (viññāṇa • vijñāna)
Name and form (nāmarūpa)
Name (nāma)
Feeling (vedanā)
Perception (saññā • samjñā)
Volition (cetanā)
Contact (phassa)
Attention (manasikāra)
Form (rūpa)
Four Great Elements
Earth — solidity
Water — fluidity
Fire — heat
Wind — oscillation
Six sense bases (saḷāyatana • ṣaḍāyatana)
Contact (phassa • sparśa)
Feeling (vedanā)
Feeling born of eye-contact
Feeling born of ear-contact
Feeling born of nose-contact
Feeling born of tongue-contact
Feeling born of body-contact
Feeling born of mind-contact
Craving (taṇhā • tṛṣṇā)
Craving for forms
Craving for sounds
Craving for odors
Craving for flavors
Craving for tangibles
Craving for mind-objects
Clinging (upādāna)
Clinging to sensual pleasures (kāmupādāna)
Clinging to views (diṭṭhupādāna)
Clinging to rituals and observances (sīlabbatupādāna)
Clinging to a doctrine of self (attavādupādāna)
Becoming (bhava)
Sense-sphere becoming
Fine-material becoming
Immaterial becoming
Birth (jāti)
Old age and death (jarāmaraṇa)

Transcendental Dependent Origination

Describes the path out of suffering.

Suffering (dukkha • duḥkha)
Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
Joy (pāmojja)
Rapture (pīti • prīti)
Tranquillity (passaddhi)
Happiness (sukha)
Concentration (samādhi)
Knowledge and vision of things as they really are (yathābhūta-ñāna-dassana)
Disenchantment with worldly life (nibbidā)
Dispassion (virāga)
Freedom (vimutti)
Knowledge of destruction of the taints (āsava-khaye-ñāna)

Karma (Kamma)

Karma in Buddhism

Definition — volitional action, considered particularly as a moral
force capable of producing, for the agent, results that correspond to
the ethical quality of the action; thus good karma produces happiness,
and bad karma produces suffering
Result of karma (vipāka)
Intention (cetanā)
Wholesome intention (kusala)
Unwholesome intention (akusala)
Three doors of action (kammadvara)
Body — Bodily acts
Speech — Verbal acts
Mind — Mental acts
Roots (mula)
Greed (lobha • raga)
Hatred (dosa • dvesha)
Delusion (moha)
Nongreed (alobha) — renunciation, detachment, generosity
Nonhatred (adosa) — loving-kindness, sympathy, gentleness
Nondelusion (amoha) — wisdom
Courses of action (kammapatha)
Destroying life
Taking what is not given
Wrong conduct in regard to sense pleasures
False speech
Slanderous speech
Harsh speech
Idle chatter
Ill will
Wrong view
Abstaining from destroying life
Abstaining from taking what is not given
Abstaining from wrong conduct in regard to sense pleasures
Abstaining from false speech
Abstaining from slanderous speech
Abstaining from harsh speech
Abstaining from idle chatter
Being free from covetousness
Being free from ill will
Holding right view
Reproductive kamma (janaka kamma) — that which produces mental
aggregates and material aggregates at the moment of conception
Supportive kamma (upatthambhaka kamma) — that which comes near the Reproductive Kamma and supports it
Obstructive kamma (upapiḍaka kamma) — that which tends to
weaken, interrupt and retard the fruition of the Reproductive Kamma
Destructive kamma (upaghātaka kamma) — that which not only
obstructs but also destroys the whole force of the Reproductive Kamma
Order to take effect
Weighty kamma (garuka kamma) — that which produces its results in this life or in the next for certain
Five heinous crimes, causing rebirth in hell immediately after death (ānantarika-kamma)
Intentionally killing one’s father (patricide)
Intentionally killing one’s mother (matricide)
Intentionally killing an arahant
Maliciously causing blood to flow from the body of a Buddha
Creating a schism in the sangha
Proximate kamma (āsanna kamma) — that which one does or remembers immediately before the dying moment
Habitual kamma (āciṇṇa kamma) — that which one habitually performs and recollects and for which one has a great liking
Reserve kamma (kaṭattā kamma) — refers to all actions that are done once and soon forgotten
Time of taking effect
Immediately effective kamma (diţţhadhammavedaniya kamma)
Subsequently, effective kamma (upapajjavedaniya kamma)
Indefinitely effective kamma (aṗarāpariyavedaniya kamma)
Defunct kamma (ahosi kamma)
Place of taking effect
Immoral (akusala) kamma pertaining to the sense-sphere (kamavacara)
Moral (kusala) kamma pertaining to the sense-sphere (kamavacara)
Moral kamma pertaining to the form-sphere (rupavacara)
Moral kamma pertaining to the formless-sphere (arupavacara)
Niyama Dhammas
Utu Niyama — Physical Inorganic Order (seasonal changes and
climate), the natural law pertaining to physical objects and changes in
the natural environment, such as the weather; the way flowers bloom in
the day and fold up at night; the way soil, water and nutrients help a
tree to grow; and the way things disintegrate and decompose. This
perspective emphasizes the changes brought about by heat or temperature
Bīja Niyama — Physical Organic Order (laws of heredity), the
natural law pertaining to heredity, which is best described in the
adage, “as the seed, so the fruit”
Citta Niyama — Order of
Mind and Psychic Law (will of mind), the natural law pertaining to the
workings of the mind, the process of cognition of sense objects and the
mental reactions to them
Kamma Niyama — Order of Acts and
Results (consequences of one’s actions), the natural law pertaining to
human behavior, the process of the generation of action and its results.
In essence, this is summarized in the words, “good deeds bring good
results, bad deeds bring bad results”
Dhamma Niyama — Order
of the Norm (nature’s tendency to produce a perfect type), the natural
law governing the relationship and interdependence of all things: the
way all things arise, exist and then cease. All conditions are subject
to change, are in a state of affliction and are not self: this is the

Rebirth (Punabbhava • Punarbhava)

Main article: Rebirth (Buddhism)

Saṃsāra — Lit., the “wandering,” the round of rebirths without discoverable beginning, sustained by ignorance and craving

Buddhist cosmology

Buddhist cosmology
The bhavachakra, a symbolic depiction of the six realms.
The bhavachakra, a symbolic depiction of the six realms.

Six realms
Heaven (sagga)
Tusita — one of the six deva-worlds of the kāmadhātu
Tāvatiṃsa — the fifth of the heavens of the kāmadhātu, and
the highest of the heavens that maintains a physical connection with the
rest of the world
Four Heavenly Kings
Demigod realm (asura)
Human realm (mānusatta)
Hungry Ghost realm (peta • preta)
Animal realm
Hell (niraya • naraka)
Avīci — the lowest level of the hell realm
Three planes of existence (tiloka • triloka)
World of desire (kāmaloka)
World of form (rūpaloka)
World of formlessness (arūpaloka)
Ten spiritual realms
Bodhisattva — Bodhisattvahood
Pratyekabuddha — Realization
Sāvakabuddha — Learning
Deva — Heaven
Asura — Paranoid jealousy
Human beings in Buddhism — Humanity
Animals in Buddhism — Animality
Preta — Hunger
Naraka — Hell

Sense bases (Āyatana)


Six sense bases (saḷāyatana • ṣaḍāyatana)
Eye (cakkhu) and Forms
Ear (sota) and Sounds
Nose (ghāṇa) and Odors
Tongue (jivhā) and Flavors
Body (kāya) and Tactile objects
Mind (mano) and Phenomena

Six Great Elements (Dhātu)

Earth element (paṭhavī-dhātu)
Water (or liquid) element (āpo-dhātu)
Fire element (tejo-dhātu)
Air (or wind) element (vāyo-dhātu)
Space element (ākāsa-dhātu)
Consciousness element (viññāṇa-dhātu)

Faculties (Indriya)


Six sensory faculties
Eye/vision faculty (cakkh-undriya)
Ear/hearing faculty (sot-indriya)
Nose/smell faculty (ghān-indriya)
Tongue/taste faculty (jivh-indriya)
Body/sensibility faculty (kāy-indriya)
Mind faculty (man-indriya)
Three physical faculties
Femininity (itth-indriya)
Masculinity (puris-indriya)
Life or vitality (jīvit-indriya)
Five feeling faculties
Physical pleasure (sukh-indriya)
Physical pain (dukkh-indriya)
Mental joy (somanasa-indriya)
Mental grief (domanass-indriya)
Indifference (upekh-indriya)
Five spiritual faculties
Faith (saddh-indriya)
Energy (viriy-indriya)
Mindfulness (sat-indriya)
Concentration (samādhi-indriya)
Wisdom (paññ-indriya)
Three final-knowledge faculties
Thinking “I shall know the unknown” (anaññāta-ñassāmīt-indriya)
Gnosis (aññ-indriya)
One who knows (aññātā-vindriya)

Formations (Saṅkhāra • Saṃskāra)

Main article: Saṅkhāra
Mental Factors (Cetasika • Caitasika )

Main article: Mental factors (Buddhism)
Theravāda abhidhamma

Seven universal mental factors common to all; ethically variable
mental factors common to all consciousnesses (sabbacittasādhāraṇa
Contact (phassa)
Feeling (vedanā)
Perception (saññā)
Volition (cetanā)
One-pointedness (ekaggatā)
Life Faculty (jīvitindriya)
Attention (manasikāra)
Six occasional or particular mental factors; ethically variable
mental factors found only in certain consciousnesses (pakiṇṇaka
Application of thought (vitakka)
Examining (vicāra)
Decision (adhimokkha)
Energy (viriya)
Rapture (pīti)
Desire (to act) (chanda)
Fourteen unwholesome mental factors (akusala cetasikas)
Four universal unwholesome mental facrors (akusalasādhāraṇa):
Delusion (moha)
Lack of shame (ahirika)
Disregard for consequence (anottappa)
Restlessness (uddhacca)
Three mental factors of the greed-group (lobha):
Greed (lobha)
Wrong view (diṭṭhi)
Conceit (māna)
Four mental factors of the hatred-group (dosa)
Hatred (dosa)
Envy (issā)
Miserliness (macchariya)
Regret (kukkucca)
Other unwholesome mental factors
Sloth (thīna)
Torpor (middha)
Doubt (vicikicchā)
Twenty-five beautiful mental factors (sobhana cetasikas)
Nineteen universal beautiful mental factors (sobhanasādhāraṇa):
Faith (saddhā)
Mindfulness (sati)
Shame at doing evil (hiri)
Regard for consequence (ottappa)
Lack of greed (alobha)
Lack of hatred (adosa)
Balance, neutrality of mind (tatramajjhattatā)
Tranquillity of mental body (kāyapassaddhi)
Tranquillity of consciousness (cittapassaddhi)
Lightness of mental body (kāyalahutā)
Lightness of consciousness (cittalahutā)
Softness/malleability of mental body (kāyamudutā)
Softness/malleability of consciousness (cittamudutā)
Readiness/wieldiness of mental body (kāyakammaññatā)
Readiness/wieldiness of consciousness (cittakammaññatā)
Proficiency of mental body (kāyapāguññatā)
Proficiency of consciousness (cittapāguññatā)
Straightness/rectitude of mental body (kāyujukatā)
Straightness/rectitude of consciousness (cittujukatā)
Three Abstinences (virati):
Right speech (sammāvācā)
Right action (sammākammanta)
Right livelihood (sammā-ājīva)
Two Illimitables (appamañña):
Compassion (karuṇā)
Sympathetic joy (muditā)
One Faculty of wisdom (paññindriya):
Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)

Mahayana abhidharma

Five universal mental factors (sarvatraga) common to all:

Sparśa — contact, contacting awareness, sense impression, touch
Vedanā — feeling, sensation
Saṃjñā — perception
Cetanā — volition
Manasikara — attention

Five determining mental factors (viṣayaniyata):

Chanda — desire (to act), intention, interest
Adhimoksha — decision, interest, firm conviction
Smṛti — mindfulness
Prajñā — wisdom
Samādhi — concentration

Eleven virtuous (kuśala) mental factors

Sraddhā — faith
Hrī — self-respect, conscientiousness, sense of shame
Apatrāpya — decorum, regard for consequence
Alobha — non-attachment
Adveṣa — non-aggression, equanimity, lack of hatred
Amoha — non-bewilderment
Vīrya — diligence, effort
Praśrabdhi — pliancy
Apramāda — conscientiousness
Upekṣa — equanimity
Ahiṃsā — nonharmfulness

Six root mental defilements (mūlakleśa):

Raga — attachment
Pratigha — anger
Avidya — ignorance
Māna — pride, conceit
Vicikitsa — doubt
Dṛiṣṭi — wrong view

Twenty secondary defilement (upakleśa):

Krodha — rage, fury
Upanāha — resentment
Mrakśa — concealment, slyness-concealment
Pradāśa — spitefulness
Irshya — envy, jealousy
Mātsarya — stinginess, avarice, miserliness
Māyā — pretense, deceit
Śāṭhya — hypocrisy, dishonesty
Mada — self-infatuation, mental inflation, self-satisfaction
Vihiṃsā — malice, hostility, cruelty, intention to harm
Āhrīkya — lack of shame, lack of conscious, shamelessness
Anapatrāpya — lack of propriety, disregard, shamelessness
Styāna — lethargy, gloominess
Auddhatya — excitement, ebullience
Āśraddhya — lack of faith, lack of trust
Kausīdya — laziness, slothfulness
Pramāda — heedlessness, carelessness, unconcern
Muṣitasmṛtitā — forgetfulness
Asaṃprajanya — non-alertness, inattentiveness
Vikṣepa — distraction, desultoriness

Four changeable mental factors (aniyata):

Kaukṛitya — regret, worry,
Middha — sleep, drowsiness
Vitarka — conception, selectiveness, examination
Vicāra — discernment, discursiveness, analysis

Mind and Consciousness

Citta — Mind, mindset, or state of mind
Cetasika — Mental factors
Manas — Mind, general thinking faculty
Consciousness (viññāṇa)
Mindstream (citta-saṃtāna) — the moment-to-moment continuity of consciousness
Bhavanga — the most fundamental aspect of mind in Theravada
Luminous mind (pabhassara citta)
Consciousness-only (vijñapti-mātratā)
Eight Consciousnesses (aṣṭavijñāna)
Eye-consciousness — seeing apprehended by the visual sense organs
Ear-consciousness — hearing apprehended by the auditory sense organs
Nose-consciousness — smelling apprehended through the olfactory organs
Tongue-consciousness — tasting perceived through the gustatory organs
Ideation-consciousness — the aspect of mind known in Sanskrit as the “mind monkey”; the consciousness of ideation
Body-consciousness — tactile feeling apprehended through skin contact, touch
The manas consciousness — obscuration-consciousness — a
consciousness which through apprehension, gathers the hindrances, the
poisons, the karmic formations
Store-house consciousness
(ālāyavijñāna) — the seed consciousness, the consciousness which is the
basis of the other seven
Conceptual Proliferation (papañca •
prapañca) — the deluded conceptualization of the world through the use
of ever-expanding language and concepts
Monkey mind — unsettled, restless mind

Obstacles to Enlightenment

Taints (āsava)
Sensual desire (kāmāsava)
Becoming (bhavāsava)
Wrong view (diṭṭhāsava)
Ignorance (avijjāsava)
Defilements (kilesa • kleśā)
Three poisons
Greed (attachment) (lobha • rāga)
Hatred (aversion) (dosa • dvesha)
Delusion (ignorance) (moha)
Round of defilements (kilesa-vaṭṭa)
Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
Craving (taṇhā • tṛṣṇā)
Clinging (upādāna)
Four perversions of view, thought and perception (vipallasa)
Taking what is impermanent (anicca • anitya) to be permanent (nicca • nitya)
Taking what is suffering (dukkha • duḥkha) to be happiness (sukha)
Taking what is nonself (anattā • anātman) to be self (attā • ātman)
Taking what is not beautiful (asubha) to be beautiful (subha)
Five hindrances (pañca nīvaraṇā) — the main inner impediments to the development of concentration and insight
Sensual desire (kāmacchanda) — craving for pleasure to the senses
Ill-will (vyāpāda) — feelings of malice directed toward others
Sloth and torpor (thīna-middha) — half-hearted action with little or no concentration
Restlessness and remorse (uddhacca-kukkucca) — the inability to calm the mind
Doubt (vicikicchā) — lack of conviction or trust
Latent tendencies (anusaya)
Sensual passion (kāma-rāga)
Resistance (patigha)
Views (diṭṭhi)
Doubt (vicikicchā)
Conceit (māna)
Craving for continued existence (bhavarāga)
Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
Ten Fetters (saṃyojana)
Identity view (sakkāyadiṭṭhi) — the view of a truly existent
self either as identical with the five aggregates, or as existing in
some relation to them
Eternity-belief (sassata-diṭṭhi)
Annihilation-belief (uccheda-diṭṭhi)
Doubt (vicikicchā) — doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha, or the training
Wrong grasp of rules and observances (sīlabbata-parāmāsa) — the
belief that mere external observances, particularly religious rituals
and ascetic practices, can lead to liberation
Sensual lust (kāmacchando)
Ill will (vyāpādo)
Desire for existence in the form realm (rūparāgo)
Desire for existence in the formless realm (arūparāgo)
Conceit (māna)
Restlessness (uddhacca)
Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)

Two Kinds of Happiness (Sukha)

Bodily happiness (kayasukha)
Mental happiness (cittasukha)

Two Kinds of Bhava

Kamma Bhava — kammas caused by four Upadanas
Upapatti Bhava — rebirth bhava

Two Guardians of the World (Sukka lokapala)

Shame at doing evil (hiri)
Fear of the results of wrongdoing (ottappa)

Three Conceits

“I am better”
“I am equal”
“I am worse”

Three Standpoints

Gratification (assāda)
Danger (ādinava)
Escape (nissaraṇa)

Three Primary Aims

Welfare and happiness directly visible in this present life,
attained by fulfilling one’s moral commitments and social
responsibilities (diṭṭha-dhamma-hitasukha)
Welfare and happiness pertaining to the next life, attained by engaging in meritorious deeds (samparāyika-hitasukha)
The ultimate good or supreme goal, Nibbāna, final release from the
cycle of rebirths, attained by developing the Noble Eightfold Path

Three Divisions of the Dharma

Study (pariyatti)
Practice (paṭipatti)
Realization (pativedha)

Four Kinds of Nutriment

Physical food [either gross or subtle] (kabalinkaro)
Contact (phasso dutiyo)
Mental volition (manosancetana)
Consciousness (viññāṇa • vijñāna)

Four Kinds of Acquisitions (Upadhi)

The Five Aggregates (khandha • skandha)
Defilements (kilesa • kleśā)
Volitional formations (saṅkhāra • saṃskāra)
Sensual pleasures (kāmacchanda)

Eight Worldly Conditions

The “Eight Worldly Winds” referenced in discussions of Equanimity (upekkhā, upekṣhā)

Pleasure and pain
Praise and blame
Fame and dishonour
Gain and loss

Truth (Sacca • Satya)

Main articles: Sacca and Satya

Four Noble Truths (cattāri ariyasaccāni • catvāri āryasatyāni)
Suffering (dukkha • duḥkha)
Cause of suffering (samudaya)
Cessation of suffering (nirodha)
Path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga • marga)
Two truths doctrine
Conventional truth (sammutisacca • saṃvṛtisatya)
Ultimate truth (paramatthasacca • paramārthasatya)

Higher Knowledge (Abhiñña • Abhijña)


Six types of higher knowledges (chalabhiñña)
Supernormal powers (iddhi)
Multiplying the body into many and into one again
Appearing and vanishing at will
Passing through solid objects as if space
Ability to rise and sink in the ground as if in water
Walking on water as if land
Flying through the skies
Touching anything at any distance (even the moon or sun)
Traveling to other worlds (like the world of Brahma) with or without the body
Divine ear (dibba-sota), that is, clairaudience
Mind-penetrating knowledge (ceto-pariya-ñāṇa), that is, telepathy
Remembering one’s former abodes (pubbe-nivāsanussati), that is, recalling one’s own past lives
Divine eye (dibba-cakkhu), that is, knowing others’ karmic destinations
Extinction of mental intoxicants (āsavakkhaya), upon which arahantship follows
Three knowledges (tevijja)
Remembering one’s former abodes (pubbe-nivāsanussati)
Divine eye (dibba-cakkhu)
Extinction of mental intoxicants (āsavakkhaya)

Great fruits of the contemplative life (Maha-Phala)


Equanimity (upekkhā, upekṣhā)
Fearlessness (nibbhaya)
Freedom from unhappiness & suffering (asukhacaadukkha)
Meditative Absorption (samādhi)
Out-of-body experience (manomaya)
Clairaudience (dibba-sota)
Intuition and mental telepathy (ceto-pariya-ñána)
Recollection of past lives (patisandhi)
Clairvoyance (dibba-cakkhu)
The Ending of Mental Fermentations (samatha)


Concepts unique to Mahayana and Vajrayana
White A - Symbol Dzogchen
White A - Symbol Dzogchen

Bardo — Intermediate state
Shinay bardo — the Bardo of This Life
Milam bardo — the Bardo of Dream
Samten bardo — the Bardo of Meditation
Chikkhai bardo — the Bardo of Dying
Chönyid bardo — the Bardo of Dharmata
Sidpai bardo — the Bardo of Existence
Bodhicitta — the wish to attain Buddhahood
Bodhisattva — name given to anyone who has generated bodhicitta
Buddha-nature — immortal potency or element within the purest
depths of the mind, present in all sentient beings, for awakening and
becoming a Buddha
Dzogchen — the natural, primordial state or natural condition of every sentient being
Eternal Buddha
Lung (Tibetan Buddhism)
Pure land
Rainbow body — a body not made of flesh, but consists of pure light, an astral body
Svabhava — Intrinsic nature
Tathātā/Dharmatā — Thusness
Dharmadhatu — Realm of Truth
Four Dharmadhātu
Three Vajras
Three Roots
Iṣṭha-deva(tā) — Yidam
Upāya — Skillful means
Five Wisdoms

Other concepts

Emptiness (suññatā • śūnyatā)
Middle way (majjhimā paṭipadā • madhyamā-pratipad) — the Buddhist path of non-extremism
Avoiding the extreme of sensual indulgence (kāmesu kāma-sukha-allika)
Avoiding the extreme of self-mortification (atta-kilamatha)
Sentient beings (satta • sattva)


Navaneetham Chandrasekharan
Write a comment…

Buddhist practices
Buddhist devotion
Buddhists making offerings at Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep
Buddhists making offerings at Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep

Buddhist devotion

Taking refuge in the Triple Gem
Worship (pūjā) — see also: Abhisheka
Prostration (panipāta • namas-kara)
Om mani padme hum
Namo Amituofo
Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō
Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa — Homage
to the Blessed One, the Worthy One, the Fully Self-enlightened One

Moral discipline and precepts (Sīla • Śīla)

Main article: Śīla

Five Precepts (pañca-sīlāni • pañca-śīlāni)
Abstaining from taking life (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī)
Abstaining from taking what is not given (adinnādānā veramaṇī)
Abstaining from sexual misconduct (kāmesu micchācāra veramaṇī)
Abstaining from false speech (musāvāda veramaṇī)
Abstaining from drinks and drugs that cause heedlessness (surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī)
Eight Precepts (aṭṭhasīla)
Abstaining from taking life (both human and non-human)
Abstaining from taking what is not given (stealing)
Abstaining from all sexual activity
Abstaining from telling lies
Abstaining from using intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness
Abstaining from eating at the wrong time (the right time is eating once, after sunrise, before noon)
Abstaining from singing, dancing, playing music, attending
entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and
garlands (decorative accessories)
Abstaining from luxurious places for sitting or sleeping
Ten Precepts (dasasīla)
Abstaining from killing living things
Abstaining from stealing
Abstaining from un-chastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust)
Abstaining from lying
Abstaining from taking intoxicants
Abstaining from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon)
Abstaining from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances)
Abstaining from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories)
Abstaining from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds
Abstaining from accepting money
Sixteen Precepts
Three Treasures
Taking refuge in the Buddha
Taking refuge in the Dharma
Taking refuge in the Sangha
Three Pure Precepts
Not Creating Evil
Practicing Good
Actualizing Good For Others
Ten Grave Precepts
Affirm life; Do not kill
Be giving; Do not steal
Honor the body; Do not misuse sexuality
Manifest truth; Do not lie
Proceed clearly; Do not cloud the mind
See the perfection; Do not speak of others errors and faults
Realize self and other as one; Do not elevate the self and blame others
Give generously; Do not be withholding
Actualize harmony; Do not be angry
Experience the intimacy of things; Do not defile the Three Treasures
Pātimokkha (Pratimoksha) — the code of monastic rules binding on members of the Buddhist monastic order
Parajika (defeats) — four rules entailing expulsion from the sangha for life
Sexual intercourse, that is, any voluntary sexual
interaction between a bhikkhu and a living being, except for
mouth-to-mouth intercourse which falls under the sanghadisesa
Stealing, that is, the robbery of anything worth more than
1/24 troy ounce of gold (as determined by local law.)
Intentionally bringing about the death of a human being, even if it is
still an embryo — whether by killing the person, arranging for an
assassin to kill the person, inciting the person to die, or describing
the advantages of death
Deliberately lying to
another person that one has attained a superior human state, such as
claiming to be an arahant when one knows one is not, or claiming to have
attained one of the jhanas when one knows one hasn’t
Sanghadisesa — thirteen rules requiring an initial and subsequent meeting of the sangha (communal meetings)
Aniyata — two indefinite rules where a monk is accused of
having committed an offence with a woman in a screened (enclosed) or
private place by a lay person
Nissaggiya pacittiya — thirty rules entailing “confession with forfeiture”
Pacittiya — ninety-two rules entailing confession
Patidesaniya — four violations which must be verbally acknowledged
Sekhiyavatta — seventy-five rules of training, which are mainly about the deportment of a monk
Sāruppa — proper behavior
Bhojanapatisamyutta — food
Dhammadesanāpatisamyutta — teaching dhamma
Pakinnaka — miscellaneous
Adhikarana-samatha — seven rules for settlement of legal processes that concern monks only
Bodhisattva vows
Samaya — a set of vows or precepts given to initiates of an esoteric Vajrayana Buddhist order
Ascetic practices (dhutanga) — a group of thirteen austerities, or
ascetic practices, most commonly observed by Forest Monastics of the
Theravada Tradition of Buddhism

Three Resolutions

To abstain from all evil (sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ)
To cultivate the good (kusalassa upasampadā)
To purify one’s mind (sacittapariyodapanaṃ)

Three Pillars of Dharma

Generosity (dāna)
Morality (sīla • śīla)
Meditation (bhāvanā)

Threefold Training (Sikkhā)

Threefold Training

The training in the higher moral discipline (adhisīla-sikkhā) — morality (sīla • śīla)
The training in the higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) — concentration (samādhi)
The training in the higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā) — wisdom (paññā • prajñā)

Five Qualities

Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
Morality (sīla • śīla)
Learning (suta)
Generosity (cāga)
Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)

Five Powers of a Trainee

Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
Conscience (hiri) — an innate sense of shame over moral transgression
Concern (ottappa) — moral dread, fear of the results of wrongdoing
Energy (viriya • vīrya)
Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)

Five Things that lead to Awakening

Admirable friendship (kalyāṇa-mittatā • kalyāṇa-mitratā)
Morality (sīla • śīla)
Hearing the Dhamma
Exertion (viriya • vīrya)
Awareness of impermanence (anicca-ñāṇa)

Five Subjects for Contemplation

Upajjhatthana Sutta

I am subject to ageing, I am not exempt from ageing
I am subject to illness, I am not exempt from illness
I am subject to death, I am not exempt from death
There will be change and separation from all that I hold dear and near to me
I am the owner of my actions, heir to my actions, I am born of my
actions, I am related to my actions and I have my actions as refuge;
whatever I do, good or evil, of that I will be the heir

Gradual training (Anupubbikathā)

Main articles: Gradual training and Anupubbikathā

Generosity (dāna)
Virtue (sīla • śīla)
Heaven (sagga)
Danger of sensual pleasure (kāmānaṃ ādīnava)
Renunciation (nekkhamma)
The Four Noble Truths (cattāri ariyasaccāni • catvāri āryasatyāni)

Seven Good Qualities (Satta saddhammā)

Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
Conscience (hiri)
Moral dread (ottappa)
Learning (suta)
Energy (viriya • vīrya)
Mindfulness (sati • smṛti)
Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)

Ten Meritorious Deeds (Dasa Punnakiriya vatthu)

Generosity (dāna)
Morality (sīla • śīla)
Meditation (bhāvanā)
Paying due respect to those who are worthy of it (apacayana)
Helping others perform good deeds (veyyavacca)
Sharing of merit after doing some good deed (anumodana)
Rejoicing in the merits of others (pattanumodana)
Teaching the Dhamma (dhammadesana)
Listening to the Dhamma (dhammassavana)
Straightening one’s own views

Perfections (Pāramī • Pāramitā)

Main article: Pāramitā
Ten Theravada Pāramīs (Dasa pāramiyo)

Generosity (dāna)
Morality (sīla)
Renunciation (nekkhamma)
Wisdom (paññā)
Energy (viriya)
Patience (khanti)
Truthfulness (sacca)
Determination (adhiṭṭhāna)
Loving-kindness (mettā)
Equanimity (upekkhā)

Six Mahayana Pāramitās

Generosity (dāna)
Morality (śīla)
Patience (kṣanti)
Energy (vīrya)
Concentration (dhyāna)
Wisdom (prajñā)

States Pertaining to Enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiyādhammā • Bodhipakṣa dharma)

Main article: Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā • Smṛtyupasthāna)


Contemplation of the body (kāyagatāsati • kāyasmṛti)
Mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānasati • ānāpānasmṛti)
Contemplation of the body (kāyanupassana) — first tetrad
Breathing a long breath
Breathing a short breath
Experiencing the whole (breath-) body (awareness of the beginning, middle, and end of the breath)
Tranquilizing the bodily formation
Contemplation of feelings (vedanānupassana) — second tetrad
Experiencing rapture
Experiencing bliss
Experiencing the mental formation
Tranquilizing the mental formation
Contemplation of the mind (cittanupassana) — third tetrad
Experiencing the mind
Gladdening the mind
Concentrating the mind
Liberating the mind
Contemplation of Dhammas (dhammānupassana) — fourth tetrad
Contemplating impermanence (aniccānupassī)
Contemplating fading away (virāgānupassī)
Contemplating cessation (nirodhānupassī)
Contemplating relinquishment (paṭinissaggānupassī)
Lying down
Clear comprehension (sampajañña • samprajaña)
Clear comprehension of the purpose of one’s action (sātthaka)
Clear comprehension of the suitability of one’s means to the achievement of one’s purpose (sappāya)
Clear comprehension of the domain, that is, not abandoning
the subject of meditation during one’s daily routine (gocara)
Clear comprehension of reality, the awareness that behind one’s activities there is no abiding self (asammoha)
Reflections on repulsiveness of the body, meditation on the thirty-two body parts (patikulamanasikara)
head hairs
body hairs
bone marrow
pleura (or diaphragm)
synovial fluid
Reflections on the material elements (mahābhūta)
Cemetery contemplations (asubha)
Swollen or bloated corpse
Corpse brownish black or purplish blue with decay
Festering or suppurated corpse
Corpse splattered half or fissured from decay
Corpse gnawed by animals such as wild dogs and foxes
Corpse scattered in parts, hands, legs, head and body being dispersed
Corpse cut and thrown away in parts after killing
Bleeding corpse, i.e. with red blood oozing out
Corpse infested with and eaten by worms
Remains of a corpse in a heap of bones, i.e. skeleton
Contemplation of feelings (vedanāsati • vedanāsmṛti)
Pleasant feeling
Worldly pleasant feeling
Spiritual pleasant feeling
Painful feeling
Worldly painful feeling
Spiritual painful feeling
Neither-pleasant-nor-painful (neutral) feeling
Worldly neutral feeling
Spiritual neutral feeling
Contemplation of consciousness (cittasati • cittasmṛti)
With lust (sarāgaṃ) or without lust (vītarāgaṃ)
With hate (sadosaṃ) or without hate (vītadosaṃ)
With delusion (samohaṃ) or without delusion (vītamohaṃ)
Contracted (saṅkhittaṃ) or scattered (vikkhittaṃ)
Lofty (mahaggataṃ) or not lofty (amahaggataṃ)
Surpassable (sa-uttaraṃ) or unsurpassed (anuttaraṃ)
Quieted (samāhitaṃ) or not quieted (asamāhitaṃ)
Released (vimuttaṃ) or not released (avimuttaṃ)
Contemplation of mental objects (dhammāsati • dharmasmṛti)
Aggregates of clinging
Sense bases and their fetters
Seven factors of enlightenment
Four Noble Truths

Four Right Exertions (Cattārimāni sammappadhānāni • Samyak-pradhāna)

Four Right Exertions

Exertion for the non-arising (anuppādāya) of unskillful states
Exertion for the abandoning (pahānāya) of unskillful states
Exertion for the arising (uppādāya) of skillful states
Exertion for the sustaining (ṭhitiyā) of skillful states

Four Bases for Spiritual Power (Iddhipāda • Ṛddhipāda)


Concentration due to desire (chanda)
Concentration due to energy (viriya • vīrya)
Concentration due to mind (citta)
Concentration due to investigation (vīmaṃsā)

Five Spiritual Faculties (Pañca indriya)


Faith (saddhā • śraddhā) — faith in the Buddha’s awakening
Energy (viriya • vīrya) — exertion towards the Four Right Efforts
Mindfulness (sati • smṛti) — focusing on the four satipatthana
Concentration (samādhi) — achieving the four jhānas
Wisdom (paññā • prajñā) — discerning the Four Noble Truths

Five Strengths (Pañca bala)

Five Strengths

Faith (saddhā • śraddhā) — controls doubt
Energy (viriya • vīrya) — controls laziness
Mindfulness (sati • smṛti) — controls heedlessness
Concentration (samādhi) — controls distraction
Wisdom (paññā • prajñā) — controls ignorance

Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta sambojjhaṅgā • Sapta bodhyanga)

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Mindfulness (sati • smṛti)


Investigation of doctrine (dhamma vicaya • dharma-vicaya)
Energy (viriya • vīrya)
Rapture (pīti • prīti)


Tranquillity (passaddhi)
Concentration (samādhi)
Equanimity (upekkhā • upekṣā)

Noble Eightfold Path (Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo • Ārya ‘ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ)

Noble Eightfold Path


Wisdom (Paññākkhandha)
Dharmachakra, symbol of the Noble Eightfold Path, the Buddha’s teaching of the path to enlightenment
Dharmachakra, symbol of the Noble Eightfold Path, the Buddha’s teaching of the path to enlightenment

Right view (sammā-diṭṭhi • samyag-dṛṣṭi)
Mundane right view
Supramundane right view
Right view that accords with the Four Noble Truths (saccanulomika sammā-diṭṭhi)
Right view that penetrates the Four Noble Truths (saccapativedha sammā-diṭṭhi)
Right intention (sammā-saṅkappa • samyak-saṃkalpa)
The intention of renunciation (nekkhamma-sankappa)
The intention of non-ill will (abyapada-sankappa)
The intention of harmlessness (avihimsa-sankappa)

Moral discipline (Sīlakkhandha)

Right speech (sammā-vācā • samyag-vāc)
Abstaining from false speech (musāvāda veramaṇī)
Abstaining from slanderous speech (pisunaya vacaya veramaṇī)
Abstaining from harsh speech (pharusaya vacaya veramaṇī)
Abstaining from verbal abuse
Abstaining from insults
Abstaining from sarcasm
Abstaining from idle chatter (samphappalāpa veramaṇī)
Right action (sammā-kammanta • samyak-karmānta)
Abstaining from the taking of life (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī)
Abstaining from homicide
Abstaining from animal slaughter
Abstaining from hunting
Abstaining from fishing
Abstaining from killing insects
Abstaining from deliberately harming or torturing another being
Abstaining from taking what is not given (adinnādānā veramaṇī)
Abstaining from stealing
Abstaining from robbery
Abstaining from snatching
Abstaining from fraudulence
Abstaining from deceitfulness
Abstaining from sexual misconduct (kāmesu micchācāra veramaṇī)
Abstaining from adultery
Abstaining from sexual harassment
Abstaining from rape
Right livelihood (sammā-ājīva • samyag-ājīva)
Abstaining from dealing in weapons
Abstaining from dealing in living beings (including raising
animals for slaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution)
Abstaining from dealing in meat production and butchery
Abstaining from dealing in poisons
Abstaining from dealing in intoxicants
Abstaining from deceit
Abstaining from treachery
Abstaining from soothsaying
Abstaining from trickery
Abstaining from usury

Concentration (Samādhikkhandha)

Right effort (sammā-vāyāma • samyag-vyāyāma)
The effort to prevent the arising of unarisen unwholesome states (samvarappadhana)
Wise attention (yoniso manasikara)
Restraint of the sense faculties (indriya-samvara)
The effort to abandon unwholesome states that have already arisen (pahanappadhana)
Overcoming the Five hindrances
The effort to arouse wholesome states that have not yet arisen (bhavanappadhana)
Seven Factors of Enlightenment (satta sambojjhaṅgā • sapta bodhyanga)
Mindfulness (sati)
Investigation of doctrine (dhamma vicaya)
Energy (viriya • vīrya)
Rapture (pīti)
Tranquillity (passaddhi)
Concentration (samādhi)
Equanimity (upekkha)
The effort to maintain and perfect wholesome states already arisen (anurakkhanappadhana)
Right mindfulness (sammā-sati • samyak-smṛti)
Contemplation of the body (kāyanupassana)
Contemplation of feeling (vedanānupassana)
Contemplation of states of mind (cittanupassana)
Contemplation of phenomena (dhammānupassana)
Right concentration (sammā-samādhi • samyak-samādhi)
Four jhānas
First jhāna (pathamajjhana)
Second jhāna (dutiyajjhana)
Third jhāna (tatiyajjhana)
Fourth jhāna (catutthajjhana)

Acquired factors

Right knowledge (sammā-ñāṇa)
Right liberation (sammā-vimutti)

Buddhist meditation


Buddhist meditation

Main articles: Buddhist meditation and Bhavana
Theravada meditation practices
Tranquillity/Serenity/Calm (Samatha • Śamatha)

A Buddhist monk meditating
A Buddhist monk meditating

Place of work (kammaṭṭhāna)
Ten Kasinas
Earth kasina (pathavikasinam)
Water kasina (apokasinam)
Fire kasina (tejokasinam)
Wind kasina (vayokasinam)
Brownish or deep purplish blue kasina (nilakasinam)
Yellow kasina (pitakasinam)
Red kasina (lohitakasinam)
White kasina (odatakasinam)
Light kasina (alokakasinam)
Open air-space, sky kasina (akasakasinam)
Ten reflections on repulsiveness (asubas)
A swollen or bloated corpse (uddhumatakam)
A corpse brownish black or purplish blue with decay (vinilakam)
A festering or suppurated corpse (vipubbakam)
A corpse splattered half or fissured from decay (vicchiddakam)
A corpse gnawed by animals such as wild dogs and foxes (vikkhayittakam)
A corpse scattered in parts, hands, legs, head and body being dispersed (vikkhitakam)
A corpse cut and thrown away in parts after killing (hatavikkhittakam)
A bleeding corpse, i.e. with red blood oozing out (lohitakam)
A corpse infested with and eaten by worms (puluvakam)
Remains of a corpse in a heap of bones, i.e. skeleton (atthikam)
Ten Recollections (anussati • anusmriti)
Buddhānussati (Buddhanusmrti) — Recollection of the Buddha —
fixing the mind with attentiveness and reflecting repeatedly on the
glorious virtues and attributes of Buddha
(Dharmanusmrti) — Recollection of the Dhamma — reflecting with serious
attentiveness repeatedly on the virtues and qualities of Buddha’s
teachings and his doctrine
Saṅghānussati (Sanghanusmrti)
— Recollection of the Saṅgha — fixing the mind strongly and repeatedly
upon the rare attributes and sanctity of the Sangha
Sīlānussati — Recollection of virtue — reflecting seriously and
repeatedly on the purification of one’s own morality or sīla
Cāgānussati — Recollection of generosity — reflecting repeatedly on
the mind’s purity in the noble act of one’s own dāna, charitableness
and liberality
Devatānussati — Recollection of deities —
reflecting with serious and repeated attention on one’s own complete
possession of the qualities of absolute faith (saddhā), morality (sīla),
learning (suta), liberality (cāga) and wisdom (paññā) just as the devas
have, to enable one to be reborn in the world of devas
Maraṇānussati — Mindfulness of death — reflecting repeatedly on the inevitability of death
Kāyagatāsati — Mindfulness of the body — reflecting
earnestly and repeatedly on the impurity of the body which is composed
of the detestable 32 constituents such as hair, body hair, nails, teeth,
skin, etc.
Ānāpānasati — Mindfulness of breathing — repeated reflection on the inhaled and exhaled breath
Upasamānussati — Recollection of peace — reflecting
repeatedly with serious attentiveness on the supreme spiritual blissful
state of Nirvana
Four Divine Abidings (brahmavihāra)
Loving-kindness (mettā • maitrī)
Compassion (karuṇā)
Sympathetic joy (muditā)
Equanimity (upekkhā • upekṣā)
Four formless jhānas (arūpajhāna)
Base of the infinity of space (ākāsānañcāyatana)
Base of the infinity of consciousness (viññāṇañcāyatana)
Base of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana)
Base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana)
Perception of disgust of food (aharepatikulasanna)
Four Great Elements (mahābhūta)
Earth element (paṭhavī-dhātu)
Water (or liquid) element (āpo-dhātu)
Fire element (tejo-dhātu)
Air (or wind) element (vāyo-dhātu)

Concentration (Samādhi)

Main article: Samadhi (Buddhism)

Sign (nimitta)
Learning sign (uggahanimitta)
Counterpart sign (paṭibhāganimitta)
Momentary concentration (khaṇikasamādhi)
Preliminary concentration (parikammasamādhi)
Neighbourhood concentration (upacārasamādhi)
Nine attainments (samāpatti)
Attainment concentration (appanāsamādhi)
Jhāna (Dhyāna) — states of deep meditative concentration
marked by the one-pointed fixation of the mind upon its object
Four form jhānas (rūpajhāna)
First jhāna (pathamajjhana)
applied thought (vittaka)
sustained thought (vicāra)
rapture (pīti)
bliss (sukha)
one-pointedness (ekaggata)
Second jhāna (dutiyajjhana)
rapture (pīti)
bliss (sukha)
one-pointedness (ekaggata)
Third jhāna (tatiyajjhana)
bliss (sukha)
one-pointedness (ekaggata)
Fourth jhāna (catutthajjhana)
one-pointedness (ekaggata)
equanimity (upekkhā • upekṣā)
Four formless jhānas (arūpajhāna)
Base of the infinity of space (ākāsānañcāyatana)
Base of the infinity of consciousness (viññāṇañcāyatana)
Base of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana)
Base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana)
Cessation of perception and feeling (nirodha-samāpatti)

Insight meditation (Vipassanā • Vipaśyanā)

Main article: Vipassanā

Insight knowledge (vipassanā-ñāṇa)
Vipassana jhanas
Eighteen kinds of insight
Contemplation on impermanence (aniccanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of permanence
Contemplation on unsatisfactoriness (dukkhanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of real happiness
Contemplation on non-self (anattanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of self
Contemplation on disenchantment (revulsion) (nibbidanupassana) overcomes affection
Contemplation on dispassion (fading away) (viraganupassana) overcomes greed
Contemplation on cessation (nirodhanupassana) overcomes the arising
Contemplation on giving up (patinissagganupassana) overcomes attachment
Contemplation on dissolution (khayanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of something compact
Contemplation on disappearance (vayanupassana) overcomes kamma-accumulation
Contemplation on changeablenes (viparinamanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of something immutable
Contemplation on the signless (animittanupassana) overcomes the conditions of rebirth
Contemplation on the desireless (appanihitanupassana) overcomes longing
Contemplation on emptiness (suññatanupassana) overcomes clinging
Higher wisdom and insight (adhipaññadhamma vipassana) overcomes the wrong idea of something substantial
True eye of knowledge (yathabhuta ñanadassana) overcomes clinging to delusion
Contemplation on misery (adinavanupassana) overcomes clinging to desire
Reflecting contemplation (patisankhanupassana) overcomes thoughtlessness
Contemplation on the standstill of existence (vivattanupassana) overcomes being entangled in fetters
Sixteen Stages of Vipassanā Knowledge
Knowledge to distinguish mental and physical states (namarupa pariccheda ñāṇa)
Knowledge of the cause-and-effect relationship between mental and physical states (paccaya pariggaha ñāṇa)
Knowledge of mental and physical processes as impermanent, unsatisfactory and nonself (sammasana ñāṇa)
Knowledge of arising and passing away (udayabbaya ñāṇa)
Knowledge of the dissolution of formations (bhanga ñāṇa)
Knowledge of the fearful nature of mental and physical states (bhaya ñāṇa)
Knowledge of mental and physical states as unsatisfactory (adinava ñāṇa)
Knowledge of disenchantment (nibbida ñāṇa)
Knowledge of the desire to abandon the worldly state (muncitukamayata ñāṇa)
Knowledge which investigates the path to deliverance and instills a decision to practice further (patisankha ñāṇa)
Knowledge which regards mental and physical states with equanimity (sankharupekha ñāṇa)
Knowledge which conforms to the Four Noble Truths (anuloma ñāṇa)
Knowledge of deliverance from the worldly condition (gotrabhu ñāṇa)
Knowledge by which defilements are abandoned and are overcome by destruction (magga ñāṇa)
Knowledge which realizes the fruit of the path and has nibbana as object (phala ñāṇa)
Knowledge which reviews the defilements still remaining (paccavekkhana ñāṇa)

Zen meditation practices

Kōan — a story, dialogue, question, or statement in Zen,
containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet
may be accessible to intuition
Shikantaza — just sitting

Vajrayana meditation practices

Anuttarayoga Tantra
Generation stage
Completion stage
Ngöndro — Four thoughts which turn the mind towards Dharma
The freedoms and advantages of precious human rebirth
The truth of impermanence and change
The workings of karma
The suffering of living beings within Samsara

Other practices

Ahimsa — Non-violence
Appamada — Heedfulness
Chöd — advanced spiritual practice and discipline arising from
confluences of Bonpo, Mahasidda, Nyingmapa traditions and now practiced
throughout the schools of Tibetan Buddhism
Paritta — Protection
Samvega and pasada

Attainment of Enlightenment

Enlightenment in Buddhism

Nirvana (Nibbāna • Nirvāṇa) — the final goal of the Buddha’s
teaching; the unconditioned state beyond the round of rebirths, to be
attained by the destruction of the defilements; Full Enlightenment or
Awakening, the complete cessation of suffering
Parinirvana (Parinibbāna • Parinirvāṇa) — final passing away of an enlightened person
Bodhi — the awakening attained by the Buddha and his accomplished
disciples, referring to insight into the Four Noble Truths and the Noble
Eightfold Path
Types of Buddha
(Samyak-saṃbuddha) — one who, by his own efforts, attains Nirvana,
having rediscovered the Noble Eightfold Path after it has been lost to
humanity, and makes this Path known to others
(Pratyekabuddha) — “a lone Buddha”, a self-awakened Buddha, but one who
lacks the ability to spread the Dhamma to others
Sāvakabuddha (Śrāvakabuddha) — enlightened ‘disciple of a Buddha’. Usual being named Arhat


Four stages of enlightenment (see also: Ariya-puggala — Noble Ones)
Sotāpanna — Stream-enterer (first stage of enlightenment) — one
who has “opened the eye of the Dhamma”, and is guaranteed enlightenment
after no more than seven successive rebirths, having eradicated the
first three fetters
The four factors leading to stream-entry
Association with superior persons
Hearing the true Dhamma
Careful attention
Practice in accordance with the Dhamma
The four factors of a stream-enterer
Possessing confirmed confidence in the Buddha
Possessing confirmed confidence in the Dhamma
Possessing confirmed confidence in the Sangha
Possessing moral virtues dear to the noble ones
Sakadagami — Once-returner (second stage of enlightenment) —
will be reborn into the human world once more, before attaining
enlightenment, having eradicated the first three fetters and attenuated
greed, hatred, and delusion
Anāgāmi — Non-returner (third
stage of enlightenment) — does not come back into human existence, or
any lower world, after death, but is reborn in the “Pure Abodes”, where
he will attain Nirvāṇa, having eradicated the first five fetters
Arahant — “Worthy One”, (see also: Arhat), a fully enlightened
human being who has abandoned all ten fetters, and who upon decease
(Parinibbāna) will not be reborn in any world, having wholly abandoned


Bodhisattva — one who has generated bodhicitta, the spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood
Bodhisattva Bhumis — stages of enlightenment through which a bodhisattva passes


Satori — a Japanese Buddhist term for “enlightenment”, which
translates as a flash of sudden awareness, or individual enlightenment
Kensho — “Seeing one’s nature”


Buddhist monasticism and laity
Buddhist monks on daily alms round.
Buddhist monks on daily alms round.

Buddhist monasticism

Disciple 声闻弟子ShengWenDiZi (sāvaka • śrāvaka)
Male lay follower (忧婆塞 YouPoSai) (upāsaka) and Female lay follower (忧婆夷 YouPoYi) (upāsikā)
Householder 在家弟子ZaiJiaDiZi
Dhammacārī — lay devotees who have seriously committed themselves to Buddhist practice for several years
Anāgārika — lay attendant of a monk
近侍Jisha (Japan), JinShi (chinese) — personal attendant of a monastery’s abbot or teacher in Chan/Zen Buddhism
Ngagpa — non-monastic male practitioners of such disciplines as
Vajrayana, shamanism, Tibetan medicine, Tantra and Dzogchen
Thilashin — Burmese Buddhist female lay renunciant
Mae ji — Buddhist laywomen in Thailand occupying a position
somewhere between that of an ordinary lay follower and an ordained monk
Lower ordination (pabbajja • pravrajya)
Novice monk (sāmaṇera • śrāmaṇera)
Novice nun (samaṇerī • śrāmaṇerī)
Higher ordination (upasampadā)
Monk (bhikkhu • bhikṣu)
Nun (bhikkhunī • bhikṣuṇī)
Titles for Buddhist teachers
Acariya (Ācārya) — teacher
Upajjhaya (Upādhyāya) — preceptor
Pandita — a learned master, scholar or professor in Buddhist philosophy
Bhante — Venerable Sir
in Theravada
in Southeast Asia
Ayya — commonly used as a veneration in addressing or referring to an ordained Buddhist nun
in Thailand
Ajahn — Thai term which translates as teacher
Luang Por — means “venerable father” and is used as a title for respected senior Buddhist monastics
in Burma
Sayādaw — a Burmese senior monk of a monastery
in China
和尚,Heshang — high-ranking or highly virtuous Buddhist
monk; respectful designation for Buddhist monks in general
僧侣,SengLv — Monk
住持,ZhuChi — Abbot
禅师,ChanShi — Chan/Zen Master
法师,FaShi — Dharma Master
律师,LvShi — Vinaya Master, teacher who focuses on the discipline and precepts
开山祖师,KaiShanZuShi — founder of a school of Buddhism or the founding abbot of a Zen monastery
比丘,BiQiu — transliteration of Bhikkhu
比丘尼,BiQiuNi — transliteration of Bhikkhuni
沙弥,ShaMi — transliteration of Samanera
沙弥尼,ShaMiNi — transliteration of Samaneri
尼姑,NiGu — Nun
论师,LunShi — Abhidharma Master, one who is well versed
in the psychology, thesis and higher teachings of buddhism
师兄,ShiXiong — dharma brothers, used by laity to address each
other, note that all male or female lay disciples are called ‘Dharma
in Japan
Ajari — a Japanese term
that is used in various schools of Buddhism in Japan, specifically
Tendai and Shingon, in reference to a “senior monk who teaches students
和尚 Oshō — high-ranking or highly virtuous Buddhist monk; respectful designation for Buddhist monks in general
in Zen
in Japan
开山 Kaisan — founder of a school of Buddhism or the founding abbot of a Zen monastery
老师 Roshi — a Japanese honorific title used in Zen
Buddhism that literally means “old teacher” or “elder master” and
usually denotes the person who gives spiritual guidance to a Zen sangha
先生 Sensei — ordained teacher below the rank of roshi
Zen master — individual who teaches Zen Buddhism to others
in Korea
Sunim — Korean title for a Buddhist monk or Buddhist nun
in Tibetan Buddhism
Geshe — Tibetan Buddhist academic degree for monks
Khenpo — academic degree similar to that of a doctorate or
Geshe. Khenpos often are made abbots of centers and monasteries
Khenchen — academic degree similar in depth to post doctorate work. Senior most scholars often manage many Khenpos
Lama — Tibetan teacher of the Dharma
Rinpoche — an honorific which literally means “precious one”
Tulku — an enlightened Tibetan Buddhist lama who has,
through phowa and siddhi, consciously determined to take birth, often
many times, in order to continue his or her Bodhisattva vow

Major figures of Buddhism

List of Buddhists

Gautama Buddha — The Buddha, Siddhattha Gotama (Pali), Siddhārtha
Gautama (Sanskrit), Śākyamuni (Sage of the Sakya clan), The Awakened
One, The Enlightened One, The Blessed One, Tathāgata (Thus Come One,
Thus Gone One)

Buddha’s disciples and early Buddhists
Chief Disciples

Sāriputta — Chief disciple, “General of the Dhamma”, foremost in wisdom
Mahamoggallāna — Second chief disciple, foremost in psychic powers

Great Disciples

Ānanda — Buddha’s cousin and personal attendant
Maha Kassapa — Convener of First Buddhist Council
Anuruddha — Half-cousin of the Buddha
Mahakaccana — Foremost in teaching
Nanda — Half-brother of the Buddha
Upali — Master of the Vinaya


Mahapajapati Gotami — Eldest nun, half-mother of Buddha
Khema — First great female disciple in power
Uppalavanna — Second great female disciple
Patacara — Foremost exponent of the Vinaya, the rules of monastic discipline


Anathapindika — Chief lay disciple, foremost disciple in generosity
Hatthaka of Alavi
Citta — the foremost householder for explaining the Teaching



First five disciples of the Buddha

Kondañña — the first Arahant
Assaji — converted Sāriputta and Mahamoggallāna

Two seven-year-old Arahants

Samanera Sumana
Samanera Pandita

Other disciples

Channa — royal servant and head charioteer of Prince Siddhartha
Angulimala — mass murderer turned saint
Kisa Gotami

Later Indian Buddhists (after Buddha)

Buddhaghosa — 5th-century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar, author of the Visuddhimagga
Mahinda — son of Emperor Ashoka
Sanghamitta — daughter of Emperor Ashoka
Nagarjuna — founder of the Madhyamaka school
Aryadeva — disciple of Nagarjuna
Asanga — exponent of the yogācāra school
Buddhapālita — commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva

Indo-Greek Buddhists


Chinese Buddhists

Dajian Huineng


Tibetan Buddhists
The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, a renowned Tibetan lama.
The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, a renowned Tibetan lama.

Je Tsongkhapa
Marpa Lotsawa
Sakya Pandita
Panchen Lama
Dalai Lama
1st Dalai Lama
2nd Dalai Lama
3rd Dalai Lama
4th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
6th Dalai Lama
7th Dalai Lama
8th Dalai Lama
9th Dalai Lama
10th Dalai Lama
11th Dalai Lama
12th Dalai Lama
13th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama

Japanese Buddhists


Vietnamese Buddhists

Thích Nhất Hạnh
Thich Chan Khong
Thich Thiên Ân
Thich Quang Duc

Burmese Buddhists

Ledi Sayadaw
Mahāsī Sayādaw
Webu Sayadaw
U Ba Khin
Mother Sayamagyi
U Pandita
S. N. Goenka

Thai Buddhists

Ajahn Buddhadasa
Ajahn Chah
Ajahn Maha Bua
Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta
Ajahn Thate

Sri Lankan Buddhists

Balangoda Ananda Maitreya
Henepola Gunaratana
K. Sri Dhammananda
Piyadassi Maha Thera
Walpola Rahula

American Buddhists

Ajahn Sumedho
Bhikkhu Bodhi
Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Brazilian Buddhists

Ajahn Mudito
Monja Coen

British Buddhists

Ajahn Amaro
Ajahn Brahm
Ajahn Khemadhammo
Ñāṇamoli Bhikkhu
Ñāṇavīra Thera
Arthur Lillie

German Buddhists

Ayya Khema
Bhikkhu Analayo
Muho Noelke
Nyanaponika Thera

Irish Buddhists

U Dhammaloka

Indian Buddhists

Ashoka - Greatest Indian emperor
Bodhisattva B. R. Ambedkar - Father of modern India, Polymath, Revivalist of Buddhism


Buddhist philosophy

Buddhist philosophy
Golden statue of Nagarjuna at Samye Ling Monastery.
Golden statue of Nagarjuna at Samye Ling Monastery.

Abhidharma (Abhidhamma)
Buddhist anarchism
Buddhist atomism
Buddhism and the body
Engaged Buddhism
Buddhist economics
Buddhist eschatology
Buddhist ethics
Buddhism and abortion
Buddhism and euthanasia
Buddhism and sexuality
Buddhist views on masturbation
LGBT topics and Buddhism
Buddhism and evolution
Four imponderables
Fourteen unanswerable questions
Questions referring to the world: concerning the existence of the world in time
Is the world eternal?
or not?
or both?
or neither?
Questions referring to the world: concerning the existence of the world in space
Is the world finite?
or not?
or both?
or neither?
Questions referring to personal experience
Is the self identical with the body?
or is it different from the body?
Questions referring to life after death
Does the Tathagata exist after death?
or not?
or both?
or neither?
God in Buddhism
Humanistic Buddhism
Buddhist logic
Buddhist mythology
Reality in Buddhism
Buddhist socialism


Buddhist culture

Main articles: Buddhist culture and art and Cultural elements of Buddhism
Vesak celebration in Singapore.
Vesak celebration in Singapore.
Imitation currency burned for ancestors, during the Ghost Festival
Imitation currency burned for ancestors, during the Ghost Festival
Mala, Buddhist prayer beads.
Mala, Buddhist prayer beads.

Ango — three-month-long period of intense training for students of Zen Buddhism
Buddhist architecture
Vihara — Buddhist monastery
Wat — monastery temple in Cambodia, Thailand, Lanna or Laos
Thai temple art and architecture
Stupa — mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics
Pagoda — tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other parts of Asia
Zendo — meditation hall in Zen Buddhism
Butsudan — shrine
Buddhist art
Greco-Buddhist art
Standing Buddha
Buddhist poetry
Buddhist music
Buddha statue
Colossal Buddha statues
Tian Tan Buddha
Kamakura Great Buddha
Grand Buddha at Ling Shan
Leshan Giant Buddha
Gifu Great Buddha
Great Buddha
Buddhist calendar
Buddhist clothes
Tricivara — Monastic robe
Antaravasaka — Lower robe
Uttarasanga — Upper robe
Sangati — Outer robe
Buddhist cuisine
Buddhist vegetarianism
Drubchen — traditional form of meditation retreat in Tibetan Buddhism
Funeral (Buddhism)
Buddhist holidays
Vesak — birth, enlightenment (Nirvana), and passing away (Parinirvana) of Gautama Buddha
Asalha Puja
Magha Puja
Uposatha — the Buddhist observance days, falling on the days of
the full moon and new moon, when the monks gather to recite the
Pātimokkha and lay people often visit monasteries and temples to
undertake the eight precepts
Kathina — festival which comes at the end of Vassa
Kīla — three-sided peg, stake, knife, or nail like ritual implement traditionally associated with Indo-Tibetan Buddhism
Mandala — concentric diagram having spiritual and ritual significance
Sand mandala
Buddhist prayer beads — Mala
Om mani padme hum
Namo Amituofo
Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō
Om tare tuttare ture svaha
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Buddhist view of marriage
Mudra — Symbolic or ritual gesture
Añjali Mudrā — greeting gesture which consists of putting the palms together in front of the chest
Buddhist music
Prayer wheel
Sarira — Buddhist relics
Sesshin — period of intensive meditation (zazen) in a Zen monastery
Buddhist symbolism
Dharmacakra — Wheel of Dhamma
Bhavacakra — Wheel of Becoming
Buddhist flag
Ensō — Symbol in Zen symbolizing enlightenment, strength, elegance, the Universe, and the void
Tree of physiology
Vajra — short metal weapon that has the symbolic nature of a diamond
Vassa — Rains retreat


Buddhist pilgrimage

Buddhist pilgrimage
Mahabodhi Temple in India, a common site of pilgrimage.
Mahabodhi Temple in India, a common site of pilgrimage.

The Four Main Sites
Lumbini — Buddha’s birthplace
Maya Devi Temple
Bodh Gaya — Buddha’s place of Enlightenment
Mahabodhi Temple
Bodhi Tree
Sarnath — Place of Buddha’s first discourse
Kushinagar — Place of Buddha’s final passing away
Four Additional Sites
Other Sites
Later Sites


Comparative Buddhism
From a 12th-century Greek manuscript: Saint Josaphat preaches the Gospel.
From a 12th-century Greek manuscript: Saint Josaphat preaches the Gospel.

Buddhism and science
Buddhism and psychology
Buddhism and Theosophy
Buddhism and other religions
Buddhism and Eastern religions
Buddhism and Hinduism
Buddhism and Jainism
Buddhism and Christianity
Buddhist-Christian Studies
Parallels between Buddha and Jesus
Buddhism and Gnosticism
Gautama Buddha in world religions

Other topics related to Buddhism

Main article: Index of Buddhism-related articles

Access to Insight — Readings in Theravada Buddhism website
Abhayagiri Vihara
Ashoka the Great
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Bodhimanda (Bodhimandala)
Bodhisatta — a future Buddha, one destined to attain unsurpassed
perfect enlightenment; specifically, it is the term the Buddha uses to
refer to himself in the period prior to his enlightenment, both in past
lives and in his last life before he attained enlightenment
Avalokiteśvara (Guan Yin)
Guan Yu
Maitreya — Future Buddha, successor of Gautama Buddha
Manjusri — the bodhisattva associated with wisdom, doctrine and awareness
Borobudur — ninth-century Mahayana Buddhist Monument in Magelang, Indonesia
Brahmā — according to the brahmins, the supreme personal deity, but
in the Buddha’s teaching, a powerful deity who rules over a high divine
state of existence called the brahma world; more generally, the word
denotes the class of superior devas inhabiting the form realm
Brahmacharya — the Holy Life
Budai or Hotei — the obese Laughing Buddha, usually seen in China
Gautama Buddha
Dipankara Buddha
Kakusandha Buddha
Kassapa Buddha
Padumuttara Buddha
Amitābha — the principal Buddha in the Pure Land sect
Medicine Buddha
Buddhas of Bamyan
Buddhavacana — the Word of the Buddha
Buddhist calendar
Buddhist Initiation Ritual — a public ordination ceremony wherein a
lay student of Zen Buddhism receives certain Buddhist precepts, “a rite
in which they publicly avow allegiance to ‘The Three Refuges’ of
Buddhist practice: The Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha
Buddhist Publication Society — a charity whose goal is to explain and spread the doctrine of the Buddha
Buddhist studies
Cambridge Buddhist Association
Chakravartin — Wheel-turning Monarch
Critical Buddhism
Dalit Buddhist movement
Deva — a deity or god; the beings inhabiting the heavenly worlds,
usually in the sense-sphere realm but more broadly in all three realms
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya meditation
Dharma name
Dharma talk
Dharma transmission
Diamond Way Buddhism
Eight Thoughts of a Great Man[citation needed]
This Dhamma is for one who wants little, not for one who wants much.
This Dhamma is for the contented, not for the discontented.
This Dhamma is for the secluded, not for one fond of society.
This Dhamma is for the energetic, not for the lazy.
This Dhamma is for the mindful, not for the unmindful.
This Dhamma is for the composed, not for the uncomposed.
This Dhamma is for the wise, not for the unwise.
This Dhamma is for one who is free from impediments, not for one who delights in impediments
European Buddhist Union
Five Dhyani Buddhas
Five Pure Lights
Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order
Gandhāran Buddhist Texts
Glossary of Japanese Buddhism
Hinayana — “Inferior vehicle”, often interpreted as a pejorative
term used in Mahayana doctrine to refer to the early Buddhist schools
International Buddhist College
Jambudvipa — lit., “rose-apple island,” the Indian subcontinent
Kalpa (aeon) — an aeon or cosmic cycle, the period of time it takes
for a world system to arise, evolve, dissolve, and persist in a state
of disintegration before a new cycle begins
Kanthaka — Prince Siddhartha’s favourite white horse
King Ajatasattu
King Bimbisara
King Milinda
King Pasenadi
Kwan Um School of Zen
Laughing Buddha
Life release - Practice of saving the lives of beings destined for slaughter
Liturgical languages
in Theravada
in Mahayana
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Luang Prabang
Mahasati meditation
Māra — “The Evil One” or “Tempter”; a malevolent deity who tries to
prevent people from practicing the Dhamma and thereby escaping the
round of rebirths
Klesa-māra, or Māra as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions
Mrtyu-māra, or Māra as death, in the sense of the ceaseless round of birth and death
Skandha-māra, or Māra as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence
Devaputra-māra, or Māra the son of a deva (god), that is, Māra
as an objectively existent being rather than as a metaphor
Medicine Buddha
Angkor Wat
Phra Pathom Chedi
Shaolin Monastery
Shwedagon Pagoda
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Wat Phra Kaew
Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep
Nāga — the Serpent King
Nikaya Buddhism
Noble Silence
Pali Text Society
Perfection of Wisdom School
Persecution of Buddhists
Phra Pathom Chedi
Purity in Buddhism
Ramifications of the Buddha concept
Saddhamma — True Dhamma
Sakka — the King of gods
Six samana
Purana Kassapa
Makkhali Gosala
Ajita Kesakambali
Pakudha Kaccayana
Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (Mahavira)
Sanjaya Belatthaputta
Samāpatti — correct acquisition of Truth
Sāsana — Dispensation
Shakya — ancient kingdom of Iron Age India, Siddhartha Gautama’s clan
Shambhala Buddhism
Southern, Eastern and Northern Buddhism
Sumeru — central world-mountain in Buddhist cosmology
The birth of Buddha (Lalitavistara)
The Path to Nirvana
Three Ages of Buddhism
Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma
Triratna Buddhist Community
True Buddha School
Two foremost teachers (two persons which one can never pay back gratitude-debts in full)
One’s mother
One’s father
Vipassana movement
Women in Buddhism
World Buddhist Sangha Council
World Fellowship of Buddhists
Yakkha — a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, who
are caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree
Yama — King of Death
Yana — Vehicle
Śrāvakayāna — the hearer vehicle
Pratyekayana — the individual vehicle
Young Buddhist Association
Young Men’s Buddhist Association
Zabuton — rectangular meditation cushion
Zafu — round meditation cushion


Glossary of Buddhism
Index of Buddhism-related articles
List of Buddhas
List of the twenty-eight Buddhas
List of Buddha claimants
List of bodhisattvas
List of Buddhists
List of modern scholars in Buddhist studies
List of suttas
in Theravada
List of Digha Nikaya suttas
List of Majjhima Nikaya suttas
List of Samyutta Nikaya suttas
List of Anguttara Nikaya suttas
List of Khuddaka Nikaya suttas
in Mahayana
Mahayana sutras
List of books related to Buddhism
List of Buddhist temples
Buddhist temples in Japan
List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto
Korean Buddhist temples
List of Buddhist Architecture in China
List of Buddhist temples in Thailand
List of writers on Buddhism
Buddha games list

10 attachments
458K View Scan and download
43K View Scan and download
424K View Scan and download
69K View Scan and download
498K View Scan and download
372K View Scan and download
277K View Scan and download
603K View Scan and download
223K View Scan and download
618K View Scan and download
comments (0)