The Buddhist Ideals of Good Governance
Ashoka the Great, an Indian emperor of the Maurya dynasty, played a
critical role in helping make Buddhism a world religion. From buddhism4you.com
In Buddhist Ideals in Government (2011) published by the Buddhist Publication Society, the author, Gunaseela Vitanage, writes:
It must be remembered that the Buddha was born into a society which,
comparatively speaking, was politically advanced and through the ages
had developed certain very solid ideas of government. In the Manu Neeti
or the Code of Manu, the Hindus already had laws hallowed by time to
guide them in their civic duties. . . . These laws discussed not only
the rights of the rulers, but also their duties towards their subjects.
They also discussed the obligations of the subjects and their rights.
(Vitanage 4, 2011)
The author goes on to explain, however, that
such laws were laid down based on an assumption about the innate
depravity of man—that man, ungoverned, lived according to the law of the
jungle—and, therefore, a ruler needed to have the authority to divide,
conquer, and control differing factions. Under such a system, the ruler
had to have the power to impose punishments to keep people from harming
one another for the sake of social stability and for the ruler’s
When the Buddha came along, he did not see
things quite that way. He saw that many jungle animals could, indeed,
live together in harmony and get along amicably and not all were living
in conflict. Rather than emphasizing power and punishment, the Buddha,
stressed four ways of treating subjects: “They are dana or charity,
priyavacana or kind speech, artha cariya or the spirit of frugality and
of service, and of samanatmata or equality.”
In line with Buddhist principles:
The virtuous king should practice dana or charity, giving alms to the poor and gifts to those who serve the kingdom well.
The virtuous king should practice priyavacana or kind speech, never using unkind words or harsh speech with anyone.
The virtuous king should cultivate artha cariya, which means acting in
the spirit of service as well as living a simple and frugal life.
The virtuous king should cultivate samanatmata, which means equality.
Despite being in an exalted position, the king must never feel himself
to be superior to the least of his subjects.
The virtuous king should learn to dispense justice to all his subjects without fear or favor.
The virtuous king should treat all of his subjects equally. (Vitanage 7–8, 2011)
Moreover, the 10 royal virtues of the Buddhist Ideal of Kingship (dasa raja dharma) may be explained as follows:
Dana . . . means giving alms to the needy. It is the duty of the king
to look after the welfare of his needy subjects, and to give them food,
clothing, and other wherewithalls.
Sila . . . means morality. The
monarch must so conduct himself in private and in public life so as to
be a shining example to his subjects.
Paraccaca means the grant
of gifts to those who serve the monarch loyally. By the grant of gifts,
not only does the monarch acknowledge their efficient and loyal service,
but he also spurs them on to more efficient and more loyal service.
Ajjivan means that the ruler must be absolutely straightforward. (Vitanage 7–8, 2011)
The good king must never take recourse to any crooked or doubtful means
to achieve his ends. His yea must be yea, and his nay must be nay.
Majjavan means gentleness. The monarch’s straightforwardness and
rectitude, that will often require firmness, should be tempered with
gentleness. His gentleness will keep his firmness from being over harsh
or even cruel, while his firmness will keep gentleness from turning into
weakness. A harmonious balance of these two qualities is essential not
only for a ruler but for all leaders of men.
Tapan means the
restraint to the senses. The ideal monarch is the one who keeps his five
senses under strict control, shunning indulgence in sensual pleasures.
Akkhodha means non-hatred. The monarch should not indulge in games
where killing is resorted to or cause injury to any being. He must
practice non-violence to the greatest possible extent that is
reconcilable with the duties of a ruler.
non-violence. The monarch should not indulge in games where killing is
resorted to, or cause any injury to any being. He must practice
non-violence to the greatest extent that is reconcilable with the duties
of a ruler.
Khanti means patience, the king must conduct himself
with patience, courage and fortitude on all occasions. In joy and
sorrow, in prosperity and adversity, in victory and defeat. He must
conduct himself with calmness and dignity without giving in to emotions.
Avirodhata means non-enmity, friendship. The king must cultivate the
spirit of amity amongst his subjects, by himself always acting in a
spirit of amity and benevolence. It will be seen that avirodhata is in
this context opposed to bheda—the divide and rule policy in Hindu
The Buddha also laid emphasis on the fact that the
good and evil of the people depend on the behavior of their leaders; and
for the god of the people he set out these ten royal virtues to be
practiced by the rulers of men. (Vitanage 8–10, 2011)
system may seem simple to us today, but in the Buddha’s day, the Brahmin
hierarchy divided society into a system that was broken down into
castes and levels and sanctioned by religion, in which human equality
was lacking. The Buddha went against that trend, he swam against the
stream and welcomed all comers into the monastic order: Upali, who was a
barber, and Sunita, who was a former outcast, both found places of
honor in the sangha.
The Buddha said, “Monks, just as all the
great rivers, that is to say the Ganges, the Jammu, the Aciravati, the
Sarabhu, the Mahi, on reaching the great ocean lose their former names
and identities and are reckoned as the great ocean, similarly, the
Kshatriya, the Brahmana, the Vaisya and the Sudra after entering the
sangha, lose their former identities and become one with the members of
one order.” (Vitanage 11, 2011)
There is also a story in the
Jataka tales that illustrates the virtue of kingship. A ruler, called
King Ummadayanti, once saw a beautiful woman during his rounds of the
city and he fell in love with her at first sight, but when he learned
that she was married, he felt ashamed. As it happened, the woman’s
husband, who had guessed the secret, out of deference to the ruler,
offered his wife to the king as a concubine, but the ruler refused.
The monarch replied, “If I should lack the power of ruling my own self,
say, into what condition would I bring the people who long for
protection from my side? Thus considering and regarding the good of my
subjects, my own righteousness, and my spotless fame. I do not allow
myself to submit to my passion. I am the leader of my subjects, the bull
of my herd.” (Vitanage 15, 2011)
Vitanage, Gunaseela. 2011. Buddhist Ideas in Government. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society.
The above book may be found as a PDF at the Buddhist Publication Online Library.
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More from Theravada Teachings
Good Governance and Buddhism | Ajahn Brahm | 10 March 2017
Buddhist Society of Western Australia
In the lead up to various elections occurring Ajahn Brahm gives a talk
on how Buddhist principles apply to governance, of not only a country
but of societies, work departments, the family unit and our own life.
Ajahn teaches us how to contribute to good governance on all levels in
our society and get things done the Buddhist way.
Nonprofits & Activism
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s poorly planned 45 days
curfew didn’t save us from COVID-19, but killed economy after gobbling
the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections on
behalf of Rowdy rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) foreigners from Bene
With typically shoddy execution, Modi’s national curfew could starve to death.
It is important to note that countries that have so far done a
relatively good job of containing the COVID-19 pandemic have refrained
from imposing a complete, nation-wide, curfew-like lockdown. These
include Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, and Turkey. Even China, where it all
started, placed only the Hubei province under complete lockdown, not
the whole country.
Modi has put 1.3 billion people under a
curfew. Since the authorities are using the word ‘curfew’ in the context
of issuing passes, it is fair to call it a national curfew.
does not have the capacity to think through the details of planning
and execution. This is turning out to be another demonetisation, with
the typical Modi problem of mistaking theatrics for achievement.
If we survive the pandemic, we won’t survive the impending economic
collapse. The economy isn’t on Modi’s radar either. He won a national
election despite disastrous economic policies that gave us a 45
year-high unemployment rate. Why should he worry about the economy?
Demonetisation and GST resulted in killing demand, and this poorly
planned national curfew will kill supply chains. We’ll be left with the
great Indian discovery, the zero.
Modi announced a national
curfew with little notice. He addressed India at 8 pm, and the curfew
came into force at midnight. Just like demonetisation. Why couldn’t he
have given some notice? Why couldn’t he have done his TV address at 8
am? Maximising prime time attention, you see.
The home ministry
issued a list of exemptions but try explaining them to the cops on the
street. The police is doing what it loves to do the most: beating up
Indians with lathis. Meanwhile, lakhs of trucks are stranded on state
borders. Supply chains for the most essential items have been disrupted,
including medicines, milk, groceries, food and newspaper deliveries.
Nobody in the prime minister’s office seems to be aware of any such
thing as crop harvesting, or the Rabi season, as farmers wonder how
they’ll do it amid this national curfew. Only Modi can manage to be so
clever as to disrupt the country’s medical supply chain while fighting a
Modi is the only major world leader who has not yet
announced a financial package. In his first speech, he said the finance
minister will head a committee, but some in the finance ministry said
they heard of this committee from the Modi’s speech. He did announce Rs
15,000 crore extra to meet the health expenditure arising out of the
COVID-19 crisis — that is Rs 5,000 crore less than the amount of money
he has kept aside for his narcissistic and unnecessary project of
rebuilding the Central Vista of New Delhi.
At this rate, more
might die of hunger than of COVID-19. Modi’s poor administrative skills,
zero attention span for details, spell disaster for this crisis. In a
few weeks, we might find ourselves overwhelmed with an epidemic in
defiance of official numbers, while the economy might start looking like
While it’s not known who got what from whom, whether
the virus was even spread simply having a cold at that time, the case
has shaken the community even if it didn’t “qualify” for a test after
showing runny nose which was listed as a symptom of COVID-19 and
advises anyone feeling unwell to stay home.
Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia !
It seems that the disease is being attacked wrongly worldwide.
Thanks to autopsies performed by the Italians … it has been shown
that it is not pneumonia … but it is: disseminated intravascular
Therefore, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, antivirals, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.
The protocols are being changed here since !
According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units were never needed.
If this is true for all cases, it is about to be resolved it earlier than expected.
Important and new about Coranovirus:
Around the world, COVID-19 is being attacked wrongly due to a serious pathophysiological diagnosis error.
The impressive case of a Mexican family in the United States who claimed they were cured with a home remedy was documented:-
Three 500 mg Aspirins dissolved in lemon juice boiled with honey and taken hot.
The next day they woke up as if nothing had happened to them!Well, the
scientific information that follows proves they are right!
This information was released by a medical researcher from Italy:
Thanks to 50 autopsies performed on patients who died of COVID-19,
Italian pathologists have discovered that IT IS NOT PNEUMONIA, strictly
speaking, because the virus does not only kill pneumocytes of this type,
but uses an inflammatory storm to create an endothelial vascular
As in disseminated intravascular coagulation, the
lung is the most affected because it is the most inflamed, but there is
also a heart attack, stroke and many other thromboembolic diseases.
In fact, the protocols left antiviral therapies useless and focused on anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting therapies.
These therapies should be done immediately, even at home, in which the treatment of patients responds very well.
The later performed less effective.
In resuscitation, they are almost useless. If the Chinese had
denounced it, they would have invested in home therapy, not intensive
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (THROMBOSIS):
So, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.
An Italian pathologist reports that the hospital in Bergamo did a
total of 50 autopsies and one in Milan, 20, that is, the Italian series
is the highest in the world, the Chinese did only 3, which seems to
fully confirm the information.
Previously, in a nutshell, the
disease is determined by a disseminated intravascular coagulation
triggered by the virus; therefore, it is not pneumonia but pulmonary
thrombosis, a major diagnostic error.
We doubled the number of resuscitation places in the ICU, with unnecessary exorbitant costs.
In retrospect, we have to rethink those chest X-rays that were
discussed a month ago and were given as interstitial pneumonia; in
fact, it may be entirely consistent with disseminated intravascular
Treatment in ICUs is useless if thromboembolism is
not resolved first. If we ventilate a lung where blood does not
circulate, it is useless, in fact, nine (9) patients out of ten (10)
Because the problem is cardiovascular, not respiratory.
It is venous microthrombosis, not pneumonia, that determines mortality.
Why thrombi are formed ?
Because inflammation, according to the literature, induces thrombosis
through a complex but well-known pathophysiological mechanism.
Unfortunately what the scientific literature said, especially Chinese,
until mid-March was that anti-inflammatory drugs should not be used.
Now, the therapy being used in Italy is with anti-inflammatories and
antibiotics, as in influenza, and the number of hospitalized patients
has been reduced.
Many deaths, even in their 40s, had a history of fever for 10 to 15 days, which were not treated properly.
The inflammation did a great deal of tissue damage and created ground
for thrombus formation, because the main problem is not the virus, but
the immune hyperreaction that destroys the cell where the virus is
installed. In fact, patients with rheumatoid arthritis have never
needed to be admitted to the ICU because they are on corticosteroid
therapy, which is a great anti-inflammatory.
This is the main
reason why hospitalizations in Italy are decreasing and becoming a
treatable disease at home. By treating her well at home, not only is
hospitalization avoided, but also the risk of thrombosis.
It was not easy to understand, because the signs of microembolism disappeared!
With this important discovery, it is possible to return to normal life
and open closed deals due to the quarantine, not immediately, but it is
time to publish this data, so that the health authorities of each
country make their respective analysis of this information and prevent
further deaths. useless! The vaccine may come later.
Now we can wait.
In Italy, as of today, protocols are changing.
According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units are not necessary.
Therefore, we need to rethink investments to properly deal with this disease.
Intolerant, violent, militant, crooked, cunning, number one terrorists
of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
foreigners thrown out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Afrika, Eastern Europe,
Western Germany, Northern Europe, South,Russia,Hungary, etc, chitpavan
brahmins of Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) remotely control such
Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) own mother’s flesh eaters, slaves,
stooges, chamchas, cheals abolish posts in order to appoint their own
stooges and slaves.The Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of
diluting institutions (Modi) who gobbled the Master Key by tampering
the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections.
The road ahead for liberals is tough. Modi’s thalis were a loud message
The liberal 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies i.e., Sarvajan
Samaj including SC(including Safai workers who are real Arogya Rakshakas
Health Protectors) of all living beings))/STs/OBCs/Religious Minorities
and even the poor non-chitpavan brahmins story is still worth pursuing.
But liberals would do well to
remember that it is just one more story competing with many others.
These are tough times for liberal Prabuddha Bharat. More so if you are cursed with a sense of aesthetics.
This is what has happened when there is no money in the hands of the
people because of the permanent curfew where the petty shops, small
eateries, no work for daily wagers etc., etc.,
Message from top cop of Bangalore which every one should read.
All of us whether in Cities or Towns, have to be aware of the situation.
From May 3rd if the permanent curfew is lifted partially fully, we
cannot put much pressure on our police department which had worked hard
day in and day out all these days.
The police force would be very tired and they also need to spend time with their families.
We need to be responsible citizens in following traffic rules and be proactive in protecting ourselves and our belongings.
As many out there, did not have much earnings all these days so there
might be a sudden spurt in incidents due to jobloss / effect on
1. People have to be very careful this includes people
at home, children, school and college going boys/girls, working
2. Do not wear costly watches.
3. Do not wear costly chains, bangles, ear rings be careful with your hand bags.
4. Men refrain wearing high end watches, costly bracelets and chains.
5. Do not use much of your mobile phones in the public. Try to minimise mobile use in public.
6. Do not entertain giving lift ride to any strangers.
7. Do not carry more than necessary money.
8. Keep your credit and debit cards safe while you are on the move.
9. Keep calling home every now and then to check upon your elders, wife and children’s welfare.
10. Instruct elders and people at home while attending a door bell keep
a safe distance from the main door, if possible keep the grill gates
locked not to go close to the grill to receive any parcels or letters.
11. Instruct children to return home early as much as possible.
12. Don’t take any secluded or short cuts roads to reach home, try and use maximum Main roads.
13. Youngsters when you are out keep an eye on your surroundings.
14. Always have an emergency number at hand.
15. Keep a safe distance from people.
16. Public mostly will be wearing mask.
17. Those who use cab services please share your trip details with you parents, siblings, relatives, friends or guardians.
18. Try and use Govt public transport system.
19. Avoid crowded buses.
20. While going for your daily walk try and go around 6.00 AM, in the
evening maximum finish by 8.00 PM use Main roads avoid empty streets.
20. Do not spend much time in malls, beach and parks.
21. If Children have to attend tuition classes let elders drop and pick up.
22. Do not leave any valuables in your vehicles.
This has to be followed at least for 3 months or till overall situation improves.
Share to all you CARE…
Request all authorities to issue a notification in the best interest of people of our Country.
Murderers of democratic institutions and masters of diluting
institutions (Modi), Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) BS Yediyurappa
who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won
elections for remotely controlling intolerant, violent, ever shooting,
mob lynching, number one terrorists of the world foreigners thrown out
from Bene israel, Tibet, Africa, etc., chitpvan brahmins fo RSS
(Rowdy/Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks), Bhaskar Rao IPS Police Commissioner’s
Office - Bangalore BBMP Commissioner BBMP Mayor BBMP-Ward-Committee
PLS CIRCULATE URGENTLY