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Comoros Islands
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFzu-lkTi8Q
Comoros Islands

Mahmoud SCM
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some pictures for Comoros Islands…cultures,mosques,animals,money…i hope you will enjoy this video…
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The Comoros (/ˈkɒmərz/ (About this soundlisten); Arabic: جزر القمر‎, Juzur al-Qumur / Qamar), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, French: Union des Comores, Arabic: الاتحاد القمريal-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī / Qamarī), is an island country in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique, the French region of Mayotte, and northwestern Madagascar. The capital and largest city in Comoros is Moroni. The religion of the majority of the population, and the official state religion, is Sunni Islam. As a member of the Arab League, the Comoros is the only country in the Arab world which is entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.

At 1,660 km2 (640 sq mi), excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the fourth-smallest African nation by area. The population, excluding Mayotte, is estimated at 832,322.[4][5]
As a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilisations, the
archipelago is noted for its diverse culture and history. The
archipelago was first settled by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, Arabs and Austronesians.

The sovereign state is an archipelago consisting of three major islands and numerous smaller islands, all in the volcanic Comoro Islands. The major islands are commonly known by their French names: northwestern-most Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Mohéli (Mwali), and Anjouan (Ndzuani). In addition, the country has a claim on a fourth major island, southeastern-most Mayotte (Maore), though Mayotte
voted against independence from France in 1974, has never been
administered by an independent Comoros government, and continues to be
administered by France (currently as an overseas department). France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island.[6][7][8][9] In addition, Mayotte became an overseas department and a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly.

The archipelago became part of the French colonial empire during the 19th century before becoming independent in 1975. Since declaring independence, the country has experienced more than 20 coups d’état or attempted coups, with various heads of state assassinated.[10][11] Along with this constant political instability, the population of the Comoros lives with the worst income inequality of any nation, with a Gini coefficient over 60%, while also ranking in the worst quartile on the Human Development Index. As of 2008 about half the population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[12] The French insular region of Mayotte, which is the most prosperous territory in the Mozambique Channel, is a major destination for migrants from the independent islands. The Comoros is a member state of the Arab League, the African Union, Francophonie, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Indian Ocean Commission. Other countries near the Comoros are Tanzania to the northwest and the Seychelles to the northeast. Its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore. The Union of the Comoros has three official languagesComorian, French, and Arabic.



The Comoros (/ˈkɒmərz/ (About this soundlisten); Arabic: جزر القمر‎, Juzur al-Qumur / Qamar), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, French: Union des Comores, Arabic: الاتحاد القمريal-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī / Qamarī), is an island country in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique, the French region of Mayotte, and northwestern Madagascar. The capital and largest city in Comoros is Moroni. The religion of the majority of the population, and the official state religion, is Sunni Islam. As a member of the Arab League, the Comoros is the only country in the Arab world which is entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.

At 1,660 km2 (640 sq mi), excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the fourth-smallest African nation by area. The population, excluding Mayotte, is estimated at 832,322.[4][5]
As a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilisations, the
archipelago is noted for its diverse culture and history. The
archipelago was first settled by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, Arabs and Austronesians.

The sovereign state is an archipelago consisting of three major islands and numerous smaller islands, all in the volcanic Comoro Islands. The major islands are commonly known by their French names: northwestern-most Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Mohéli (Mwali), and Anjouan (Ndzuani). In addition, the country has a claim on a fourth major island, southeastern-most Mayotte (Maore), though Mayotte
voted against independence from France in 1974, has never been
administered by an independent Comoros government, and continues to be
administered by France (currently as an overseas department). France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island.[6][7][8][9] In addition, Mayotte became an overseas department and a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly.

The archipelago became part of the French colonial empire during the 19th century before becoming independent in 1975. Since declaring independence, the country has experienced more than 20 coups d’état or attempted coups, with various heads of state assassinated.[10][11] Along with this constant political instability, the population of the Comoros lives with the worst income inequality of any nation, with a Gini coefficient over 60%, while also ranking in the worst quartile on the Human Development Index. As of 2008 about half the population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[12] The French insular region of Mayotte, which is the most prosperous territory in the Mozambique Channel, is a major destination for migrants from the independent islands. The Comoros is a member state of the Arab League, the African Union, Francophonie, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Indian Ocean Commission. Other countries near the Comoros are Tanzania to the northwest and the Seychelles to the northeast. Its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore. The Union of the Comoros has three official languagesComorian, French, and Arabic.




Etymology

The name “Comoros” derives from the Arabic word قمر qamar (”moon“).[13]



History



Settlement

A large dhow with lateen sail rigs


A vanilla plantation
Union of the Comoros


Motto: 
  • “Unité – Solidarité – Développement” (French)
  • وحدة، تضامن، تنمية (Arabic)
  • “Unity – Solidarity – Development”
Anthem: Udzima wa ya Masiwa  (Comorian)
(English: “The Unity of the Great Islands”)

image.png
Menu
0:00
Location of the Comoros (dark blue) – in Africa (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union (light blue)
Location of the Comoros (dark blue)

– in Africa (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union (light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Moroni
11°41′S 43°16′E
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Religion Sunni Islam
Demonym(s) Comorian
Government Federal presidential republic

• President
Azali Assoumani
• President of the Assembly
Abdou Ousseni
Legislature Assembly of the Union
Formation

• Discovery by Portuguese explorers
1503
• Ngazidja, Ndzuwani, Mwali under French rule
1886
• Protectorate of the Comoros
6 September 1887
• Territory under French Madagascar
9 April 1908
27 October 1946
• State of Comoros
22 December 1961
• Independence from France
6 July 1975
• Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
24 May 1978
• Union of the Comoros
23 December 2001
17 May 2009
Area
• Total
1,659 km2 (641 sq mi) (171tha)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2018 estimate
850,688 (160th)
• Density
457/km2 (1,183.6/sq mi) (27th)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
• Total
$2.446 billion[1] (178th)
• Per capita
$2,799[1] (177th)
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
• Total
$1.179 billion[1] (182nd)
• Per capita
$1,349[1] (165th)
Gini (2013) Positive decrease 45.0[2]
medium · 141st
HDI (2018) Increase 0.538[3]
low · 156th
Currency Comorian franc (KMF)
Time zone UTC+3 (EAT)
Driving side right
Calling code +269
ISO 3166 code KM
Internet TLD .km
  1. Excluding Mayotte, an overseas department of France.
  2. Excluding Mayotte.


According to mythology, a jinni (spirit) dropped a jewel, which formed a great circular inferno. This became the Karthala volcano, which created the island of Grande Comoro. King Solomon is also said to have visited the island.

The first attested human inhabitants of the Comoro Islands are now thought to have been Austronesian settlers travelling by boat from islands in Southeast Asia.[14][15] These people arrived no later than the eighth century AD, the date of the earliest known archaeological site, found on Mayotte, although settlement beginning as early as the first century has been postulated.[16]

Subsequent settlers came from the east coast of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf, the Malay Archipelago, and Madagascar. Bantu-speaking settlers were present on the islands from the beginnings of settlement, probably brought to the islands as slaves.[17]

Development of the Comoros is divided into phases. The earliest
reliably recorded phase is the Dembeni phase (eighth to tenth
centuries), during which there were several small settlements on each
island.[18] From the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries, trade with the island of Madagascar and merchants from the Swahili coast and the Middle East
flourished, more villages were founded and existing villages grew. Many
Comorians can trace their genealogies to ancestors from the Arabian
peninsula, particularly Hadhramaut, who arrived during this period.



Medieval Comoros

According to legend, in 632, upon hearing of Islam, islanders are said to have dispatched an emissary, Mtswa-Mwindza, to Mecca—but by the time he arrived there, the Prophet Muhammad had died. Nonetheless, after a stay in Mecca, he returned to Ngazidja and led the gradual conversion of his islanders to Islam.[19]

Among the earliest accounts of East Africa, the works of Al-Masudi describe early Islamic trade routes, and how the coast and islands were frequently visited by Muslims including Persian and Arab merchants and sailors in search of coral, ambergris, ivory, tortoiseshell, gold and slaves. They also brought Islam to the people of the Zanj including the Comoros. As the importance of the Comoros grew along the East African coast, both small and large mosques were constructed. The Comoros are part of the Swahili
cultural and economic complex and the islands became a major hub of
trade and an important location in a network of trading towns that
included Kilwa, in present-day Tanzania, Sofala (an outlet for Zimbabwean gold), in Mozambique, and Mombasa in Kenya.[18]

The Portuguese
arrived in the Indian Ocean at the end of the 15th century and the
first Portuguese visit to the islands seems to have been that of Vasco
da Gama’s second fleet in 1503.[20]
For much of the 16th century the islands provided provisions to the
Portuguese fort at Mozambique and although there was no formal attempt
by the Portuguese crown to take possession, a number of Portuguese
traders settled.

By the end of the 16th century the local rulers were beginning to push back and, with the support of the Omani Sultan Saif bin Sultan they began to defeat the Dutch and the Portuguese. His successor Said bin Sultan increased Omani Arab influence in the region, moving his administration to nearby Zanzibar, which came under Omani
rule. Nevertheless, the Comoros remained independent, and although the
three smaller islands were usually politically unified, the largest
island, Ngazidja, was divided into a number of autonomous kingdoms (ntsi).[21]

By the time Europeans showed interest in the Comoros, the
islanders were well placed to take advantage of their needs, initially
supplying ships of the route to India, particularly the English and,
later, slaves to the plantation islands in the Mascarenes.[22][21]



European contact and French colonisation

French map of the Comores, 1747


An 1808 map refers to the islands as “Camora”.


A public square, Moroni, 1908

In the last decade of the 18th century, Malagasy warriors, mostly Betsimisaraka and Sakalava, started raiding the Comoros for slaves
and the islands were devastated as crops were destroyed and the people
were slaughtered, taken into captivity or fled to the African mainland:
it is said that by the time the raids finally ended in the second decade
of the 19th century only one man remained on Mwali.[23]
The islands were repopulated by slaves from the mainland, who were
traded to the French in Mayotte and the Mascarenes. On the Comoros, it
was estimated in 1865 that as much as 40% of the population consisted of
slaves.[24]

France first established colonial rule in the Comoros by taking possession of Mayotte in 1841 when the Sakalava usurper sultan Andriantsoly (also known as Tsy Levalo) signed the Treaty of April 1841,[25] which ceded the island to the French authorities.[26]

Meanwhile Ndzuani (or Johanna as it was know to the British)
continued to serve as a way station for English merchants sailing to
India and the Far East, as well as American whalers, although the
British gradually abandoned it following their possesion of Mauritius in
1814 and by the time the Suez Canal
opened in 1869 there was no longer any significant supply trade at
Ndzuani. Local commodities exported by the Comoros were, in addition to
slaves, coconuts,
timber, cattle and tortoiseshell. French settlers, French-owned
companies, and wealthy Arab merchants established a plantation-based
economy that used about one-third of the land for export crops. After
its annexation, France converted Mayotte into a sugar plantation colony.
The other islands were soon transformed as well, and the major crops of
ylang-ylang, vanilla, cloves, perfume plants, coffee, cocoa beans, and sisal were introduced.[27]

In 1886, Mwali was placed under French protection by its Sultan
Mardjani Abdou Cheikh. That same year, despite having no authority to do
so, Sultan Said Ali of Bambao,
one of the sultanates on Ngazidja, placed the island under French
protection in exchange for French support of his claim to the entire
island, which he retained until his abdication in 1910. In 1908 the
islands were unified under a single administration (Colonie de Mayotte et dépendances)
and placed under the authority of the French colonial governor general
of Madagascar. In 1909, Sultan Said Muhamed of Ndzuani abdicated in
favour of French rule. In 1912 the colony and the protectorates were
abolished and the islands became a province of the colony of Madagascar.[28]

Agreement was reached with France in 1973 for the Comoros to become independent in 1978, despite the deputies of Mayotte
voting for increased integration with France. A referendum was held on
all four of the islands. Three voted for independence by large margins,
while Mayotte voted against, and remains under French administration. On
6 July 1975, however, the Comorian parliament passed a unilateral
resolution declaring independence. Ahmed Abdallah proclaimed the
independence of the Comorian State (État comorien; دولة القمر) and became its first president.



Independence (1975)

Flag of the Comoros (1963 to 1975)


Flag of the Comoros (1975 to 1978)



The next 30 years were a period of political turmoil. On 3 August 1975, less than one month after independence, president Ahmed Abdallah was removed from office in an armed coup and replaced with United National Front of the Comoros (FNUK) member Prince Said Mohamed Jaffar. Months later, in January 1976, Jaffar was ousted in favour of his Minister of Defense Ali Soilih.[29]

The population of Mayotte voted against independence from France in three referenda during this period. The first, held on all the islands on 22 December 1974, won 63.8% support for maintaining ties with France on Mayotte; the second,
held in February 1976, confirmed that vote with an overwhelming 99.4%,
while the third, in April 1976, confirmed that the people of Mayotte
wished to remain a French territory. The three remaining islands, ruled
by President Soilih, instituted a number of socialist and isolationist policies that soon strained relations with France. On 13 May 1978, Bob Denard
returned to overthrow President Soilih and reinstate Abdallah with the
support of the French, Rhodesian and South African governments. During
Soilih’s brief rule, he faced seven additional coup attempts until he
was finally forced from office and killed.[29][30]

In contrast to Soilih, Abdallah’s presidency was marked by authoritarian rule and increased adherence to traditional Islam[31] and the country was renamed the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros (République Fédérale Islamique des Comores; جمهورية القمر الإتحادية الإسلامية). Abdallah continued as president until 1989 when, fearing a probable coup d’état,
he signed a decree ordering the Presidential Guard, led by Bob Denard,
to disarm the armed forces. Shortly after the signing of the decree,
Abdallah was allegedly shot dead in his office by a disgruntled military
officer, though later sources claim an antitank missile was launched
into his bedroom and killed him.[32] Although Denard was also injured, it is suspected that Abdallah’s killer was a soldier under his command.[33]

A few days later, Bob Denard was evacuated to South Africa by French paratroopers. Said Mohamed Djohar,
Soilih’s older half-brother, then became president, and served until
September 1995, when Bob Denard returned and attempted another coup.
This time France intervened with paratroopers and forced Denard to
surrender.[34][35] The French removed Djohar to Reunion, and the Paris-backed Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim
became president by election. He led the country from 1996, during a
time of labour crises, government suppression, and secessionist
conflicts, until his death November 1998. He was succeeded by Interim
President Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde.[36]

The islands of Ndzuani and Mwali
declared their independence from the Comoros in 1997, in an attempt to
restore French rule. But France rejected their request, leading to
bloody confrontations between federal troops and rebels.[37] In April 1999, Colonel Azali Assoumani,
Army Chief of Staff, seized power in a bloodless coup, overthrowing the
Interim President Massounde, citing weak leadership in the face of the
crisis. This was the Comoros’ 18th coup, or attempted coup d’état since
independence in 1975.[38]

Azali failed to consolidate power and reestablish control over
the islands, which was the subject of international criticism. The African Union, under the auspices of President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, imposed sanctions on Ndzuani to help broker negotiations and effect reconciliation.[39][40]
Under the terms of the Fomboni Accords, signed in December 2001 by the
leaders of all thre islands, the official name of the country was
changed to the Union of the Comoros; the new state was to be highly
decentralised and the central union goverment would devolve most powers
to the new island governments, each lead by a president. The Union
president, although elected by national elections, would be chosen in
rotation from each of the islands every five years.

Azali stepped down in 2002 to run in the democratic election of
the President of the Comoros, which he won. Under ongoing international
pressure, as a military ruler who had originally come to power by force,
and was not always democratic while in office, Azali led the Comoros
through constitutional changes that enabled new elections.[41] A Loi des compétences
law was passed in early 2005 that defines the responsibilities of each
governmental body, and is in the process of implementation. The
elections in 2006 were won by Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi,
a Sunni Muslim cleric nicknamed the “Ayatollah” for his time spent
studying Islam in Iran. Azali honoured the election results, thus
allowing the first peaceful and democratic exchange of power for the
archipelago.[42]

Colonel Mohammed Bacar,
a French-trained former gendarme elected President of Ndzuani in 2001,
refused to step down at the end of his five year mandate. He staged a
vote in June 2007 to confirm his leadership that was rejected as illegal
by the Comoros federal government and the African Union. On 25 March
2008 hundreds of soldiers from the African Union and the Comoros seized
rebel-held Ndzuani, generally welcomed by the population: there have
been reports of hundreds, if not thousands, of people tortured during
Bacar’s tenure.[43]
Some rebels were killed and injured, but there are no official figures.
At least 11 civilians were wounded. Some officials were imprisoned.
Bacar fled in a speedboat to the French Indian Ocean territory of
Mayotte to seek asylum. Anti-French protests followed in the Comoros
(see 2008 invasion of Anjouan). Bacar was eventually granted asylum in Benin.

Since independence from France, the Comoros experienced more than 20 coups or attempted coups.[10]

Following elections in late 2010, former Vice-President Ikililou Dhoinine
was inaugurated as President on 26 May 2011. A member of the ruling
party, Dhoinine was supported in the election by the incumbent President
Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi. Dhoinine, a pharmacist by training, is
the first President of the Comoros from the island of Mwali. Following
the 2016 elections, Azali Assoumani, from Ngazidja, became president for
a third term. In 2018 Azali held a referendum on constitutional reform
that would permit a president to serve two terms. The amdendments
passed, although the vote was widely contested and boycotted by the
opposition, and in April 2019, and to widespread opposition, Azali was
re-elected president to serve the first of potentially two five year
terms.



Geography





A map of the Comoros

The Comoros is formed by Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Mwali (Mohéli) and Ndzuani
(Anjouan), three major islands in the Comoros Archipelago, as well as
many minor islets. The islands are officially known by their Comorian
language names, though international sources still use their French
names (given in parentheses above). The capital and largest city, Moroni, is located on Ngazidja. The archipelago is situated in the Indian Ocean, in the Mozambique Channel, between the African coast (nearest to Mozambique and Tanzania) and Madagascar, with no land borders.

At 1,660 km2 (640 sq mi), it is one of the smallest countries in the world. The Comoros also has claim to 320 km2 (120 sq mi) of territorial seas. The interiors of the islands vary from steep mountains to low hills.

Ngazidja is the largest of the Comoros Archipelago, approximately
equal in area to the other islands combined. It is also the most recent
island, and therefore has rocky soil. The island’s two volcanoes, Karthala (active) and La Grille (dormant), and the lack of good harbours are distinctive characteristics of its terrain. Mwali, with its capital at Fomboni, is the smallest of the four major islands. Ndzuani, whose capital is Mutsamudu, has a distinctive triangular shape caused by three mountain chains – Shisiwani, Nioumakele and Jimilime – emanating from a central peak, Mount Ntingui (1,575 m or 5,167 ft).

The islands of the Comoros Archipelago were formed by volcanic activity. Mount Karthala, an active shield volcano
located on Ngazidja, is the country’s highest point, at 2,361 metres
(7,746 feet). It contains the Comoros’ largest patch of disappearing
rainforest. Karthala is currently one of the most active volcanoes in
the world, with a minor eruption in May 2006, and prior eruptions as
recently as April 2005 and 1991. In the 2005 eruption, which lasted from
17 to 19 April, 40,000 citizens were evacuated, and the crater lake in the volcano’s 3 by 4 kilometres (1.9 by 2.5 miles) caldera was destroyed.

The Comoros also lays claim to the Îles Éparses or Îles éparses de l’océan indien (Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean) – Glorioso Islands, comprising Grande Glorieuse, Île du Lys, Wreck Rock, South Rock, Verte Rocks
(three islets) and three unnamed islets – one of France’s overseas
districts. The Glorioso Islands were administered by the colonial
Comoros before 1975, and are therefore sometimes considered part of the
Comoros Archipelago. Banc du Geyser, a former island in the Comoros Archipelago, now submerged, is geographically located in the Îles Éparses, but was annexed by Madagascar
in 1976 as an unclaimed territory. The Comoros and France each still
view the Banc du Geyser as part of the Glorioso Islands and, thus, part
of its particular exclusive economic zone.



Climate


The climate is generally tropical and mild, and the two major seasons
are distinguishable by their raininess. The temperature reaches an
average of 29–30 °C (84–86 °F) in March, the hottest month in the rainy
season (called kashkazi/kaskazi [meaning north monsoon], which runs from
December to April), and an average low of 19 °C (66 °F) in the cool,
dry season (kusi (meaning south monsoon), which proceeds from May to
November).[44] The islands are rarely subject to cyclones.



Ecology and environment


The Comoros constitute an ecoregion in their own right, Comoros forests.[45]

In December 1952 a specimen of the Coelacanth
fish was re-discovered off the Comoros coast. The 66 million year old
species was thought to have been long extinct until its first recorded
appearance in 1938 off the South African coast.[46] Between 1938 and 1975, 84 specimens were caught and recorded.[47]



Government



Moroni, capital of the Comoros, with the port and Badjanani Mosque

Politics of the Comoros takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of the Comoros is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system.
The Constitution of the Union of the Comoros was ratified by referendum
on 23 December 2001, and the islands’ constitutions and executives were
elected in the following months. It had previously been considered a
military dictatorship, and the transfer of power from Azali Assoumani to
Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi in May 2006 was a watershed moment as it
was the first peaceful transfer in Comorian history.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government
and parliament. The preamble of the constitution guarantees an Islamic
inspiration in governance, a commitment to human rights, and several
specific enumerated rights, democracy, “a common destiny” for all
Comorians.[48]
Each of the islands (according to Title II of the Constitution) has a
great amount of autonomy in the Union, including having their own
constitutions (or Fundamental Law), president, and Parliament. The
presidency and Assembly of the Union are distinct from each of the
islands’ governments. The presidency of the Union rotates between the
islands.[49]
Despite widespread misgivings about the durability of the system of
presidential rotation, Ngazidja holds the current presidency rotation,
and Azali is President of the Union; Ndzuani is in theory to provide the
next president.[50]



Legal system

The Comorian legal system rests on Islamic law, an inherited French (Napoleonic Code) legal code, and customary law (mila na ntsi). Village elders, kadis or civilian courts settle most disputes. The judiciary is independent of the legislative
and the executive. The Supreme Court acts as a Constitutional Council
in resolving constitutional questions and supervising presidential
elections. As High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court also arbitrates
in cases where the government is accused of malpractice. The Supreme
Court consists of two members selected by the president, two elected by
the Federal Assembly, and one by the council of each island.[49]



Political culture

Around
80 percent of the central government’s annual budget is spent on the
country’s complex electoral system which provides for a semi-autonomous
government and president for each of the three islands and a rotating
presidency for the overarching Union government.[51]
A referendum took place on 16 May 2009 to decide whether to cut down
the government’s unwieldy political bureaucracy. 52.7% of those eligible
voted, and 93.8% of votes were cast in approval of the referendum.
Following the implementation of the changes, each island’s president
became a governor and the ministers became councillors.[52]



Foreign relations


In November 1975, the Comoros became the 143rd member of the United Nations. The new nation was defined as comprising the entire archipelago, although the citizens of Mayotte chose to become French citizens and keep their island as a French territory.[53]

The Comoros has repeatedly pressed its claim to Mayotte before the United Nations General Assembly,
which adopted a series of resolutions under the caption “Question of
the Comorian Island of Mayotte”, opining that Mayotte belongs to the
Comoros under the principle that the territorial integrity of colonial
territories should be preserved upon independence. As a practical
matter, however, these resolutions have little effect and there is no
foreseeable likelihood that Mayotte will become de facto part of
the Comoros without its people’s consent. More recently, the Assembly
has maintained this item on its agenda but deferred it from year to year
without taking action. Other bodies, including the Organization of African Unity, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, have similarly questioned French sovereignty over Mayotte.[6][54]
To close the debate and to avoid being integrated by force in the Union
of the Comoros, the population of Mayotte overwhelmingly chose to
become an overseas department and a region of France in a 2009 referendum. The new status was effective on 31 March 2011 and Mayotte has been recognised as an outermost region by the European Union on 1 January 2014. This decision integrates Mayotte in the French Republic legally « one and indivisible ».

The Comoros is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, the European Development Fund, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Indian Ocean Commission and the African Development Bank. On 10 April 2008, the Comoros became the 179th nation to accept the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.[55] The Comoros signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[56]

In May 2013 the Union of the Comoros became known for filing a
referral to the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal
Court (ICC) regarding the events of “the 31 May 2010 Israeli raid on the
Humanitarian Aid Flotilla bound for [the] Gaza Strip”. In November 2014
the ICC Prosecutor eventually decided[57] that the events did constitute war crimes but did not meet the gravity standards of bringing the case before ICC.[58] The emigration rate of skilled workers was about 21.2% in 2000.[59]



Military


The military resources of the Comoros consist of a small standing
army and a 500-member police force, as well as a 500-member defence
force. A defence treaty with France provides naval resources for
protection of territorial waters, training of Comorian military
personnel, and air surveillance. France maintains a few senior officers
presence in the Comoros at government request. France maintains a small
maritime base and a Foreign Legion Detachment (DLEM) on Mayotte.

Once the new government was installed in May–June 2011, an expert
mission from UNREC (Lomé) came to the Comoros and produced guidelines
for the elaboration of a national security policy, which were discussed
by different actors, notably the national defence authorities and civil
society.[60]
By the end of the programme in end March 2012, a normative framework
agreed upon by all entities involved in SSR will have been established.
This will then have to be adopted by Parliament and implemented by the
authorities.



Human rights


Both male and female same-sex sexual acts are illegal in Comoros.[61] Such acts are punished with up to five years imprisonment.[62]



Economy



A proportional representation of the Comoros’s exports

The level of poverty in the Comoros is high, but “judging by the international poverty threshold
of $1.9 per person per day, only two out of every ten Comorians could
be classified as poor, a rate that places the Comoros ahead of other low-income countries and 30 percentage points ahead of other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.”[63] Poverty declined by about 10% between 2014 and 2018, and living conditions generally improved.[63] Economic inequality remains widespread, with a major gap between rural and urban areas.[63] Remittances through the sizable Comorian diaspora form a substantial part of the country’s GDP[64] and have contributed to decreases in poverty and increases in living standards.[63]

According to ILO’s ILOSTAT statistical database, between 1991 and 2019 the unemployment rate as a percent of the total labor force ranged from.[65]
An October 2005 paper by the Comoros Ministry of Planning and Regional
Development, however, reported that “registered unemployment rate is
14.3 percent, distributed very unevenly among and within the islands,
but with marked incidence in urban areas.”[66]

In 2019, more than 56% of the labor force was employed in
agriculture, with 29% employed in industry and 14% employed in services.[67] The islands’ agricultural sector is based on the export of spices, including vanilla, cinnamon, and cloves, and thus susceptible to price fluctuations in the volatile world commodity market for these goods.[64] The Comoros is the world’s largest producer of ylang-ylang, a plant whose extracted essential oil is used in the perfume industry; some 80% of the world’s supply comes from the Comoros.[68]

High population densities, as much as 1000 per square kilometre
in the densest agricultural zones, for what is still a mostly rural,
agricultural economy may lead to an environmental crisis in the near
future, especially considering the high rate of population growth. In
2004 the Comoros’ real GDP growth was a low 1.9% and real GDP per capita
continued to decline. These declines are explained by factors including
declining investment, drops in consumption, rising inflation, and an
increase in trade imbalance due in part to lowered cash crop prices,
especially vanilla.[66]

Fiscal policy is constrained by erratic fiscal revenues, a
bloated civil service wage bill, and an external debt that is far above
the HIPC
threshold. Membership in the franc zone, the main anchor of stability,
has nevertheless helped contain pressures on domestic prices.[69]

The Comoros has an inadequate transportation system, a young and
rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
educational level of the labour force contributes to a subsistence level
of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture contributes 40% to GDP and provides most of the exports.

The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical
training, to privatise commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve
health services, to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to
reduce the high population growth rate.[70]

The Comoros is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[71]



Demographics



A mosque in Moroni


Population in Comoros[4][5]
Year
Million
1950 0.16
2000 0.54
2018 0.8

With fewer than a million people, the Comoros is one of the least
populous countries in the world, but is also one of the most densely
populated, with an average of 275 inhabitants per square kilometre
(710/sq mi). In 2001, 34% of the population was considered urban, but
that is expected to grow, since rural population growth is negative,
while overall population growth is still relatively high.[72]

Almost half the population of the Comoros is under the age of 15.[73] Major urban centres include Moroni, Mitsamihuli,Fumbuni, Mutsamudu, Domoni, and Fomboni. There are between 200,000 and 350,000 Comorians in France.[74]



Ethnic groups

The islands of the Comoros share mostly African-Arab origins. Minorities include Malagasy (Christian) and Indian (mostly Ismaili). There are recent immigrants of Chinese origin in Grande Comore (especially Moroni). Although most French left after independence in 1975, a small Creole community, descended from settlers from France, Madagascar and Réunion, lives in the Comoros.[citation needed]



Languages

Further information: Languages of the Comoros

The most common languages in the Comoros are the Comorian languages, collectively known Shikomori. They are related to Swahili, and the four different variants (Shingazidja, Shimwali, Shindzuani and Shimaore) are spoken on each of the four islands. Arabic and Latin scripts are both used, Arabic being the more widely used, and an official orthography has recently been developed for the Latin script.[75]

Arabic and French
are also official languages, along with Comorian. Arabic is widely
known as a second language, being the language of Quranic teaching.
French is the administrative language and the language of most
non-Quranic formal education.



Religion

Further information: Religion in the Comoros


A view of Domoni, Anjouan including mosque

Sunni Islam is the dominant religion, followed by as much as 99% of the population.[76]
Comoros is the only Muslim-majority country in Southern Africa and the
second southernmost Muslim-majority territory after the French territory
of Mayotte.

A minority of the population
of the Comoros are Christian, both Catholic and Protestant
denominations are represented, and most Malagasy residents are also
Christian. Expatriates from metropolitan France are mostly Catholic.[77]



Health

Further information: Health in the Comoros

There are 15 physicians per 100,000 people. The fertility rate was 4.7 per adult woman in 2004. Life expectancy at birth is 67 for females and 62 for males.[78]



Education

Further information: Education in the Comoros

Almost all children attend Quranic schools, usually before, although increasingly in tandem with regular schooling. Children are taught about the Qur’an,
and memorise it, and learn the Arabic script. Most parents prefer their
children to attend Koran schools before moving on to the French-based
schooling system. Although the state sector is plagued by a lack of
resources, and the teachers by unpaid salaries, there are numerous
private and community schools of relatively good standard. The national
curriculum, apart from a few years during the revolutionary period
immediately post-independence, has been very much based on the French
system, both because resources are French and most Comorians hope to go
on to further education in France. There have recently been moves to
Comorianise the syllabus and integrate the two systems, the formal and
the Quran schools, into one, thus moving away from the secular
educational system inherited from France.[79]

Pre-colonization education systems in Comoros focused on
necessary skills such as agriculture, caring for livestock and
completing household tasks. Religious education also taught children the
virtues of Islam. The education system underwent a transformation
during colonization in the early 1900s which brought secular education
based on the French system. This was mainly for children of the elite.
After Comoros gained independence in 1975, the education system changed
again. Funding for teachers’ salaries was lost, and many went on strike.
Thus, the public education system was not functioning between 1997 and
2001. Since gaining independence, the education system has also
undergone a democratization and options exist for those other than the
elite. Enrollment has also grown.

In 2000, 44.2% of children ages 5 to 14 years were attending
school. There is a general lack of facilities, equipment, qualified
teachers, textbooks and other resources. Salaries for teachers are often so far in arrears that many refuse to work.[80]

Prior to 2000, students seeking a university education had to
attend school outside of the country, however in the early 2000s a
university was created in the country. This served to help economic
growth and to fight the “flight” of many educated people who were not
returning to the islands to work.[81]

About fifty-seven percent of the population is literate in the Latin script while more than 90% are literate in the Arabic script. [82] Comorian has no native script, but both Arabic and Latin scripts are used.



Culture


Traditionally, women on Ndzuani wear red and white patterned garments called shiromani, while on Ngazidja and Mwali colourful shawls called leso are worn. Many women apply a paste of ground sandalwood and coral called msinzano to their faces.[83] Traditional male clothing is a long white shirt known as a nkandu, and a bonnet called a kofia.[84]



Marriage

There are two types of marriages in Comoros, the little marriage (known as Mna daho on Ngazidja) and the customary marriage (known as ada on Ngazidja, harusi
on the other islands). The little marriage is a simple legal marriage.
It is small, intimate, and inexpensive and the bride’s dowry is nominal.
A man may undertake a number of Mna daho marriages in his lifetime, often at the same time, a woman fewer; but both men and women will usually only undertake one ada,
or grand marriage, and this must generally be within the village. The
hallmarks of the grand marriage are dazzling gold jewelry, two weeks of
celebration and an enormous bridal dowry. Although the expenses are
shared bwteeen both families as well as with a wider social circle, an
ada wedding on Ngazidja can cost up to €50,000 (74,000 US dollars). Many
couples take a lifetime to save for their ada, and it is not uncommon
for a marriage to be attended by a couple’s adult children.[85]

The ada marriage marks a man’s transition in the Ngazidja
age system from youth to elder. His status in the social hierarchy
greatly increases, and he will henceforth be entitleto speak in public
and participate in the political process both in his village and more
widely acorss the island. He will be entitled to display his status by
wearing a mharuma, a type of shawl, across his shoulders, and he
can enter the mosque by the door reserved for elders, and sit at the
front. A woman’s status also changes, although less formally, as she
becomes a “mother” and moves into her own house. The system is less
formalised on the other islands, but the marriage is nevertheless as
significant and costly event across the archipelago.

The ada is often criticized because of its great expense,
but it is at the same time a source of social cohesion and the main
reason why migrants in France and elsewhere continue to send money home.
Increasingly marriages are also being taxes for the purposes of village
development, so the effects are not entirely negative.[86]



Kinship and social structure

Villages in Bangwa Kuuni, Ngazidja

Comorian society has a bilateral descent
system. Lineage membership and inheritance of immovable goods (land,
housing) is matrilineal, passed in the maternal line, similar to many Bantu peoples
who are also matrilineal, while other goods and patronymics are passed
in the male line. However, there are differences between the islands,
the matrilineal element being stronger on Ngazidja.[87]



Music

Further information: Music of the Comoro Islands

Twarab music, imported from Zanzibar in the early 20th century, remains the most influential genre on the islands and is popular at ada marriages.[88]



Media

Further information: Media of the Comoros

There are two daily national newspapers published in the Comoros, the government-owned Al-Watwan,[89] and the privately owned La Gazette des Comores, both published in Moroni.
There are a number of smaller newletters published on an irregular
basis as well as a variety of news websites. The government-owned ORTC
provides national radio and television service and there are a number of
privately owned stations broadcasting locally in the larger towns.[citation needed]



https://www.wikihow.com/Become-a-Buddhist-Monk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MCc9A4jFI54

 Pali Chanting - DhammaCakkappavattana Sutta
Dhammadhara Y
Saṃyutta Nikāya
56Connected Discourses on the Truths
11. Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dhamma

Bhikkhu Bodhi

Thus
have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was dwelling at Bārāṇasī in
the Deer Park at Isipatana. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus
of the group of five thus: “Bhikkhus, these two extremes should not be
followed by one gone forth (into the homeless life). What two? That
which is this pursuit of sensual happiness in sense pleasures, which is
low, vulgar, the way of the ordinary person, ignoble, not connected to
the goal; and that which is this pursuit of self-mortification, which is
painful, ignoble, not connected to the goal. Bhikkhus, without veering
towards either of these two extremes, the One Attuned to Reality has
awakened to the middle way, which gives rise to vision, which gives rise
to knowledge, which leads to peace, to higher knowledge, to full
awakening, to Nibbāna

Thus
have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Baraṇasi
in the Deer Park at Isipatana. There the Blessed One addressed the
bhikkhus of the group of five thus:


“Bhikkhus, these two extremes should not be followed by one who has
gone forth into homelessness. What two? The pursuit of sensual happiness
in sensual pleasures, which is low, vulgar, the way of worldlings,
ignoble, unbeneficial; and the pursuit of self-mortification, which is
painful, ignoble, unbeneficial. Without veering towards either of these
extremes, the Tathagata has awakened to the middle way, which gives rise
to vision, which gives rise to knowledge, which leads to peace, to
direct knowledge, to awakenment, to Nibbāna.

“And
what, bhikkhus, is that middle way awakened to by the One Attuned to
Reality which gives rise to vision, which gives rise to knowledge, which
leads to peace, to higher knowledge, to full awakening, to Nibbāna? It
is just this Noble Eight-factored Path, that is to say, right view,
right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right
effort, right mindfulness, right mental unification. This, bhikkhus, is
that middle way awakened to by the One Attuned to Reality, which gives
rise to vision, which gives rise to knowledge, which leads to peace, to
higher knowledge, to full awakening, to Nibbāna.

“And
what, bhikkhus, is that middle way awakened to by the Tathagata, which
gives rise to vision … which leads to Nibbāna? It is this Noble
Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech,
right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right
concentration. This, bhikkhus, is that middle way awakened to by the
Tathagata, which gives rise to vision, which gives rise to knowledge,
which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.

“Now this,
bhikkhus, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the true reality which
is pain: birth is painful, aging is painful, illness is painful, death
is painful; sorrow, lamentation, physical pain, unhappiness and distress
are painful; union with what is disliked is painful; separation from
what is liked is painful; not to get what one wants is painful; in
brief, the five bundles of grasping-fuel are painful.
“Now
this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering,
aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with
what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is
suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five
aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.

“Now
this, bhikkhus, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the
pain-originating true reality. It is this craving which leads to renewed
existence, accompanied by delight and attachment, seeking delight now
here now there; that is, craving for sense-pleasures, craving for
existence, craving for extermination (of what is not liked).

“Now
this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is
this craving which leads to renewed existence, accompanied by delight
and lust, seeking delight here and there; that is, craving for sensual
pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination.

“Now this,
bhikkhus, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the pain-ceasing true
reality. It is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same
craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it,
non-reliance on it.
“Now
this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is
the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the
giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it.

“Now this,
bhikkhus, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the true reality which
is the way leading to the cessation of pain. It is this Noble
Eight-factored Path, that is to say, right view, right resolve, right
speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness,
right mental unification.
“Now
this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation
of suffering: it is this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view …
right concentration.

“‘This,
for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the true reality of pain’: in me,
bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose vision,
knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“‘This
is the noble truth of suffering’: thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things
unheard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, true
knowledge, and light.

“Now
on this, ‘This — for the spiritually ennobled ones, the true reality of
pain — is to be fully understood’: in me, bhikkhus, in regard to things
unheard before, there arose vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge,
and light.

“‘This
noble truth of suffering is to be fully understood’: thus, bhikkhus, in
regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge,
wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“Now
on this, ‘This — for the spiritually ennobled ones, the true reality of
pain — has been fully understood’: in me, bhikkhus, in regard to things
unheard before, there arose vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge,
and light.

“‘This
noble truth of suffering has been fully understood’: thus, bhikkhus, in
regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge,
wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“(Likewise,)
in me, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose
vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge and light, with respect to:
‘This, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the pain-originating true
reality,’ ‘This — for the spiritually ennobled ones, the
pain-originating true reality — is to be abandoned,’ and ‘This — for the
spiritually ennobled ones, the pain-originating true reality — has been
abandoned.’

“‘This
is the noble truth of the origin of suffering’: thus, bhikkhus, in
regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge,
wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“‘This
noble truth of the origin of suffering is to be abandoned’: thus,
bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision,
knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.


“‘This
noble truth of the origin of suffering has been abandoned’: thus,
bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision,
knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“(Likewise,)
in me, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose
vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge and light, with respect to:
‘This, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the pain-ceasing true
reality,’ ‘This — for the spiritually ennobled ones, the pain-ceasing
true reality — is to be personally experienced’ and ‘This — for the
spiritually ennobled ones, the pain-ceasing true reality — has been
personally experienced.’

“‘This
is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering’: thus, bhikkhus, in
regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge,
wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“‘This
noble truth of the cessation of suffering is to be realized’: thus,
bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision,
knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.


“‘This
noble truth of the cessation of suffering has been realized’: thus,
bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose in me vision,
knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“(Likewise,)
in me, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose
vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge and light, with respect to:
‘This, for the spiritually ennobled ones, is the true reality which is
the way leading to the cessation of pain,’ ‘This — for the spiritually
ennobled ones, the true reality which is the way leading to the
cessation of pain — is to be developed,’ and ‘This — for the spiritually
ennobled ones, the true reality which is way leading to the cessation
of pain — has been developed.’

“‘This
is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering’:
thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there arose in me
vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“‘This
noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering is to be
developed’: thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there
arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.


“‘This
noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering has been
developed’: thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before, there
arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light.

“So
long, bhikkhus, as my knowledge and seeing of these four true realities
for the spiritually ennobled ones, as they really are in their three
phases (each) and twelve modes (altogether) was not thoroughly purified
in this way, then so long, in the world with its devas, māras and
brahmās, in this population with its renunciants and brahmans, its devas
and humans, I did not claim to be fully awakened to the unsurpassed
perfect awakening. But when, bhikkhus, my knowledge and vision of these
four true realities for the spiritually ennobled ones, as they really
are in their three phases and twelve modes was thoroughly purified in
this way, then, in the world with its devas, māras and brahmās, in this
population with its renunciants and brahmans, its devas and humans, I
claimed to be fully awakened to the unsurpassed perfect awakening.
Indeed, knowledge and seeing arose in me: ‘Unshakeable is the liberation
of my mind; this is my last birth: now there is no more renewed
existence.’”

“So
long, bhikkhus, as my knowledge and vision of these Four Noble Truths
as they really are in their three phases and twelve aspects was not
thoroughly purified in this way, I did not claim to have awakened to the
unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas, Mara,
and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas
and humans. But when my knowledge and vision of these Four Noble Truths
as they really are in their three phases and twelve aspects was
thoroughly purified in this way, then I claimed to have awakened to the
unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas, Mara,
and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas
and humans. The knowledge and vision arose in me: ‘Unshakable is the
liberation of my mind. This is my last birth. Now there is no more
renewed existence.’”

This
is what the Blessed One said. Elated, the bhikkhus of the group of five
delighted in the Blessed One’s statement. And while this explanation
was being spoken, there arose in the venerable Koṇḍañña the dust-free,
stainless vision of the Basic Pattern: “whatever is patterned with an
origination, all that is patterned with a cessation.”

This
is what the Blessed One said. Elated, the bhikkhus of the group of five
delighted in the Blessed One’s statement. And while this discourse was
being spoken, there arose in the Venerable Kondañña the dust-free,
stainless vision of the Dhamma: “Whatever is subject to origination is
all subject to cessation.”

And
when the Wheel (of Vision) of the Basic Pattern (of things) had been
set in motion by the Blessed One, the earth-dwelling devas raised a cry:
“At Bārāṇasī, in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the unsurpassed Wheel (of
Vision) of the Basic Pattern (of things) has been set in motion by the
Blessed One, which cannot be stopped by any renunciant or brahman or
māra or brahmā or by anyone in the world.” Having heard the cry of the
earth-dwelling devas, the devas of the Four Great Kings raised the same
cry. Having heard it, the Thirty-three devas took it up, then the Yāma
devas, then the Contented devas, then the devas Who Delight in Creating,
then the devas With Mastery in the Creations of Others, and then the
devas of the brahmā group.

And
when the Wheel of the Dhamma had been set in motion by the Blessed One,
the earth-dwelling devas raised a cry: “At Baraṇasi, in the Deer Park
at Isipatana, this unsurpassed Wheel of the Dhamma has been set in
motion by the Blessed One, which cannot be stopped by any ascetic or
brahmin or deva or Mara or Brahma or by anyone in the world.” Having
heard the cry of the earth-dwelling devas, the devas of the realm of the
Four Great Kings raised a cry: “At Baraṇasi … this unsurpassed Wheel of
the Dhamma has been set in motion by the Blessed One, which cannot be
stopped … by anyone in the world.” Having heard the cry of the devas of
the realm of the Four Great Kings, the Tavatiṃsa devas … the Yama devas …
the Tusita devas … the Nimmanarati devas … the Paranimmitavasavatti
devas … the devas of Brahma’s company raised a cry: “At Baraṇasi, in the
Deer Park at Isipatana, this unsurpassed Wheel of the Dhamma has been
set in motion by the Blessed One, which cannot be stopped by any ascetic
or brahmin or deva or Mara or Brahma or by anyone in the world.”

Thus
at that moment, at that instant, at that second, the cry spread as far
as the brahmā world, and this ten thousandfold world system shook,
quaked, and trembled, and an immeasurable glorious radiance appeared in
the world, surpassing the divine majesty of the devas.

Thus
at that moment, at that instant, at that second, the cry spread as far
as the brahma world, and this ten thousandfold world system shook,
quaked, and trembled, and an immeasurable glorious radiance appeared in
the world surpassing the divine majesty of the devas.

Then
the Blessed One uttered this inspiring utterance: “the honorable
Koṇḍañña has indeed understood! The honorable Koṇḍañña has indeed
understood! In this way, the venerable Koṇḍañña acquired the name
Koṇḍañña Who Has Understood.

Then
the Blessed One uttered this inspired utterance: “Koṇḍañña has indeed
understood! Koṇḍañña has indeed understood!” In this way the Venerable
Koṇḍañña acquired the name “Añña Koṇḍañña—Koṇḍañña Who Has Understood.”

 



pahātabban.
In the Dasuttara Sutta (D iii 272-93), various other items are said to
be things “to be abandoned”: “the ‘I am’ conceit”; “ignorance and
craving for existence”; the three kinds of craving; the four “floods” —
of sense-desire, existence, views and ignorance; the five hindrances;
craving for the six sense-objects; the seven latent tendencies — to
sense-desire, ill-will, views, wavering, conceit, attachment to
existence, and ignorance; the eight wrongnesses — wrong view to wrong
mental unification; the nine things rooted in craving, such as
quarreling over possessions; the ten wrongnesses — wrong view to wrong
mental unification, then wrong knowledge and wrong liberation.



Basic Pattern:



Dhamma
is a difficult word to translate, but “Basic Pattern” captures
something of what it is about: it is the nature of things as a network
of interdependent processes, teachings which point this out, practices
based on an understanding of this, transformative experiences that come
from this, and Nibbāna as beyond all conditioned patterns.



Basic Pattern, vision of, or Dhamma-eye:



Dhamma-cakkhu.
The arising of this marks the attainment of the first definitive
breakthrough to becoming a spiritually ennobled one. Often it means
becoming a stream-enterer, but a person may also go straight to becoming
a once-returner or non-returner.



Basic Pattern, Wheel of the (Vision) of:



Dhamma-cakka. “Wheel” is cakka, and vision or eye is cakkhu.
Given their similarity, some pun may be implied here, especially as the
Dhamma-wheel is only said to turn the moment that Koṇḍañña gains the Dhamma-cakkhu,
vision of the Dhamma/Basic Pattern. Moreover, in Buddhist art,
Dhamma-wheels sometimes resemble eyes. The Dhamma-wheel is set in motion
in the instant Koṇḍañña sees the realities pointed out by the Buddha.
It does not turn just from the Buddha teaching, but when there is
transmission of insight into Dhamma from the Buddha to another person,
thus inaugurating the influence of Dhamma in the world. This parallels a
passage in the Cakkavatti-sīhanāda Sutta, where a divine wheel appears
in the sky only when a Cakkavatti (Wheel-turning) ruler, who rules
according to Dhamma — righteously and with compassion, ascends the
throne, and it follows him as he moves through the world, conquering
without violence (D iii 61-2).



Bhikkhu:



generally translated “monk,” but literally “almsman,” a renunciant living off donated alms.



Bundles of grasping-fuel:



the upādāna-kkhandhas
or grasping-aggregates/groups/bundles. These are material form (the
body), feeling, perception, the constructing/volitional activities and
consciousness, all of which we generally grasp at as “I.” In the above
discourse, one might see “birth… death” as particularly related to the khandha
of material form, “sorrow… distress” as particularly related to that of
feeling, and “union… not to get what one wants” as involving activities
and perceptions. All involve consciousness. The common translation of upādāna-kkhandhā
as “groups/aggregates of grasping” is misleading, as only part of the
khandha of constructing/volitional activities is actual grasping. The
khandhas are the object of grasping, upādānā.
Moreover, “upādāna” also means fuel, that which is “taken up” by fire,
here the “fire” of grasping and the other defilements. “Bundles of
grasping-fuel” captures both these connotations of “upādāna.” On this,
cf. ch.2 of Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Mind Like Fire Unbound,
1993., Barre, Mass.: Dhamma Dana Publications. The fuel-like nature of
the khandhas is explicitly referred to at S iii 33-4 and M i 140-1 (MN 22
— just above “Well-proclaimed Dhamma” section), which compare the
khandhas, as “not yours,” to grass, sticks, branches and foliage being
collected to be taken away and burnt. S iv 19-20 (SN 35.28)
describes the six senses, their objects, their related consciousnesses,
stimulations and feelings as all “burning” with attachment, hatred and
delusion and “with birth, aging, death; with sorrow, lamentation, pain,
unhappiness and distress,” i.e., with causes of pain, and with things
that are painful.



Craving:



taṇhā, which is not just any kind of “desire,” but demanding desire. Chanda, the “desire to do,” for example, can have wholesome forms which are part of the path.



Developed, to be:



bhāvitabban: to be developed, cultivated, practiced. This term is related to bhāvanā, development, cultivation, practice. Citta-bhāvanā,
or cultivation of the heart-mind, is a term for what is referred to in
English as “meditation.” In the Dasuttara Sutta (D iii 272-93), various
other items are said to be things “to be developed”: “mindfulness
regarding the body, accompanied by pleasure”; calm (samatha) and insight (vipassanā); three samādhis
— with both mental application and examination, with just examination,
with neither; the four applications of mindfulness; the fivefold right samādhi — (which involve) suffusion of joy, of happiness, of mind (ceto-), of light, and the reviewing sign (nimitta); recollection of the Buddha, Dhamma, Saṅgha, moral virtue, liberality, and devas; the seven factors of awakening; the Noble Eight-factored Path; the nine factors of effort for perfect purity; the ten kasiṇas (e.g., colored discs) as meditation objects.



Devas, māras and brahmās:



devas refer to divine beings, especially those of the higher reaches of sense-desire (kāma-)
realm that is seen to be the world shared by them, humans, animals,
ghosts and hell-beings. The earth-dwelling devas and the following six
types of devas in the above discourse are, in ascending order, the types
of devas of the sense-desire realm. A māra is a tempter-deity, seen as
seeking to keeping beings attached to sense pleasures. A brahmā is a
divine being of the more refined realm of elemental form (rūpa-); beings attain rebirth at this level due to attaining meditative jhāna, which māras try to prevent happening. The devas of the brahmā group (brahma-kāyikā) are those of this realm of elemental form, the lowest of which are the devas of (Great) Brahmā’s retinue (brahma-pārisajjā).
A Great Brahmā is a type of being who is full of lovingkindness and
compassion, but with a tendency to deludedly think he created the world.
The brahmās also include more refined kinds of beings.



Fully understood, to be:



pariññeyyan.
In the Dasuttara Sutta (D iii 272-93), various other items are said to
be things “to be fully understood”: “stimulation that is with-taint and
linked to grasping (phasso sāsavo upādāniyo)”;
“mind and material form”; the three kinds of feeling; the four
nutriments; the five bundles of grasping-fuel; the six internal
sense-spheres; the seven stations of consciousness (types of rebirth);
the eight worldly conditions — gain and loss, fame and shame, blame and
praise, pleasure and pain; the nine abodes of beings; the five physical
senses and their objects.



Mental unification:



samādhi,
generally translated as “concentration,” does not refer to the process
of concentrating the mind, but to the state of being concentrated,
unified, in jhāna.



Nibbāna:



the destruction of attachment, hatred and delusion, the cessation of pain/the painful, the unconditioned state.



Noble:



the path is noble (ariya) and transforms those who practice it into spiritually ennobled ones (see entry on this).



One Attuned to Reality:



Tathāgata
is a term for a Buddha. It literally means “Thus-gone” or “Thus-come.”
What is “thus” is what is real. Translating the term as “One Attuned to
Reality” brings the term alive as referring to person who has awakened
to the real nature of things, and experiences things as they really are,
most significantly in terms of dukkha, its origination, its cessation, and the way to this.



Pain:



dukkha. The basic everyday meaning of the word dukkha as a noun is “pain” as opposed to “pleasure” (sukha). These, with neither-dukkha-nor-sukha, are the three kinds of feeling (vedanā) (e.g., S iv 232). S v 209-10 explains dukkha vedanā as pain (dukkha) and unhappiness (domanassa),
i.e., bodily and mental dukkha. This shows that the primary sense of
dukkha, when used as a noun, is physical “pain,” but then its meaning is
extended to include mental pain, unhappiness. The same spread of
meaning is seen in the English word “pain,” for example in the phrase,
“the pleasures and pains of life.” That said, the way dukkha is
explained in this discourse shows that it is here “pain” in the sense of
“the painful”, that which is painful, i.e. which brings pain, whether
in an obvious or subtle sense.



Painful:



dukkha
as an adjective refers to things which are not (in most cases)
themselves forms of mental or physical pain, but which are experienced
in ways which bring mental or physical pain. When it is said “birth is
painful” etc, the word dukkha agrees in number and gender with what it
is applied to, so is an adjective. The most usual translation “is
suffering” does not convey this. Birth is not a form of “suffering,” nor
is it carrying out the action of “suffering,” as in the use of the word
in “he is suffering.”



“Patterned with an origination” and “patterned with a cessation”:



samudaya-dhamma and nirodha-dhamma:
here “dhamma,” the same word as for the Basic Pattern, is used as an
adjective. One might also translate: “is subject to origination” and “is
subject to cessation.” The words samudaya and nirodha are the same ones used for the “origination” and “cessation” of pain/dukkha.



Personally experienced, to be:



sacchikātabban, from sacchikaroti, to see with one’s own eyes, to experience for oneself. One is reminded of the epithet of the Dhamma as “ehipassikopaccataṃ veditabbo viññūhi“: “come-see-ish… to be experienced individually by the discerning.” A ii 182 explains that the eight deliverances (vimokhas)
are to be personally experienced (sacchikaraṇīyā) by one’s (mental)
body; former lives are to be personally experienced by mindfulness (sati); the decease and rebirth of beings are to be personally experienced by (divine) vision (cakkhu), and the destruction of the taints (āsavas) is to be personally experienced by wisdom (paññā).
The last of these seems that which applies in the case of experiencing
the cessation of dukkha. In the Dasuttara Sutta (D iii 272-93), various
other items are said to be things “to be personally experienced”:
“unshakeable liberation of mind”; “knowledge and liberation”; knowledge
of past lives, the rebirths of other beings, and of destruction of one’s
taints; the “fruits” (-phalas)
which are stream-entry, once-returner-hood, non-returner-hood and
arahantship; the five dhamma-groups — of moral virtue, mental
unification, wisdom, liberation, and knowledge and vision of liberation;
the six higher knowledges; the seven powers of one who has destroyed
the taints; the eight deliverances; the nine successive cessations —
first jhāna up to the cessation of perception and feeling; the ten
dhammas of the non-learner — right view to right mental unification,
then right knowledge and right liberation.



Renewed existence:



punabbhava, again-becoming or rebirth.



Renunciants and brahmans:



those
who renounce the household life for a religious quest, and priests of
the pre-Buddhist religion of India. “Renunciants” include Buddhist and
Jain monks and nuns, and also certain ascetics who rejected Brahmanism
and were Fatalists, Materialists or Skeptics.



Spiritually ennobled ones:



ariya,
which in pre-Buddhist times meant a ‘noble’ one born into the higher
classes of Brahmanical society, in Buddhism is better rendered as
‘spiritually ennobled one’. It refers to the persons of nobility of
citta (mind/heart/spirit) who have had direct insight into the four true
realities, so as to be firmly established on the noble path to Nibbana,
the end of pain/the painful. The spiritually ennobled ones are
stream-enterers, once-returners, non-returners and arahants, and those
intently practicing to attain any of these, through deep insight. The
Buddha is also “the Spiritually Ennobled One.”



True reality for the spiritually ennobled ones (or, for spiritually ennobled ones, a true reality):



Ariya-sacca,
usually translated “Noble Truth,” but K.R.Norman sees this as “the
least likely of all the possibilities” for the meaning of ariya-sacca.
He points out that the commentators interpret it as: “‘truth of the
noble one,’ ‘truth of the noble ones,’ ‘truth for a noble one,’ i.e.,
the truth that will make one noble, as well as the translation ‘noble
truth’ so familiar to us. The last possibility, however, they put at the
very bottom of the list of possibilities, if they mention it at all” (A Philological Approach to Buddhism,
London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1997, p. 16). He
prefers “truth of the noble one (the Buddha),” but acknowledges that the
term may be deliberately multivalent. At S v 435, the Buddha is “the
Spiritually Ennobled One,” but the term also applies to any of the
ennobled persons (see entry on “Spiritually ennobled ones”). They are
different from the “ordinary person,” the puthujjana, though an ordinary
person can become a Noble person by insight into Dhamma.



As
regards the translation of sacca, this means “truth” in many contexts,
but as an adjective it means both “true” and “real.” Taking sacca as
meaning “truth” in the term ariya-sacca is problematic as in the above
discourse it is said that the second ariya-sacca is “to be abandoned”;
but surely, the “truth” on the origination of pain/the painful should
not be abandoned. Rather, the “true reality” which is the origination of
pain/the painful — craving — should be abandoned. Moreover, the
discourse says that the Buddha understood, “This is the ariya-sacca
which is pain,” not “The ariya-sacca ‘This is pain,’” which would be the
case if sacca here meant a truth whose content was expressed in words
in quote marks. The ariya-saccas as “true realities for the spiritually
ennobled ones” are reminiscent of such passages as S iv 95, which says
that, “That in the world by which one is a perceiver of the world, a
conceiver of the world — this is called the world in the discipline of
the spiritually ennobled one (ariyassa vinaye).”
That is, spiritually ennobled ones understand things in a different way
from ordinary people. Indeed, at Suttanipāta p.147, it is said,
‘Whatever, bhikkhus, is regarded as “this is true reality” by the world…
that is well seen by the spiritually ennobled ones with right wisdom as
it really is as “this is deceptive”‘, and vice versa. Sn. p.148 then
says ‘Whatever, bhikkhus, is regarded as “This is pleasant” by the
world… this is well seen by the spiritually ennobled ones with right
wisdom as “this is painful (dukkha)”‘, and vice versa. This is because
desirable sense-objects are impermanent and bring pain when they end,
and because spiritually ennobled ones, unlike ordinary people, see the
five ‘bundles of grasping fuel’ — the conditioned world — as painful.
While ordinary people do not agree with this, or that ‘birth’, that is,
being born, is painful, they may of course agree that, for example, ‘not
to get what one wants is painful’.



Vision:



cakkhu means eye, but also vision, insight.



Way leading to the cessation of pain:



dukkha-nirodha-gāminī paṭipadā.

Concepts:
1. The world has changed for ever, 2. Adaptation is the key, 3.
Survival of the ‘Quickest’. 4. Forced Enterpreneurship, 5. Ego slap by
nature.

AFFECTED INDUSTRIES : 1. JOBS, 2. RETAIL, 3. TRAVEL,
4.TOURISM, 5. HOSPITALITY, 6. AUTOMOIVE, 7. CINEMA, 8. LOGISTIC, 9.LOCAL
TRANSPORT, 10. RESTAURANTS, 11. LUXURY PRODUCTS, 12. LIVE SPORTS, 13.
REAL ESTATE, 14. OIL & GAS, 15. COSTRUCTION, 16. FILM INDUSTRY, 17.
EVENTS & CONFERENCES, 18. TECH & GAD INVESATING, 19. AUTOMOBILE
MANUFACTURING, 20. FINTECH INVESTMENT.

WHAT HAS CHANGED : 1.
SOCIAL INTERACTION, 2. WORK STYLE, 3. INTERNET USAGE, 4. HEALTH
CONCIOUSNESS, 5. LESS POLLUTION, 6. PRIORITIES, 7. BUSSINESS MODES, 9.
FAMILY TIME, 10. EXPENSES DROPPED, 11. EDUCATION, 11. FOOD, 19.
ENVIRONMENT.

WINNING INDUSTRIES:  1. DIGITAL PRODUCTS, 2. GIG
ECONOMY, 3. STOCK MARKET INVESTING, 4. HOME GARDENING, 5. ONLINE
COACHING/TEACHING, 6. MENTAL HEALTH, 7. ALTERNATE ENERGY, 8. INSURANCE,
9. ALTERNATE MEDICINES, 10. GAMING, 11. HEALTHCARE, 12. AFFILIATE
MARKET, 13. NETWORK MARKETING, 14. DATA SCIENCES, 15. SPIRITUAL
SCIENCES.

https://www.thehindu.com/…/put-some-mo…/article31507460.ece…

This
is what has happened when there is no money in the hands of the people
because of the permanent curfew where the petty shops, small eateries,
no work for daily wagers etc., etc.,

Message from top cop of Bangalore which every one should read.

CAUTION

All of us whether in Cities or Towns, have to be aware of the situation.

From May 3rd if the permanent curfew is lifted partially fully, we
cannot put much pressure on our police department which had worked hard day in and day out all these days.

The police force would be very tired and they also need to spend time with their families.

We need to be responsible citizens in following traffic rules and be proactive in protecting ourselves and our belongings.

As many out there, did not have much earnings all these days so there
might be a sudden spurt in incidents due to jobloss / effect on
business.

1. People have to be very careful this includes people
at home, children, school and college going boys/girls, working
women/men.

2. Do not wear costly watches.

3. Do not wear costly chains, bangles, ear rings be careful with your hand bags.

4. Men refrain wearing high end watches, costly bracelets and chains.

5. Do not use much of your mobile phones in the public. Try to minimise mobile use in public.

6. Do not entertain giving lift ride to any strangers.

7. Do not carry more than necessary money.

8. Keep your credit and debit cards safe while you are on the move.

9.
Keep calling home every now and then to check upon your elders, wife
and children’s welfare.10. Instruct elders and people at home while
attending a door bell keep a safe distance from the main door, if
possible keep the grill gateslocked not to go close to the grill to
receive any parcels or letters.

11. Instruct children to return home early as much as possible.

12. Don’t take any secluded or short cuts roads to reach home, try and use maximum Main roads.

13. Youngsters when you are out keep an eye on your surroundings.

14. Always have an emergency number at hand.

15. Keep a safe distance from people.

16. Public mostly will be wearing mask.

17. Those who use cab services please share your trip details with you parents, siblings, relatives, friends or guardians.

18. Try and use Govt public transport system.

19. Avoid crowded buses.

20. While going for your daily walk try and go around 6.00 AM, in the
evening maximum finish by 8.00 PM use Main roads avoid empty streets.

21. Do not spend much time in malls, beach and parks.

22. If Children have to attend tuition classes let elders drop and pick up.

23. Do not leave any valuables in your vehicles.

This has to be followed at least for 3 months or till overall situation improves.

Share to all you CARE…

Request all authorities to issue a notification in the best interest of people of our Country.

Murderers of democratic institutions and masters of diluting
institutions
(Modi), Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) BS Yediyurappa who gobbled
the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections for
remotely controlling intolerant, violent, ever shooting, mob lynching,
number one terrorists of the world foreigners thrown out from Bene
israel, Tibet, Africa, etc., chitpvan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy/Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks), Bhaskar Rao IPS Police Commissioner’s Office - Bangalore
BBMP Commissioner BBMP Mayor BBMP-Ward-Committee With
typically shoddy execution, Modi’s national curfew could starve Indians to death — and not even save them from the coronavirus.

https://theprint.in/…/modis-poorly-planned-lockdown…/388056/

Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s poorly planned 45 days
curfew
didn’t save us from COVID-19, but killed economy after gobbling the
Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections on
behalf of Rowdy rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) foreigners from Bene
Israel.

With typically shoddy execution, Modi’s national curfew could starve to death.

It is important to note that countries that have so far done a
relatively
good job of containing the COVID-19 pandemic have refrained from
imposing a complete, nation-wide, curfew-like lockdown. These include
Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, and Turkey. Even China, where it all
started, placed only the Hubei province under complete lockdown, not the
whole country.

Modi has put 1.3 billion people under a curfew.
Since the authorities are using the word ‘curfew’ in the context of
issuing passes, it is fair to call it a national curfew.

Modi
does not have the capacity to think through the details of planning and
execution. This is turning out to be another demonetisation, with the
typical Modi problem of mistaking theatrics for achievement.

If we survive the pandemic, we won’t survive the impending economic
collapse. The economy isn’t on Modi’s radar either. He won a national
election despite disastrous economic policies that gave us a 45
year-high unemployment rate. Why should he worry about the economy?

Demonetisation and GST resulted in killing demand, and this poorly
planned national curfew will kill supply chains. We’ll be left with the
great Indian discovery, the zero.

Modi
announced a national curfew with little notice. He addressed India at 8
pm, and the curfew came into force at midnight. Just like
demonetisation. Why couldn’t he have given some notice? Why couldn’t he
have done his TV address at 8 am? Maximising prime time attention, you
see.

The home ministry issued a list of exemptions but try
explaining them to the cops on the street. The police is doing what it
loves to do the most: beating up Indians with lathis. Meanwhile, lakhs
of trucks are stranded on state borders. Supply chains for the most
essential items have been disrupted, including medicines, milk,
groceries, food and newspaper deliveries.

Nobody in the prime minister’s office seems to be aware of any such
thing as crop harvesting, or the Rabi season, as farmers wonder how
they’ll do it amid this national curfew. Only Modi can manage to be so
clever as to disrupt the country’s medical supply chain while fighting a
pandemic.Modi
is the only major world leader who has not yet announced a financial
package. In his first speech, he said the finance minister will head a
committee, but some in the finance ministry said they heard of this
committee from the Modi’s speech. He did announce Rs 15,000 crore extra
to meet the health expenditure arising out of the COVID-19 crisis — that
is Rs 5,000 crore less than the amount of money he has kept aside for
his narcissistic and unnecessary project of rebuilding the Central Vista
of New Delhi.

At this rate, more might die of hunger than of
COVID-19. Modi’s poor administrative skills, zero attention span for
details, spell disaster for this crisis. In a few weeks, we might find
ourselves overwhelmed with an epidemic in defiance of official numbers,
while the economy might start looking like the 1980s.

While it’s
not known who got what from whom, whether the virus was even spread
simply having a cold at that time, the case has shaken the community
even if it didn’t “qualify” for a test after showing runny nose which
was listed as a symptom of COVID-19 and advises anyone feeling unwell to
stay home.

Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia !
It seems that the disease is being attacked wrongly worldwide.
Thanks to autopsies performed by the Italians … it has been shown
that it is not pneumonia … but it is: disseminated intravascular
coagulation (thrombosis).

Therefore, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, antivirals, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.

The protocols are being changed here since !

According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units were never needed.

If this is true for all cases, it is about to be resolved it earlier than expected.

Important and new about Coranovirus:

Around the world, COVID-19 is being attacked wrongly due to a serious pathophysiological diagnosis error.

The impressive case of a Mexican family in the United States who claimed they were cured with a home remedy was documented:-
Three 500 mg Aspirins dissolved in lemon juice boiled with honey and taken hot.

The
next day they woke up as if nothing had happened to them!Well, the
scientific information that follows proves they are right!

This information was released by a medical researcher from Italy:
Thanks to 50 autopsies performed on patients who died of COVID-19,
Italian
pathologists have discovered that IT IS NOT PNEUMONIA, strictly
speaking, because the virus does not only kill pneumocytes of this type,
but uses an inflammatory storm to create an endothelial vascular
thrombosis.

As in disseminated intravascular coagulation, the
lung is the most affected because it is the most inflamed, but there is
also a heart attack, stroke and many other thromboembolic diseases.

In fact, the protocols left antiviral therapies useless and focused on anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting therapies.

These therapies should be done immediately, even at home, in which the treatment of patients responds very well.

The
later performed less effective. In resuscitation, they are almost
useless. If the Chinese had denounced it, they would have invested in
home therapy, not intensive care!

DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (THROMBOSIS):

So, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.

An Italian pathologist reports that the hospital in Bergamo did a
total of 50 autopsies and one in Milan, 20, that is, the Italian series
is the highest in the world, the Chinese did only 3, which seems to
fully confirm the information.

Previously,
in a nutshell, the disease is determined by a disseminated
intravascular coagulation triggered by the virus; therefore, it is not
pneumonia but pulmonary thrombosis, a major diagnostic error.

We doubled the number of resuscitation places in the ICU, with unnecessary exorbitant costs.

In retrospect, we have to rethink those chest X-rays that were
discussed a month ago and were given as interstitial pneumonia; in
fact, it may be entirely consistent with disseminated intravascular
coagulation.

Treatment
in ICUs is useless if thromboembolism is not resolved first. If we
ventilate a lung where blood does not circulate, it is useless, in fact,
nine (9) patients out of ten (10) die.

Because the problem is cardiovascular, not respiratory.

It is venous microthrombosis, not pneumonia, that determines mortality.

Why thrombi are formed ?

Because
inflammation, according to the literature, induces thrombosis through a
complex but well-known pathophysiological mechanism.

Unfortunately what the scientific literature said, especially Chinese,
until mid-March was that anti-inflammatory drugs should not be used.

Now, the therapy being used in Italy is with anti-inflammatories and
antibiotics, as in influenza, and the number of hospitalized patients
has been reduced.

Many
deaths, even in their 40s, had a history of fever for 10 to 15 days,
which were not treated properly.Many deaths, even in their 40s, had a
history of fever for 10 to 15 days, which were not treated properly.

The
inflammation did a great deal of tissue damage and created ground for
thrombus formation, because the main problem is not the virus, but the
immune hyperreaction that destroys the cell where the virus is
installed. In fact, patients with rheumatoid arthritis have never
needed to be admitted to the ICU because they are on corticosteroid
therapy, which is a great anti-inflammatory.

This
is the main reason why hospitalizations in Italy are decreasing and
becoming a treatable disease at home. By treating her well at home, not
only is hospitalization avoided, but also the risk of thrombosis.

It was not easy to understand, because the signs of microembolism disappeared!

With this important discovery, it is possible to return to normal life
and open closed deals due to the quarantine, not immediately, but it is
time to publish this data, so that the health authorities of each
country make their respective analysis of this information and prevent
further deaths. useless! The vaccine may come later.

Now we can wait.

In Italy, as of today, protocols are changing.

According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units are not necessary.

Therefore, we need to rethink investments to properly deal with this disease.

https://i944.photobucket.com/…/TiCa_pho…/animated_candle.gif
https://www.thehindu.com/…/rajnath-sing…/article31524644.ece

Intolerant, violent, militant, crooked, cunning, number one terrorists
of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
foreigners thrown out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Afrika, Eastern Europe,
Western
Germany, Northern Europe, South,Russia,Hungary, etc, chitpavan brahmins
of Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) remotely control such Bevakoof
Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) own mother’s flesh eaters, slaves, stooges,
chamchas, cheals abolish posts in order to appoint their own stooges and
slaves.The Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting
institutions (Modi) who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud
EVMs/VVPATs and won elections.

The road ahead for liberals is tough. Modi’s thalis were a loud message

The liberal 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies i.e., Sarvajan
Samaj
including SC(including Safai workers who are real Arogya Rakshakas
Health Protectors) of all living beings))/STs/OBCs/Religious Minorities
and even the poor non-chitpavan brahmins story is still worth pursuing.
But liberals would do well to
remember that it is just one more story competing with many others.

These are tough times for liberal Prabuddha Bharat. More so if you are cursed with a sense of aesthetics.

How to Become a Buddhist Monk


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Updated: March 28, 2019


Buddhism is a religion over 2,000 years old. It offers a method of
overcoming the suffering that is inherent in being. Buddhist monks are
those who take it upon themselves to live a life entirely devoted to
this goal.

It doesn’t take a whole lot to become a monk. You will need to have a
basic understanding of Buddhism (which, if you intend to ordain, you
will likely have). Otherwise, a sincere intent to practice the Buddhist
teachings is all you need.


Part 1

Learning About Buddhism


  1. 1
    Familiarize yourself with Buddhist teachings. Begin
    your path to becoming a monk by understanding the basics about Buddhism.
    Check out books from the library, do research on line, and if possible,
    take classes from an instructor who has been ordained as a monk. The
    Buddha doesn’t force anyone to believe, but asks disciples to prove the
    tenants true based on their own investigation of the religion. Here are
    the fundamentals you should know:
    • Study the Eightfold Path, which is the way to the end of all
      suffering. The path consists of the right understanding, right speech,
      right intention, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration,
      right action and right livelihood.
    • Learn the four noble truths, which contain the essence of Buddhism. A
      simple version of the four noble truths is that suffering exists, it
      arises from attachment to wants, the condition stops when the attachment
      to desire stops and freedom from suffering is possible through the
      Eightfold Path.[1]

  2. 2
    Join a temple, or sangha, that practices Buddhism.
    The Buddhist religion is worldwide and temples exist in almost every
    country. Practicing Buddhism as a layperson will give you valuable
    insight into what it’s like to be part of a Buddhist community, which is
    central to becoming a monk. You’ll want to become a regular part of the
    community for months, or even years, before you take the next step to
    become a monk.[2]

    • Check your phone book or look online for a Buddhist center near you.
    • Be an active participant of the temple. Some sanghas offer
      introductory courses where you can learn more about Buddhism. Others
      schedule retreats to help you grow in your faith.
    • Not all Buddhist communities are alike. Like other types of
      religious institutions, some are more traditional, while others have
      changed with modern times. Find a community that fits with your views
      and is appealing to you.
    • It may also be helpful to visit Buddhist temples in other cities or
      even other countries to get a well-rounded view of the Buddhist
      community.

  3. 3
    Find a spiritual guide or mentor. Learning from a
    mentor is a very important first step in becoming a monk. One-on-one
    instruction allows you to delve deeper into Buddhist teachings and gain a
    more complete understanding of what will be expected of you as a monk.
    Begin working with someone who can teach you everything you need to
    know.[3]

    • To find a mentor, ask people in your Buddhist community for recommendations.
    • Often, a temple will invite Buddhist leaders to come and speak to
      the group, and this gives you a chance to make contact with potential
      mentors.


Part 2

Preparing for Monastic Life


  1. 1
    Spend time meditating. Becoming a Buddhist monk
    requires daily meditation and a conscious effort to change how the mind
    works. When you live in an abbey, much of your day will be spent in
    meditation. This takes practice.
    • Buddhism incorporates different kinds of meditation, including
      meditation that focuses on breathing, meditation that focuses on
      transformation and meditation on the Lamrim. Mediation can also include
      certain postures.
    • Start with five minutes of meditation two times a day. When you
      become comfortable with five minutes, increase your meditation time by a
      few minutes every day until you can meditate for 15 minutes two times a
      day. Some monks meditate for hours at a time.

  2. 2
    Prepare to support yourself for two to three years.
    Becoming a Buddhist monk requires you to follow the Vinaya, a code of
    conduct, which stipulates that Buddhist monks and nuns do not work a
    normal everyday job to support themselves. In some cases the abbey you
    join will provide for your basic necessities, but in other cases you’ll
    need to have enough saved to support yourself.

  3. 3
    Prepare to give up your worldly possessions. Monks
    live as mendicants, meaning they possess only what is required for a
    very simple quality of life, nothing more. You’ll be provided with
    clothing, sundries, and other items you need to stay comfortable from
    day to day. However, electronic devices, expensive clothes or shoes, and
    anything that could be considered a luxury item is not allowed. Monks
    are not allowed to possess items that could inspire emotions like greed,
    envy or possessiveness.[4]

  4. 4
    Realize that your Buddhist community will become your new family.
    Once you join a monastery, your life will be devoted to your Buddhist
    community. Your days will be spent in service of others, and your focus
    will be on those who need your help. You will have little contact with
    your family, and will be encouraged to think of your Buddhist community
    as your new family.
    • Before pursuing ordination, you may want to discuss this with your family and let them know what is to come.
    • Some monasteries don’t accept candidates who are married or have
      other strong relationship ties. Single people are more able to devote
      themselves to the teachings of Buddhism, since they don’t have outside
      forces pulling their attention away.

  5. 5
    Be ready to take a vow of chastity. Monks do not
    engage in sexual behavior of any kind. In some cases male and female
    monks (or nuns) are not allowed to communicate with one another about
    matters that aren’t related to everyday business. It is wise to practice
    chastity before becoming ordained so that you can find out whether
    you’re suited to a chaste life. The idea is that the energy you’d
    normally put into sex is directed to matters greater than the self.[5]

  6. 6
    Decide what kind of commitment you want to make. In
    some traditions, ordination is meant to be a lifelong commitment.
    However, there are other traditions in which it’s perfectly fine to
    pursue ordination for a limited number of months or years. In Tibet, for
    example, many men complete two or three-month ordinations to develop
    their spiritual identities before eventually getting married or pursuing
    careers.
    • Make sure the monastery you’re interested in joining offers the level of commitment you want.
    • If you’re not sure, it’s possible to do a two or three-month ordination, then pursue a longer-term ordination later.


Part 3

Becoming Ordained as a Monk




  1. 1
    Start training at an abbey. If you’re convinced that
    you want to become a monk, you’ll be ordained at a specific abbey. It
    will be necessary to meet the requirements outlined by the abbey in
    order to be ordained there. In some cases an offer to become ordained
    must be extended by an elder who has decided you’re a good candidate to
    become a monk.

  2. 2
    Participate in an ordination ceremony. The ceremony
    will mark your decision to become a Buddhist, and can only be performed
    by an ordained monk. During this ceremony, the monk will transmit to you
    the three Jewels and the five Precepts. You will also receive your
    Buddhist name.
    • If you’re following Shin Buddhism, you’ll have an affirmation
      ceremony, rather than an ordination ceremony. The affirmation ceremony
      serves the same purpose as ordination.

  3. 3
    Follow the instructions of your teacher. If you
    partook in an ordination ceremony, your teacher will usually be the
    ordained monk who led the ceremony. You will receive instructions
    specific to the monastery you are joining.

  4. 4
    Take the Bodhisattva Vows. A Bodhisattva is a person
    who devotes his or her life to the Buddhist way. The vows focus on doing
    compassionate deeds, striving to benefit every human being and seeking
    enlightenment. The vows serve as a way for you to embody your highest
    aspirations. They commit you to a life of selfless service, and you will
    recite them on a regular basis.

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,

03)Magadhi Prakrit,


04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),


05) Classical Pāḷi
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-C
orsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,
26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,

27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,
28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

57) Classical Kinyarwanda
58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
61) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
62) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

63) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

64) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
65) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

66) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
67) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
68) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

70) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
71) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
73) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

74) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

75) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
76) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,
77) Classical Odia (Oriya)
78) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
79) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
80) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
81) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
82) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
83) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
84) Classical Russian-Классический русский,

85) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,

86) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्

87) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
88) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
89) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,

90) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
91) Classical Sindhi,
92) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
93) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

94) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

95) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
96) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
97) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
98) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

99) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
100) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
101) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
102) Classical Tatar
103) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
104) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
105) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
106) Classical Turkmen
107) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
108) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
109) Classical Uyghur
110) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z
111) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ

112) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
113) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

114) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
115) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

116) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu








All
84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally the are 84,000
Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the
Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This
web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN,
SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:




The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses.
The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from
Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these
are 84,000 Khandas
maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of
the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the
commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those
of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing
737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.




ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA




Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — Interested in All
Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser
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Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES



Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc

for
Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This wide-ranging sutta, the
longest one in the Pali canon, describes the events leading up to,
during, and immediately following the death and final release
(parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative contains a wealth
of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final instructions that
defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long after the
Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also depicts, in
simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among the
Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of their
beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/



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When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso
language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical
Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages
and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com


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is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio
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of people all over the world in 116 Classical languages.

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University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
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