Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
From Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
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LESSON 3356 Mon 18 May 2020 Discovery of Awakened One with Awareness Universe(DAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA’S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org at WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Puniya Bhoomi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -Prabuddha Bharat World Population 7,785,177,019 Current World Population - COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:1,858,090 Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19 1. Comoros, 2. North Korea, 3. Yemen, 4. The Federated States of Micronesia, 5. Kiribati, 6. Solomon Islands, 7. The Cook Islands, 8. Micronesia, 9. Tonga, 10. The Marshall Islands Palau, 11. American Samoa, South Georgia South Sandwich Islands. Saint Helena. Europe Aland Islands Svalbard Jan Mayen Islands Latin America Africa British Indian Ocean Territory French Southern Territories Lesotho Oceania Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Heard Island McDonald Islands Niue Norfolk Island Pitcairn Solomon Islands Tokelau United States Minor Outlying Islands Wallis and Futuna Islands Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Vanuatu Are all well, happy and secure! They are calm, quiet, alert and attentive with their wisdom, having an equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts with a clear understanding that everything is changing! including all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlmentarians, Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political ruling and opposition Party members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Election Commission members Media persons who were not affected by COVID-19 not wearing face masks but still alive and who are more deadliest than COVID-19 Last updated: May 18, 2020, 00:58 GMT 7,785,177,019Current World Population 53,067,776Births this year 103,729Births today 22,279,124Deaths this year 43,548Deaths today while World 22,144,644 Deaths this year COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:1,858,090 Coronavirus Cases:4,801,517 Deaths 316,659 Awakened One with Awareness perspective of good governance- Democratic governance Shadow man on COVID-19, US story Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia The CDC says they don’t recommend people wear masks to prevent transmitting the virus if you do not have symptoms. https://giphy.com/gifs/good-pictures-comments-NHqQ8Rz9udEUU rise and shine whatsapp status GIF by good-morning https://giphy.com/gifs/thebeachboys-beach-boys-good-vibrations-3oz8xP6HYws2lNChB6 im picking up good good good good vibrations GIF by The Beach Boys Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta 1. Dasa raja dhamma 2. kusala. 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana 4. priyavacana 5. artha cariya samanatmataSamyutta Nikayaarya” or “ariyasammutideva Agganna Sutta Majjima Nikaya arya” or “ariya sammutideva Digha Nikaya Maha Sudassana Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma Canon Sutta Pali Canon and Suttapitaka Iddhipada Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma Brahmavihàra Sangahavatthu Nathakaranadhamma Saraniyadhamma Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha dukkha anicca anatta Samsara Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta, Kutadanta Sutta Chandagati Dosagati Mohagati Bhayagati Yoniso manasikara BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu Nathakaranadhamma SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya Dithadhammikattha Mara Law of Kamma Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya Assamedha Sassamedha Naramedha Purisamedha Sammapasa Vajapeyya Niraggala Sila Samadhi Panna Samma-sankappa Sigalovada Sutta Brahmajala Sutta Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta dhammamahamatras Lord Awakened One with Awareness said (in Pali), ‘Na jacca vasalo hoti na jacca hoti brahmano. Kammuna vasalo hoti kammuna hoti brahmano.’ (Not by his birth man is an outcaste or a Brahman; Only by his own Kamma man becomes an outcaste or a Brahman.) Lord Awakened One with Araeness said, ‘Be hurry, O Bhikkhus, to paddle your boat till it shall reach the other side of the river bank.’ Awakened One with awareness said ‘Suddhi asuddhi paccattam nanno nannam visodhaye’ (purity and impurity is the matter of an individual; one can, by no means, purify another).
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:34 am
LESSON 3356 Mon 18 May 2020
Discovery of Awakened One with Awareness Universe(DAOAU)
For
the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient
Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA’S own Words through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
at WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd
Stage, Puniya Bhoomi  Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -Prabuddha Bharat


World Population
7,785,177,019 Current World Population -
COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:1,858,090

Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19

  • 1. Comoros,
  • 2. North Korea, 
  • 3. Yemen,
  • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
  • 5. Kiribati,
  • 6. Solomon Islands,
  • 7. The Cook Islands,
  • 8. Micronesia,
  • 9. Tonga,
  • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
  • 11. American Samoa, 
  • 12. South Georgia
  •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
  • 14.Saint Helena.

    Europe

    Aland Islands
    Svalbard

  • Jan Mayen Islands

  • Latin America

    Africa

    British Indian Ocean Territory

    French Southern Territories
    Lesotho

  • Oceania


  • Christmas Island
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    Heard Island

  • McDonald Islands

    Niue
    Norfolk Island
    Pitcairn
    Solomon Islands
    Tokelau
    United States Minor Outlying Islands
    Wallis and Futuna Islands

  • Tajikistan,
  • Turkmenistan,
  • Tuvalu,
  • Vanuatu

Are all well, happy and secure!
They are calm, quiet, alert and attentive with their wisdom,
having an equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
with a clear understanding that everything is changing!

including
all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlmentarians, Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political
ruling and opposition Party members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief
Election Commission members Media persons who were not affected by
COVID-19 not wearing face masks but still alive  and who are more deadliest than COVID-19


Last updated: May 18, 2020, 00:58 GMT






Coronavirus Cases:4,801,517 Deaths 316,659


Awakened One with Awareness perspective of good governance-
Democratic governance
Shadow man on COVID-19, US story
Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia
The CDC says they don’t recommend people wear masks to prevent transmitting the virus if you do not have symptoms.


https://giphy.com/gifs/good-pictures-comments-NHqQ8Rz9udEUU

rise and shine whatsapp status GIF by good-morning

https://giphy.com/gifs/thebeachboys-beach-boys-good-vibrations-3oz8xP6HYws2lNChB6


im picking up good good good good vibrations GIF by The Beach Boys

Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
1. Dasa raja dhamma

2. kusala.

3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
4. priyavacana

 5. artha cariya
 6. samanatmata

7. Samyutta Nikayaarya

” or

“ariyasammutideva
8. Agganna Sutta
Majjima Nikaya
arya” or “ariya
sammutideva
Digha Nikaya
Maha Sudassana
Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma
Canon Sutta
Pali Canon and Suttapitaka
Iddhipada
Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma
Brahmavihàra
Sangahavatthu
Nathakaranadhamma
Saraniyadhamma
Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha
dukkha
anicca
anatta
Samsara
Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,
Kutadanta Sutta
Chandagati
Dosagati
Mohagati
Bhayagati
Yoniso manasikara
BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu
Nathakaranadhamma
SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya
Dithadhammikattha
Mara
Law of Kamma
Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya
Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

Assamedha

Sassamedha


Naramedha

Purisamedha


Sammapasa

Vajapeyya

Niraggala

Sila

Samadhi

Panna

Samma-sankappa

Sigalovada Sutta

Brahmajala Sutta

Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
dhammamahamatras

Lord Awakened One with Awareness said (in Pali),

‘Na jacca vasalo hoti na jacca hoti brahmano.
Kammuna vasalo hoti
kammuna hoti brahmano.’
(Not by his birth man is an outcaste or a Brahman;
Only by his own Kamma man becomes an outcaste
or a Brahman.)

Lord Awakened One with Araeness said,

Be hurry, O Bhikkhus, to paddle your boat till it shall reach the other side of the river bank.’

Awakened One with awareness said
Suddhi asuddhi paccattam nanno nannam visodhaye’ (purity and impurity is the matter of an individual; one can, by no means, purify
another).

11. American Samoa,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Samoa
Music of Samoa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Samoan Talipalau log drums at Piula Theological College, distant ancestor of the Fijian Lali drums


Traditional Samoan musical instruments included a fala, which is a
rolled-up mat beaten with sticks. It is an idiophone which often
accompanied choral singing. Another idiophone, a soundingboard,
sometimes accompanied the solo recitation of poetry. A conch shell was
blown for signaling. Amusement for small groups and individuals in
private was afforded by a jaw harp, a raft panpipe, and a nose-blown
flute.

Samoan wooden slit drums and variants have been used
throughout Samoa for over a thousand years. There are many uses for
these wooden drums, including calling village meetings, in times of war
and peace, songs/chants and dance, and signalling long distances in
inter-island naval warfare. In recent times they are used predominantly
for calling chiefly and royal ceremonies as well as contemporary
religious practices.

These are the five Samoan slit drum variants from largest to smallest.


1) Logo - felled trees - largest of the drums - The logo can only be
played by being struck from the side, for instance by sliding the beater
or very large log-like playing stick across the top of the drums to hit
the slit lip on the other side. The logo was used to announce the king
of Samoa, high chiefs and monarchy in times of old. The logo was also
used to announce attacks and signals during times of war see re: Samoan
Civil War, the Fijian Wars and also the Tongan Wars. Samoa also has
recorded historical records of lesser known battles with neighbouring
islands of Manono, Pukapuka, Tokelau, Tuamotu and Rarotonga, these
battles may be classed as independent isolated skirmishes and
inter-Island skirmishes between large familial klan groups.

2) 2 x
Lali - large drum - The Lali are always played in pairs by two
drummers. One of them beats the larger of the two, this is called the
Tatasi, the other drummer plays the smaller Lali in the rhythmic pattern
called the Talua. Both slit drums are played with sticks called Auta.
The Lali were said to be introduced from Fiji via Tonga before European
discovery..

3) Talipalau . The Talipalau skin drum was introduced
to Samoa from east Polynesia in the 1800s, possibly as a result of
early missionary society activities in both regions.

4) Pate -
this hand-held slit drum was introduced from Tahiti in the 1800s,
probably by British missionaries or their Tahitian converts.

5) Nafa - samaller slit drum drum also made from Milo wood. Now obsolete, only the name remains in proverbial expressions.


“Amerika Samoa”, a song with words by Mariota Tiumalu Tuiasosopo and
music by Napoleon Andrew Tuiteleleapaga, has been the official
territorial anthem of American Samoa since 1950. “The Banner of
Freedom,” a song that honors the flag of Samoa, has been the national
anthem of Samoa since 1962; it was composed by Sauni Iiga Kuresa.
Contents

1 Post-European contact
2 Modern music
3 International
4 References
5 Bibliography
6 External links

Post-European contact
Samoa police brass band marching in Apia to flag raising ceremony. The band marches every morning Mondays - Fridays in Samoa.


With the introduction of Christianity, especially after the arrival of
LMS missionaries in 1830, the music of Samoa was greatly influenced by
Western evangelical hymnody and popular music, particularly North
American popular music. Two stringed instruments quickly became
commonplace in the islands: the guitar (kitara) and in the early 20th
century the ‘ukulele. By the end of the 19th century, European-style
brass bands had come into existence in the major towns.

As the
islands were Christianized late in the 19th century, ancient songs,
accompanied by the percussive sound of sticks beating on a rolled mat,
gave way to church choirs singing to the harmonies of pedaled organs.
Later, radio transmissions brought more variety, as local artists and
audiences embraced each wave of “new” music. The arrival of U.S. Marines
during World War II helped solidify the affinity for American popular
music. Many earlier bands copied or imitated this music—a trend that
continues. It is common practice and well accepted for Samoan
musicmakers to take a Western song, replace the lyrics with Samoan
words, and reintroduce the tune as an original. The guitar and ‘ukulele
became the usual instruments for composing and performing music. That
sound is now often replaced by the electronic keyboard and the multiplex
of sounds and faux instruments available with it. Many current Samoan
musicians “upgrade” old Samoan tunes with new technology, or imitate and
copy American popular music.
Modern music

Modern pop and
rock have a large audience in Samoa, as do several indigenous bands,
which have abandoned most elements of Samoan traditional music, though
there are folksy performers. Some pop musicians in New Zealand learned
new dance styles on a trip to the islands of Samoa, an important early
node in transmitting and translating U.S street dance to Aotearoa.
Recently,[when?] the Samoan population has seen a resurgence of old
Samoan songs, remixed in the style of Hawaiian reggae, but with some
traditional elements, such as the use of the pate and the chord
structure still in use. New Zealand continues to produce modern popular
Samoan stars, such as Jamoa Jam and Pacific Soul. Even traditional hymns
(pese lotu) have seen a fair amount of change. Some pop bands, such as
the RSA Band and the Mount Vaea Band, are associated with hotels; some
hotel bands have toured in New Zealand and elsewhere. Pop musicians
include the Lole, Golden Ali’is, The Five Stars, and Jerome Gray, whose
“We Are Samoa” remains an unofficial national anthem. A Samoan group
called Le Pasefika, going against the current trend by playing only old
music, has become the hottest-selling Samoan group in the United States.


The nearly three decades of Samoan involvement in street dance and rap
music in the United States has significantly affected cultural
production in places where Samoans settled, particularly New Zealand. In
the early 1980s, Footsoulijah, four Samoan performers from Wellington,
credit the Blue City Strutters, who later became the hip-hop group
Boo-Yah T.R.I.B.E, for spreading their lifelong interest in street dance
and their eventual gravitation towards hiphop. Footsoulijah is animated
and colorful, and always perform in camouflage fatigues, which
represent their militaristic name. The group composed the anthem
“Represent for My People,” which includes the chorus “Always represent
for my peoples / Pacific islanders of foreign soil / style lethal / take
a look as we enter the next chapter / flip the script / Polynesian is
my flavour.”[1]

There is currently a dichotomy between old and
new in cultural aspects of Samoan life, especially dance. Some assert,
“Whereas Samoan music has adopted guitars and other musical instruments,
dance, which relies solely upon the performers body (with some
exceptions—fire dance, knife dance, etc) still requires the performer to
retain grace and move their arms and hands in the approved fashion”[2]
but a National Geographic article from 1985 shows a “juxtaposition of
‘tradition’ and ‘modernity’ with two markedly different photographs of
Samoan youth.”[3] One photograph has a Samoan child in traditional garb,
dancing in a traditional way; the other shows a youth dressed in
typical hiphop-style dancing.

Like other Samoans, Kosmo, one of
the most famous Samoan hip-hop artists, picked up his dance moves while
living in California. He integrated a combination of a bit of strutting,
a little boogaloo and popping, and some tutting into his music. He
learned the dance while staying with family in Carson, a community that
drew large numbers of Samoans relocating from the islands in the
1950s-1970s. As he discovered, popping and other ’street dance’ forms
thoroughly saturated the lives of Samoan youth growing up in the late
1970s and early 1980s in Carson and neighboring Compton and Long Beach.
He vividly remembers, “all the coolest cats was poppin’ down at
[Carson’s] Scott Park.”[3][4] When he returned to New Zealand, his
vocabulary brought him prestige among his peers, most of whom tried to
integrate dance moves from movies. “Kosmo didn’t consider himself any
good until he returned to New Zealand. . . . Here they were just doing
the basics, he knew more.” For young artists, this hiphop-oriented form
of dancing was not only a way to express oneself creatively, but also a
powerful sexual tool: “For young men, dance skills also helped to
attract the young women who were always present either as critical
audience or fellow dancers. As Kosmo recalls, “All the poppers [5] got
the girls,” highlighting another case of dance as an equalizing sexual
power tool utilized by both sexes in global hip hop.[3] In 1990, Kosmo
and two fellow Samoans created The Mau, a hiphop group named for the
organization that pushed for Samoan independence under the German and
New Zealand colonial administrations. Although the name was rooted in
Samoan history, it demonstrates U.S. influences. Similar to the movement
of black consciousness in America, the motto for the Mau movement in
Samoa was Samoa Mo Samoa ‘Samoa for Samoans’. The group continued to
articulate a diasporic Samoan cultural nationalism by drawing upon their
knowledge of Samoan history, as well as the popular stories of the
Black Power movement presently circulating in American hiphop. Their
combination of Samoan heritage and American iconography influenced many
groups that followed.[3]

Samoans abroad have achieved some
musical renown. The Boo-Yaa TRIBE had a brief flirtation with the
American mainstream, and the Samoan Sisters found more lasting fame in
New Zealand. The shows My Idol and Samoa Star Search became important
musical competitions in Samoa. Modern Samoan music shows influence from
electrical instruments, jazz, and reggae, and even some house and techno
styles.
International

Samoa has produced well-known artists.
The band Past To Present / Ilanda (1990–2006) (which consisted of three
Samoans and one Māori: Frank Laga’aia, Lennie Keller, Norman Keller
& Leighton Hema; Hema later left the band) gained popularity and
commercial success in Samoa, New Zealand, Australia, and the United
States; its achievement has not yet been equaled by any other islander
band. In 2006, it was still in the music industry, touring, recording,
or producing, as in its last production of Australia’s “Young Divas.” A
band with a similar career path and success was Kulcha, based in Sydney,
which produced two albums but disbanded after a couple of years.


The Katinas, whose parents are Assembly of God Pastors, moved to the
United States at one point, are another popular Samoan Gospel band and
are active members of the Assembly of God Church. It performed at the
Junior Youth Christian Program in Melbourne, Australia, in 2005.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
It’s On You - American Samoa Official Music Video

WHITCOMBEMEDIA
32.3K subscribers
Available for purchase on iTunes & Amazon. http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/its-

Produced by whitcombemedia.


Track features TDUB, Ten Six, Tukaine, Sammy G & Dakei. Filmed in
American Samoa & Fiji. Pls continue to support our local artists.
Show your support,hit us up at www.whitcombemedia.com and leave a shout out and hit the “like” button. Peace

LYRICS:

Chorus

Teine aulelei, shanty what you say

you can take a ride at my side by the bay

lewa you know that it’s on you

can make it happen if you want to

tahine what you say

I’ll take your breath away

we can feel the breeze hit the trees as they sway

shanty you know that it’s on you

can make it happen if you want to

Verse 1

Aye she a pretty thang

the hottest in the world

I whispered in her ear

Imma make you my girl

she said she wanna g

I said I gots 2

a gangsta and a gentleman up in the same dude

she give me reason to love a polynesian

beautiful tan skin

french tahitian

now we leaning

cruising the highway

straight to the beach on a hot summer day

I tell her sweet thangs

I love to see her smile

That gorgeous eyes with a

b b bomb backside

told her I got yo back

because it’s radada

she told me she got my back

always stick by my side

now she my baby bay definitely dedicated

we gon keep it together forever is what I’m contemplating

the baddest couple nobody do it better

we on top of the world when we together

Verse 2

It’s on you to do whatever

but you got to think clever

don’t be messing with them cats who don’t be bringing in that cheddar

understand I hold it down for you

provide and love you better and

in this love thing best believe I’m a veteran

make you laugh and feel secure’s what I’m all so good at

and you don’t have to ever wonder

hey where that fool at

I usually don’t show sensitivity

but long as you are feeling me

then you should be here with me yeah so

It is our destiny

I knew it when I saw you see

you and I are meant to be

I felt the connection when i looked into your eyes

baby all I ever think about

is you’re the finest girl I’ve ever seen

it is a given that you’re fine physically

but what I admired most is you internally

perfect attitude with the right personality

you never lock down your man

you let him do whatever and

never get jealous when he out on his galavant

Verse 3

Girl I’m your biggest fan

I really gots to know

lewa just hold my hand

sa yawa ga na flow

been walking by when I had seen you at the bus stand

those pretty eyes and butterflies made me go Oh Man

Now you’s a head turner I think I’ll contemplate

are you a heartbreaker

am I a bit too late

baby don’t turn around and leave me like a business line

if you don’t mind I’d like to know you for a lifetime

Verse 4

When I saw you at the cinema

standing by the mini bar

nesian beauty man I wish I had a camera

saw you looking straight at me

your eyes were color ecstasy

lips were pure fantasy

you’s a shot of hennessy

with a body of a goddess

man you know I’m making enemies

I plucked up my courage as I walked up beside her

asked her for her name

then pursued her phonenumber

and as for me

I’m just a soul brotha
Category
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Song
It’s on You (feat. Ten Six, Tukaine, Sammy G & Dakei)
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Tdub
Album
It’s on You (feat. Ten Six, Tukaine, Sammy G & Dakei)
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https://giphy.com/gifs/americanidol-season-15-idol-finale-american-2016-3oGRFFZ5MNT3s4J0e4

    season 15 idol finale GIF by American Idol



   


5. artha cariya


https://tenor.com/view/buddha-end-of-buddhist-lent-day-jariyatam-gif-10235515

พระพุทธเจ้า ออกพรรษา GIF - Buddha EndOfBuddhistLentDay Jariyatam GIFs

https://www.buddhistdoor.net/…/the-buddhist-ideals-of-good-…
The Buddhist Ideals of Good Governance
By David Dale Holmes
Buddhistdoor Global | 2018-07-09 |
Ashoka the Great, an Indian emperor of the Maurya dynasty, played a
critical role in helping make Buddhism a world religion. From
buddhism4you.comAshoka the Great, an Indian emperor of the Maurya
dynasty, played a critical role in helping make Buddhism a world
religion. From buddhism4you.com

In Buddhist Ideals in Government (2011) published by the Buddhist Publication Society, the author, Gunaseela Vitanage, writes:


It must be remembered that the Buddha was born into a society which,
comparatively speaking, was politically advanced and through the ages
had developed certain very solid ideas of government. In the Manu Neeti
or the Code of Manu, the Hindus already had laws hallowed by time to
guide them in their civic duties. . . . These laws discussed not only
the rights of the rulers, but also their duties towards their subjects.
They also discussed the obligations of the subjects and their rights.
(Vitanage 4, 2011)

The author goes on to explain, however, that
such laws were laid down based on an assumption about the innate
depravity of man—that man, ungoverned, lived according to the law of the
jungle—and, therefore, a ruler needed to have the authority to divide,
conquer, and control differing factions. Under such a system, the ruler
had to have the power to impose punishments to keep people from harming
one another for the sake of social stability and for the ruler’s
continuing safety.

When the Buddha came along, he did not see
things quite that way. He saw that many jungle animals could, indeed,
live together in harmony and get along amicably and not all were living
in conflict. Rather than emphasizing power and punishment, the Buddha,
stressed four ways of treating subjects: “They are dana or charity,
priyavacana or kind speech, artha cariya or the spirit of frugality and
of service, and of samanatmata or equality.”

In line with Buddhist principles:

The virtuous king should practice dana or charity, giving alms to the poor and gifts to those who serve the kingdom well.

The virtuous king should practice priyavacana or kind speech, never using unkind words or harsh speech with anyone.


The virtuous king should cultivate artha cariya, which means acting in
the spirit of service as well as living a simple and frugal life.


The virtuous king should cultivate samanatmata, which means equality.
Despite being in an exalted position, the king must never feel himself
to be superior to the least of his subjects.

The virtuous king should learn to dispense justice to all his subjects without fear or favor.

The virtuous king should treat all of his subjects equally. (Vitanage 7–8, 2011)

Moreover, the 10 royal virtues of the Buddhist Ideal of Kingship (dasa raja dharma) may be explained as follows:


Dana . . . means giving alms to the needy. It is the duty of the king
to look after the welfare of his needy subjects, and to give them food,
clothing, and other wherewithalls.

Sila . . . means morality. The
monarch must so conduct himself in private and in public life so as to
be a shining example to his subjects.

Paraccaca means the grant
of gifts to those who serve the monarch loyally. By the grant of gifts,
not only does the monarch acknowledge their efficient and loyal service,
but he also spurs them on to more efficient and more loyal service.

Ajjivan means that the ruler must be absolutely straightforward. (Vitanage 7–8, 2011)


The good king must never take recourse to any crooked or doubtful means
to achieve his ends. His yea must be yea, and his nay must be nay.


Majjavan means gentleness. The monarch’s straightforwardness and
rectitude, that will often require firmness, should be tempered with
gentleness. His gentleness will keep his firmness from being over harsh
or even cruel, while his firmness will keep gentleness from turning into
weakness. A harmonious balance of these two qualities is essential not
only for a ruler but for all leaders of men.

Tapan means the
restraint to the senses. The ideal monarch is the one who keeps his five
senses under strict control, shunning indulgence in sensual pleasures.


Akkhodha means non-hatred. The monarch should not indulge in games
where killing is resorted to or cause injury to any being. He must
practice non-violence to the greatest possible extent that is
reconcilable with the duties of a ruler.

Avihimsa means
non-violence. The monarch should not indulge in games where killing is
resorted to, or cause any injury to any being. He must practice
non-violence to the greatest extent that is reconcilable with the duties
of a ruler.

Khanti means patience, the king must conduct himself
with patience, courage and fortitude on all occasions. In joy and
sorrow, in prosperity and adversity, in victory and defeat. He must
conduct himself with calmness and dignity without giving in to emotions.


Avirodhata means non-enmity, friendship. The king must cultivate the
spirit of amity amongst his subjects, by himself always acting in a
spirit of amity and benevolence. It will be seen that avirodhata is in
this context opposed to bheda—the divide and rule policy in Hindu
statecraft.

The Buddha also laid emphasis on the fact that the
good and evil of the people depend on the behavior of their leaders; and
for the god of the people he set out these ten royal virtues to be
practiced by the rulers of men. (Vitanage 8–10, 2011)

Such a
system may seem simple to us today, but in the Buddha’s day, the Brahmin
hierarchy divided society into a system that was broken down into
castes and levels and sanctioned by religion, in which human equality
was lacking. The Buddha went against that trend, he swam against the
stream and welcomed all comers into the monastic order: Upali, who was a
barber, and Sunita, who was a former outcast, both found places of
honor in the sangha.

The Buddha said, “Monks, just as all the
great rivers, that is to say the Ganges, the Jammu, the Aciravati, the
Sarabhu, the Mahi, on reaching the great ocean lose their former names
and identities and are reckoned as the great ocean, similarly, the
Kshatriya, the Brahmana, the Vaisya and the Sudra after entering the
sangha, lose their former identities and become one with the members of
one order.” (Vitanage 11, 2011)

There is also a story in the
Jataka tales that illustrates the virtue of kingship. A ruler, called
King Ummadayanti, once saw a beautiful woman during his rounds of the
city and he fell in love with her at first sight, but when he learned
that she was married, he felt ashamed. As it happened, the woman’s
husband, who had guessed the secret, out of deference to the ruler,
offered his wife to the king as a concubine, but the ruler refused.


The monarch replied, “If I should lack the power of ruling my own self,
say, into what condition would I bring the people who long for
protection from my side? Thus considering and regarding the good of my
subjects, my own righteousness, and my spotless fame. I do not allow
myself to submit to my passion. I am the leader of my subjects, the bull
of my herd.” (Vitanage 15, 2011)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tI8ceVciAjk
The Ten Buddhist Principles of Good Governance

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 6. samanatmata
http://factsanddetails.com/world/cat55/sub398/entry-5690.html

BUDDHIST VIEWS ON POLITICS, GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMICS


BUDDHIST POLITICAL THINKING



Prince Siddhartha (before he becomes Buddha), the Great Going Forth

This (prince) feels for the welfare of the multitude.”Nalaka-sutta.

This king felt the weal and the woe of his subjects as his own.”Jatakamala.

Better than sovereignty over this earth, … better
than lordship over all worlds, is the recompense of the first step in
holiness.”Dhammapada.

Sita Arunthavanathan, a Sri Lankan scholar of Buddhism
and the Pali language, wrote: “Buddha as a religious teacher confined
his teachings strictly to religious discipline and questions involving
eschatology and soteriology. He refrained from making any pronouncement
on the relative merits of the political systems or the political
theories that existed in his time. However as Prince Siddhartha he was
brought up to be a universal monarch and was given an extensive training
in statecraft and military arts. [Source: Sita Arunthavanathan, Virtual
Library Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com |=|]

“The Buddhist texts show that the style of language the
Buddha used in his conversations with kings such as Bimbisara and
Pasenadi savouring of military similes, metaphors, illustrations from
the context of the state, defence and martial arts, evinced a thorough
knowledge of war strategies. |=|

“Buddha appeared at a time of political evolution when
the existing republics were being swallowed up by the powerful
neighbouring rulers with the emergence of monarchies. The scattered
references in the suttas help us to gain an insight into the political
power, authority and duties of a temporal ruler.” |=|

Websites and Resources on Buddhism: Buddha Net buddhanet.net/e-learning/basic-guide ; Religious Tolerance Page religioustolerance.org/buddhism ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Internet Sacred Texts Archive sacred-texts.com/bud/index ; Introduction to Buddhism webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro ;
Early Buddhist texts, translations, and parallels, SuttaCentral suttacentral.net ;
East Asian Buddhist Studies: A Reference Guide, UCLA web.archive.org ; View on Buddhism viewonbuddhism.org ;
Tricycle: The Buddhist Review tricycle.org ;
BBC - Religion: Buddhism bbc.co.uk/religion ;
Buddhist Centre thebuddhistcentre.com; A sketch of the Buddha’s Life accesstoinsight.org ;
What Was The Buddha Like? by Ven S. Dhammika buddhanet.net ;
Jataka Tales (Stories About Buddha) sacred-texts.com ;
Illustrated Jataka Tales and Buddhist stories ignca.nic.in/jatak ;
Buddhist Tales buddhanet.net ; Arahants, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas by Bhikkhu Bodhi accesstoinsight.org ; Victoria and Albert Museum vam.ac.uk/collections/asia/asia_features/buddhism/index

Origin and Definition of Kingship



King Naresuan of Thailand’s Ayutthaya Kingdom

Sita Arunthavanathan wrote: “The myth prevailing at the
time of the Buddha was that kingship was of divine origin; it was war
that necessitated a king to give leadership. But the Buddhist concept as
given in Agganna Sutta (Digha Nikaya) is that kingship originated as a
genuine political need of the society as opposed to the Brahmin theory
of divine origin and divine creation of the society divided into four
castes. [Source: Sita Arunthavanathan, Virtual Library Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com |=|]

“According to this sutta, at a certain juncture of
evolution, the logical need to show what mother nature offered, to
arrest the diminishing of natural resources due to greed, to stop
stealing and other vices, prompted a genuine social need for a
charismatic leader to arbitrate whenever such a situation arose. Hence
the king was a figure chosen and approved by the people (Mahasammata); a
logical outcome of a social need. |=|

“Definition of a king as a given in the Agganna Sutta
is, “one who makes others happy by righteousness” (dhammena param
ranjeti ti raja). Buddhist texts refer to rajas, maharajas and
cakkavatti rajas but whatever the title was, a king had to honour,
respect and hold righteousness in high esteem. (Cakkavatti Siha Nada
Sutta - Digha Nikaya). Consensus among people gave authority to the king
and all the power he had, was that of the people. |=|

“This was the emergence of democracy. Moral
degeneration (adhamma) due to fighting and friction necessitated a ruler
for moral regeneration (dhamma). There were unwritten norms, political
law-givers, chaplains (purohita) and others to advise the king and keep
him off from indulging in excesses or becoming a despot/dictator. In the
Buddhist tradition of social evolution, king was the first among all
equals and was not above the law.” |=|

Qualities and Duties of a King

Sita Arunthavanathan wrote: “A ruler was expected to
have ten personal qualities such as generosity, liberality, virtue and
so on. Four cardinal principles a king had to possess were generosity
(dana), pleasant words (piya vacana), welfare of the subjects (atta
cariya) and equal treatment of all (Samanatmata). [Source: Sita
Arunthavanathan, Virtual Library Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com |=|]

“He was also to have the following five qualities: 1)
Understanding things with a clear vision (attannu), 2) Knowing that
which is righteous (dhammannu), 3) Having a clear idea of limit and
measure with regard to punishment, fines and taxes, 4) Knowing the right
time for action (Kalannu) and 5) Knowing the assemblages of men
(parisannu). |=|



young Naresuan watched a cockfight

“A king had to rule with justice and equity ensuring
security from within and without. Here it must be stressed that moral
responsibility lay not only with the ruler but also with the ruled. Each
person in the society had a share of responsibility so that the
community could present a united front. According to Cakkavatti Sihanada
Sutta a king’s duty could be summarised as protection of the state,
elimination of crime, effecting economic stability and ruling in
consultation with the clergy (samana - brahmana). The Pali term
‘dhammikam rakkhavaranam guttim’ mean watch, ward and protection
righteously. |=|

“According to this Sutta protection had to be provided
not only to the subjects, army, religious bodies etc but even to beasts
and birds. Here word ‘dhammikam’ is of importance because a ruler can
give protection even by unrighteous means (adhammikam). There is an
illustration in Sutta Nipata where two men who had committed murder
being treated in two different ways. One was garlanded because he killed
an enemy of the king; the other was bound with ropes because he was a
foe of the king. This difference in treatment for the same charge -
murder - shows that laws of the state were not always impartial.” |=|

“Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta and Kutadanta Sutta (Digha
N) show that violence raises its head when the economy of a country is
at a low ebb and the destitute are neglected, consequently crime
increases and it is the king’s duty to eliminate it. These two suttas
say that there will be a gradual loss of values due to economic
instability. Men and women would resort to violence if living conditions
are not conducive to preserving their lives and they would take to
stealing rather than perish. As a result of goods not being accrued to
those who are destitute poverty becomes rife. From poverty becoming rife
stealing…….violence ……murder……lying…….evil
speech……adultery……incest, till finally lack of respect for
parents, filial love, religious piety and lack of regard for the ruler
will result.” (Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta)” |=|

Ten Royal Virtues

In his sermons, The Buddha said that the qualities of
the subjects of a kingdom depends largely on the behaviour of the
kingdom’s ruler. He then outlined the Ten Royal Virtues (Qualities)
(“Dasa-Raja-Dhamma”) to guide rulers and produce virtuous subjects. The
Ten Royal Virtues (qualities) promote by Buddhism are: 1) Dana -
Gifting; 2) Parithyaga - Sacrifice; 3) Sila - Virtue; 4) Thapasa -
Austerity; 5) lrju - Uprightness; 6) Murdu - Soft; 7) Avihimsa -
Non-harm; 8) Akrodaya - Non-ill will; 9) Kanthi - Forbearance; )
Avirodita - Non-conflict.

1) Dana: liberality, generosity or charity. The giving
away of alms to the needy. It is the duty of the king (government) to
look after the welfare of his needy subjects. The ideal ruler should
give away wealth and property wisely without giving in-to craving and
attachment. In other words he should not try to be rich making use of
his position. [Source: Danister I. Fernando, Virtual Library Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com ]

2) Sila: morality - a high moral character. He must
observe at least the Five Precepts, and conduct himself both in private
and in public life as to be a shining example to his subjects. This
virtue is very important, because, if the ruler adheres to it, strictly,
then bribery and corruption, violence and indiscipline would be
automatically wiped out in the country.

3) Comfort Pariccaga: Making sacrifices if they are for
the good of the people - personal name and fame; even the life if need
be. By the grant of gifts etc. the ruler spurs the subjects on to more
efficient and more loyal service.

4) Ajjava: Honesty and integrity. He must be absolutely
straightforward and must never take recourse to any crooked or doubtful
means to achieve his ends. He must be free from fear or favour in the
discharge of his duties. At this point, a stanza from ‘Sigalovada Sutta.
(Digha-Nikaya), a relevant declaration by the Buddha comes to my mind:
“Canda, dose, bhaya, moha - Yo dhammam nativattati. Apurati tassa yaso -
Sukkha pakkheva candima”), meaning: “If a person maintains justice
without being subjected to favoritism, hatred, fear or ignorance, his
popularity grows like the waxing moon.”

5) Maddava: Kindness or gentleness. A ruler’s
uprightness may sometimes require firmness. But this should be tempered
with kindness and gentleness. In other words a ruler should not be over -
harsh or cruel.



Prince Siddhartha in his chariot



6) Tapa: Restraint of senses and austerity in habits.
Shunning indulgence in sensual pleasures, an ideal monarch keeps his
five senses under control. Some rulers may, using their position, flout
moral conduct - this is not becoming of a good monarch.

7) Akkodha: Non-hatred. The ruler should bear no grudge
against anybody. Without harbouring grievances he must act with
forbearance and love. At this instance, I am reminded of how a certain
royal pupil, an heir to the throne, who had been punished by the teacher
for an offence, took revenge by punishing the teacher after he become
King! (Jataka Text). Political victimization is also not conducive to
proper administration.

8) Avihimsa: non-violence. Not only should he refrain
from harming anybody but he should also try to promote peace and prevent
war, when necessary. He must practice non-violence to the highest
possible extent so long as it does not interfere with the firmness
expected of an ideal ruler.

9) Khanti: Patience and tolerance. Without losing his
temper, the ruler should be able to bear up hardships and insults. In
any occasion he should be able to conduct himself without giving in-to
emotions. He should be able to receive both bouquets and brickbats in
the same spirit and with equanimity.

10) Avirodha: Non - opposition and non-enmity. The
ruler should not oppose the will of the people. He must cultivate the
spirit of amity among his subjects. In other words he should rule in
harmony with his people.

The Way to Develop the Ten Royal Qualities

The Buddhist scholar Danister I. Fernando wrote:
“Buddhism is a way of life. What is mainly essential, according to the
noble philosophy of Sakya Muni the Buddha is to follow the Eightfold
Path leading to complete emancipation- Nibbana. But it is wrong to
conclude that Buddhism is interested only in such lofty ideals and high
philosophical thought ignoring the social, economic and political
welfare of the people. Buddha was a marvellous repository of loving
kindness (metta) and compassion (karuna) towards all beings and was
greatly interested in the happiness of not only the mankind but of all
other beings as well. To him happiness was not possible without leading a
pure life based on moral and spiritual principles. He firmly believed
that such a life was possible only under favourable material, social and
political conditions. He considers such conditions as a means to a
higher and nobler end. [Source: Danister I. Fernando, Virtual Library
Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com |=|]



wedding of Prince Siddhartha, Gandhara, AD 3rd or 4th century



“In Kutadanda Sutta (Digha Nikaya) Buddha explains that
in order to eradicate crime, the economic condition of the people
should be improved. The relationship between the employer and the
employee should be made cordial mainly by the payment of adequate wages,
gifts and incentives. The kings (governments) should take this fact
into serious consideration and keep the people happy and contented, so
that consequently the country would be peaceful and crime free. |=|

“Not only did the Buddha teach non-violence and peace;
he also personally intervened in quelling disputes in the field of
battle through His sublime Dhamma. For instance, He intervened in the
case of a friction between the Sakyas and the Koliyas and prevented a
deadly war. Again, King Ajatasattu who was about to wage war against the
Vajjis was prevented from doing so, entirely on the valuable advice of
the Buddha. Further, our chronicles (Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa) say that
the Buddha visited Sri Lanka on three occasions, and having suppressed
certain disputes through the Dhamma, established peace in the country,
thereby. |=|

“Therefore, we see that while the Buddha put across His
philosophy successfully, he also advocated the maintenance of peace and
cordiality throughout, which was absolutely essential for spiritual
development. He had shown how a country could become corrupt and unhappy
when the heads of its government become corrupt and unjust. For a
country to be happy, it must have a good and just government. How this
form of just government is evolved is detailed in his
recommendations entitled “Ten Royal Virtues”. (”Dasa-Raja Dhamma” -
Jataka Text).” |=|

“In this regard, I wish to make mention of a very great
Buddhist Country - Thailand - where the Theravada concept of Buddhism
is in practice and where His Majesty the King is loved by all and held
in very high esteem with deep respect. His Majesty, seated on the
“Bhadrabith Throne” beneath the “Nine-Tiered White Umbrella of States”
in the “Baisal Daksin Hall” of the Grand Palace, had pronounced the
ancient oath of accession to the Throne, which says, “I will reign with
righteousness, for the benefits and happiness of the people”. The word
“righteousness” is the key, as it leads back in time through over two -
thousand five hundred years of history to the Buddhist concept of
Kingship. The ideal monarch is expected to abide by the “Tenfold Moral
Principles” of the Sovereign, “Tossapit Rajatham” in Thai, * which in
our Jataka Text” are called “Dasa- Raja — Dhamma”. (From a paper
published in connection with the birth anniversary of His Majesty, King
of Thailand.) |=|

Economic Teachings of the Buddha



coin from ancient Taxila with a Buddhist wheel

The Theravada Buddhist scholar Bhikkhu Bodhi: “Certain
modern schools of thought like Marxism regard the economic domain as the
primary determinant of social existence and dismiss everything else as
mere superstructure, a secondary overlay resting on the material
substratum. [Source: Bhikkhu Bodhi, Virtual Library Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com <=>]

“Contrary to this view, the Buddha recognizes that
there are many interdependent spheres of human activity. These cannot be
subjected to any simplistic reduction, but must be seen as interrelated
and mutually efficacious. The Buddha took note of the importance of
economics in human life and he held that for people to be capable of
personal and spiritual progress, the economic foundation has to be
secure. <=>

“In many sutta’s the Buddha has pointed out that
poverty can lead to the decline of moral values - to stealing, lying,
murder, etc., and eventually to complete social chaos. He teaches not
only that economics largely determines man’s moral condition, but also
that the government has a responsibility to correct any extreme economic
injustice. He advises the king to look after the economic well being of
his subjects. He says that the king has to give seed to the farmers for
their crops and feed for their cattle, capital to the merchants and
businessman to conduct their business, and jobs to the civil servants,
etc.” <=>

Buddhist Sources on Wealth

He who stints the profit he has made, his wealth will
soon be spent and lost.”Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. [Source: “The Essence of
Buddhism” Edited by E. Haldeman-Julius, 1922, Project Gutenberg]



Vaisravana, the Tibetan god of wealth

The (real) treasure is that laid up … through charity
and piety, temperance and self-control…
The treasure thus hid is secure, and passes not away. Though he leave
the fleeting riches of the world, this a man carries with him—a treasure
that no wrong of others, and no thief, can steal.”Nidhikanda-sutta.

Of all possessions, contentedness is the best by far.”Nagarjuna’s “Friendly Epistle.”

May I obtain wealth, and … may the wealth … obtained by me be for the benefit of others.”Jinalankara.

Justly I seek for riches, and having sought for riches
justly, I give of my … justly acquired wealth to one, to two, to
three, … to a hundred.”Magha-sutta.

They sought their daily gain righteously; no covetous,
money-loving spirit prevailed; with pious intent they gave liberally;
there was not a thought of any reward.”Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king.

He that is rich but is not contented endures the pain of poverty.”Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king.

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: East Asia History Sourcebook sourcebooks.fordham.edu , “Topics in Japanese Cultural History” by Gregory Smits, Penn State University figal-sensei.org, Asia for Educators, Columbia University afe.easia.columbia, Asia Society Museum asiasocietymuseum.org
, “The Essence of Buddhism” Edited by E. Haldeman-Julius, 1922, Project Gutenberg, Virtual Library Sri Lanka lankalibrary.com
“World Religions” edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File
Publications, New York); “Encyclopedia of the World’s Religions” edited
by R.C. Zaehner (Barnes & Noble Books, 1959); “Encyclopedia of the
World Cultures: Volume 5 East and Southeast Asia” edited by Paul
Hockings (G.K. Hall & Company, New York, 1993); “ National
Geographic, the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times,
Smithsonian magazine, Times of London, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek,
Reuters, AP, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and
various books and other publications.

Last updated September 2018

https://giphy.com/gifs/reaction-l49JFunqyrbTPSfIY

government shutdown trump GIF

13. South Sandwich Islands.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qc5xuKleYc
The case for a fully protected South Sandwich Islands marine reserve

Pew
5.32K subscribers
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) are home to up to a
quarter of the world’s penguins and some of the most diverse life on
the planet. The SGSSI Government is reviewing the marine protections
given to this area throughout 2018. Currently, only 2 percent of the
SGSSI marine environment is fully protected from fishing, but the hope
is the United Kingdom will upgrade the South Sandwich Islands to a fully
protected marine reserve. The Pew Bertarelli Ocean Legacy Project,
working as part of the Great British Oceans Coalition, is calling for
the full protection of over 500,000 square kilometers of ocean around
the South Sandwich Islands. This area would be twice the size of the
United Kingdom itself, and aid in the protection of nesting penguins and
hydrothermal vents alike. Learn more about the South Sandwich Islands
and why they’re worth protecting:
http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/projects/

Transcript
Narration by Lewis Pugh
In a remote corner of the world, isolated hundreds of miles to the east
of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, sits a little known chain
of islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.


These jagged peaks jutting out of the Southern Ocean are home to nearly
a quarter of all penguins — and some of the most diverse life on the
planet.

The South Sandwich Islands’ stormy seas have long shielded them from humans.


But for the chinstrap penguins who live here, these pristine waters
offer an abundant supply of food. With full bellies, they must make the
perilous journey from sea to land.

It’s no easy feat catching the right wave.


They are headed to Zavadovski, an island with an active volcano. The
volcano’s heat melts the snow — making it the perfect place to raise a
family. That’s why the largest chinstrap penguin colony on the planet
is found here. It’s a penguin paradise.

But the wildlife of
South Georgia has a different history. A century ago, whaling and seal
hunting in South Georgia nearly wiped out many species. As numbers
declined, profits fell and the industry moved on.

Left alone, these animals slowly began to recover.


Today, the entire region is facing new threats. Climate change is
altering the ecosystem from fast warming waters and melting glaciers to
acidification. And only 2% of the marine environment is fully
protected from fishing.

But, the United Kingdom can help.

A review of the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands’ marine protected area is underway.


By upgrading the South Sandwich Islands to a fully protected marine
reserve, we can safeguard an area more than twice the size of the U.K.
from exploitation, preserving the entire marine ecosystem, from the
nesting penguins to the deep-sea vents.

Then, we can focus on enhancing protections around South Georgia.


Safeguarding these tiny, but important, islands would have a big impact
for their unique inhabitants. We need to fully protect them or risk
losing this special place forever
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7. Samyutta Nikayaarya


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83yutta_Nik%C4%81ya
The Samyutta Nikaya (Saṃyutta Nikāya SN, “Connected Discourses” or
“Kindred Sayings”) is a Buddhist scripture, the third of the five
nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the “three
baskets” that compose the Pali Tipitaka of Theravada Buddhism. Because
of the abbreviated way parts of the text are written, the total number
of suttas is unclear. The editor of the Pali Text Society edition of the
text made it 2889, Bodhi in his translation has 2904, while the
commentaries give 7762. A study by Rupert Gethin[1] gives the totals for
the Burmese and Sinhalese editions as 2854 and 7656, respectively, and
his own calculation as 6696; he also says the total in the Thai edition
is unclear. The suttas are grouped into five vaggas, or sections. Each
vagga is further divided into samyuttas, or chapters, each of which in
turn contains a group of suttas on a related topic.

Correspondence with the Saṃyukta Āgama


The Samyutta Nikaya corresponds to the Saṃyukta Āgama found in the
Sutra Pitikas of various Sanskritic early Buddhists schools, fragments
of which survive in Sanskrit and in Tibetan translation. A complete
Chinese translation from the Sarvāstivādin recension appears in the
Chinese Buddhist canon, where it is known as the Zá Ahánjīng (雜阿含經);
meaning “the mixed agama”. A comparison of the Sarvāstivādin, Kāśyapīya,
and Theravadin texts reveals a considerable consistency of content,
although each recension contains sutras/suttas not found in the
others.[2] The Collation and Annotation of Saṃyuktāgama[3]
(《<雜阿含經>校釋》,Chinese version) makes further comparison.
Dating


Bhante Sujato, a contemporary scholar monk, argues that the remarkable
congruence of the various recensions suggests that the Samyutta
Nikaya/Saṃyukta Āgama was the only collection to be finalized in terms
of both structure and content in the pre-sectarian period.[4]
Translations
Full translations


The Book of the Kindred Sayings, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids & F.
L. Woodward, 1917–30, 5 volumes, Bristol: Pali Text Society
The
Connected Discourses of the Buddha, tr Bhikkhu Bodhi, 2000, Wisdom
Publications, Somerville, MA, ISBN 0-86171-331-1; the Pali Text Society
also issues a private edition of this for members only, which is its
preferred translation
Bhikkhu Sujato (trans.), The “Linked” or
“Connected” Discourses, 2018, published online at SuttaCentral and
released into the public domain.

Selections

anthology published by Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka[5]
Nidana Samyutta, published in Burma; reprinted Sri Satguru, Delhi

Divisions


The vaggas contained in this nikaya are (the numbering of chapters
[samyuttas] here refers to the PTS and Burmese editions; the
Sinhalese[6] and Thai editions divide the text up somewhat differently):

Part I. Sagatha-vagga (SN chapters 1-11)


a collection of suttas containing verses (Pali, sagatha), many
shared by other parts of the Pali canon such as the Theragatha,
Therigatha, Suttanipata, Dhammapada and the Jatakas.[7]

Part II. Nidana-vagga (SN chapters 12-21)

a collection of suttas primarily pertaining to causation (Pali, nidana).

Part III. Khandha-vagga (SN chapters 22-34)

a collection of suttas primarily pertaining to the five aggregates (Pali, khandha).

Part IV. Salayatana-vagga (SN chapters 35-44)


a collection of suttas primarily pertaining to the six sense bases
(Pali, salayatana), including the “Fire Sermon” (Adittapariyaya Sutta).

37
DHAMMĀ of
ENLIGHTENMENT 4
Efforts 4
Bases
5
Faculties 5
Powers
7
Factors
8
Path Factors
Buddha.jpg

viewtalkedit

Part V. Maha-vagga (SN chapters 45-56)

the largest – that is, great (Pali, maha) – collection consists of the following chapters:

Ch 45. the Noble Eightfold Path
Ch 46. the Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Ch 47. the Four Establishment of Mindfulness
Ch 48. the Faculties
Ch 49. the Four Right Striving
Ch 50. the Five Powers
Ch 51. the Four Bases for Spiritual Power[8]
Ch 52. Anuruddha discourses
Ch 53. the Jhanas
Ch 54. Mindfulness of Breathing
Ch 55. Factors of Stream-entry
Ch 56. the Truths

Bene
Israel Foreigners chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy rakshasa Swayam Sevaks
(RSS) are remotely controlling, own mother’s flesh eaters the Murderers
of democratic institutions (Modi) of bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP)
who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs,
parliament, executive, judiciary, election commission & the
presstitute media.

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14.Saint Helena

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_(song)
Helena (song)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the 1970 song by Hugo Raspoet, see Helena (Hugo Raspoet song). For other uses, see Helena (disambiguation).
“So Long and Good Night” redirects here. For the Flash episode, see So Long and Goodnight.
“Helena”
Helena-My Chemical Romance single.jpg
Single by My Chemical Romance
from the album Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge
Released March 8, 2005
Format

7″ vinyl CD digital download DVD

Recorded 2004
Genre

Emo[1][2] punk rock[3] alternative rock[4] gothic rock[5]

Length 3:22
Label

Reprise WMG

Songwriter(s) My Chemical Romance
Producer(s)

My Chemical Romance Howard Benson

My Chemical Romance singles chronology
“Thank You for the Venom”
(2004) “Helena”
(2005) “Under Pressure”
(2005)
Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge track listing
13 tracks
Music video
“Helena” on YouTube
“Helena (Outtake Version) on YouTube


“Helena” (sometimes titled “Helena (So Long & Goodnight)” on
digital retailers such as iTunes) is a song by American rock band My
Chemical Romance, and is the third single from their second studio
album, Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge. The song is featured on the
soundtrack of the 2005 remake House of Wax[6] and played in end credits.

Reception

“Helena” was released to radio on March 8,
2005.[7] The single has become a moderately-selling hit, both in the US
and internationally. Way stated in an interview with Channel V that the
main influence behind “Helena” was from the song “Aces High” by Iron
Maiden and tracks by The Ventures. This song is also My Chemical
Romance’s sixth overall single. Way described it as representing the
band’s image and sound, and as such it was often used to end the band’s
shows. The single was certified as a Gold record in United States.
Despite charting lower than their prior hit, “I’m Not Okay (I Promise)”
on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart peaking at number four where
“Helena” peaked at number 11, “Helena” was the band’s first crossover
hit crossing over to Top 40 radio at number 33 on the Billboard Hot 100
chart and it also still had more airplay on alternative rock stations.


NME declared that the song was one of the “20 Greatest Goth Tracks” and
that it was “a pivotal moment in cross-fertilising goth with emo” and
that “MCR spawned a hybrid that ensured black clothes and eyeliner
became, once again, teenage rebellion’s default setting”.[8]
Music video


The music video was shot on-location in the Immanuel Presbyterian
Church on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles, California, directed by
Marc Webb, and choreographed by Michael Rooney. The video has a simple
plot, with Gerard Way as a very emotional mourner at a funeral where the
band is performing. There are also mourners who dance and mourn the
death of Helena. Near the end, the dead body of Helena (played by
actress and dancer Tracy Phillips) rises and dances down the nave
representing crossing over into the afterlife. After she falls back into
the casket, the pallbearers (also played by My Chemical Romance and a
fan named Cameron) carry the casket to the hearse (in the pouring rain),
surrounded by a phalanx of dancing men and women with umbrellas.


Though the song in general is about the band members Gerard Way and
Mikey Way’s late grandmother, it was stated in an interview[which?] that
the video told a different story. The music video shows the funeral of a
girl, who, according to Gerard Way, died tragically (possibly in a car
crash, with the line in the bridge of the song, “When both our cars
collide.” Which also has links to the final track on I Brought You My
Bullets, You Brought Me Your Love which is follows the story of the
Demolition Lovers who are travelling in car “And I would drive on to the
end with you” which the story also follows in Three Cheers for Sweet
Revenge.) The sixth pallbearer and the majority of the mourners are fans
who’d received emails from the band asking if they’d like to be in the
video.

During the “Making of…” video, found as a bonus on the
Life on the Murder Scene CD and DVD, it was noted that Frank Iero, while
joking about being “4′9″”, didn’t actually carry any weight of the
casket, and that it rested on the other band members and their sixth
pallbearer to carry the weight. Also noted was that the rain used in the
sequence between the church and the hearse wasn’t planned for, but the
director used it to his advantage, as it set the mood of a funeral.


The video was nominated for five Moonmen at the 2005 MTV Video Music
Awards: Best Rock Video, Best Choreography, Best New Artist, and the
MTV2 and Viewer’s Choice Awards (both of which are chosen by viewers).
They lost to bands such as Green Day, Fall Out Boy, and The Killers.
Though the band did not win any awards, they did do a surprise
performance of the song towards the end of the show. They also won an
MTV Video Music Awards Latin America “tongue” for the Best New Artist –
International. They also won a Best Video award in the 2005 Kerrang!
Awards. In November 2005, the video was nominated for two MTVU Woodie
Awards (voted on by college students) and won the Woodie of the Year. In
the Philippines, Helena has reached a cult-like status because of the
popularity of alternative music.

The video was also voted number
one by viewers of MTV Latinamerica in the 2005 “100 Most Wanted Videos”
and was named the seventeenth best music video of the 21st century since
2000 by Billboard on July 24, 2018.[9]

The video was uploaded to YouTube on October 22, 2006 and currently has 100 million views as of November 16, 2019.[10]
Track listing
UK promotional CDNo. Title Length
1. “Helena” 3:22
UK CD and 7″ vinylNo. Title Length
1. “Helena” 3:22
2. “I’m Not Okay (I Promise)” (live) 3:37
UK DVDNo. Title Length
1. “Helena” (live video)
2. “I’m Not Okay (I Promise)” (video)
Australian CDNo. Title Length
1. “Helena” 3:22
2. “I’m Not Okay (I Promise)” (live from Sessions@AOL) 3:37
3. “You Know What They Do to Guys Like Us In Prison” (live from Sessions@AOL) 3:40
iTunes singleNo. Title Length
1. “Helena” (live from the Starland Ballroom in Sayreville, New Jersey) 4:14
Credits and personnel

Gerard Way – lead and backing vocals
Ray Toro – lead guitar
Frank Iero – rhythm guitar
Mikey Way – bass guitar
Matt Pelissier – drums, percussion, bells
Howard Benson – 1958 Hammond B3

Charts
Chart (2005) Peak
position
Australia (ARIA)[11] 78
Germany (Official German Charts)[12] 67
Ireland (IRMA)[13] 46
New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ)[14] 27
UK Singles (Official Charts Company)[15] 20
UK Rock and Metal (Official Charts Company)[16] 15
US Billboard Hot 100 33
US Billboard Modern Rock Tracks 11
US Billboard Mainstream Top 40 32
US Billboard Hot Digital Songs 13
US Billboard Pop 100 32
Certifications
Region Certification Certified units/sales
United Kingdom (BPI)[17] Silver 200,000double-dagger
United States (RIAA)[18] Gold 500,000*

*sales figures based on certification alone
double-daggersales+streaming figures based on certification alone
Release history
Region Date Label Format Catalogue
United Kingdom 2005

RepriseEyeball

CD PRO15371
May 23, 2005 7″ vinyl

W6715439160437

CD

W671CD5439160432

DVD

W671DVD7599386352

Australia August 22, 2005 CD 9362428022

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St Helena Island children Dancing to - Take Me Over

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8. Agganna Sutta

https://www.learnreligions.com/the-agganna-sutta-450123
The Agganna Sutta
A Buddhist Creation Fable

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Earth at night. This new global view of Earth’s city lights is a
composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi National
Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. (2017).

NASA’s Earth Observatory/NOAA/DOD
Buddhism
Buddhism

Origins and Developments
Figures and Texts
Becoming A Buddhist
Tibetan and Vajrayana Buddhism

By Barbara O’Brien
Updated February 01, 2019


On many occasions the Buddha refused to answer questions about the
origins of the cosmos, saying that speculating on such things would not
lead to liberation from dukkha. But the Agganna Sutta presents an
elaborate myth that explains how humans became bound to the wheel of
samsara and life after life in the Six Realms.

This story is
sometimes called a Buddhist creation myth. But read as a fable, it is
less about creation and more about the refutation of castes. It seems
intended to counter stories in the Rig Veda that justify castes. The
Buddha’s objections to the caste system are found in other early texts;
see, for example, the story of the Disciple Upali.

The Agganna
Sutta is found in the Sutta-pitaka of the Pali Tipitika, It is the 27th
sutta in the Digha Nikaya, the “collection of long discourses.” It is
assumed to be a sutta (sermon) spoken by the historical Buddha and
preserved through oral recitation until it was written, about the 1st
century BCE.
The Story, Paraphrased and Greatly Condensed


Thus I have heard — while the Buddha was staying at Savatthi, there
were two Brahmins among the monks who wished to be admitted to the
monastic sangha. One evening they saw the Buddha taking a walk. Eager to
learn from him, they walked at his side.

The Buddha said, “You
two are Brahmins, and now you are living among homeless mendicants of
many backgrounds. How are the other Brahmins treating you?”

“Not
well,” they replied. “We are reviled and abused. They say we Brahmins
are born from Brahma’s mouth, and the lower castes are born from
Brahma’s feet, and we shouldn’t be mixing with those people.”


“Brahmins are born of women, like everyone else,” the Buddha said. “And
people both moral and immoral, virtuous and non-virtuous, can be found
in every caste. The wise do not see the Brahmin class above all others
because a person who has realized enlightenment and becomes an arhat is
above all castes.​

“The wise know that anyone in the world who
places his trust in the dharma can say, ‘I am born of dharma, created by
dharma, an heir of dharma,’ no matter what caste he was born into.


“When the cosmos comes to an end and contracts, and before a new cosmos
begins, beings are mostly born in the Abhassara Brahma world. These
luminous beings live for a long time, feeding on nothing but delight.
And while the cosmos has contracted, there are no suns or stars, planets
or moons.

“In the last contraction, in time an earth formed,
beautiful and fragrant and sweet to taste. Beings who tasted the earth
began to crave it. They sat gorging themselves on the sweet earth, and
their luminescence disappeared. The light that left their bodies became
the moon and sun, and in this way, night and day were distinguished, and
months, and years, and seasons.

“As the beings stuffed
themselves with sweet earth, their bodies became coarser. Some of them
were handsome, but others were ugly. The handsome ones despised the ugly
ones and became arrogant, and as a result, the sweet earth disappeared.
And they were all very sorry.

“Then a fungus, something like a
mushroom, grew, and it was wonderfully sweet. So they began stuffing
themselves again, and again their bodies grew coarser. And, again, the
more handsome ones grew arrogant, and the fungus disappeared. After
that, they found sweet creepers, with the same result.

“Then rice
appeared in abundance. Whatever rice they took for a meal had grown
again by the next meal, so there was always food for everyone. During
this time their bodies developed sex organs, which led to lust. Those
who engaged in sex were despised by the others, and they were driven out
of the villages. But then the exiles built their own villages.


“The beings who had given in to lust grew lazy, and they decided to not
gather rice at every meal. Instead, they would gather enough rice for
two meals, or five, or sixteen. But the rice they were hoarding grew
mold, and the rice in the fields stopped growing back as quickly. The
rice shortages caused the beings to distrust each other, so they divided
up the fields into separate properties.

“Eventually a man took a
plot that belonged to another and lied about it. In this way, theft and
lying were born. People who were angry with the man hit him with fists
and sticks, and punishment was born.

“As these evil things arose,
the beings decided to choose a leader who would make judgments and hand
out punishments. This began the Kshatriyas, the caste of warriors and
leaders.

“Others chose to put aside unwholesome things, and they
built themselves leaf huts in the forest and engaged in meditation. But
those that weren’t too good at meditation settled in villages and wrote
books about religion, and these were the first Brahmins.

“Others
became tradesmen, and this began the caste of Vaishyas or merchants. The
last group became hunters, laborers, and servants, and these became the
lowest caste of Sudras.

“Anyone from any caste might be virtuous
or not. And anyone from any caste can walk the path and be liberated by
insight, and such a person will attain Nirvana in this very life.


“Dharma is the best thing for everyone, in this life and the next. And
he with wisdom and good conduct is best of gods and men.”

And the two Brahmins rejoiced at these words.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jb7Q0YFMcp4
AGGANNASUTTA | Indian Political Thought | Crash Course- 4 | UGC NTA NET | [Hindi]

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If you can figure out which connection is going to which unit, you will be able to understand what nir malam sitaraman is saying


  14.

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