In line with Awakened One with Awareness principles:
The virtuous king should practice dana or charity, giving alms to the poor and gifts to those who serve the kingdom well.
The virtuous king should practice priyavacana or kind speech, never using unkind words or harsh speech with anyone.
The virtuous king should cultivate artha cariya, which means acting in
the spirit of service as well as living a simple and frugal life.
The virtuous king should cultivate samanatmata, which means equality.
Despite being in an exalted position, the king must never feel himself
to be superior to the least of his subjects.
The virtuous king should learn to dispense justice to all his subjects without fear or favor.
The virtuous king should treat all of his subjects equally. (Vitanage 7–8, 2011)
Moreover, the 10 royal virtues of the Awakened One with Awareness Ideal
of Kingship (dasa raja dharma) may be explained as follows:
Dana . . . means giving alms to the needy. It is the duty of the king
to look after the welfare of his needy subjects, and to give them food,
clothing, and other wherewithalls.
. . means morality. The monarch must so conduct himself in private and
in public life so as to be a shining example to his subjects.
Paraccaca means the grant of gifts to those who serve the monarch
loyally. By the grant of gifts, not only does the monarch acknowledge
their efficient and loyal service, but he also spurs them on to more
efficient and more loyal service.
Ajjivan means that the ruler must be absolutely straightforward. (Vitanage 7–8, 2011)
good king must never take recourse to any crooked or doubtful means to
achieve his ends. His yea must be yea, and his nay must be nay.
Majjavan means gentleness. The monarch’s straightforwardness and
rectitude, that will often require firmness, should be tempered with
gentleness. His gentleness will keep his firmness from being over harsh
or even cruel, while his firmness will keep gentleness from turning into
weakness. A harmonious balance of these two qualities is essential not
only for a ruler but for all leaders of men.
means the restraint to the senses. The ideal monarch is the one who
keeps his five senses under strict control, shunning indulgence in
Akkhodha means non-hatred. The monarch should not indulge in games
where killing is resorted to or cause injury to any being. He must
practice non-violence to the greatest possible extent that is
reconcilable with the duties of a ruler.
Avihimsa means non-violence. The monarch should not indulge in games
where killing is resorted to, or cause any injury to any being. He must
practice non-violence to the greatest extent that is reconcilable with
the duties of a ruler.
Khanti means patience, the king must conduct himself with patience,
courage and fortitude on all occasions. In joy and sorrow, in prosperity
and adversity, in victory and defeat. He must conduct himself with
calmness and dignity without giving in to emotions.
Avirodhata means non-enmity, friendship. The king must cultivate the
spirit of amity amongst his subjects, by himself always acting in a
spirit of amity and benevolence. It will be seen that avirodhata is in
this context opposed to bheda—the divide and rule policy in hindutva
Awakened One with Awareness also laid emphasis on the fact that the good
and evil of the people depend on the behavior of their leaders; and for
the god of the people he set out these ten royal virtues to be
practiced by the rulers of men. (Vitanage 8–10, 2011)
a system may seem simple to us today, but in the Awakened One with
Awareness’s day, the chitpavan brahmin hierarchy divided society into a
system that was broken down into castes and levels and sanctioned by
religion, in which human equality was lacking. The Awakened One with
Awareness went against that trend, he swam against the stream and
welcomed all comers into the monastic order: Upali, who was a barber,
and Sunita, who was a former outcast, both found places of honor in the
The Awakened One with Awareness said,
just as all the great rivers, that is to say the Ganges, the Jammu, the
Aciravati, the Sarabhu, the Mahi, on reaching the great ocean lose
their former names
and identities and are reckoned as the great ocean, similarly, the
Kshatriya, the Brahmana, the Vaisya and the Sudra after entering the
sangha, lose their former identities and become one with the members of
one order.” (Vitanage 11, 2011)
There is also a story in the Jataka tales that illustrates the virtue of
kingship. A ruler, called King Ummadayanti, once saw a beautiful woman
during his rounds of the
city and he fell in love with her at first sight, but when he learned
that she was married, he felt ashamed. As it happened, the woman’s
husband, who had guessed the secret, out of deference to the ruler,
offered his wife to the king as a concubine, but the ruler refused.
The monarch replied, “If I should lack the power of ruling my own self,
say, into what condition would I bring the people who long for
protection from my side? Thus considering and regarding the good of my
subjects, my own righteousness, and my spotless fame. I do not allow
myself to submit to my passion. I am the leader of my subjects, the
bullof my herd.” (Vitanage 15, 2011)
The best solution is:
Awakened One with Awareness perspective of good governance
“Some of his recorded words would come like a distant echo through two thousand five hundred years ago.”
Discovery of Awakened One with Awareness Universe
what is gained by practicing Meditation. Buddha’s reply is, “Nothing!”
what I lost is
INTEGRAL AWAKENMENT PRESENTS
The Practice Of
A 12 WEEK ONLINE MEDITATION COURSE WITH CRAIG HAMILTON
Learn the Revolutionary Meditation Process
That Gives You Direct Access to
Unleash the 12 Hidden Supercapacities of your Awakened Self and Step into a Miraculous New Experience of Being Alive
no secret that meditation is good for you. Study after study tells us
it is one of the best things we can do for our health and well-being and
that it even plays a pivotal role in higher adult development.
what if the health benefits of meditation were just the tip of the
iceberg? What if there was a meditation practice that could propel you
far beyond optimal health and well-being into an accelerated
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Drug companies are racing to develop the new super drug
that could unlock our untapped brain power and higher potential, but
what if a simple practice we could perform in just 30 minutes a day was
all we needed to unleash our supernature?
Could meditation be the key to unlocking our full human potential?
traditions have long known about the profound possibility of spiritual
awakening. Indeed, the liberating realization of Enlightenment has
always been the ultimate goal of the spiritual quest.
had even a glimpse of this profound spiritual potential, you know that
an extraordinary, enlightened life is possible—a life filled with
meaning and purpose, in which you have access to a seemingly limitless
well of inspiration, wisdom, love and creativity.
thousands of years, the supreme goal of Enlightenment has been shrouded
in mystery, believed to be accessible only indirectly through decades
(or even lifetimes) of repetitive and often tedious meditation practice.
thanks to the pioneering efforts of spiritual teacher Craig Hamilton
and a bold team of consciousness researchers, all of that is about to
A series of breakthroughs at the frontiers of meditation
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miraculous set of extraordinary abilities with the power to uplevel
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it “The Practice of Direct Awakening.” And it is rapidly turning every
assumption we’ve had about spiritual practice and Enlightenment on its
The groundbreaking discovery behind the practice of Direct
Awakening is that it doesn’t take decades of practice to access the
miracle of awakened consciousness.
Through a precise set of
simple but profound practices, it’s possible to directly tap into the
power and wisdom of this superconsciousness right now and allow its
energy to infuse every aspect of your life.
When we learn to
access this latent dimension of consciousness, we discover the greatest
miracle of all, which is that this “essential supernature” already
contains the extraordinary capacities that most of us are striving to
It gives us access to profound intuitive wisdom, deep
emotional resilience, genuine empathy, remarkable flexibility,
surprising creativity and a host of other “supercapacities.”
instead of spending years doing “indirect” practices to try to develop
all these abilities, you can literally practice tapping directly into
the source of these capacities every single day.
when you learn to directly access awakened consciousness, your life
finally begins to make profound sense. You awaken to a deep and abiding
sense of authentic meaning and purpose and an easeful sense of freedom
and flow begins to permeate everything you do.
That’s the miracle of Direct Awakening.
if, instead of spending the next 10, 20, or 30 years doing mindfulness
practices, watching your breath or repeating mantras in an attempt to
prepare for Enlightenment, you could engage in a daily practice that
gave you direct access to Enlightened Consciousness right now?
if, instead of hoping for a lightning bolt of spiritual insight to
awaken you sometime in the distant future, you could practice aligning
with the limitless energy, intelligence and freedom of Enlightenment
every single day?
Spiritual masters East and West have always
told us that the miracle of Enlightened Consciousness already exists,
fully formed, inside of each of us—that this luminous awareness is none
other than our own true nature.
The radical discovery that is
transforming our very understanding of spiritual awakening is that it is
possible to tap directly into this infinite energy, intelligence and
freedom right now.
All that is required to immediately access
this superconscious, unbounded way of being is learning a simple set of
daily practices that enable you to step directly into the miracle of
awakened consciousness every time you practice.
Once you discover the power of Direct Awakening, your life may never be the same.
The Practice of Direct Awakening
A 12-Week Online Meditation Course with Integral Enlightenment Founder Craig Hamilton
excited to announce that spiritual teacher Craig Hamilton has created a
comprehensive step-by-step program to teach you the practice of Direct
And now, for the first time ever, this groundbreaking
course is available in a digital E-learning format. Each week, you’ll
receive online and downloadable access to a complete Course Module
containing a pre-recorded Course Session Audio, a pre-recorded Coaching
Session Audio, a Module Overview Video, 3 pre-recorded Guided Meditation
Audios, a written practice guide, and course session transcript.
12 consecutive weeks, from the privacy and comfort of your own home,
you’ll learn the potent, life-changing meditation process that has
already transformed the lives of thousands of people around the globe.
I’m deeply honored that you’re considering joining me for The Practice of Direct Awakening.
this course has been a tremendous labor of love and I’m excited that
I’ll soon be sharing this life-changing process with committed spiritual
seekers all over the world.
When I first began my meditation
journey 35 years ago, I was just sixteen years old and never could have
imagined where the path would take me.
Since then, I’ve had the
extraordinary privilege to learn from many of the world’s greatest
living masters and have also had the good fortune to be part of a group
of pioneering consciousness researchers testing the limits of ancient
wisdom and breaking through onto new ground.
Since I began
sharing my discoveries with my fellow spiritual travelers over the past
decade, I have been continuously inspired and humbled to encounter so
many remarkable human beings so deeply dedicated to their own awakening.
is nothing that gives more meaning to my life than being able to share
this work with anyone who feels called to receive it.
decide to join me on this adventure, I look forward to connecting with
you and deepening together as we all take our next steps on this
miraculous journey of awakening.
Previous Course Participants Share Their Experiences . . .
“I find Craig’s skillful guidance a great doorway to accessing deeper states of being.”
studied Buddhism for ten years and probably have tried every form of
meditation under the sun—following my breath, staring at a candle flame,
chanting a mantra, etc., but I’ve found no more powerful meditation
than these practices that Craig offers. Craig’s approach is simple but
profound. His multiple-meditation approach means that you will
definitely find one that works for you. I find his skillful guidance a
great doorway to accessing deeper states of being. By practicing these
meditations daily, I am able to remain consistently more centered and
serene during the day, much more than I had with any of the meditations
I’d done prior.”
— Jeff Sullivan, New Hampshire
“Probably one of the best things I have ever done for myself and for the world.”
meditations have opened up a whole new world for me. My mood is
typically elevated and bright (often causing others to joke about
wanting some of whatever I am “on”), and I continuously experience a
sense of ’roundedness’ which allows my responses to be more measured,
appropriate and clear. Probably one of the best things I have ever done
for myself and for the world.”
— Susan Friese, Virginia
“I have a command of my relationship to my thoughts/mind/feelings that I never imagined possible.”
difference these meditations have made in my life is profound. I have a
command of my relationship to my thoughts/mind/feelings that I never
imagined possible. On the rare occasions that I begin to skip or get lax
with my meditation, I can now see the outcome in my life, in stark
contrast to the results of regular practice. I see meditation as
essential now, like good food, exercise, and sleep—and the best part is,
I love the practice.”
— Simone Thailer, New York
“No other approach has had such a powerful impact on my spiritual growth.”
any trace of hesitation I can tell you that in all of my years of
study, no other approach has had such a powerful impact on my spiritual
growth. I am actually developing. I am actually changing. And that’s the
whole point. Spirituality in action.”
— Dr. Marc W. Ross, Calgary, Canada
“Craig’s teachings are rich, practical, and very, very compassionate and loving.”
a journey and experience–this course blew my mind. Craig is so poetic,
compassionate, connected, and on the ball all the time that I could not
wait to either dial in or listen to the audio recordings. His teachings
are rich, practical, and very, very compassionate and loving. He is a
true role model, living and teaching every moment from his authentic
— N. S., Boulder, CO
“I have noticed increasing calmness, less reactivity to others, and more focus.”
a result of engaging these practices, I have noticed increasing
calmness, less reactivity to others, more focus, and an almost natural
desire to continue to deepen my connection with reality.”
— Judy Voruz, Oregon
“Craig is a gifted, trustworthy and loving guide.”
is challenging terrain, with many paths, obstacles, loose rocks,
quicksand, vertical climbs—and some great views. I’d still be at the
Information Booth perusing the tour bus schedule if it hadn’t been for
the course I took with Craig Hamilton. Craig is a gifted, trustworthy
and loving guide. He takes you by the hand and leads you gently along,
encouraging and sympathetic but also firm and uncompromising.”
— Jocelyn Stevenson, London, UK
Here’s What You’ll Learn
The Twelve Core Modules of The Practice of Direct Awakening
Opening to the Miracle of Awakened Consciousness
order to practice direct awakening, a clear understanding and
experience of awakened consciousness is essential. In this opening
session, we will take an experiential journey into our own true nature,
noticing how this luminous consciousness differs from ordinary
consciousness and learning how we can allow this sacred dimension of
being to naturally begin to reveal itself as none other than our own
You’ll learn . . .
How to recognize your own
“true nature” or “awakened consciousness” and how to make room for this
essential mystery to begin to animate your being.
What it means to “practice awakening” right now and how this differs from practicing in order to prepare for awakening.
to discern the difference between “awakened consciousness” and other
altered states of consciousness that can often be distractions on the
Why the practice of direct awakening is the most
natural practice we can do, and how to allow that naturalness and
easefulness to begin to “meditate you.”
An Unshakable Foundation for Awakening:
Cultivating a Fertile Field in Which our Meditation Can Flourish
any practice, Direct Awakening rests on a set of fundamentals that
together create a strong foundation for the deep transformative work
we’ll be doing. In this module, you’ll learn a clear and simple set of
steps to follow each time you practice that will enable you to establish
this unshakable foundation for the great work of awakening.
You’ll learn . . .
3 foundations of optimal meditation posture that will enable you to
practice without the distractions of unnecessary physical tension or
pain. (No, you don’t have to sit on the floor with your legs crossed,
but it does matter how you sit and these dos and don’ts can have a big
impact on the quality of your attention!).
The 5 key environmental
factors that support a deep meditation practice, and how to create a
simple “virtual temple” wherever you are that will help you bring your
full presence and attention to the practice.
How to generate a
powerful intention rooted in “enlightened motivation” prior to each
practice session (and why practicing without this awakened intention
often leads to dullness and distraction for even seasoned meditators).
simple practice for boosting your concentration to help you reduce
inner distraction and enable you to bring an “easeful focused attention”
to your meditation.
How to leave your “inner critic” on the temple
steps so that you can allow your meditation to unfold naturally without
the distraction of worrying whether you’re “doing it right.”
A Peace Beyond Understanding:
The Unfathomable Contentment of Being
dawn to dusk, we’re always doing something. We’re trying to achieve
something, accomplish something, change something, make something
happen. And while this engaged orientation to life is essential for
participating in and contributing to the world, it tends to obscure a
more fundamental reality: the inherent freedom and fullness of Being
itself. In this module, we’ll consciously undertake what may be the
ultimate challenge for any human being: allowing ourselves to rest in
the unimaginable contentment and freedom of simply being as we are.
You’ll learn . . .
to short-circuit the ego’s relentless insistence that there is
something missing from this moment and discover the profound depth and
fullness that is always already here.
Why “doing nothing” changes everything, and how to avoid turning “not doing” into another, more subtle form of “doing.”
to suspend the habitual presumption of lack and limitation long enough
to make room for the essential perfection of your “true nature” to
How to go beyond mere “self acceptance” and discover the deep peace and contentment of embracing all of reality as it is.
Why taking time to “simply be” is paradoxically one of the most transformative things you can do.
Return to Innocence:
Activating the Mystery of Not Knowing
culture places a premium on knowledge. We are valued and rewarded for
what we know and often afraid to admit it when we don’t. Yet when it
comes to the mystery of spiritual awakening, our conceptual knowledge
can only take us so far. To truly enter into the vast, limitless
territory of awakened consciousness, we must be willing to step beyond
our certainties and enter into an awakened innocence. In this module,
you’ll learn how to “live in the unknown” so that a profound energy and
intelligence which lies forever beyond our comprehension can begin to
reveal itself in your experience.
You’ll learn . . .
How to open the door to profound intuitive wisdom and spontaneous creativity by letting go of “the need to know.”.
the discovery of our “true nature” does not depend on conceptual
knowledge and how to relinquish our attachment to certainty so that this
awakened essence can continuously reveal itself.
How to meditate deeply even if you have an active mind by learning how to disembed your awareness from the stream of thought.
Why innocence is more powerful than certainty and how to become comfortable living in “the unknown.”
How to meet each moment of meditation–and life–with a “beginner’s mind” and discover the expansive freedom of not knowing.
Becoming Aware of Awareness:
The Miracle of Self-Recognition
definition of awakened awareness is “awareness that is aware of
itself.” Although this might sound esoteric, learning how to be aware of
your own awareness is in fact one of the simplest and most accessible
practices of Direct Awakening we’ll explore. The discovery that this
awakened awareness is always present brings our search for freedom
outside ourself to an end, liberating us into a natural state of ever
present wakefulness. In this module, we’ll engage a series of exercises
to help you discover how to activate awakened consciousness by paying
attention to the movement of awareness itself in meditation and in daily
You’ll learn . . .
Why our habitual identification
with thoughts and feelings blocks the recognition of awakened awareness,
and how to release this habit and penetrate directly into your awakened
nature right now.
Why becoming aware of awareness itself is the easiest entry point into awakened consciousness.
3 accessible practices for awakening awareness to itself without needing to activate any special state of consciousness.
How to recognize the essential qualities of awakened awareness and unleash their liberating power into your life.
How to directly access the liberating spaciousness of awakened awareness even amidst challenging emotions and mental chatter.
Embracing our True Nature:
Awareness Beyond the False Self
all heard that the “false self” or ego is the primary obstacle on the
spiritual path. But how do we move beyond this mind-constructed story of
self to unleash the extraordinary capacities of our true nature? In
this module, we’ll engage a series of powerful practices for dissolving
the limitations of our “false self” so that we can open to the infinite
power and depth of our authentic self.
You’ll learn . . .
How to systematically deconstruct the deeply held “false identity structure” that we all take for granted as who we are.
Why letting go of yourself is the key to fully experiencing the beauty and fullness of Life.
key to embracing the radical and liberating truth that “you are not
your ego” so that you can begin to accept the limitless reality of your
How to open to the freedom, joy and fullness of being
alive without needing to tie that experience back to a narrow, limiting
idea of self.
A simple but effective practice that will enable you
to experience the boundless freedom of your true nature and unleash its
built in “supercapacities” into every area of your life.
Shattering the Myth of Separation:
The Emergence of Non-Dual Awareness
of us are familiar with the idea of “oneness.” For many of us, the
belief in our essential unity has even become a new religion. But how
many of us can truly say we have transcended the illusion of duality? In
this module, we’ll dive deep into one of the most essential and
life-changing revelations of Enlightenment–the truth of non-duality, the
liberating reality of no separation.
You’ll learn . . .
How to cut through the most powerful illusion there is.
A potent practice for stepping directly into the deepest part of who we are.
How to experience the great liberation of embracing everyone and everything as an inseparable part of yourself.
it means to go beyond subtle “spiritual dualism” by learning how to
directly perceive the “already enlightened nature” of all that arises.
Surrendering the Illusion of Control:
The Sacred Art of Letting Go
of us have accomplished great things in life by trying to control and
drive events and circumstances to work in our favor. But spiritual
awakening is ultimately about getting out of the way so that a greater
wisdom and power can begin to guide and ultimately animate our life. To
allow the miraculous energy of awakening to begin to operate without
obstruction, we must each find a way to surrender ourselves to a mystery
beyond our mind’s comprehension. In other words, we have to let go of
control. In this module, we’ll learn the subtle art of letting go in
meditation so that we can begin to be carried by the current of
You’ll learn . . .
How to give up control of your meditation so that awakened consciousness can begin to “meditate you.”
What it really means to surrender to a deeper wisdom or higher power without giving up your sovereignty over your own life.
How to navigate your way between the polarities of mindful effort and unconditional surrender.
letting go is the key to accessing a profound “inner GPS” to enable you
to navigate life with wisdom, clarity and unshakable confidence.
How to let go so deeply that you’ll never want to hold on again.
Nowhere Else To Go:
Resting in the Explosive Recognition That “This Is It”
human condition is dominated by an underlying sense of lack. This
assumption of insufficiency keeps us in an endless cycle of always
looking elsewhere for happiness and fulfillment. In this module, we’ll
learn the life-altering meditative practice of seeing the inherent
perfection and wholeness of reality as it is right now. When we stop
insisting that there is something missing from this moment, we open the
door to the overwhelming revelation of fullness and unimaginable
contentment that is our natural state.
You’ll learn . . .
secret to moving beyond a paradigm of lack into the direct recognition
of unconditional Fullness and inherent Freedom here and now.
necessary to abandon any investment in the future in order to allow the
extraordinary nature of the present to reveal itself.
cultivate the equanimity to stay steady as the uncontainable Truth of
wholeness begins to overwhelm your being with its immensity.
Why finally accepting the moment as it is is the key to a life of unimaginable meaning, purpose and contribution.
How to let go once and for all of the insistence that you aren’t enough.
The Meditation is Already Occurring:
Allowing Awakening to Happen by Itself
we deepen in the Practice of Direct Awakening, we gradually discover
that the less effort we make, the more the process of awakening begins
to take on a life of its own. In the later stages of practice, we’re
learning how to navigate the subtleties involved in making room for a
mysterious energy and intelligence to open up within us, but without
making the mistake of becoming entirely passive in the process. In this
module, we’ll learn the delicate art of “getting out of our own way” so
that the miracle of awakening can begin to have its way with us,
ultimately allowing it to permeate every aspect of our life.
You’ll learn . . .
How to “get out of the way” in meditation so that the process of awakening can unfold naturally.
What it means to stop making effort without sinking into unhealthy passivity or complacency.
Three powerful but simple practices for experiencing “effortless meditation” and spontaneous awakening.
to access the humility required to accept that the process of awakening
works better when you don’t try to steer or control it.
What it really means to allow meditation to happen on its own.
Awakenment in Action:
The Practice of Direct Awakening in Daily Life
the precious time we spend in meditation establishes the foundation for
an extraordinary, awakened life, we all spend the majority of our time
outside of meditation, actively engaged with the world. What if it were
possible to turn our daily life into a profound spiritual practice, so
that every moment could become a moment of awakening? In this module,
we’ll take our contemplative practice out of our “virtual temple” and
into the marketplace, exploring how to practice Direct Awakening even as
we engage with the complexities and challenges of relationships, work,
play and creative pursuits.
You’ll learn . . .
to hold on to meditative awareness in the midst of a busy life usually
doesn’t work and can actually be counterproductive–and the key shift
that will enable you to turn daily life into a profound field of
How to use “engaged inquiry practices” to continue to deepen your awakening as you move through your day.
active approach to transformation that enables you to defuse, disarm,
and deconstruct the ego in the midst of engagement with everyday life.
to transform your relationships into dynamic “evolutionary
partnerships” that both support and challenge you to fully live your
The 8 inner postures of enlightened action that enable awakened consciousness to freely express itself in everything you do.
A Journey That Never Ends:
Activating the Process of Perpetual Awakening
we become established in the natural practices of Direct Awakening, the
boundary between formal practice and the rest of life gradually
dissolves. This is when we fall in love with meditation. This is when we
come home to our True Nature. However, this can also be a delicate
transition, as our conditioned tendencies toward unawakened
consciousness likely still have momentum. It is therefore imperative
that, even as our awakening becomes more organic, easeful and natural,
we maintain our commitment to a practice routine that can last a
lifetime. In our final module, we’ll explore how to sustain our formal
practice, even as we make room for the natural process of awakening to
gradually overtake our being.
You’ll learn . . .
avoid falling into a “practice rut” (even one that feels really good)
and what it means to approach each moment of practice as if you were
practicing for the first time.
How to always remain open and innocent even as you gain access to profound wisdom and insight.
it means to continually “take no position” and “hold on to nothing,” no
matter how Enlightened you become. (Yes, awakening itself should take
care of that, but it doesn’t always work that way, so best not to take
it for granted).
How to avoid spiritual stagnation by living always
on the edge of the unknown, following a process of perpetual emergence
that has no end.
The keys to staying grounded in a place of humility
as your spiritual presence and illumination deepens (especially as
others begin to notice and be impacted by the power of your Awakening).
that time, commerce with other states had begun and there was a new
merchant class in the territory who had expressed interest in Awakened One with Awareness’s teachings.
That the advent of political attitude was Emperor Asoka. Asoka’s predecessors maintained a treatment of political prisoners, which must have shocked Asoka. The Samyutta Nikaya described the physical condition of King P
Evidence exists that Awakened One with Awareness emphasises the sangha or ‘tribal republic’ such as Vajja. In his fourth sermon to Ananda bhikku and Vasakara the Chaplain of King Ajatasatru, Awakened One with Awareness mentioned that tribal unity was a vital criterion for the survival of the state. Most scholars of Asoka’s dhamma accredit
it as an ethical code. Beside the foundation of hospitals, inns and
rest homes, arboretums [parks established for the planting and nurturing
of plants and trees] and so on, Asoka preached social equity and
sectarian equality. He declared that he was impartial to any sect of his
time but his edict warned his subjects against showing prejudice or
hatred towards other sects. At the core of his dhamma, like that of
Buddha, was sila or conduct. Even today, it is still easy “to fall into evil ways” and the highly-placed—i.e., public and private administrators, etc—especially cannot always behave properly.(Mahesh Tiwari, 1989; p.159)
Awakened One with Awareness concept of
governance as fixed at the time of the dhamma and awakenment with
awareness, which was certainly ahead of our time and modern principles. In so far as the sangha as a form of governance displayed “democratic principles” such as
freedom of speech, equal representation of the masses and the
solidarity and civility demanded by Awakened One with Awareness , it can
stand as a precursor of modern democracy and researcher shall emphasise
it in this light. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the
enlightened monarchy of Emperor Asoka.
Awakened One with Awareness concept of monarch—especially
those of Kosala and Magadha, being the principle and most important
historical monarchies of the time. From that, we shall endeavour to draw
the proper conclusion(s)
Awakened One with Awareness Concept of King
One with Awareness had been an advocate of the or republican system, as
we mentioned earlier. However, among his many lay followers were kings,
especially of Magadha- e.g., Bimbisara and his heir Ajatasatru.
Monarchical states or kingdoms were conceivably numerous in Chumpudveepa
(Ancient India) and earned considerable reputations historically.
Awakened One with Awareness was frequently an honoured and invited guest
in their palaces.
Among Awakened One with Awareness’s ideals was that of the ‘ideal monarch’ or “dhammaraja” who reportedly ruled over his subjects justly and equitably. (S. Tachibana, 1975; p.264) Dhamma means
righteousness and includes such traits as equity and impartiality.
Awakened One with Awareness discredited the theory of divine origin and
knew the basic, common origin of all living beings barring plants.
Therefore, a true, righteous monarch should
understand the equality of his subjects. Seeing the equality of all of
his subjects, a true monarch would rule them impartially. This concept
shall be discussed in the next unit.
Dhammaraja could have been a reaction to the despots who exercised their control over people in Awakened One with Awareness’s time. Uma Cakravarti (1996; p.158) speaks of “absolute exercise of power unrestrained by any institutional controls.” However, the Pali literature of the period acknowledged the social need for authority to maintain law and order, referred to as “legitimate basis of kingship.” It has been expounded in the Agganna Sutta. As with power generally, use of it for legitimate or arbitrary purposes largely depended on the king—i.e., as he saw fit to exercise it.
mentions two principle threats to the social order, which may be still
evident today: One is offences against the property and the other is
offences against the family. The subjects expected their monarch to act
effectively against these offences. Evidence of public demonstration
(protest) in Kosala, the domain of King Pasenadi, mentioned a protest
against the ravages of the famed robber Angulimala (who later met the
Buddha and became a bhikku). (Majjima Nikaya 11;p.346 quoted in Uma Chakravarti, 1996; p.159)
On the Awakened One with Awareness concept of kingship, there exists muc
1.Physical strength, or power-agility and muscular strength, as applied in governance and warfare.
2.Material strength-wealth and material resources.
3.Strength of court officials, providing they are united behind him and know and perform their respective duties.
4.strength of nobility
5.wisdom or intellect
Ten Royal Virtues (rajadhamman),
which we shall explain in detail in a later unit of this chapter. He
agrees in principle with the social contract theory, as far as he
reports “Kingship is, in a sense, founded upon and determined by public opinion.” (Ibid. p.153), which, in its turn, depends upon righteousness. To this point, he
adds “the nature of kingship is essentially based on the concept of righteousness (dhamma). The king is supposed to be the agent who maintains the principle of righteousness in the worldly spheres.” (Ibid.
The Digha Nikaya quotes Awakened One with Awareness himself as explaining that a king (raja) ‘charms others by Dhamma or righteousness.’ (S.
Tachibana, 1975;p. 264) Oliver Abeynayake claims that Awakened One with
Awareness prefers monarchy to republicanism, but the fact simply is
that the monarchies, despite possible despotism and abuses, were
stronger than the ganas. He continues to infer that “Awakened One with Awareness prescribes a centralized
2. Economic prosperity.
3. Military strength.
4. Competent advisors.
5. Diplomatic acclaim.
7. Parents’ affection.
8. Patriotism and popularity.
9. Competency and discipline.
10. Education, intelligence and intuition. (Ibid.)
precedes the person and acts as a tool in attracting others towards
him/her; so, we may conceive that a good reputation, usually created
through good actions towards the subjects of the state, will enable the
leader of that state to maintain his rapport with the subjects. Economic prosperity is
the result of sustaining a prosperous state, since the king receives
payment in various forms from his subjects, such as foodstuff, gold,
etc. As we have indicated in the unit on ten
virtues, a good ruler deems the prosperity of his subjects to be his
own. Military strength is the requisite for protecting the country from
A good king will need a strong and extensive army (sena) to
defend his territory. Competent advisors and diplomatic acclaim is
needed in peaceful and cooperative measures between states. In fact,
Abeynayake has reiterated and emphasized the qualities we have mentioned
in earlier chapters of our thesis.
3.3 The Normative King (cakkavati dhammiko dhammaraja) and Ideal Administrative Office
To begin, the Pali concept of normative
kingship, which we shall explain in this unit, consists of two distinct
but not separate ideals. Both are ideals of Awakened One with Awareness
and the objectives of a true monarch in the Awakened One with Awareness consciousness. The first ideal is cakkavati. Cakkavati is derived from the Sanksrit word cakra,
which means several things: 1) a circle, 2) a wheel or disk, 3) a
centre of energy or power (ayurvedic, tantric and yogic) and 4) world. “Cakkavati” or cakravartin is a universal monarch, a world ruler who “would put an end to the petty tyranny of the many and establish instead a universe where not only a social order but also a moral order would prevail.” (Uma Cakravarti, 1996; p.164)
Since tyranny would be abolished, the new
social order would likely to be either spontaneous or promoted by
righteous leadership, or both. Petty tyranny mentioned above referred
mostly to the historical monarchs of Awakened One with Awareness’s lifetime.
comparative comfort. Researcher takes exception to the term comparative comfort because, whereas poverty should be eradicated, excess and luxury should also be avoided. Comparative comfort is
a relative term, referring to the degree of comfort compared with
previous living. E.g., when someone has lived in abject poverty
throughout his childhood, comparably, when he has the means to uplift
his standards of material existence, it can be deemed comparative
comfort. However, the fact is that we compare our living with those
Under the rule of the dhammaraja, the subjects should expect to live comfortably within existing means and limits. Cakravarti supports this hypothesis by adding “dhammiko dhammaraja thus provides for the basic needs of the people.” (Ibid, p. 165) Thus,
in a general outlook, the dhammaraja does not only protect the family
and property of his subjects. A fine example of such a king was Maha
Sudassana. Maha Sudassana gave to the needy whatever was truly needed:
food to the starved, water to the thirsty and even a wife to the man
who wished to wed. Grants of money were not the only necessities.
Another vital characteristic of the dhammaraja was charisma.
His relationship to the subjects was like that to his family: father to
sons and daughters. His charisma compels him to be popular and he is
obeyed without coercion. Since all his subjects like him, no one would
overthrow him. Finally, the dhammaraja supports only the worthy samanas
and chitpavan brahmanas, and aids them in achieving their goals.
Awakened One with Awareness
tradition placed the Dvaravati kings as cakravartins, (Rhys Davids,
1899). Rhys Davids quotes that the Universal Emperor appeared and ruled
righteously in the manner of the Buddha. Buddha was perceived as the
foremost Cakkavatti in his style of leadership and others attempted to
follow him. The Awakened One with Awareness kings were also described as
embarking upon the path of bodhisattva and both saving themselves and
their subjects, which is the action of a bodhisattva, according to
Mahayana Awakened One with Awareness. Ernst Benz describes it as
‘The Awakened One with Awareness kings were regarded as the central personages on thestage, themselves striving to be Bodhisattvas and expected to lead their
subjects on the way to salvation. As Bodhisattvas, they were not only
examples to their subjects, but actually helpful to them. The salvation
chrism of the Bodhisattva consists in using his own salvation to further
the efforts of others to achieve salvation.’ (Ernst Benz, Awakened One with Awareness or Communism: Which Holds the Future of Asia?, trans; Richard and Clara Winston, Great Britain, 1966; p.97)
3.4 Awakened One with Awareness and Communism
3.4.1 The approach of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
The Awakened One with Awareness
is generally associated with the doctrine of Ahimsa. That is taken to
be the be-all and end-all of his teachings. Hardly any one
knows that what the Awakened One with Awareness taught is something very vast: far beyond Ahimsa. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in his The Awakened One with Awareness and His Dhamma has analyzed Awakened One with Awareness’s approach to Ahimsa. Here he makes a distinction between principle and rule. According to him ahimsa in Awakened One with Awareness
is accepted not as a rule, but as a principle. Rule binds you and takes
away your freedom. Principle does not take away your freedom; you can
choose your course of action in the light of the principle. Secondly the
Awakened One with Awareness did not emphasise just the negative aspect of ahimsa (viz. ‘Don’t kill’) but he also emphasised the positive aspect in the form of love and compassion ( Metta and Karuna). But more importantly Awakened One with Awareness’s
primary concern was not himsa or ahimsa, but the problem of human
suffering, suffering which is natural and also the suffering which is
caused by human being. He tried to go the root cause of all sufferings
and find a solution to the problem of suffering. In the last two
philosopher who has been influential was Karl Marx, who was also deeply
concerned with the problem of suffering, mainly the problem of poverty,
exploitation and alienation.
The Awakened One with Awareness
as a social thinker can be regarded as a scientific thinker rather than
utopian thinker. He developed the causal model of dependent origination
(Paticca-samuppada) and applied it to the problem of suffering.
Hence both Awakened One with Awareness and Mark were concerned with the problem of suffering; they accepted the ultimate social goal as the society without
suffering and exploitation, where human beings live as equal members of
the society and as free beings. Both of them approached the problem by
applying scientific method rather than following any religious dogma or
utopian ideal. But the conclusions they arrived at were different. This
is because the ways they approached the problem were different. Marx did
not consider the inner roots of the problem of suffering, but only the
external roots. Hence according to him human beings suffer, they are
exploited, they enter into conflicts, because of the contradictions in
the socio-economic structure, that is, the capitalist structure. Hence
changing socio-economic structure through revolution, though it could be
a blooly revolution is the solution of the problem of suffering.
Though the Awakened One with Awareness dealt
with the problem of unjust social structure and establishment of an
alternative social structure, when he thought about the root cause of
suffering, he emphasised the inner root of suffering rather than the
external causes or occasioning factors. He spelt out the internal cause
of suffering in two ways. Sometimes he emphased tanha- craving as the
root cause. Because of craving people suffer, they exploit others and
are exploited by others; they enter into conflicts and wars with others.
People can get rid of suffering and experience peace only by getting
rid of craving. He further went into the root of craving and found that
Avijja, ignorance / misconception is the root cause of craving. We are
ignorant about the impermanent, soul-less and unsatisfactory nature of
all phenomena and misconceive them as permanent, soul-possessing and
satisfactory. Because of these misconceptions we develop attachment and
craving about those phenomena. Hence the path towards cessation of
suffering necessarily involved threefold training (Trisika) viz.(sila),
meditation (samadhi) and wisdom (panna) through which one gets rid of
craving and ignorance and is finally liberated. The Buddha conceived of
and executed an alternative form of social structure – the
order of bhikkus which gives institutional support for developing the
threefold training. The order of Bhikkhus had no place for the
caste-system, or exploitation, but followed egalitarian democratic
pattern. On the contrary, Karl Marx maintained that the way to ideal
social system went through revolution (which could be violent
revolution) and what he called dictatorship of proletariat. Sangha order
on the other hand was not imposed on the members but was willingly
accepted by them. Marx maintained that in ideal social structure the
private property will have been abolished. This idea of the absence of
private property was already practiced long back in the Awakened One
with Awareness order of Bhikkhus.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in his article “Awakened One with Awareness or Karlmark” has brought out clearly the contrast between the Marxian approach and the Awakened One with Awareness’s approach as follows:
Marx is no doubt the father of modern socialism or Communism but he was
not interested merely in propounding the theory of Socialism. That had
been done long before him by others. Marx was more interested in proving
that his Socialism was scientific. His crusade was as much against the
capitalists as it was against those whom he called the Utopian
Socialists. He disliked them both. It is necessary to note this point
because Marx attached the greatest importance to the scientific
character of his Socialism. All the doctrines which Marx propounded had
no other purpose than to establish his contention that his brand of
Socialism was scientific and not Utopian.
means of bringing about Communism, which the Awakened One with Awareness
propounded, were quite definite. It can be devided into three parts.
consisted in observing the Pancha Silas. The Enlightenment gave birth to
a new gospel, which contains the key to the solution of the problem,
which was haunting him.
foundation of the New Gospel is the fact that the world was full of
misery and unhappiness. This was the fact that was not merely to be
noted but to be regarded as being the first and foremost in any scheme
of salvation. The recognition of this fact was made by the Buddha, the
starting point of his gospel. To remove this misery and unhappiness was
to him the aim and object of the gospel if it was to serve any useful
purpose. Asking what could be the causes of this misery the Awakened One
with Awareness found that there could be only two.
of the misery and unhappiness of man was the result of his own
misconduct. To remove this cause of misery he preached the practice of
The Panch Sila comprised the following observations:
(1) To abstain from destroying or causing destruction of any living things
(2) To abstain from stealing i.e. acquiring or keeping by fraud or violence, the property of another:
(3) To Abstain from telling untruth:
(4) To abstain from lust: (5) To abstain from intoxicating drinks.
of the misery and unhappiness in the world was according to the Awakened
One with Awareness the result of man’s inequity towards man. How was
inequity to be removed? For the removal of man’s inequity towards man the Awakened One with Awareness prescribed the Noble Eight-Fold Path. The elements of the Noble Fight-Fold Path are:
(1) Right views i.e. freedom from superstition:
(2) Right aims, high
and worthy of the intelligent and earnest men;
(3) Right speech i.e.kindly, open, truthful:
(4) Right Conduct i.e. peaceful, honest and pure;
(5) Right livelihood i.e. causing hurt or injury to no living being;
(6) Right perseverance in all the other seven;
(7) Right mindfulness i.e. with a watchful and active mind; and
(8) Right contemplation i.e. earnest thought on the deep mysteries of life.
of the Noble Eight-Fold Path is to establish on earth the kingdom of
righteousness, and thereby to banish sorrow and unhappiness
from the face of the world.
third part of the Gospel is the doctrine of Nibbana. The doctrine of
Nibbana is an integral part of the doctrine of the Noble Eight- Fold
Path. Without Nibbana the realisation of the Eight-Fold Path cannot be
The doctrine of Nibbana tells what are the difficulties in the way of the realisation of the Eight-Fold Path.
The chiefs of these difficulties are ten in number. The Buddha called them the Ten Asavas, Fetters or Hindrances.
first hindrance is the delusion of self. So long as a man is wholly
occupied with himself, chasing after every bauble that he vainly thinks
will satisfy the cravings of his heart, there is no noble path for him.
Only when his eyes have been opened to the fact that he is but a tiny
part of a measureless, whole, only when he begins to realise how
impermanent a thing is his temporary individuality can he even enter
upon this narrow path.
second is Doubt and Indecision. When a man’s eyes are opened to the
great mystery of existence, the impermanence of every individuality, he
is likely to be assailed by doubt and indecision as to his action. To do
or not to do, after all my individuality is impermanent, why do
anything are questions, which make him indecisive or inactive. But that
will not do in life. He must make up his mind to follow the teacher, to
accept the truth and to enter on the struggle or he will get no
third is dependence on the efficacy of Rites and Ceremonies. No good
resolutions, however firm will lead to anything unless a man gets rid of
ritualism: of the belief that any outward acts. any priestly powers,
and holy ceremonies, can afford him an assistance of any kind. It is
only when he has overcome this hindrance, that men can be said to have
fairly entered upon the stream and has a chance sooner or later to win a
fourth consists of the bodily passions… The fifth is ill will towards
other individuals. The sixth is the suppression of the desire for a
future life with a material body and the seventh is the desire for a
future life in an immaterial world.
eighth hindrance is Pride and ninth is self-righteousness. These are
failings which it is most difficult for men to overcome, and to which
superior minds are peculiarly liable contempt for those who are less
able and less holy than themselves.
tenth hindrance is ignorance. When all other difficulties are conquered
this will even remain, the thorn in the flesh of the wise and good, the
last enemy and the bitterest foe of man.
Nibbana consists in overcoming these hindrances to the pursuit of the Noble Eight-Fold Path.
doctrine of the Noble Eight-Fold Path tells what disposition of the mind
which a person should sedulously cultivate. The doctrine of Nibbana
tells of the temptation or hindrance which a person should earnestly
overcome if he wishes to trade along with the Noble Eight-Fold Path
Fourth Part of the new Gospel is the doctrine of Paramitas. The doctrine
of Paraimitas inculcates the practice of ten virtues in one’s daily
These are those ten virtues—
or wisdom is the light that removes the darkenss of Avijja, Moha or
Nescience. The Panna requires that one must get all his doubts removed
by questioning those wiser than him self, associate with the wise and
cultivate the different arts and sciences which help to develop the
moral temperament, the disposition not to do evil and the disposition
to do good; to be ashamed of doing wrong. To avoid doing evil for fear
of punishment is Sila. Sila means fear of doing wrong. Nekkhama is
renunciation of the pleasures of the world. Dana means the giving of
one’s possessions, blood and limbs and even one’s life for the good of
the others without expecting anything in return.
Virya is right endeavour. It is doing with all your might with thought never turning back, whatever you have undertaken to do.
is forbearance. Not to meet hatred by harted is the essence of it. For
hatred is not appeased by hatred. It is appeased only by forbearance.
Succa is truth. An aspirant for Buddha never speaks a lie. His speech is truth and nothing but truth.
is resolute determination to reach the goal. Metta is fellow feeling
extending to all beings, foe and friend, beast and man.
is detachment as distinguished from indifference. It is a state of mind
where there is neither like nor dislike. Remaining unmoved by the
result and yet engaged in the pursuit of it.
These virtues one must practice to his utmost capacity. That is why they are called Paramitas (States of Perfection).
Such is the gospel the Buddha enunciated as a result of his awakenment to end the sorrow and misery in the world.
It is clear from Dr. Ambedkar’s article “Awakened One with Awareness or Karl Marx” (W&S, vol.3) how, the means adopted by the Buddha were to convert a
man by changing his moral disposition to follow the path voluntarily.
The means adopted by the Communists are equally clear, short and swift.
(1) Violence and
(2) Dictatorship of the Proletariat.
The Communists say that there are the only
two means of establishing communism. The first is violence. Nothing
short of it will suffice to break up the existing system. The other is
dictatorship of the proletariat. Nothing short of it will suffice to
continue the new system.
It is now clear what are the similarities and
differences between Awakened One with Awareness and Karl Marx. The
differences are about the means. The end is
common to both. (Awakened One with Awareness or Karl Marx”, (W&S vol. 3 p. 450)
3.4.2 Bhikku Buddhadasa’s approach
Another Awakened One with Awareness response to Marxism can be seem in Bhikkhu Buddhadasa, a contemporary Thai Awakened One with Awareness thinker,
who proposed his social theory of dhammic socialism out of an Asian way
of thinking, within an Asian context. Since Thailand has never been
colonized by a
Western power, Awakened One with Awareness socialism can be interpreted as a struggle for economic and cultural independence. Bhikkhu Buddhadasa, a contemporary Thai Awakened One with Awareness thinker, has interpreted Awakened One with Awareness not only from a religious point of view of his unique theory of Awakened One with Awareness socialism or “dhammic socialism” but also from a sociopolitical perspective. After
devoting most of his life to reforming Buddhism in Thailand, Buddhadasa
found it necessary to address sociopolitical issues from a Awakened One with Awareness perspective. In the 1960’s, he articulated his sociopolitical position in terms of “dhammocracy” (dhammathipatai): the social and political order should follow the law of Dhamma the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness . Later on, in the atmosphere of the student led Revolution in Thailand from 1973 to 1976, Buddhadasa presented (dhammika sangkhomniyom).
Buddhadasa bases his theory of dhammic socialism on nature. To him,
nature represents the state of balance for the survival and wellbeing of
human beings, animals, plants, and the ecology of the world. In the
state of nature, every being produces according to its capacity and
consumes according to its needs; no being, whatever form, hoards “surplus” for its own sake. Buddhadasa calls this balanced state of nature socialistic.
Problems arise, however, when human beings begin to hoard a “surplus”
for the sake of their own profit; this leaves others facing scarcity
and poverty. According to Buddhadasa, human beings can and should produce a “surplus,” but the “surplus” should be distributed for the
wellbeing of everyone, and Buddhism provides the ethical tools for this
fair distribution. Philosophically, dhammic socialism is based on this
principle: none of us should take more than we really need. We should
share whatever extra we have with those who have less. Social problems
are fundamentally a result of greed. In other words, greed is at the
of scarcity and poverty (Buddhadasa, Dhammic Socialism, 107). Buddhadasa’s individualistic approach to social and economic problems is implemented via the personal practices of generosity (dana) and self-restraint, which consists of keeping precepts (sila) and being self disciplined the global market economy.
In a later unit in this chapter, we shall explain more on that concept. According to Awakened One with Awareness tradition, a good ruler has ten virtues, enumerated in the next unit.
3.5 Dasa Rajadhamman or Ten Royal Virtues
Awakened One with Awareness is
more than a religion or a life philosophy; it is a way of life. It is
broad in scope and perceptive of the lives of others. Henceforth, Awakened One with Awareness
taught the eradication of poverty and internal security of a kingdom as
well as other social virtues. Towards the eradication of
crime in a country, a leader should eliminate poverty. Although there
were perhaps not the same strata of employment then that we have today, Awakened One with Awareness
urged employers and national leaders to improve relations with
employees through the means of wage and incentives, and occasional
gifts. Furthermore, kings and governments should consider the happiness
of their people seriously. In respect of good monarchy, there is the
raja dhamma, which follow:
According to Awakened One with Awareness Dhamma, or Buddhasatsana, a true, good monarch is or should be endowed with the following ten virtues.
it is incumbent of the monarch to ensure the welfare and prosperity of
his people, the first of these virtues is dana or charity. Dana comes
from the Sanskrit root dan, to give, which also founded the Latin word
don- as in donor (giver) and donation. In Buddhism, dana includes
generosity and reward. It is incumbent for a good leader to give freely
from his resources to anyone who needs anything. Maha Sudassana gave
whatever the needy person demanded at the time. This entails an accurate
assessment of the person’s condiition: ‘This man is hungry’ etc. and the suitable response.
2. The second virtue, very typically, was sila or
morality. The raja is himself a lay follower and lay followers were
expected to follow only five principles of moral conduct, whereas the
bhikkus had many more. The five principles, unlike their counterparts in
other world religions, were not rigidly enforced. This may have been due to Awakened One with Awareness’s
understanding of human weakness. These principles included the aversion
to kill meaninglessly, barring a war in the cause of national defence. (Awakened One with Awareness taught ahimsa,
or non-violence, but understood that war in self-defense was hard to
avoid for any nation.) The other precepts included aversion to adultery
(as it provokes rage and jealousy, and disharmony among subjects),
aversion to the use of harmful and improper speech such as lies,
slander, rumours and gossiping and aversion to intoxicating things etc.
Awakened One with Awareness continued to advise the following eight virtues:
3. pariccaga (self-sacrifice
for common good): Sidhhi Butr-Indr (1995; p.150) claims that this
included the sacrifice of life and limbs on behalf of the people, which
is a very grand and noble gesture for anyone and therefore very scarce.
It arises from the belief that the happiness of others causes oneself to
feel happy, which is true.
4. ajjava (honesty):
this virtue encompasses sincerity and freedom from fear (bhayamokka)
while discharging royal duties. It is very conceivable that any honest
man or woman, regardless of birthright, should have no cause to fear so
long as his/her activity is honest and sincere. Thus, a king who lives
honestly and sincerely need not fear any loss to himself; or his family.
Additionally, a king is recommended to be straightforward and avoid
deceptive or ‘crooked’ recourse towards his
ends. To highlight this, the Sigalovada Sutta, Digha Nikaya, adds: “Canda dosa bhaya moha—yo dhammam nativattati. Apurati tassa yaso—Sukkha pakheva candima”. (If
a person maintains justice without being subjected to favouritism,
hatred, fear or ignorance, his popularity grows like the waxing moon.)
5. maddava (gentleness) includes politeness and friendliness. Awakened One with Awareness apparently intended this as a tool in addressing the subjects. As
he must have known well that common men prefer to listen to kind, sincere speeches.
6. tapa (austerity)
is generally a quality of ascetics and therefore uncommon in men of
high birth and status in society. It requires the monarch to simplify
his ways of life, which seemed rare in those days as well as in the
present. The scriptures had mentioned reports of kings who abused wealth and power and were ‘lumped together’ with the thieves from whom they were expected to protect their subjects.
7. akkodha is good will. It is also translated as ‘non-hatred.’ Thus, a ruler should not bear any grudge against anyone. Furthermore, he should act with love and forbearance.
8. ahimsa (non-violence):
Buddha taught non-violence even in the case of war, although he was
well aware that war was difficult to avoid. As we have mentioned, he
sanctioned war only when it was fought for the preservation of the state
and could avoid killing. He included the promotion of peace through
non-violent action, which is truly the only way to peace. This virtue
was best epitomised in Emperor Asoka.
or patience. The ruler is herein urged to bear all hardships without
losing his temper and should avoid yielding to his emotions. In fact, Awakened One with Awareness are generally advised to be thoughtful rather than giving way to emotions, but a king or ruler should avoid this as well.
10. avirodha (non-opposition
to the public demand) This includes a commitment to public welfare and
is a good twin to pariccaga. As a good monarch will first deem the
welfare and happiness of the people as his own and then undertake to
promote it. (Rahula, What the Awakened One with Awareness Taught 84-85)
Butr-Intr (Ibid. p.151) discusses the nature of a good king along these lines, and historically there were god examples such as Maha Sudassana and Asoka. Maha Sudassana practiced dana in the manner described; Asoka practiced dana, sila and ahimsa and
originated many institutions in his kingdom to promote the public
welfare. He stands as one of the best examples of a monarch in early
history. However, while the leader who possesses all of thee virtues is
loved well, he is very rare. Some kings or leaders have possessed only a
few virtues and others have abused wealth and power for self-interest.
In modern day, with many countries assuming a
democratic stance, a few of them maintain monarchical influences. In
Asia, these are principally Nepal, Bhutan and Thailand. Nepal has
deposed its monarchs for criminal offences concerning ascension. Bhutan
has remained a model monarchical state, as Robert Thurman averred
Thurman refers to the interesting paradox that Nagarjuna points out, that it’s very likely that a good and strong executive is an essential
thing to maintain the interest of individuals in a society. So there is
an interesting paradox that you need a strong central leader to
guarantee the rights of the people and therefore the idea of a
constitutional monarchy is pretty close to a Buddhist ideal. (Retrieved
from http://www.kuensel online.com/ on 22 March 2009. Date of Citation:
27 November 2007)
Speaking more precisely on the duty and
nature of the dhammaraja, Thurman pointed that a true Awakened One with
Awarenessking should attain to the state of bodhisattva and serve his
people. Asoka tried in his lifetime to attain thatend and we shall discuss him in the next unit. Below are Thurman’s words on the king:
Awakened One with Awareness has
a very interesting paradox and that is, yes, it’s very important to be a
bodhisattva and serve the people, but you can’t really
serve people well until you have wisdom, compassion and certain qualities of an enlightened person. That’s the first thing of a Awakened One with Awareness
King, the first duty is to himself, to develop full potential as a human being. That’s the first principle.
The second principle is Non-Violence. This
is very difficult for a ruler or a King, because there are some
criminals and they have to be
punished or there are some threats to the nation and it has to be taken care of, so it may seem a little tough.
But The 3.6 Awakened One with Awareness and the Social Life Awakened One with Awareness The close association and continuous relationship between Awakened One with Awareness Interaction 3.7 Awakened One with Awareness dhamma and Society The teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness are voluminous and classified into groups. Each group serves a specific purpose. It explains an existing Firstly, doctrinal Awakened One with Awareness refers to the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness and practices contained in the Canon Sutta and related literatures. Doctrinal Awakened One with Awareness is thus believed to be original. Its followers will refuse principles, teachings and practices, which are not contained in the
Nagarjuna ruled out capital punishment. Even criminals should not be
killed, but you might kill someone if they try to harm your family, but
generally you try to correct criminals and educate them. The analysis of
self-defense is kind of tricky in Buddhism, you can’t necessarily be perfect but you tend towards the principle of non-violence.
third principle is difficult to explain in English because there is no
real word for it but I call it Educationalism. What this means is that
the primary industry of a Awakened One with Awareness society is
education of its citizens because, for any human being, the most
important thing they can do is to learn. Awakened One with Awareness is
very different from any other religions because Awakened One with
Awareness does not teach that you can achieve nirvana just by faith,
is not sufficient to be free from suffering. (Ibid.)
has been an integral part of the life of Buddhists for it is the root
of culture and way of life of the people. In order to appreciate the
importance, role and influence of Awakened One with Awareness on the way of life of the Awakened One with Awareness
populace, it is necessary to understand other structures orfabrics,
which are integral parts of Buddhism. Important components are the Awakened One with Awareness
(Somdej Phra Nyanasamvara 2000, pp.6-7), the Dhamma, the Sangha and the
Wat (monastery) and lay disciples. The Dhamma or the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness has been most influential on the way of life of Awakened One with Awareness. The teachings are found not only in the Pali Canon and Suttapitaka but also in such religious literatures as the Jataka, Awakened One with Awareness chronicles and myths. The Dhamma component is an abstract aspect and serves as the heart of Awakened One with Awareness.
The Sangha or the community of monks and the Wat are in close relation
and proximity with the laymen and interact with society in its daily
and society is based on the concept that a society is a conglomeration
of tangible compositions and such abstract elements as virtue, value,
goodness, morality and ethics. There are continuous interactions between
the tangible and intangible components. In order to maintain the
society functionally and structurally, there must be an interdependent
and supportive relationship of different compositions of Awakened One with Awareness.
Lacking any of them would cause imbalance in society. In a village
community, for example, not having a monastery and monks to edify and
guide the people would result in the low morality and spirit of the
inhabitants. Similarly, if the monks in the community do not strictly
adhere to the Dhamma and keep to their duties according to the code of discipline (Vinaya), the people’s morality and spirit would become lax, the community’s social relationships would also be weakened, unstable
and not in peace. Social relationships are not always in harmony.
Conflicts may arise from time to time. Resolution to such conflicts may
be achieved by means of adjustment and adaptation of the existing social
structure and function in order to maintain the society. Alternatively,
there might be a replacement of the structure and function of the old
society by a new one.
and the independent relationship of the Sangha and lay society is
another aspect of the relationship between society and religion.
The Sangha is the most important and traditional Awakened One with Awareness institution, which is in close association with the people. It plays an essential role,
religious and secular, in the life of the people. It provides spiritual
sanctuary and serves as a field of merit for the people when they need
spiritual comfort. In the secular sphere, the monks render services to
rural and remote communities. The monks help in teaching the children,
healing the sick by traditional methods, and leading the villagers in
various development efforts. Reciprocally, the lay community provides
the monks with necessities for their living so that they need not worry
about earning their living. Such an interdependent and reciprocal
relationship contributes to a situation in which each party has to be
flexible and adaptable to changes. An accommodating and adaptive ability
is an indispensable quality of the structure within a society, which
make possible the maintenance of the society. The maintenance of the
structure and the regulation of social order are structurally and
functionally defined. It is a situation in which every component of the
is interdependent, interacting and contributing to the system
maintenance. Generally speaking, there are a variety of components in a
society. The important ones are an economic structure, a political structure and a belief system meaningful to people’s lives and thoughts.The major element in this belief system is a religious structure.
phenomenon, its cause of arising and the effects thereof. There are also prescriptions to overcome individual problems. The level of depth and sophistication of the teachings are also purposely prescribed to suit individual needs. Due to the differences in context and level of sophistication of the teachings, there arise differences in interpretation of the teachings. This concerns one’s perception and experiences, occupation and education. Some political scientists may understand the Awakened One with Awareness concept Santosa (satisfaction with whatever is one’s own) as not conducive to development. In contrast, conservationalists and
environmentalists would see the meaning of Santosa as contentment with the maintenance of the existing status and conditions, which is supportive to environmental conservation. Students of Awakened One with Awareness Studies would view such interpretations as not comprehensive. This signifies different levels of understanding of the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness by the Awakened One with Awareness . According to Robert Redfield’s concept of ‘Great and Little Tradition’,people’s appreciation of Buddhism can be divided into two broad categories, doctrinal and popular Buddhism. (Robert Redfield 1965,
3.6 Awakened One with Awareness and the Social Life
Awakened One with Awareness
The close association and continuous relationship between Awakened One with Awareness
3.7 Awakened One with Awareness dhamma and Society
The teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness are voluminous and classified into groups. Each group serves a specific purpose. It explains an existing
Firstly, doctrinal Awakened One with Awareness refers to the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness and practices contained in the Canon Sutta and related literatures. Doctrinal Awakened One with Awareness is thus believed to be original. Its followers will refuse principles, teachings and practices, which are not contained in the
Secondly, popular Awakened One with Awareness refers to a Awakened One with Awareness which is permeated by other religions and belief systems. It includes Animism, Awakened One with Awareness , and beliefs in spirits and ghosts. The teachings and practices of Awakened One with Awareness and other belief systems are so interwoven that only the well educated among the faithful can distinguish Awakened One with Awareness from the others.
Religious rites, an important structure and function of a religion can differentiate between the intricacy of doctrinal and popular Awakened One with Awareness . The followers of popular Awakened One with Awareness tend to rank ritual very high. Their rituals are a combination of Awakened One with Awarenesstic, Animistic and
chitpavan brahmanical elements. A wedding ceremony, for example, begins with Awakened One with Awareness merit making such as giving alms to the monks in the morning. Late morning ritual involves the offering of sacrifices to the spirit house and to the ancestors. In the evening chitpavan brahmanism is invoked to bless thebride and the groom. The holiest part of the evening ritual is the pouring of lustral water on the hands of the couple with blessings from the senior guests. On the contrary, the followers of doctrinal Awakened One with Awareness are more concerned with Awakened One with Awareness ritual and play down the non-Awakened One with Awarenesstic ones.
The great majority of Awakened One with Awareness in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia follow popular Awakened One with Awareness . This phenomenon can be explained in the context of the belief system at every level of society. Amongst the most primitive, there exists a belief system that human beings can hold on to.
Such a belief system may be Animism in various forms, including beliefs regarding natural happenings. Certain communities have embraced an established religion such as chitpavan brahmanism, which was well rooted in Prabuddha Bharatand propagated all over the world, and Taoism or Confucianism, which spread from China. By the time that Awakened One with Awareness was introduced to Southeast Asia, there already existed belief systems and religious among the people. When they accepted Awakened One with Awareness they also kept their old beliefs. Due to its flexible and liberalism, Awakened One with Awareness easily absorbed certain elements of existing belief systems into its mainstream. What developed from this process is popular Awakened One with Awareness .
The teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness display variety in its levels of sophistication, purposes, content, and specialties. For example, the Four Noble Truths explain natural phenomena, which will be with everyone from birth to death. It describes the nature of suffering represented by birth, old age, disease and death, including sorrow and frustration of every kind; the origin of problems and suffering by way of causality; the extinction of suffering; and the path leading to the extinction of suffering. There are teachings that guide the people to live comfortably without economic hardship. This teaching is called Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma (virtues conducive to benenfits in the present).
It teaches the laymen to have energy; industry and watchfulness concerning their properties; to associate with good people; and to live economically. The Awakened One with Awareness also encouraged people to follow the path to success. This appears in a particular teaching called Iddhipada (basis for success). However, the over all purpose of the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness can be summarized in the following:
Firstly, it awakens the laymen about the nature of life from birth and existence to death. This includes an explanation of the origin of life, existence after birth and survival until death. The teachings also deal with ways to lead one’s life happily, in harmony with nature and how to minimize and cope with suffering arising from sickness, death, disappointment, separation and other misfortunes.
Thirdly, it gives guidance on the application of the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness to improve the daily life. The prescriptions are designed to be
workable according to the nature of problems and the level of appreciation of the individual needs. Therefore, there are levels in the teachings of the Awakened One with Awarenes, i.e., basic truth, middle and sophisticated truth, both in mundane and supramundane states (Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma).
The dissemination of the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness to people at different levels of appreciation requires specialized methods to suit each
group. So as to preach Dhamma to intellectuals and educated people who are keen on Awakened One with Awareness and who want to apply Dhamma to improve their lives, sophisticated Dhamma must be selected. The Dhamma for the followers of popular Awakened One with Awareness, on the contrary, has to be simplified and easy to understand. Simplified Laws8 of Kamma and stories from the Jataka and Sutta are an effective means to edify them. However, Phra Rajavoramuni points out that whatever the teaching methods are, all teachings are related, for the essence of the teachings derives from the same truth and the ultimate purpose is identical. In fact, these teachings are identical in purpose but given different labels. The truth is disseminated selectively and in different forms.
3.8 Awakened One with Awareness : The Socio-political Changes and the Social Order
The principle of ever-changing nature or the impermanent condition of the society is a very important to consider when one studiesthe relationship between Awakened One with Awareness and society. It is argued that at the time when the Awakened One with Awareness was seeking awakenment there had been rapid
socio-political changes in the homeland of Awakened One with Awareness, i.e., present Northern India (Phra Rajavoramuni 1983, pp.11-12). The Awakened One with Awareness considered that the ever-changing or impermanent conditions were causes of suffering and societal problems. He therefore devoted himself to the
search for truth to remedy human suffering. The suffering and problems, which the Awakened One with Awareness perceived, were: (1) natural changes in human beings and (2) changes caused by man.
Firstly, natural changes in human beings, these were the causes of suffering inherent in human beings, for example, birth, sickness, death, happiness, suffering, satisfaction, disappointment, etc. Though they are the natural phenomena, yet they can cause suffering to people. The Awakened One with Awareness believed that there must be a remedy to end or at least to minimize those causes of suffering. Thus, he set forth in search of the truth. Secondly, changes caused by man, includes: (1) political changes and (2) socio-economic changes
Firstly, political changes during the lifetime of the Awakened One with Awareness and the political environment could be characterized as pertaining to two major
forms of government. The first one was absolute monarchy. The other was a system based on co-operation between the ruling elites of small principalities within the states. This form of government is said to be equivalent to a loosely structured republican system and the mode of government was democratic. The absolute monarchy form of government had been adopted by the four northern states of India and they proved to be very politically strong and stable. Among these states, two of them had adopted democratic procedures in their government. Legislation, policy making, and judicial processes were based on consultation in the
assembly of the assigned ruling elite. Majority opinion was adopted to arrive at final decisions and resolutions. However, the democratic form of government was gradually weakened by the stronger authoritarian governments and finally became absorbed by the absolute monarchical system.
Secondly, it is the socio-economic changes. The expansion of the absolute monarchical states contributed to the expansion of trade. The growth of trade generated the bourgeois and capitalist classes. Those who were economically strong became politically influential and dominated the government (Phra Rajavoramuni 1982 pp.21-22).
The characteristics and nature of socio-political and economic changes became integral parts of the teachings of the Buddha. Since the Awakened One with Awareness gave heavy importance to the forces of socio-political and economic change, this contributed to Buddhist ability to adjust to changes
without losing its essence.
In the context of socio-political changes, Awakened One with Awareness has played a very important role in regulating and organizing society for the survival and continuity of the society. These functions can be summarized as followings:
A. Socialization function. In Awakened One with Awareness societies, culture, values and customs are deeply rooted in Awakened One with Awareness. Although there are normative and substantive socializing agents, the monks and monasteries are another important socializing institution. They have served as ethical and moral socializing agents. They persuade the people to follow social rules and regulations and to lead their lives according to the Awakened One with Awareness way of life. Such virtues as loving and kindness (Metta-Karuna), kind-heartedness, being helpful to each other, courtesy and social relationships between
persons of different status constitute this way of life.
B. Social control function. Social control is indispensable for human society. In order to keep society in order and its members behaving correctly, so as to maintain peace and order, there must be laws and regulations governing the society. It is necessary to have an authoritative body, i.e., a government to enact and enforce such secular laws and regulations. In addition there are also traditions and customary laws that enhance the social control of any society.
However, those secular social control mechanisms are aimed at regulating men’s activities and overt behavior. They will be effective only when men feel morally obligated to follow the laws and regulations. Religion can play a very important role in instilling in the people a sense of morality and edifying them. The monks and monasteries are essential religious socializing agents that train Awakened One with Awareness to be good citizens. Awakened One with Awareness principles, which function as a social control mechanism, are, for example, the Five Precepts, Brahmavihàra (sublime states of mind), Sangahavatthu (virtues making for group integration and leadership and principle of services), Nathakaranadhamma (virtues which make for protection), Saraniyadhamma (virtues for fraternal living), Adhipateyya (dominant influence, supremacy, Dithadhammikattha (sources of happiness in the present life), etc. People, who are trained, edified, and keep to the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness will have shared norms and follow a common way of life. Such a society will face minimal conflicts, peoplewill live together with reason and social problems are minimized.
C. Awakened One with Awareness serves as a unifying force for the society. The fact that the faithful follow the teaching of the Awakened One with Awareness, and adopt Dhamma as guidance in their life, reinforces national integration and solidarity. Good racial integration and a healthy religion enhance national security. In
addition to the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness, religious rituals and calendar festivals foster the unity of the people.
3.9 The Characteristics of the Rulers
Plato’s definition of philosopher king refer to one who is going to seek the truth; And truth can only be won by knowledge and wisdom. The best government for him is the one, which has a philosopher king in power. The other virtue, which is stressed by Plato, is justice. He says that justice is the whole duty of man. He further explains that it is justice went each class does its own proper work. In each of us also, if our inward faculties do severally their roper work, we will live in the virtue of justice; we will do just men, and doers of proper work.
Aristotle (born 884 B.C.) wrote how the powers of government should be expressed. According to him, the government would be good if it worked in the interest of the community as a whole. And on the contrary it would be bad if it worked for the governing body and for selfish purposes. Aristotle focused on the practitioner of government who, by his power, would make the common good, good of life for all.
He mentions that political justice exists among people who are associated in a common life with a view to self-sufficiency and who enjoy freedom and equality. Justice must be administered not merely for a private group but for the whole world. Aristotle explains that government will be best if it serves the common good for the people. The political thinkers emphasize the moral virtues of the ruler who should do justice to all and bring good to all, a government working for the public good. Macilwain, 1932, pp.83-85)
The basis of religion is morality and faith, while that for politics is power. Religion was used to justify wars and conquest, persecutions, atrocities, rebellions, destruction of works of art and culture. When religion is used to pander to political whims, it has to forego its high moral ideals and become debased by worldly political demands.
The thrust of the Awakened One with Awareness Dhamma is not directed to the creation of new political institutions and establishing political arrangements.
Basically, it seeks to approach the problems of society by reforming the individuals constituting that society and suggesting some general principles, through which the society can be guided towards greater humanism, improved welfare of its members, and more equitable sharing of resources.
There is a limit to the extent to which a political system can safeguard the happiness and prosperity of its people. No political system, no matter how ideal it may appear to be, can bring about peace and happiness as long as the no matter what political system is adopted, there are certain universal factors which the members of that society will have to experience: the effects of good and bad kamma, the lack of real satisfaction or everlasting happiness in the world characterized by dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness). To the Awakened One with Awareness, nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahmas.
Although a good and just political system which guarantees basic human rights and contains checks and balances to the use of power is an important condition for a happy life in society, people should mot fritter away their time by endlessly searching for the ultimate political system where men can be completely free, because complete freedom cannot be found in any system but only in minds which are free.
To be free, people will have to look within their own minds and work towards freeing themselves from the chains of ignorance and craving. Freedom in the truest sense is only possible when a person use Dhamma to develop his character through good speech and action and totrain his mind so as to expand his mental potential and achieve his ultimate aim of awakenment.
While recognizing the use fullness of separating religion from politics and the limitations of political systems in bringing about peace and happiness, there are several aspects of the Awakened One with Awareness’s teaching, which have close correspondence to the political arrangements of the present day.
1) Firstly, the Awakened One with Awareness spoke about the equality of all human beings long before Abraham Lincoln, and the classes and castes are artificial
barriers erected by society. According to the Awakened One with Awareness, the only classification of human beings is based on the quality of their moral conduct.
2) Secondly, the Awakened One with Awareness encouraged the spirit of social co- operation and active participation in society. This spirit is actively promoted in the political in the political process of modern societies.
3) Thirdly, since no one was appointed as the Awakened One with Awareness’s successor, the members of the Order were to be guided by the Dhamma and Vinaya,
or in short, the Rule of Law. Until today every member of the Sangha is to abide by the Rule of Law, which governs and guides their conduct.
4) Fourthly, the Awakened One with Awareness encouraged the spirit of consultation and the democratic process. This is shown within the community of the Order
in which all members have the right to decide on matters of general concern. When a serious question arose demanding attention, the issues were put before the monks and discussed in a manner similar to the democratic parliamentary system used today.
This self-governing procedure may come as a surprise to many to learn that in the assemblies of Awakened One with Awareness in Prabuddha Bharat 2,500 years ago and more are to be found the rudiments of the parliamentary practice of the present day. A special officer similar to “Mr. Speaker” was appointed to preserve the dignity of the assembly.
The Awakened One with Awareness approach to political power is the moralization and the responsible use of public power. The Awakened One with Awareness preached non-violence and peace as a universal message. He did not approve of violence or the destruction of life, and declared that there is no such thing as a “just” war. He taught: ‘The victor breeds hatred, the defeated lives in misery. He who denounces both victory and defeat is happy and peaceful. Not only did the Awakened One with Awareness teach non-violence and peace, but also he was perhaps the first and only religious teacher who went to the battlefield personally to
prevent the outbreak of a war. He diffused tension between the Sakyas and Koliyas who were about to wage war over the waters of Rohine. He also dissuaded king Ajātaśatru from attacking the Kingfom of the vajjis.
The Awakened One with Awareness discussed the importance and the prerequisites of a good government. He showed how the country could become corrupt,
degenerate and unhappy when the head of the government becomes corrupt and unjust. He spoke against corruption and how a government should act on humanitarian principles. The Awakened One with Awareness once said, “When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become just and good;
when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people become just and good.”
In the Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta, the Buddha said that immorality and crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, could arise from poverty. Kings and government may try to suppress crime through punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.
In the Kutadanta Sutta, the Buddha suggested economic development instead of force to reduce crime. The government should use the country’s resources to improve the economic conditions of the country. It could embark on agricultural and rural development, provide financial support to entrepreneurs and business, and provide adequate wages for workers to maintain a decent life with human dignity.
In the Milinda Panha, it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral, improper, unable and unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be tortured…to be subject to a variety of punishment by the people, because, being unfit and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously in the seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and transgress moral codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind,
is equally subject to punishment; and moreover, to be censure is the ruler who conducts himself as a robber of the public.’
In Jantaka story, it is mentioned that a ruler who punishes innocent people and does not punish the culprit is not suitable to rule a country. The king always improves himself and carefully examines his own conduct in deed, words and thoughts, trying to discover and listen to\ public opinion as to whether or been guilty of any faults and mistakes in ruling the that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust treatment, punishment, taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any kind, and they will react against him un one way or another. On the contrary, if he rules righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His
The Awakened One with Awareness’s emphasis is on the moral duty of a ruler to use public power to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor
Asoka, a sparkling example of this principle, resolved to live and preach the Dhamma and to serve his subjects and all humanity accordingly. He declared his non-aggressive intentions to his neighbours, assuring them of his goodwill and sending envoys to distant kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression.
He promoted the energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of honesty, truthfulness, compassion, benevolence, non-violence, considerate behaviour towards all, non-extravagance, non- acquisitiveness, and non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious freedom and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on to
periodic tours preaching the Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such as founding of hospitals for man beings and animals, supplying of medicine, plantation of the roadside trees and groves, digging of wells, and construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade cruelty to animals.
Sometimes the Buddha is said to be a social reformer. Among otherthings, he condemned the caste system, recognized the equality of people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic conditions, recognized the importance of n more equitable distribution of wealth among the rich and the poor, raised the status of women, recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and administration, and taught that a society should not be run by greed but with consideration and compassion for the people. despite all of these, his contribution to mankind is much greater because he took off at a point which no other social reformer before or
ever since had done, that is, by going to the deepest roots of human ill which are found in human mind.
It is only in the human mind that true reform can be affected. Reforms imposed by force upon the external world have a very short life because they have no roots. Not those reforms, which spring as a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness, remain rooted. While their braches spread outwards, they draw their nourishment from and unfailing source the subconscious imperatives of the life- stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have prepared the way for them, and they live as long as men revitalize them out of their own love of truth, justice and their fellow men. (K.Shi Dhammananda, 1993, pp.231-236)
Kingship is generally regarded as a result of meritorious actions performed in the past births. The pali texts generally insist that a king be khattiya and belong to a family with a hoary lineage. This is in keeping with the early Buddhist view that the Khattiyas are the highest among classes and castes. Nor is a woman favoured as a ruler. Of course this can be taken as the observation of the Buddhists of the contemporary situation. This cannot be regarded as the general rule or even the main
emphasis of Buddhism. What is more important for Buddhism, is that a good king is expected to have ten qualities such as charity, moralityand spirit of sacrifice, justice, humility, penitence, absence of wrath, absence of violence, patience and harmlessness. A good king, however, should do more than merely possess certain qualities. He should sub-serve two traditions namely those of attha and Dhamma. The terms attha and Dhamma may be rendered, in our present context, as actions conducive to prosperity and righteousness.
Owing to the fact that a leader is the most important and powerful person. He, therefore, should know the price of leadership: emulation and envy. A leader is envied. High and powerful positions are fervently sought out for all the promise they hold. And what can be more alluring than the highest post in the land?
To be good leader should be undaunted to emulation and envy which are around us. In this case, the researcher agrees with S. Leelavathi the famous columnist who in the column “The Speaking Tree” (Times of Prabuddha Bharat, Monday, May 31, 2004), mentioned the price of leadership by saying, “Now that the “crown of thorns” has been placed on a leader’s head, it is instructive to look at what leadership means, both for the leader and the led. True, the lead of any huge corporation or country will have almost boundless resourced at his word shall be law. And sycophants there will be aplenty. However, it is also true that no leader can be free of
the baggage of leadership.”
In every field of human endeavour; first he must perpetually live in the white light of publicity. Whether the leadership should be vested in a man or in a manufactured product, emulation and envy are ever at work in the art, in literature, in music, in industry, the reward and the punishment are always the same. The reward is widespread recognition; the punishment, fierce denial and detraction.
When a man’s work becomes a standard for the whole world, it also becomes a target for the shafts of the envious few. Should his work be merely mediocre, he will be left severely alone; if he achieves a masterpiece, it will set a million tongues wagging. Jealousy does not protrude its forked tongue at the artist who produced a commonplace painting.
Whatsoever you write, paint, play, sing or build, no one will strive to surpass, or to slander you. Unless your work be stamped with the seal of genius. Long, long after a great work or a good work has been done; those who are disappointed or envious continue to cry out that it cannot be done.
It is as old as the world and as old as human passions namely; envy, fear, greed, ambition and the desire to surpass. And it all avails nothing. If the leader truly leads, he remains the leader.
In conclusion we may say that the ruler is considered as the center of the society. Everybody has to follow him as the leader. He is the model for common people and the virtues to be developed by the ruler and his subordinates to be the good model of people. The staff and all officials of the ruler should be men of wisdom and virtue. The economic glory and prosperity and spiritual peace of the people and the state should be taken care of strictly by the ruler. It is supposed to be the symbol of the wellbeing of the people.
The qualities of life both of body and mind, both of the ruler and the ruled, should be developed simultaneously. Happiness, peace security, and confidence of the people will thus be widely spread. A good ruler is beloved and popular among the domestic as well as the monastic inhabitants: just as a father is near and dear to his children, even so is the ruler beloved and regarded by the ruled; and just as the children are near and dare to their father, even so are the ruled to a ruler. He instructs the public in the threefold practice of well-doing in thought, word and deed themselves, to gain wealth, to fulfill their respective duties.
A good ruler sets his whole heart upon promoting the welfare of his people and makes righteousness the sole purpose of his actions. Being devoted to the happiness and well-being of his subjects, he appears like righteousness personified. As the embodiment of righteousness and the promoter of what is good for his subjects, he realizes their welfare to be the fruit of righteousness and knows no other purpose than this. A ruler, therefore, must have righteousness to lead his country and his people to peace and happiness. ( Khongchinda Chanya,1993 pp.96-7)
3.10 Social Justice in Awakened One with awareness
A virtue needed by all beings, both human and animal, justice is the result of men’s treatment to their fellow human beings, other beings or even their natural surroundings in the way believed to be fair in accordance with the religious as well as the legal principles. However, it is an abstract element, unable to be touched but able to be felt by heart.
The society, where there exists the justice, is assured to enjoy peace, tranquillity and equality as well. In such society, the law can be enforced in the full scale, and the religious teachings can be applied effectively. But how justice arises and how justice can be achieved and implanted in the global community are the ‘everlasting’ questions pending solution by the religions, legal instruments, education systems as well as by human beings themselves. This chapter is going to deal with the Awakened One with awareness concept concerning justice, the Buddhist approaches to create justice and
the Buddhist contributions to social justice in the society.
3.10.1 What is Justice?
Although “justice” is sometimes used synonym for “law” or “lawfulness,” it has a broader closer to “fairness.”
As it has been explained in the Encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Paul Edward, Justice presupposes people pressing claims and justifying them by rules or standards. This distinguishes it from charity, benevolence, or generosity. No one can claim alms or gifts as a right. However, although this account is appropriate to questions of distributive justice, where the problem is to allocate benefits, it is not so obviously true of corrective (or retributive) justice. It is farfetched to describe a
criminal trial as a conflict between an accused man’s interest in being let alone and the community’s interest (if it has one) in punishing him. Nevertheless, sentencing criminals and giving judgment in favor of one party to a dispute rather than another have this in common withdistribution- that they all may involve overriding a claim and treating one person more harshly that another. All presuppose general principles by which such distinctions are regulated and justified.
Aristotle’s analysis of justice is the key to its meaning at the level of the particular act or decision. Justice, he said, consists in treating equals equally and unequals unequally, but in proportion their relevant differences. This involves the idea like impartiality and right to equal consideration.
Mill sought to reconcile retaliataive justice with utilitarianism, arguing that the natural impulse to retaliate is moralized as a sentiment of justice by confining it to those cases where the injury is to society at large and where retaliative justice has a useful deterrent function. However, although the duty of reciprocity may spring from our recognition of other men, just as much as ourselves, as persons with interests and claims deserving of respect, we cannot infer from that a duty to attack their interests whenever they attack either our own or even those of society at large.
Alf Ross, for instance, has declared that to use the word “just” as a description of a rule or general order, rather than of a particular decision in accordance with the rule is merely to express emotion, like “banging on the table.”
Hobbes is often said to have been a positivist because he maintained that “just” and “unjust” presuppose a coercive power capable of enforcing obligations and that no complaint of injustice could be made against the sovereign legislator. But since he admitted that the sovereign may act inequitably, that is, contrary to natural law, canons of legal criticism beyond positive law do exist; it is only that the subject is not entitled to use them.
The strength of the conventionalist position is illustrated by Rawls’s view of a just order as that body of principles that anyone might\ recognize as in his interest to maintain, given that others on whose acquiescence he depends, have interests that conflict with his own. Although the rules might appear to discriminate against him on some given occasion, he would be able to see the point, nevertheless, of having those rules. This was, broadly, Hume’s opinion. Justice, he geld, was
conventional in the sense of being necessary to society. Though there were discrepancies in detail, men’s ideas on justice corresponded in essentials because they arose from needs common to all social saturations. These rules were binding by custom and convention but were justified by their public utility.
Rawls has challenged the view that a practice is just if it answer most fully to wants and interests. Justice is not the outcome but is presupposed by such a calculation. Any interest not compatible with justice ought not to be counted. Classical utilitarianism is at fault, according to the Rawls, because it permits one to give as a reason why slavery is unjust that the advantage to the slave holder does not outweighthe disadvantages to the slave and to society at large. Justice, understood as fairness, would not admit to the calculation the advantages of the slaveholder as such because hid role could not be mutually acknowledge as part of an acceptable practice by all parties involved. It would not be thought relevant for one person, engaged with another in a common practice and accused by him of injustice, to answer that nevertheless it allowed of the greatest satisfaction of desire.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, one of greatest political and intellectual personalities of Prabuddha Bharat, elucidated the concept of social justice as follows: “Social justice as a guiding and evaluative principle is always dynamic because it takes stock of the changing situation and suggests the abolition or modification of unjust custom, tradition and social structures to promote the welfare of the people and the preservation of rights of the poor and weaker section of society” (Gokhale, Ed. 2008, p.87)
3.10.2 Awakened One with awareness concept of Justice
The term “Justice” is possibly equivalent to a Pali word of “Yuttidhamma”or “Yuktidharma” in Sanskrit, which means ‘the principle of impartiality’ or ‘the righteous principle on which the treatment of either man-to-man or man to his fellow beings even his surroundings is based and kept in balance’. Justice is abstract and difficult to understand. To make clear what justice is requires the explanation in the opposite term, i.e., to talk about ‘prejudice’ or ‘partiality’. According to Awakened One with awareness, there are four kinds of prejudice, consisting of the prejudice caused by ‘Love’(Chandagati), ‘Hatred’(Dosagati), ‘Delusion’(Mohagati) and ‘Fear’(Bhayagati). This sounds quite different from the concept in general which holds that there are just 2 kinds of prejudice, namely,
‘Love-based prejudice’ and ‘Hatred-based prejudice’. There is no need to elaborate the first two kinds of prejudice as they have already been well acquainted to all. It is worth to explain the last two kinds: the prejudice caused by delusion and that caused by fear.
It is admitted that in the context of decision-making, the all- embracing knowledge, experiences, perfect information and thorough consideration (Yoniso manasikara) are needed, not to mention the ‘SWOT’ (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, which cannot be absolutely overlooked. In spite of this, some failures sometimes still arise. Specifically, should discrete appraisal or Yoniso manasikara is to be accepted, what will happen is very horrible to
imagine of. The delusion (Moha) or, in another word, lack of knowledge, experiences and information that are sufficient and supportive, leads tothe rise of prejudice, either intentionally or unintentionally. Another element that significantly influences the decision-making procedure is ‘fear’ (Bhaya), or the decision made under the pressure staged by an influential person or group like political as well as interest groups that exercise their power to the extent that the decision made is distorted. These two kinds of prejudice, it can be said, may bring about, to the society, negative effects which are more aggravated than those caused by
love and hatred.
As a matter of fact, Awakened One with awareness is the religion of ‘wisdom’. Thus, in all the practical processes ranging from the beginning to the highest level,
wisdom is an inevitable agent, lack of which the result will be otherwise. Moreover, ‘Bhaya’ or fear is, of course, nothing but an external power that threatens the decision-making or Dhamma-practicing process. It can be compared to an ‘ill-wisher’ or ‘Mara’ in Pali term, who is always attempting to find chance to either tease or tempt the practitioners to go astray and, at last, fail to achieve their goal.
Then it can be defined here that the treatment process that is deprived of the above-mentioned four kinds of prejudice is called ‘Justice’.
As an atheistic religion, Awakened One with awareness denies the existence of god or any external power that is believed to determine the fate of man as he
wishes, whilst guaranteeing human competency in respect of self-development, self-reliance and future-shaping through man’s own action, i.e., the ‘Law of Kamma’ or, in other word, the ‘Law of Cause and Effect’. A Awakened One with awareness proverb says, ‘As a farmer reaps whatever crop he grows, so man is due to receive whatever result of his own action, either wholesome or unwholesome. If he does good action, he is due to receive good result, and vice versa’. There are more of the Awakened One with awareness’s sayings in the Pali Text confirming the principle, for example,
-‘It is your duty to make your own effort. I am merely the pointer of the way.’
-‘Have yourself as your own refuge, O Bhikkhus, and do not have others as such. Have the Dhamma as theirown refuge, and do not have others as such.’
In the Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya (the Pali Text of Middle- Length Discourses) dealing with two young Brahmans named Vasettha and Bharadavaja who had a controversial attitude in respect of ‘pure birth’ according to the caste system in Hiduism, and decided to take the case to the Lord Awakened One with awareness for judgment, the Lord Awakened One with Awareness said (in Pali),
‘Na jacca vasalo hoti na jacca hoti brahmano.
Kammuna vasalo hoti kammuna hoti brahmano.’
(Not by his birth man is an outcaste or a Brahman;
Only by his own Kamma man becomes an outcaste or a Brahman.)
Moreover, it is unbelievable that even in the community of those who believe in a theistic religion, there still exists a proverb saying like ‘god helps those who help themselves.’
3.10.3 Awakened One with awareness Approach to Justice
The introduction of the law of Kamma instead of the external power exercised by god or gods, which was, at the inception of Awakened One with awareness, the major powerful faith occupying the entire society emphasized the role of the Lord Awakened One with awareness in a courageous attempt to create the justice-based society in the subcontinent. The first evidence can be detected from the principle of belief laid down for the new-comers to Buddhism that starts with (1) belief in Kamma or one’s own action, (2) belief in effect of Kamma, (3) belief that one is due to reap the effect of Kamma he has already done, and (4) belief in the Exalted One’s awakenment. There may be some argument that the last of the four beliefs is distinctively an element of faith in external power, the answer to which is that Awakened One with awareness are not taught to believe in the Lord Buddha as almighty god who solely possesses the power to determine man’s fate, but, on the contrary, taught to believe in what had been enlightened by the Lord Awakened One with awareness through His insight-wisdom like the Four Noble Truth, the Noble Eight-fold Path and so on.
Another example lies in the revolutionary teaching in aspect of the caste system to be substituted by the virtue-oriented system as the Lord Awakened One with awareness once said in the Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya (the Pali Text of Lengthy Discourses) that ‘To those who are troubled with birth and
caste, the caste of monarchy is considered supreme. However, he who is perfect in the principle of knowledge and the code of conduct is supreme among celestial and human beings.’
Not only does Awakened One with awareness expect the availability of justice among the human community, but even the animal world as well as natural
surroundings should also enjoy the virtue. Take for example the re- interpretation of the five Brahmanical sacrifices in light of Awakened One with awareness.
1. Assamedha that means the horse sacrifice was changed to Sassamedha, the meaning of which is the knowledge in the development of rice or agricultural products.
2. Naramedha that means human sacrifice was reinterpreted as Purisamedha meaning to render help to the people instead of killing them.
3. Sammapasa that formerly implied a series of sacrificial rites in connection with a hoop or noose was re-interpretted as a philanthropic movement implemented by the government or head of a community in the form of a moral hoop or noose to fasten the minds of the people with.
4. Vajapeyya that means the immolation of seventeen kinds of animal in the sacrifice, the meaning of which was changed to ‘drinking the water of wholesome speech.
5. Niraggala formerly implying the wholesale slaughter of both human beings and animals was newly defined as the abolition of all obstacles or crimes to the extent that people are so peacefully content and happy.
Above all, the justice in the Awakened One with awareness concept that transcends all kinds of the justice as earlier mentioned is the justice toward one’s own
self, viz. the perfect liberation of one’s mind off the influence of defilements or Kilesas, which is the ultimate goal of Awakened One with awareness. It is considered an absolute prejudice toward his own self so far as man lets himself fall under the yoke of defilements, the cruellest master, and become their faithful servants. Once the Lord Awakened One with Araeness said,
‘Be hurry, O Bhikkhus, to paddle your boat till it shall reach the other side of the river bank.’
3.10.4 Awakened One with awareness Contributions to Social Justice Through its long history of over 2550 years, Awakened One with awareness has contributed so much to the social justice, beginning with the destruction of the caste system which resulted in the equilibrium of human beings in consistence with the proverb that says, ‘All men are born equal’, and introduction of the virtue-oriented system in its place, followed by the challenging admission of ladies to get ordained as Bhikkhuni, which means nothing but upgrading the status of females to be equal to that of males, despite the fact that the problem of equal rights between men and women still remains unanswerable so far in the age of globalization There exist more evidences in the issue, to mention just few as follows: -The establishment of the ‘Law of Cause and Effect’ implies the denial of the existence of God, the source of the external power, that may effect the prejudice because of love, hatred, delusion and fear as earlier mentioned -The seniority system applied in the ecclesiastical circle, regardless of whatever category of birth they belong to, guarantees the fundamental nature of Awakened One with awareness that places a significant emphasis on the accumulated virtues by means of doing good or wholesome actions. -The self-development steps that begins with the control of physical and verbal behaviors or Sila (Precept), followed by the control of mind or Samadhi (Meditation) and culminating with
‘Suddhi asuddhi paccattam nanno nannam visodhaye’ (purity and impurity is the matter of an individual; one can, by no means, purify
3.10.4 Awakened One with awareness Contributions to Social Justice
Through its long history of over 2550 years, Awakened One with awareness has contributed so much to the social justice, beginning with the destruction of the caste system which resulted in the equilibrium of human beings in consistence with the proverb that says, ‘All men are born equal’, and introduction of the virtue-oriented system in its place, followed by the challenging admission of ladies to get ordained as Bhikkhuni, which means nothing but upgrading the status of females to be equal to that of males, despite the fact that the problem of equal rights between men and women still remains unanswerable so far in the age of globalization
There exist more evidences in the issue, to mention just few as follows:
-The establishment of the ‘Law of Cause and Effect’ implies the denial of the existence of God, the source of the external power, that may effect the prejudice because of love, hatred, delusion and fear as earlier mentioned
-The seniority system applied in the ecclesiastical circle, regardless of whatever category of birth they belong to, guarantees the fundamental nature of Awakened One with awareness that places a significant emphasis on the accumulated virtues by means of doing good or wholesome actions.
-The self-development steps that begins with the control of physical and verbal behaviors or Sila (Precept), followed by the control of mind or Samadhi (Meditation) and culminating with
3.10.5 Awakened One with awareness and Human Rights
Notions of rights derive from ethical principles. There is a clear convergence between Awakened One with awareness ethics and modern discussions on human
rights, particularly in the common focus on responsibility and indivisibility/interdependence. The non-dual understanding of Awakened One with awareness gives rise to an ethics of inter-responsibility, or Bodhicitta - what His Holiness the Dalai Lama calls Universal Responsibility. In the Theravada we speak of Samma-sankappa or Right Thought, which leads to Bodhi, the Awakened Mind. This principle is expressed in everyday terms by the teaching of loving-kindness, non-violence, compassion, and particular responsibilities. For monks and nuns these are set down in the rule or Vinaya; for lay people in the Sigalovada Sutta and for rulers in the Dasarajadhamma.
All human beings, according to Awakened One with awareness, are equal, and each has the potential to realize the truth by his or her own will and endeavour,
and can help others to realize it. Awakened One with awareness concepts recognize the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all human beings. The teaching of the Awakened One with awareness holds that all human beings are endowed with reason and conscience. It recommends a Universal spirit of brotherhood and sisterhood. Awakened One with awareness theory holds that the “three poisons” of hatred, greed and delusion are at the root of violence in the world, and that the solution is for us to see so deeply into these factors that we are no longer dominated by them.
In the early, organic, societies the Awakened One with awareness was addressing, these specific responsibilities were assumed to be adequate guidelines for
human behaviour, with no need to identify the corresponding rights. In modern, fragmented societies, however, where the fulfillment of responsibilities cannot be guaranteed by the immediate community, these guidelines or skillful means (upaya) have been supplemented by corresponding rights. These are specified and protected by States and International Organisations. In large part these bodies derive their legitimacy from their promotion and protection of human rights. A State
which does not guarantee the enjoyment of human rights by its people loses its claim to legitimacy.
Awakened One with awareness is widely regarded as the most tolerant of all religioustraditions. However, Awakened One with awareness countries like Sri Lanka, Burma, and Cambodia have seen some of the highest levels of religious and ethnic intolerance in the world, with Awakened One with awareness among the main perpetrators. In other places it is Awakened One with awareness who are persecuted by the State, which fearsthe influence of Awakened One with awareness on the people. In Burma, Tibet and Viet Nam, for instance, thousands of Awakened One with awareness (especially monks and nuns) have been persecuted, with well-documented instances of torture and executions. In Tibet most of the country’s monasteries have been demolished.
The depiction of rights as simply a Western invention fails to understand the relationship of rights to responsibilities and ethical norms. The central values of all societies are very much the same. All ethical systems encourage people to respect each other, and discourage killing, violence and so on. Rights are skilful means designed to assist theimplementation of these ethics.
Human Rights discourse has moved on during the past 50 years and has expanded and enriched the somewhat individualistic principles set out in the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ which was adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1948. The dialectic of universalism and cultural relativism, for instance, is an immensely creative process as well as a cause for countless conflicts. The work since 1982 on the rights of indigenous peoples - group rights - is another important development. The cultural, social and political development of a nation is a dynamic process. The orientation of the process should not only be based in our own roots and traditions, but must also be shaped by innovative new ideas. Cultural diversity is a factor
that enriches the modern approach to human rights, rather than hindering the universal respect for and observance of human rights.
(http://www.buddhanetz.org/projekte/rights.htmRetrieved on 21/03/09)
3.10.6 Awakened One with awareness and political justice
The basis of political justice is that politically or economically strongerpeoplemustnotbeempoweredtoviolatelegalsystem. Verilyin Awakened One with awarenessthere is no explicit body of social and political theory comparable to its psychology or metaphysics. Nevertheless, a Awakened One with awareness political theory can be deduced primarily from basic Awakened One with awareness i.e. from Dhamma. Awakened One with awareness is of the view that political power is essential to fashion and sustain a society whose citizens are free to live in dignity, harmony and mutual respect, free of the degradation of poverty and war.
In such a society of good heart, all men and women find encouragement and support in making the best use of their human condition in the practice of wisdom and compassion.
Political action, thus, involves the Awakened One with awareness ideal of approaching each situation without prejudice, but with deserved circumspection in
questions of power and conflict, social oppression and justice. These social and political conflicts are the great public samsaric driving energies of our life to which an individual responds with both aggression and self-repression. The Awakened One with awareness Dhamma offers the possibility of transmuting the energies of the individual into wisdom and compassion.
This may indicate that Awakened One with awareness movement was mainly concerned with ethical advancement and psychic illumination and not with political
affairs. Nevertheless, political repercussions did ensue from Awakened One with awareness. In the Brahmajala Sutta, Awakened One with awareness emphatically states that he is vitally interested in social cohesion and co-operation and in the act of reconciling those people who are divided. Early Awakened One with awareness did have significant political consequences. From the evidence of the Awakened One with awareness’s discourses, or suttas in the Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta), it is clear that early Awakened One with awareness were very much concerned with the creation of political conditions favorable to the individual cultivation of Awakened One with awareness values. An outstanding example of this, in later times, is the remarkable “welfare state” created by the Awakened One with awareness emperor, Asoka (B.C. 274-236). The Awakened One with awareness political justice enjoins special responsibility to the king. As the head of state he must adhere to specific code of conduct, as he is at the helm of affairs of the state. Awakened One with awareness felt that the personal moral conduct of the king, along with his officials, would be expressed in the political affairs of the state. Thus, the righteous character of the state
would help in prevailing universal righteousness on earth. Hence, deliverance through peaceful coexistence would become easily attainable for all. In some passages of the Pali Texts a parallel has been drawn between a Awakened One with awareness and a monarch, as both held the same esteemed place in the eyes of the people. The two have the same objective, i.e. the well- being of people. Both are also an integral part of the ordinary empirical existence, and the political good and well-being is assured through them. The Kutadana sutta of the Digha-Nikāya explains that the safety of the people and their economic, as well as material prosperity should be of special concern for the state and the government. Political power may manifest and sustain social and economic structures, which breed both material deprivation and spiritual degradation for millions of people.
Awakened One with awareness are, thus, concerned with political action, first, in the direct relief of non-volitionally caused suffering now and in the future, and,
secondly, with the creation of social karmic conditions favourable to the following of the way that leads to the cessation of volitionally-caused suffering, the creation of a society which tends to the ripening of wisdom and compassion rather than the withering of them.
It is not an exaggeration to say that Awakened One with awareness is a single religion that does recognize the competency of human beings to solve all the
problems confronting the world, no exception even to the problem of prejudice or lack of justice. Justice can be developed through the principle of the Awakened One with awareness Teachings. However, the propagation of Awakened One with awareness is not effective enough in lack of active cooperation of all
Awakened One with awareness traditions and Sects. The Second World Awakened One with awareness Forum hosted by the Chinese Awakened One with awareness Association with a strong support from the Chinese Government, it can be said, will be accounted as a spring board for the active and energetic spreading of Awakened One with awareness Teachings as ‘Message of Social Justice’ to all corners of the world, with the joint attempt of all Awakened One with awareness organizations, regardless of whatever tradition or sect they are attached to. This is for the sake of peacefulness, happiness and well-being of the world. (http://www.urbandharma.org retrieved on 20/01/09)
3.11 The Righteous Rulers (of Awakened One with awareness)
To start, Awakened One with awareness declared that righteousness (dhamma) and morality (sila) were the best choices for rulers, as they would ensure a long, successful and popular reign. Whereas many monarchs of Awakened One with awareness’s time exercised extreme and often arbitrary power over their subjects, there were a few who followed his teachings. The best-known examples were Bimbisara, and Asoka. Data on Asoka are numerous and detailed, so the researcher shall concentrate on him. Furthermore, Awakened One with awareness was proselytised by Asoka.
One of the greatest emperors of all times, Emperor Asoka was a Mauryan ruler whose empire spread across the Indian subcontinent and the present day Pakistan and Afghanistan thus covering a vast area. Bornin 265 B.C, the great king Ashoka was the grandson of the famous ruler Chandragupta Maurya. He is known as Asoka the Great since he was one of the most able rulers who ruled India. Under his rule, the whole of Prabuddha Bharat was united as one single entity with smooth administration.
After his father died, he was crowned as the king of Magadha around 268 B.C. After being crowned as the king, he proved himself by smoothly administrating his territory and performing all his duties as an able and courageous king. After a period of eight years of being a king, Ashoka planned to seize the territory of Kalinga, the present day Orissa. He led a huge army and fought a gruesome battle with the army of Kalinga. The battle of Kalinga made him pledge to never wage a war
again. The battle took place on the Dhauli hills that are located on the banks of River Daya. Though Ashoka emerged victorious at the end, the sight of the battlefield made his heart break with shame, guilt and disgust. It is said that the battle was so furious that the waters of River Daya turned red with the blood of the slain soldiers and civilians.
The sight of numerous corpses lying strewn across the battlefield made his heart wrench. He felt sick inside. The battle ground looked like a graveyard with bodies of not just soldiers but men, women and children. He saw young children crying over the bodies of their dead parents, women crying over the bodies of their dead husbands, mothers crying over the loss of a child. This made him heartbroken and he made a pledge to never ever fight a battle again. To seek solace, he converted to Awakened One with awareness. He was so inspired by the teachings of the Awakened One with awareness monks and Awakened One with awareness philosophies that he used his status to impart this knowledge all over the world. He is credited to be the first Emperor to make a serious attempt at developing Awakened One with awareness policies.
Ashoka’s endeavour to proselytise Awakened One with awareness is seen through his fourteen stone edicts, which were erected throughout Northern India, and
the great stone statues of Awakened One with awareness in Bhamiyan, Afghanistan. From the start, as evident in Edict I, Asoka (who called himself Piyadasi, or
“beloved of the gods”) established a policy of love and compassion:
One must not, here below, kill any living animal by immolating it, not for the purpose of feasts. The King Piyadasi sees much that is sinful in such feasts. Formerly, such feasts were allowed; and in the cuisine of King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, and for the table of King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, hundreds of
thousands of living beings were killed every day. At the time when this Edict id engraved, three animals only are killed for the table, two pea-fowls and a gazelle, and the gazelle not regularly. Even these animals will not be killed in the future. (Edict I, trans. by James Prinsep. Romesh C. Dutt, 2004, p.92) Edict II mentioned medicine within the empire and on the frontiers thereof, “the Cholas, the Pandyas,” etc. and in the kingdom of Antiochus, king of the Greeks.” (Ibid. p.93) Edict IV refers again to the “slaughter of living beings.” Asoka also shows his gratitude and respect to Awakened One with awareness “the religion spread by the King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods:”
“Thanks to the instruction of the religion spread by King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, there exists today a respect for living creatures, a tenderness towards them, a regard for relations and for Brahmans and Sramans, a dutiful obedience to father and mother, and obeisance to aged men, such as have not existed for centuries”.
(Edict IV, trans. by James Prinsep. Ibid.)
Edict V speaks of the difficulty in performing virtuous acts. It is worthy to note that conversely Asoka acknowledged “to do evil is easy.” Therefore, he established ministers of the religion or dhammamahamatras. The dhammamahamatras were told to contact every sect in the empire and
with every race or tribe:
“They mix with all sects for the establishment and progress of the religion, and for the well-being of the faithful. They mix with the Yavanas, the Kambojas, the Gandharas, the Saurashtras, and the Petenikas, and with other frontier (Aparanta) nations. They mix with warriors and with Brahmans, with the rich and the poor and the aged, for their well-being and happiness, and in order to remove all the obstacles in the path of the followers of the true religion”. (Ibid. p.94) Edict VII
testifies to Asoka’s religious tolerance and pluralism. In this edict, he declares sectarian freedom by granting protection; and in Edict VIII he declares that his new livelihood is the visitation of aged and learned men, as opposed to hunting, etc.:
“The King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, ardently desires that all sects may live (unmolested) in all places. All of them equally propose the subjection of the senses and the purification of the soul; but man is fickle in his attachments.” (Edict VII, Ibid. p.95)
“In past times, kings went out for pastimes. Hunting and other amusements of the kind were their pastimes. Here below, I, King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, obtained true intelligence ten years after my appointment. These then are my pastimes:-visits and gifts to Brahmans and Sramans, visits to aged men, the distribution of money, visited to the people of the empire, their religious instruction, and consultation on religious subjects. It is thus that King Piyadasi, beloved of
the gods, enjoys the pleasure derived from his virtuous acts.” (Edict VIII, Ibid.)
The Asokan model of governance was informed by what Sen (2005) terms a ‘foundational agnosticism and commitment to public communication and discussion’ (Sen 2005: p.182). Unlike, Emperor Constantine who made Christianity the official creed of the Roman Empire, Asoka never made Buddhism a state religion. Furthermore, by his willingness to accept dissent and commitment to tolerance of other faiths, Asoka looked upon sectarianism with strong disfavor (Ling 1973).
Following the precedents set by the Awakened One with awareness, Asoka strove to ensure ‘religious freedom by supporting not just the Awakened One with awareness monks but ascetics of other religious sects’ (Harvey 2000; p. 116); and also by striving to negotiate differences through participation and consensus building (Laksiri Jayasuriya, 2008, p.25) Jayasuriya concludes that Awakened One with awareness faboured democracy over monarchy because of equity and freedom incumbent in it. The Awakened One with awareness favoured democracy not just as a question of the constitutional or legal right of equality and ‘the absolute worth of the individual’ but more as an affirmation of the moral obligation cast on the individual to act within a code of conduct based on such values was
the ideal of human dignity, equality of respect and worth of the individual. (Ibid.)
At this juncture, researcher will explore the Awakened One with awareness viewpoint and approach to democracy.
3.12 Awakened One with awareness Approach to Democracy
Democracy understood as a way of thinking and acting implies a rational commitment to freedom, equality and tolerance in a pluralistic society, profoundly open minded, if not agnostic. The Awakened One with awareness saw that life’s very purpose is happiness. He also saw that while ignorance binds beings in endless frustration and suffering, wisdom is liberating. Modern democracy is based on the principle that all human beings are essentially equal, that each of us has an equal right to life, liberty, and happiness. Awakened One with awareness too recognises that human beings are entitled to dignity, that all members of the human family have an equal and inalienable right to liberty, not just in terms of political freedom, but also at the fundamental level of freedom from fear and want. Irrespective of whether we are rich or poor, educated or uneducated, belonging to one nation or another, to one religion or another, adhering to this ideology or that, each of us is just a human being like everyone else. Not only do we all desire happiness and seek to avoid suffering, but each of us has an equal right to pursue these goals. “Awakened One with awareness is essentially a practical doctrine. In addressing the fundamental problem of human suffering, it does not insist on a single solution. Recognising that human beings differ widely in their needs, dispositions and abilities, it acknowledges that the paths to peace and happiness are many. As a spiritual community its cohesion has sprung from a unifying sense of brotherhood and sisterhood. Without any apparent centralized authority Awakened One with awareness has endured for more than two thousand five hundred years. It has flourished in a diversity of forms, while repeatedly renewing, through study and practice, its roots in the teachings of the Awakened One with awareness. This kind of pluralistic approach, in which individuals themselves are responsible, is very much in accord with a democratic outlook”.(Statement of H.H. the Dalai Lama, from http//www.dalailama.com /news.350.html April 1993)
As we have mentioned in Chapter Two, earlier, Awakened One with awarenessmay have based the structure of his Sangha on the principle which was available. Data say that the republics attracted and interested him, so they could have influenced him to form the Sangha. Recent information supports this as democratic government was getting underway in Athens, the First Awakened One with awareness Council convened in India. The Council, which met about 480 BCE, give or take, was an exercise in democracy. (Retrieved from http://www.about.com/ on 17 March 2009. Date of Citation: 28 -10- 2008)
Robert Thurman, working in Bhutan, a Buddhist nation like Thailand and Sri Lanka, affirms the similarities between Awakened One with awareness and democracy as follows:
Awakened One with awareness has many principles that fit with democracy such as individualism, allowing people to develop their own mind to the fullest than having to serve whatever their duty is, parents, cast etc. This is very much in consonance with democracy. Awakened One with awareness teaches each person to
have the opportunity to develop their own being towards awakenment, to the fullest extent in life. That is the highest thing in the society. (Retrieved from http://www.kuensel online.com/ on 17 March 2009. Date of Citation: 21-11-2006).
3.13 Modern Democracies influenced by Awakened One with awareness
There is a consensus that Awakened One with awareness resembles democracy in miniature. The Sangha, as we reported in Chapter 2, was based on the
republic system, which favoured Buddha Gautama and which he taught a specific dharma. On this note, we shall look at Awakened One with awareness
approach to democracy. The principle countries we shall investigate are Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. Awakened One with awareness in these
countries appears to be more dynamic. Concerning Republic of Korea, history shows that it had established a Republic several times and Awakened One with awareness was interrelated. Korea was originally one state until it was liberated from the Japanese after World War II. Buddhism was non-
evident in the North due to the government practice of Soviet Socialism. In the 1950s, Awakened One with awareness in the South Korea, called Republic of Korea,
prospered. It became more political as it aligned with various political parties in the country. By the decade of the 1980s, ROK established its first Awakened One with awareness TV station. During the Third Republic, Korean Awakened One with awareness echoed the national ideology of Japan. In the Fifth Republic, headed by Christian leader Chun Doohwan, it was downplayed and even criticized as unprogressive. The Sixth Republic, under No Taewoo, revived it and Awakened One with awareness continued to prosper. Until the present, Awakened One with awareness has been existing side by side with Christianity. To attest to this information there is the Korean analyst Jae-ryong Shim, who has commented firstly about the North-South divide and claims of demo racy in both states:
Thus far the governments or power holders in both North and South claim that they run the countries in accordance with democratic principles. But nobody believes the claims. Instead they are of the opinion that the North is run by a dictatorship of the late Kim Ilsung and his heir even after his demise, while the South is struggling to keep the balance between the proclaimed democracy imposed upon it from the West and the embedded tradition of paternalistic authoritarianism, perhaps the only ideological contender to modern Western democracy. (Francis Fukuyama, “Confucianism and democracy,” Journal of Democracy, April 1995, p.
Democracy was introduced only after the 1945 liberation from the Japanese imperial-military rule by the occupying forces of the United States of America, which happened to occupy and “democratize” the area south of the 38th parallel in the Korean peninsula. Shin continues to analyse/criticise the situation in a thesis, as follows:
“The Awakened One with awareness political institution originally promulgated by the Awakened One with awareness Sakyamuni for the resident monks in the Sangha, the Awakened One with awareness community of religious practitioners, had some seminal ideas and practices similar to democracy. But the ideally democratic position with which Awakened One with awareness began underwent many transformations in the course of history. It is my task to summarize some major transformations in the history of Awakened One with awareness, and to assess the relationship between Awakened One with awareness and democracy in modern Korea. The reason why we have to confine our talk to modern Korea is evident”.
Sri Lankan Awakened One with awareness is very pro-active. Sri Lanka is traditionally the home of the last Sanghas of Awakened One with awareness. The island was known as Serendipity and Ceylon respectively before being called Sri Lanka. Its activity there resembles the Israeli Zionist movement, which emphasized
homeland. The Sri Lankan Awakened One with awarenessclaimed similar right in the island and even the monks, who took vows of non-violence, resort to fighting
and violence in the conflict.
The two remaining entries, Thailand and Japan, are the most significant countries where Awakened One with awareness has been active.
In Thailand, Awakened One with awareness endeavours to propagate an ideal government through the analysis of Venerable Buddhadasa Bhikku. Buddhadasa was a respected and honored bhikku in Thailand. He analyzed politics into equality and unity, through interdependence. Buddhadasa actually coined the phrase “spiritual socialism” wherein the individual loses self-centeredness and becomes socially aware. Some scholars thought that Nirvana was actually a selflessness of this type and that it was an original state of being. Buddhadasa agreed with this. Herein he is quoted as defining politics in the true sense: “spiritual or dharmic
socialism, namely a state where individuals act not out of self-interest but out of regard for the common good.” (Donald K Swearer, p. 217-18)
In Japan, in contradiction to the state religion of Shintö, which was a type of polytheism, Buddhism had established several socio-political organisations. Shinto was a way of countering possible military invasions but Buddhism asserted itself as the national religion and, in the modern age, it sought reforms. Buddhism began to re-emerge after the defeat of Japan, post World War II. However, the bhikkus practiced only traditional measures. By the 1960s, new organisations developed. Among them was the Nichiren Sokka Gakai.
Nichiren was a Awakened One with awareness saint who lived in Japan of the 13th Century. Nichiren believed that national security depended upon dhamma. He exemplified this in the Lotus Sutta. More recently, a modern follower, Tanaka Chigaku, established that the Imperial Constitution personified Nichiren’s teaching. In 1923, Seno Giro, another follower, established the Awakened One with awareness Youth League based upon equality and compassion. However, he disbelieved that Nichiren preached nationalism. Nichiren’s Awakened One with awarenessfounded other new socio-religious organisations. As mentioned above, one such organisation was the Sokka Gakai. The protest against the US-Japan Treaty in the1960s heightened the organisation’s political action. The president of the Sokka Gakai was Ikeda Daisaku. Under Daisaku, the organisations started its political wing, which emphasised Awakened One with awareness democratic ideals-e.g., equality, fair elections, parliamentary democracy. By 1964, it merged and formed the Komeito or Clean Government Party. This party earned 24 seats in the
House of Councillors, which was the Upper House of Japanese Parliament.
Chapter Three can be summarised as follows: Predominantly, magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data. magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data.was not directly a, political reformer because his most important concern was social ethics. Awakened One with awareness
spent his life after asceticism recommending proper social interaction
towards the goal of social cohesion, unity and peace, to both monarchies
and republics. However, scholars have highlighted his interest in and
attraction for the latter. Among these latter republics, the Vajjians
were well documented.
the above-mentioned goals, he warned that solidarity and unity as well
as adherence to his dharma would guarantee their survival. In contrast,
his monarchical supporters included King Bimbisara. We have recorded
earlier that Ajatasatru had referred to him, but he used magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data.’s counsel to his won advantage against the Vajjians. However,
data do not mention whether Ajatasatru conducted a siege of the
republic or not. [Some data mention that he colluded with Devadatta
against magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data.]. King Pasenadi might have listened to him as well.
the basic introduction, the researcher has discussed the concept of
Kingship and the ten royal virtues prescribed by Buddha, or Das Raja Dhamma(m). magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data.
prescribed them against the licenciousness of monarchs probably, such
as Ajatasatru or Pasenadi. In this unit, researcher has added data
recorded in Bhutan. Asoka was discussed in the following unit.
Concerning righteous monarchs, Emperor Asoka stands out as the most historical and most admirable. A full account of Asoka’s reign including some important stone edicts is given in this unit. We highlighted his compassion towards all living beings and his magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data.
Their success at democracy inspired him to structure and regulate the
Sangha. Like these republics, the Buddhist Sangha was autonomous and the
bhikkus had rights and freedom similar to the denizens of the republics. Vijayvardhan rermarks that “in its original form the Sangha
was an organized brotherhood of earnest minded men–and later women
also-who had dedicated their lives to the service of mankind. The Vinaya Pitaka recommends
solutions for disputes as well as monastic disciplines but does not
impose them strictly. This suggests Awakened One with Awareness’s
humanism and pragmatism in contrast with the authoritarian regime of
other religions. Due to this similarity, the Asian democracies such as
Republic of Korea, Thailand, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, as well as Tibet,
have been investigated in this chapter. Bhutan and Thailand stand forth as the closest in resemblance to Awakened One with Awareness’s concept of a republic governed at the centre by a powerful but compassionate monarch, like Emperor Asoka, or ‘dhamamraja.”
“Some of his recorded words would come like a distant echo through two thousand five hundred years ago.”
Jawaharlal Nehru, first Indian Prime Minister in ‘The Discovery of India’
The Buddha delivered Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, his first discourse
on the Esala Full Moon Poya Day to the five ascetics, Ven. Kondangna,
Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahanama and Assaji, at the deer park of Isipathana in
Benares. It consists of the central theme of the Dhamma. At the end of
the preaching, the eldest of the five, Kondangna Thera attained the
first stage of sainthood or Sovan. According to history, many other
important events had taken place on the Esala Poya Day. Among them, the
conception of Siddartha in Queen Mahamaya’s womb, and Prince Siddartha
leaving the palace at the age of 29 in seeking the truth, after giving
up all royal comforts.
The drafting of Sri Lanka’s Independence Constitution appears
relatively diluted in its nationalism. The 1948 Constitution, under
which the Colonial rulers transferred powers of self-rule to Ceylon, was
designed mainly by the twosome DS Senanayake and Sir Ivor Jennings, the
They shielded the Constitution drafting from nationalists on two
sides: the anti-colonial nationalists, the Young Turks in the Ceylon
National Congress, such as Dudley and JR who wanted to make Ceylon a
‘free republic’ and communistic nationalists who sought special
protections for the island’s Sinhalese majority and non-Sinhalese
DS was under pressure to include a special clause for Buddhism from
the leading Buddhist clergy. A few days before, the two Mahanayakas of
Asgiriya and Malwatta threatened to boycott the inauguration ceremony in
Kandy. Prime Minister D S Senanayake did not succumb, but he himself
took the initiative of handling the matter diplomatically. He travelled
to Kandy and convinced the two Mahanayaka Theras of the importance of
not introducing special provisions on the foremost place to Buddhism in
the new Constitution. He said, “If equality is a provision, then you
cannot give primacy to one religion.”
DS who was well prepared
for the summit had explained to the prelates
quoting from the chronicle a few stanzas where Buddha emphasized the
fact that the State or the Ruler should treat all his subjects,
irrespective of race, caste and religion as equals and treat all with no
special privileges or rights granted or conceded to a selected group.
“You cannot treat other people differently because they are members of
that political party, or they are from that race, or from that culture.
Dhamma forbids such special treatment to a section of the community”, DS
awakened and transformed the two Mahanayaka Theras who gave up their
protest and participated in the ceremony to bestow the blessing of the
triple gem on the new constitution and the independent nation.
The concept of Good Governance (GG) seems unclear for many people.
Some have expressed their own views, others have written policy papers.
But it is one of the main themes which have been discussed by different
international organisations, foundations and political leaders
The concept remains ambiguous and without an exact definition.
Scholars who carried out research on Buddhist ideals of GG believes,
Buddha who did not engage in politics associated the Kings of his day
giving them instructions on Ten Royal Duties (Dasa raja dhamma) which
leads to GG by creating social and economic prosperity and maintaining
harmony, tolerance and peace.
Former President of America Ronald
Reagan had said, “A nation is destroyed through racists.” Martin Luther
King Jr. has said that racism is being blood-thirsty.
Heroes, who have been deflated in the presence of the people, yell and scream to somehow, in any dastardly way regain power.
Original Buddhist manuscripts contain quite a lot of guidelines and
obligations to be fulfilled to achieve corruption free democratic
Governance. Several Jataka stories give hints on establishing rule of
law, the righteousness of the ideal ruler, and how such leaders should
abstain from the four wrongdoings (Agathidhammas) such as malice,
excitement, fear and dilution. A good ruler, it says, should behave with
Sila high moral character and dasa kusala.
They should refrain from, taking life, taking what is not given,
adultery, telling lies, slander, harsh speech, frivolous talk,
covetousness, evil-mindedness and hearsay. The Pali Canon, in addition
to the above, speaks of characteristics to be maintained by good rulers.
They are honesty and sincerity, dedication and commitment selfless
service high morals, respect of law, consensus agreements for national
interest, equanimity and impartialness, solidarity and respect to
Awakened One with Awareness due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to his fame, other monarchs had no data.’s teachings on philosophical and spiritual matters are
well-known, but his teachings on social, economic, and political issues
are less known. His attitude on good governance is narrated in important
discourses dealing with it. Today there are unprecedented incidents of
crime, violence, and immorality in society.
Due to the hardship of life, without seeing any solution to the
problems they face and to protect social identity, people commit theft,
cruelty, hatred and violence. According to Kuutadanta Sutta, the state
making an effort to suppress such action by punishment is futile and
should not be encouraged. Buddha suggests a series of alternatives to
eradicate crime and violence. He proposed educating the people who
commit wrongdoings and economic development of the concerned by proving
basic requirements of the farmers; granting of financial support to
traders at the reduced rate of interest as alternative strategies.
The increase in salaries and wages of employees, opportunities in
professional fields for the educated without political interference;
high-quality administrative services. Buddha says when such methods are
applied by a king or ruler, the people will be happy and contented, fear
and anxiety will disappear; as a consequence, the nation would be free
of public protests against the government.
Shadow man on COVID-19, US story🏼
Use the headphones, hear every word spoken to realize that COVID-19 pandemic was a joint venture by America and China.
it’s not known who got what from whom, whether the virus was even
spread simply having a cold at that time, the case has shaken the
community even if it didn’t “qualify” for a test after showing runny
nose which was listed as a symptom of COVID-19 and advises anyone
feeling unwell to stay home.
Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia !
It seems that the disease is being attacked wrongly worldwide.
to autopsies performed by the Italians … it has been shown that it is
not pneumonia … but it is: disseminated intravascular coagulation
Therefore, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, antivirals, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.
The protocols are being changed here since !
According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units were never needed.
If this is true for all cases, it is about to be resolved it earlier than expected.
Important and new about COVID-19:
Around the world, COVID-19 is being attacked wrongly due to a serious pathophysiological diagnosis error.
The impressive case of a Mexican family in the United States who claimed they were cured with a home remedy was documented:-
Three 500 mg Aspirins dissolved in lemon juice boiled with honey and taken hot.
next day they woke up as if nothing had happened to them!Well, the
scientific information that follows proves they are right!
This information was released by a medical researcher from Italy:
to 50 autopsies performed on patients who died of COVID-19, Italian
pathologists have discovered that IT IS NOT PNEUMONIA, strictly
speaking, because the virus does not only kill pneumocytes of this type,
but uses an inflammatory storm to create an endothelial vascular
As in disseminated intravascular coagulation, the
lung is the most affected because it is the most inflamed, but there is
also a heart attack, stroke and many other thromboembolic diseases.
In fact, the protocols left antiviral therapies useless and focused on anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting therapies.
These therapies should be done immediately, even at home, in which the treatment of patients responds very well.
The later performed less effective.
resuscitation, they are almost useless. If the Chinese had denounced
it, they would have invested in home therapy, not intensive care!
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (THROMBOSIS):
So, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.
Italian pathologist reports that the hospital in Bergamo did a total of
50 autopsies and one in Milan, 20, that is, the Italian series is the
highest in the world, the Chinese did only 3, which seems to fully
confirm the information.
Previously, in a nutshell, the disease
is determined by a disseminated intravascular coagulation triggered by
the virus; therefore, it is not pneumonia but pulmonary thrombosis, a
major diagnostic error.
We doubled the number of resuscitation places in the ICU, with unnecessary exorbitant costs.
retrospect, we have to rethink those chest X-rays that were discussed a
month ago and were given as interstitial pneumonia; in fact, it may be
entirely consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation.
in ICUs is useless if thromboembolism is not resolved first. If we
ventilate a lung where blood does not circulate, it is useless, in fact,
nine (9) patients out of ten (10) die.
Because the problem is cardiovascular, not respiratory.
It is venous microthrombosis, not pneumonia, that determines mortality.
Why thrombi are formed ?
inflammation, according to the literature, induces thrombosis through a
complex but well-known pathophysiological mechanism.
what the scientific literature said, especially Chinese, until
mid-March was that anti-inflammatory drugs should not be used.
the therapy being used in Italy is with anti-inflammatories and
antibiotics, as in influenza, and the number of hospitalized patients
has been reduced.
Many deaths, even in their 40s, had a history of fever for 10 to 15 days, which were not treated properly.
inflammation did a great deal of tissue damage and created ground for
thrombus formation, because the main problem is not the virus, but the
immune hyperreaction that destroys the cell where the virus is
installed. In fact, patients with rheumatoid arthritis have never
needed to be admitted to the ICU because they are on corticosteroid
therapy, which is a great anti-inflammatory.
This is the main
reason why hospitalizations in Italy are decreasing and becoming a
treatable disease at home. By treating her well at home, not only is
hospitalization avoided, but also the risk of thrombosis.
It was not easy to understand, because the signs of microembolism disappeared!
this important discovery, it is possible to return to normal life and
open closed deals due to the quarantine, not immediately, but it is time
to publish this data, so that the health authorities of each country
make their respective analysis of this information and prevent further
deaths. useless! The vaccine may come later.
Now we can wait.
In Italy, as of today, protocols are changing.
According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units are not necessary.
Therefore, we need to rethink investments to properly deal with this disease.
(Translation by automatic device).
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s poorly planned 45 days
curfew didn’t save us from COVID-19, but killed economy after gobbling
the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections on
behalf of Rowdy rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) foreigners from Bene
With typically shoddy execution, Modi’s national curfew could starve to death.
It is important to note that countries that have so far done a
relatively good job of containing the COVID-19 pandemic have refrained
from imposing a complete, nation-wide, curfew-like lockdown. These
include Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, and Turkey. Even China, where it all
started, placed only the Hubei province under complete lockdown, not
the whole country.
has put 1.3 billion people under a curfew. Since the authorities are
using the word ‘curfew’ in the context of issuing passes, it is fair to
call it a national curfew.
does not have the capacity to think through the details of planning and
execution. This is turning out to be another demonetisation, withthe
typical Modi problem of mistaking theatrics for achievement.
If we survive the pandemic, we won’t survive the impending economic
collapse. The economy isn’t on Modi’s radar either. He won a national
election despite disastrous economic policies that gave us a 45
year-high unemployment rate. Why should he worry about the economy?
Demonetisation and GST resulted in killing demand, and this poorly
planned national curfew will kill supply chains. We’ll be left with the
great Indian discovery, the zero.
announced a national curfew with little notice. He addressed India at 8
pm, and the curfew came into force at midnight. Just like
demonetisation. Why couldn’t he have given some notice? Why couldn’t he
have done his TV address at 8 am? Maximising prime time attention, you
home ministry issued a list of exemptions but try explaining them to the
cops on the street. The police is doing what it loves to do the most:
Indians with lathis. Meanwhile, lakhs of trucks are stranded on state
borders. Supply chains for the most essential items have been disrupted,
including medicines, milk, groceries, food and newspaper deliveries.
Nobody in the prime minister’s office seems to be aware of any such
thing as crop harvesting, or the Rabi season, as farmers wonder how
they’ll do it amid this national curfew. Only Modi can manage to be so
clever as to disrupt the country’s medical supply chain while fighting a
is the only major world leader who has not yet announced a financial
package. In his first speech, he said the finance minister will head a
committee, but some in the finance ministry said they heard of this
committee from the Modi’s speech. He did announce Rs 15,000 crore extra
to meet the health expenditure arising out of the COVID-19 crisis — that
is Rs 5,000 crore less than the amount of money he has kept aside for
his narcissistic and unnecessary project of rebuilding the Central Vista
of New Delhi.
this rate, more might die of hunger than of COVID-19. Modi’s poor
administrative skills, zero attention span for details, spell disaster
for this crisis. In a few weeks, we might find ourselves overwhelmed
with an epidemic in defiance of official numbers, while the economy
might start looking like the 1980s.
Intolerant, violent, militant, crooked, cunning, number one terrorists
of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
foreigners thrown out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Afrika, Eastern Europe,
Western Germany, Northern Europe, South,Russia,Hungary, etc, chitpavan
brahmins of Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) remotely control such
Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) own mother’s flesh eaters, slaves,
stooges, chamchas, cheals abolish posts in order to appoint their own
stooges and slaves.The Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of
diluting institutions (Modi) who gobbled the Master Key by tampering
the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections.
The road ahead for liberals is tough. Modi’s thalis were a loud message
The liberal 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies i.e., Sarvajan
Samaj including SC(including Safai workers who are real Arogya Rakshakas
Health Protectors) of all living beings))/STs/OBCs/Religious Minorities
and even the poor non-chitpavan brahmins story is still worth pursuing.
But liberals would do well to
remember that it is just one more story competing with many others.
These are tough times for liberal Prabuddha Bharat. More so if you are cursed with a sense of aesthetics.
This is what has happened when there is no money in the hands of the
people because of the permanent curfew where the petty shops, small
eateries, no work for daily wagers etc., etc.,
Message from top cop of Bangalore which every one should read.
All of us whether in Cities or Towns, have to be aware of the situation.
From May 3rd if the permanent curfew is lifted partially fully, we
cannot put much pressure on our police department which had worked hard
day in and day out all these days.
The police force would be very tired and they also need to spend time with their families.
We need to be responsible citizens in following traffic rules and be proactive in protecting ourselves and our belongings.
As many out there, did not have much earnings all these days so there
might be a sudden spurt in incidents due to jobloss / effect on
1. People have to be very careful this includes people
at home, children, school and college going boys/girls, working
2. Do not wear costly watches.
3. Do not wear costly chains, bangles, ear rings be careful with your hand bags.
4. Men refrain wearing high end watches, costly bracelets and chains.
5. Do not use much of your mobile phones in the public. Try to minimise mobile use in public.
6. Do not entertain giving lift ride to any strangers.
7. Do not carry more than necessary money.
8. Keep your credit and debit cards safe while you are on the move.
9. Keep calling home every now and then to check upon your elders, wife and children’s welfare.
10. Instruct elders and people at home while attending a door bell keep
a safe distance from the main door, if possible keep the grill gates
locked not to go close to the grill to receive any parcels or letters.
11. Instruct children to return home early as much as possible.
12. Don’t take any secluded or short cuts roads to reach home, try and use maximum Main roads.
13. Youngsters when you are out keep an eye on your surroundings.
14. Always have an emergency number at hand.
15. Keep a safe distance from people.
16. Public mostly will be wearing mask.
17. Those who use cab services please share your trip details with you parents, siblings, relatives, friends or guardians.
18. Try and use Govt public transport system.
19. Avoid crowded buses.
20. While going for your daily walk try and go around 6.00 AM, in the
evening maximum finish by 8.00 PM use Main roads avoid empty streets.
20. Do not spend much time in malls, beach and parks.
21. If Children have to attend tuition classes let elders drop and pick up.
22. Do not leave any valuables in your vehicles.
This has to be followed at least for 3 months or till overall situation improves.
Share to all you CARE…
Request all authorities to issue a notification in the best interest of people of our Country.
Murderers of democratic institutions and masters of diluting
institutions (Modi), Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) BS Yediyurappa
who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won
elections for remotely controlling intolerant, violent, ever shooting,
mob lynching, number one terrorists of the world foreigners thrown out
from Bene israel, Tibet, Africa, etc., chitpvan brahmins fo RSS
(Rowdy/Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks), Bhaskar Rao IPS Police Commissioner’s
Office - Bangalore BBMP Commissioner BBMP Mayor BBMP-Ward-Committee
The CDC says they don’t recommend people wear masks to prevent transmitting the virus if you do not have symptoms.
Instead, people who have virus or flu-like symptoms should wear surgical masks.
Local health experts say to think again before using a surgical-style mask.
you look at the CDC website, the CDC does not recommend that the public
wear like the surgical style masks to prevent Transmission. They’ve not
been proven to be helpful,” said Northeast Regional Health Office
Director David Kirschke.
“If you have the flu you can wear a mask
to keep it from spreading it to other people and then obviously health
care workers that are taking care of others who potentially have
coronavirus or other infectious diseases, wear appropriate kind of
masks,” said Kirschke.
The No. 1 way to prevent COVID-19 isn’t wearing a face mask “Facemasks should be used by
people who show symptoms of COVID-19 to help prevent the spread of the
disease to others,”
JOHNSON CITY, Tenn. (WJHL) – Across the
country, many people are buying and wearing masks in an attempt to
protect themselves from COVID-19, more commonly called coronavirus.
But do these masks really help? News Channel 11 spoke with Northeast Regional Health Department to get answers.
PLS CIRCULATE URGENTLY