KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL
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 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
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LESSON 3050 Thu 4 Jul 2019 Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019 Paper – 1: Pali Language and Literature Diploma in Buddhist Studies Paper – 2: Life of Bhagavan Buddha
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:19 pm


LESSON 3050 Thu 4 Jul 2019

Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019


Paper – 1: Pali Language and Literature Diploma in Buddhist Studies


Paper – 2: Life of Bhagavan Buddha


http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/whats-thera.htm

Theravada
(Pali: thera “elders” + vada “word, doctrine”),
the “Doctrine of the Elders,” is the name for the
school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from
the Pali Canon, or Tipitaka, which scholars generally accept
as the oldest record of the Buddha’s teachings. For many centuries,
Theravada has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka, Burma,
and Thailand; today Theravada Buddhists number over 100 million
world-wide. In recent decades Theravada has begun to take root
in the West — primarily in Europe, Australia and the USA.

The many
names of Theravada

Theravada
Buddhism goes by many names. The Buddha himself called the religion
he founded Dhamma-vinaya, “the doctrine and discipline,”
in reference to the two fundamental aspects of the system of
ethical and spiritual training he taught. Owing to its historical
dominance in southern Asia (Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Burma),
Theravada is also identified as “Southern Buddhism,”
in contrast to “Northern Buddhism,” which migrated
northwards from India into Tibet, China, Japan, and Korea. Theravada
is sometimes identified as “Hinayana” (the “Lesser
Vehicle”), in contradistinction to “Mahayana”
(the “Greater Vehicle”), which is usually a synonym
for Tibetan Buddhism, Zen, Ch’an, and other expressions of Northern
Buddhism. The use of “Hinayana” as a pejorative has
its origins in the early schisms within the monastic community
that ultimately led to the emergence of what would later become
Mahayana. Today, however, scholars of every Buddhist (and non-Buddhist)
persuasion often use the term “Hinayana,” without
pejorative intent.

Pali:
the language of Theravada

The language
of the Theravada canonical texts is Pali, a relative of Magadhi,
the language probably spoken in central India during the Buddha’s
time. Most of the sermons the Buddha delivered were memorized
by Ven. Ananda, the Buddha’s cousin and close personal attendant.
Shortly after the Buddha’s death around 480 BCE, the community
of monks — including Ananda — convened to recite all the sermons
they had heard during the Buddha’s forty-five years of teaching.
Each recorded sermon (sutta) therefore begins with the disclaimer,
Evam me sutam — “Thus have I heard.” The teachings
were passed down within the monastic community following a well-established
oral tradition. By about 100 BCE the Tipitaka was first fixed
in writing in Sri Lanka by Sinhala scribe-monks.

Of course,
it can never be proved that the Pali Canon contains the actual
words uttered by the historical Buddha (and there is ample evidence
to suggest that much of the Canon does not). The wisdom the
Canon contains has nevertheless served for centuries as an indispensable
guide for millions of followers in their quest for Awakening.

Many students
of Theravada find that learning the Pali language — even
just a little bit here and there — greatly deepens their
understanding of the path of practice.

A brief
summary of the Buddha’s teachings

What follows
is a brief synopsis of some of the key teachings of Theravada
Buddhism. I’ve left out a great deal, but I hope that even this
much will be enough to get you started in your exploration.

Shortly
after his Awakening, the Buddha (”the Awakened One”)
delivered his first sermon, in which he laid out the essential
framework upon which all his later teachings were based. This
framework consists of the Four Noble Truths, four fundamental
principles of nature (Dhamma) that emerged from the Buddha’s
honest and penetrating assessment of the human condition and
that serve to define the entire scope of Buddhist practice.
These Truths are not fixed dogmatic principles, but living experiences
to be explored individually in the heart of the sincere spiritual
seeker:

1. The Noble
Truth of dukkha (suffering, unsatisfactoriness, stress): life
is fundamentally fraught with unsatisfactoriness and disappointment
of every description;

2. The Noble
Truth of the cause of dukkha: the cause of this dissatisfaction
is tanha (craving) in all its forms;

3. The Noble
Truth of the cessation of dukkha: an end to all that unsatisfactoriness
can be found through the relinquishment and abandonment of craving;

4. The Noble
Truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha: there
is a method of achieving the end of all unsatisfactoriness,
namely the Noble Eightfold Path;

To each
of these Noble Truths the Buddha assigned a specific task which
the practitioner is to carry out: the first Noble Truth is to
be comprehended; the second is to be abandoned; the third is
to be realized; the fourth is to be developed. The full realization
of the third Noble Truth paves the way for the direct penetration
of Nibbana (Sanskrit: Nirvana), the transcendent freedom that
stands as the final goal of all the Buddha’s teachings.

The last
of the Noble Truths — the Noble Eightfold Path — contains
a prescription for the relief of our unhappiness and for our
eventual release, once and for all, from the painful and wearisome
cycle of birth and death (samsara) to which — through our
own ignorance (avijja) of the Four Noble Truths — we have
been bound for countless aeons. The Noble Eightfold Path offers
a comprehensive practical guide to the development of those
wholesome qualities and skills in the human heart that must
be cultivated in order to bring the practitioner to the final
goal, the supreme freedom and happiness of Nibbana. The eight
qualities to be developed are: right view, right resolve, right
speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right
mindfulness, right concentration.

In
practice, the Buddha taught the Noble Eightfold Path to his
followers according to a “gradual” system of training,
beginning with the development of sila, or virtue (right speech,
right action, and right livelihood, which are summarized in
practical form by the five precepts), followed by the development
of samadhi, or concentration and mental cultivation (right effort,
right mindfulness, and right concentration), culminating in
the development of panna, or wisdom (right view and right resolve).
The practice of dana (generosity) serves as a support at every
step along the path, as it helps foster the development of a
compassionate heart and counters the heart’s habitual tendencies
towards craving.

Progress
along the path does not follow a simple linear trajectory. Rather,
development of each aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path encourages
the refinement and strengthening of the others, leading the
practitioner ever forward in an upward spiral of spiritual maturity
that culminates in Awakening.

Seen from
another point of view, the long journey on the path to Awakening
begins in earnest with the first tentative stirrings of right
view, the first flickerings of wisdom by which one recognizes
both the validity of the first Noble Truth and the inevitability
of the law of kamma (Sanskrit: karma), the universal law of
cause and effect. Once one begins to see that harmful actions
inevitably bring about harmful results, and wholesome actions
ultimately bring about wholesome results, the desire naturally
grows to live a skilful, morally upright life, to take seriously
the practice of sila. The confidence built from this preliminary
understanding inclines the follower to put one’s trust more
deeply in the teachings. The follower becomes a “Buddhist”
upon expressing an inner resolve to “take refuge”
in the Triple Gem: the Buddha (both the historical Buddha and
one’s own innate potential for Awakening), the Dhamma (both
the teachings of the historical Buddha and the ultimate Truth
towards which they point), and the Sangha (both the monastic
community that has protected the teachings and put them into
practice since the Buddha’s day, and all those who have achieved
at least some degree of Awakening). With one’s feet thus firmly
planted on the ground by taking refuge, and with the help of
an admirable friend (kalyanamitta) to help show the way, one
can set out along the Path, confident that one is indeed following
in the footsteps left by the Buddha himself.

Buddhism
is sometimes criticized as a “negative” or “pessimistic”
religion and philosophy. After all (so the argument goes) life
is not all misery and disappointment: it offers many kinds of
joy and happiness. Why then this pessimistic Buddhist obsession
with unsatisfactoriness and suffering?

The Buddha
based his teachings on a frank assessment of our plight as humans:
there is unsatisfactoriness and suffering in the world. No one
can argue this fact. Were the Buddha’s teachings to stop there,
we might indeed regard them as pessimistic and life as utterly
hopeless. But, like a doctor who prescribes a remedy for an
illness, the Buddha offers hope (the third Noble Truth) and
a cure (the fourth Noble Truth).

It is important
to keep in mind that the Buddha never denied that life —
even an “unenlightented” life — holds the possibility
of many kinds of great beauty and happiness. But he also recognized
that the kinds of happiness to which most of us are accustomed
cannot, by their very nature, give truly lasting satisfaction.
If one is genuinely interested in one’s own and others’ welfare,
one must sometimes be willing to give up one kind of happiness
for the sake of something much better. This understanding lies
at the very heart of the Buddha’s method. Whether instructing
a layman on the blessings of treating one’s parents and relatives
with respect, or instructing a celibate monk or nun on the finer
points of meditation, the Buddha’s system of gradual training
consistently encourages the disciple to move on to a deeper
level of happiness, one that is greater, nobler, and more fulfilling
than what he or she had previously known. Each level of happiness
has its rewards, but each also has its drawbacks — the most
conspicuous of which is that it cannot, by its very nature,
endure. The highest happiness of all, and the one to which all
the Buddha’s teachings ultimately point, is the lasting happiness
and peace of the transcendent, the Deathless, Nibbana. Thus,
the Buddha’s teachings are concerned solely with guiding people
towards the highest and most expansive happiness possible; there
is nothing pessimistic here. In the words of one teacher, “Buddhism
is the serious pursuit of happiness.”

The Buddha
claimed that the Awakening he rediscovered is accessible to
anyone willing to put forth the effort and commitment required
to pursue the Noble Eightfold Path to its end. It is up to each
of us individually to put that claim to the test.

Theravada
comes West

Until the
late 19th century, the teachings of Theravada were little known
outside of Southern and Southeast Asia, where they had flourished
for some two and one-half millennia. In the last century, however,
the West has begun to take notice of Theravada’s unique spiritual
legacy and teachings of Awakening. In recent decades, this interest
has swelled, with the monastic Sangha from the various schools
within Theravada establishing dozens of monasteries across Europe
and North America. In addition, a growing number of lay meditation
centers in the West, operating independently of the Sangha,
currently strain to meet the demands of lay men and women —
Buddhist and otherwise — seeking to learn selected aspects
of the Buddha’s teachings.

The turn
of the 21st century presents both opportunities and dangers
for Theravada in the West: Will the Buddha’s classical teachings
be patiently studied and put into practice, so that they may
be allowed to establish deep roots in Western soil, for the
benefit of many generations to come? Will the current popular
climate of “openness” and cross-fertilization between
the many different schools of Buddhism lead to the emergence
of a strong new form of Buddhism unique to the West, or will
it simply lead to the dilution and confusion of all these priceless
teachings? These are open questions; only time will tell.

For those
seriously interested in the study and practice of Dhamma, it
is important to remember that the most reliable source of authentic
Theravada teachings continues to be — as it has been for
the past two and one-half millennia — the Pali Canon and
the monastic community.

An invitation
to explore Theravada

The link
to the web pages below invite you to explore the Buddha’s teachings
for yourself, from the Theravada perspective. If you’re not
sure where to begin, see the article “Befriending the Suttas:
Some Suggestions for Reading the Pali Discourses.”

Keep in
mind that these teachings aren’t meant just to be studied, critiqued,
analyzed, and wondered about; they are meant to be put into
practice, to be put to the test in your own heart. They challenge
us to awaken within ourselves the same truths that the Buddha
discovered long ago on that full-moon night in the month of
May, in the forest near Gaya, India.

- John
Bullitt


Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the

Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god
the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god.

Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha.


https://www.budsas.org



Sabbapapassa
akaranam
Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

Every evil
never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddhas’ Sasana

  (Dhammapada,
183)



Sabbe satta sada
hontu

avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.

May
all living beings always live happily,

free from animosity.
May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.



http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 Buddha Vacana
— The words of the Buddha —

in


Mahabodhi Research Center (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University) No. 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bangalore - 560009


EXAM TIMETABLE – 2018-19


Karnataka Sanskrit University has been issued the notification for the upcoming One Year Diploma and Six Month Certificate examination for the year 2018-19 which will be held on July 4th to 6th.


Place of Examination: Karnataka Sanskrit University: Pampamahakavi Road, Next of Vijaya Karnatka office, Bangalore – 560018.

Date of the Exam 

10.30 to 1.30 2.30 to 5.30 

04/07/2019 Paper – 1: Pali Language and Literature


Six Month Certificate Course


Paper – 1: Pali Language and Literature Diploma in Buddhist Studies


Paper – 2: Life of Bhagavan Buddha Six Month Certificate Course


Paper – 2: Life of Bhagavan Buddha Diploma in Buddhist Studies

05/07/2019 Paper -3: Vinaya Pitaka 

Diploma in Buddhist Studies


Paper 4: Sutta Pitaka Diploma in Buddhist Studies


06/07/2019 Paper -5 Abhidhamma Pitaka


Diploma in Buddhist Studies

Mahabodhi Research Center (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University) No. 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bangalore - 560009


Tern-End Examination

Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019




04/07/2019 Paper – 1: History of Pali Language and Literature

Time : 03 Hours Max. Marks 100


Section - A

1. Write each sub-question in four sentences. Each question carries 2 marks. 8×2=16


a) Write Pali sentences of your choices in the following sentence form.

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 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES



Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não


668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com


up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level




Buddhasasana





“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to
mankind universal in character.”


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and
29,368,000 separate letters.

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,


02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,


04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu







Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/

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Practice



Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,




lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for


health mind in a healthy body.

 


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