KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL
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 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
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LESSON 3068 Mon 22 Jul 2019 KUSHINARA WHITE PAGODA Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES including Classical Sanskrit. From http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org at 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore, Karnataka State, India for teaching Meditation in Buddha’s own words. Also to create the entire teachings of the Buddha in the latest 7D laser Hologram format for the welfare, happiness, peace to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. WhatsApp 9449260443 SMS 9449835875 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com Classical English,Roman Mahā+satipaṭṭhāna Meditation in Buddha’s Words
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
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LESSON 3068 Mon 22 Jul 2019

KUSHINARA WHITE PAGODA


Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES including Classical Sanskrit.
From
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
at 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore,
Karnataka State, India for teaching Meditation in Buddha’s own words.
Also to create the entire teachings of the Buddha in the latest 7D laser
Hologram format for the welfare, happiness, peace to attain Eternal
Bliss as Final Goal.
WhatsApp 9449260443
SMS 9449835875
Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com


Classical English,Roman

Mahā+satipaṭṭhāna Meditation in Buddha’s Words

— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.

Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word

Introduction


I. Observation of Kāya
A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajañña
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds


II. Observation of Vedanā


III. Observation of Citta


IV. Observation of Dhammas
A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
B. Section on the Khandhas
C. Section on the Sense Spheres
D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas
E. Section on the Truths
E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca
E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca
E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca
E4. Exposition of Maggasacca



Introduction


Thus have I heard:


On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at
Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the
bhikkhu–


Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: –


This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.


Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya,
ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the
world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,
having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells
observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in
dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world.


I. Kāyānupassanā


A. Section on ānāpāna


And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at
the root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding
the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ.
Being thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out.
Breathing in long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing
out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short
he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a
long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn,
he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.


B. Section on postures


Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am
walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while
sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he
understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya
is disposed, he understands it accordingly.


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.


C. Section on sampajañña


Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while
departing, acts with sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking
around, he acts with sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he
acts with sampajañña, while wearing the robes and the upper robe and
while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while
drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while
attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with
sampajañña, while walking, while standing, while sitting, while
sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he
acts with sampajañña


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.


D. Section on Repulsiveness


Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the
soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is
delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this
kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth,
skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura,
spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal
mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled
with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans,
cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having
unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this
is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame
seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the
hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of
various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the
head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone
marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines,
mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood,
sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and
urine.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.


E. Section on the Elements


Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however
it is placed, however it is disposed as consisting of elements: “In
this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire
element and the air element.”


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having
killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the
same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is
placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth
element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.




F. Section on the nine charnel grounds


(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three
days dead, swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya:
“This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this,
and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

(2)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by
hawks, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by
dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by
various kinds of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is
of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared
with blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This
kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is
not free from such a condition.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and
there, here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a
shin bone, here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back
bone, here a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a
tooth bone, or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body,
cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

II. Observation of Vedanā


And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I
am experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā,
undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an
adukkham-asukhā vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā
vedanā”; experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am
experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā
nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”;
experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
dukkha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa,
undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing
an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā
nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā
nirāmisa”.

Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in
vedanā internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.

III. Observation of Citta


And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?


Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with
rāga”, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga”, or
he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa”, or he understands
citta without dosa as “citta without dosa”, or he understands citta with
moha as “citta with moha”, or he understands citta without moha as
“citta without moha”, or he understands a collected citta as “a
collected citta”, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered
citta”, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta”, or
he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta”, or he
understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta”, or he
understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta”, or he
understands a settled citta as “a settled citta”, or he understands an
unsettled citta as “an unsettled citta”, or he understands a liberated
citta as “a liberated citta”, or he understands an unliberated citta as
“an unliberated citta”.

Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells
observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in
citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.

IV. Observation of Dhammas


A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas


And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing
dhammas in dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore,
bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with
reference to the five nīvaraṇas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being kāmacchanda present within,
understands: “there is kāmacchanda within me”; there not being
kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there is no kāmacchanda
within me”; he understands how the unarisen kāmacchanda comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not come to arise in the
future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being byāpāda present within,
understands: “there is byāpāda within me”; there not being byāpāda
present within, he understands: “there is no byāpāda within me”; he
understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to arise; he understands how
the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned
byāpāda does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thīnamiddhā present within,
understands: “there is thīnamiddhā within me”; there not being
thīnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no thīnamiddhā
within me”; he understands how the unarisen thīnamiddhā comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen thīnamiddhā is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned thīnamiddhā does not come to arise in the
future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being uddhacca-kukkucca present within,
understands: “there is uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being
uddhacca-kukkucca present within, he understands: “there is no
uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he understands how the unarisen
uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned
uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being vicikicchā present within,
understands: “there is vicikicchā within me”; there not being vicikicchā
present within, he understands: “there is no vicikicchā within me”; he
understands how the unarisen vicikicchā comes to arise; he understands
how the arisen vicikicchā is abandoned; and he understands how the
abandoned vicikicchā does not come to arise in the future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the five nīvaraṇas.

B. Section on the Khandhas


And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus,
how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to
the five khandhas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rūpa, such is the
samudaya of rūpa, such is the passing away of rūpa; such is vedanā, such
is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of vedanā; such is
saññā, such is the samudaya of saññā, such is the passing away of saññā;
such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of saṅkhāra, such is the passing
away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is the samudaya of viññāṇa,
such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the five khandhas.

C. Section on the Sense Spheres


And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas. And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu, he understands rūpa, he
understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He understands sota, he understands sadda, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands ghāna, he understands gandha, he understands the
saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the
unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen
saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana
does not come to arise in the future.

He understands jivha, he understands rasa, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands kāya, he understands phoṭṭhabba, he understands the
saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the
unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen
saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana
does not come to arise in the future.

He understands mana, he understands dhammas, he understands the
saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the
unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen
saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana
does not come to arise in the future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas.

D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas


And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore,
bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with
reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati sambojjhaṅga present
within, understands: “there is the sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; there
not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there
is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen sati
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen sati
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there
not being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is no dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how
the unarisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands
how the arisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vīriya
sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no vīriya
sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen vīriya
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen vīriya
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the pīti
sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pīti
sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not
being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there
is no passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
passaddhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
passaddhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the
samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no
samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen samādhi
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen samādhi
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen upekkhā
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen upekkhā
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

E. Section on the Truths


And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the four ariya·saccas. And furthermore,
bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with
reference to the four ariya·saccas?

E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca


And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging
is dukkha (sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation,
dukkha, domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is
disliked is dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to
get what one wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are
dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various
classes of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the
arising [in the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas,
the acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

And what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various
classes of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken
[teeth], of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of
vitality, the decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

And what, bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various
classes of beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of
existence], the break up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the
passing away, the break up of the khandhas, the laying down of the
corpse: this, bhikkhus, is called maraṇa.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus, associated with
various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas,
the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the inner sorrow, the
inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated
with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha
dhammas, the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the
state of crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called
lamentation.

And what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha,
bodily unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant
vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus, is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha,
mental unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant
vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In one, bhikkhus, associated with
various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas,
the trouble, the despair, the state of being in trouble, the state of
being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is called despair.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being associated with what is
disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds, tastes, odors, bodily
phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are unpleasing, not
enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s disadvantage,
those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s discomfort, those
who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment, meeting, being
associated, being together, encountering them: this, bhikkhus, is called
the dukkha of being associated with what is disagreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being dissociated from what is
agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds, tastes, odors, bodily
phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are pleasing, enjoyable,
pleasant, or else those who desire one’s advantage, those who desire
one’s benefit, those who desire one’s comfort, those who desire one’s
liberation from attachment, not meeting, not being associated, not being
together, not encountering them: this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha
of being dissociated from what is agreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of not getting what one wants? In
beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of being born, such a wish
arises: “oh really, may there not be jāti for us, and really, may we not
come to jāti.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the
dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a
wish arises: “oh really, may there not be jarā for us, and really, may
we not come to jarā.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is
the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting sick, such
a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be sickness for us, and
really, may we not come to sickness.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a
wish arises: “oh really, may there not be maraṇa for us, and really,
may we not come to maraṇa.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing.
This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of sorrow,
lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises: “oh
really, may there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and
distress for us, and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation,
dukkha, domanassa and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

And what, bhikkhus, are in short the five upādānakkhandhas? They
are: the rūpa upādānakkhandha, the vedanā upādānakkhandha, the saññā
upādānakkhandha, the saṅkhāra upādānakkhandha, the viññāṇa
upādānakkhandha. These are called in short, bhikkhus, the five
upādānakkhandhas.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha ariyasacca

E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca


And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this
taṇhā leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding
delight here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when arising, where does it
arise, and when settling [itself], where does it settle? In that in the
world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when
arising, arises, where when settling, it settles.

And what in the world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The ear in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The tongue in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Kāya in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Sounds in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Smells in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Tastes in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Bodily phenomena
in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. Dhammas in the world are
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The ear-viññāṇa
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose-viññāṇa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
Mana-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The tongue-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of
odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for
odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of
odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of
odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya
ariyasacca.

E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca


And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this
taṇhā leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding
delight here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it
abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world
which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned,
is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

And what in the world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The tongue in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in
the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose-viññāṇa
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-viññāṇa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.



The eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.
Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of
kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born
of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā
of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā
of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] odors in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to]
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vitakka of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vitakka of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vicāra of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha
ariyasacca.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca


And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā
ariyasacca? It is just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say
sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo,
sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi? That, bhikkhus, which is the
ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha
and the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called,
bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

And what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are
saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā,
those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is
abstaining from musāvādā, abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from
pharusa vācā, and abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called,
bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is
abstaining from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from
abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble
disciple, having abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right
means of livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
generates his chanda for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala
dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his
citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen
pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya,
applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for
the arising of unarisen kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his
viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his
chanda for the steadfastness of arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence
of confusion, for their increase, their development, their cultivation
and their completion, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies
vigorously his citta and strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.


An what, bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in
vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno,
satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells
observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus,
sammāsati.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu,
detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having entered in the
first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra, with pīti and
sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of vitakka-vicāra, having
entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein with inner
tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor vicāra, with
pīti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference towards pīti, he
abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences in kāya the sukha
which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and mindful dwells in
[this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he abides therein.
Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and domanassa having
previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with the purity of
upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he abides therein.
This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.


This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the four ariya·saccas.

Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya
satta·vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ:
diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.


The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas


For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in
this way for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six years, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four years, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three years, one of
two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two years, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for one year, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven months, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six months, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five months, one of
two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four months, one of
two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three months, one of
two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two months, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for one month, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for half a month, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would
practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for a week, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

“This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the
purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the
disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the
realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has
it been said, and on the basis of all this has it been said.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.


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Wish to be picked or shortlisted with suitable training as Astronaut before 2022


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I
worked as a Senior Manager in ARDC (Aircraft Research and Design
Centre) in Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. I wish to be picked or
shortlisted with suitable training as Astronaut before 2022. Please let
me know the procedure for applying for the same.











As
far ISRO’s road map is concerned it has planned to put an Indian into
space by late 2021 or by early 2022 with the mission titled “Gaganyaan”.
An officer with the Defense Force would have been picked or shortlisted
already(I presume) and suitable training would be given to make him an
Astronaut before 2022.

He would fly in a low earth orbit and return safely.

So
there is no viewpoint as far as now, in ISRO’s work-plan to send a man
to moon. hopefully if the “Gaganyaan” Mission hits gold ISRO would soon
chalk out its plan to set foot on MOON.







https://m.economictimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/gaganyaan-to-be-next-turning-point-in-space-missions-ex-isro-chief/articleshow/69762931.cms


Gaganyaan to be next turning point in space missions: Ex-ISRO Chief
India’s space endeavour is ranked only next to the efforts of USA, Russia, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan and China.


By Bikash Singh, ET Bureau | Jun 12, 2019, 11.49 PM IST


Guwahati: The lunar lander of Chandrayaan-2 will be a landmark soon and
Gaganyaan, the spacecraft that will carry astronauts in earth orbit,
would be the next turning point, Advisor Department of Space/ISRO K
Radhakrishnan said on Wednesday.


“Self-reliance has been our obsession, not just an objective. That is
evident from our strides in satellite technology and launcher
technology. India’s space industry is growing in value chain. Capacity
building in academia has been a priority to foster frontline research.
Chandrayaan-1 and Mangalyaan were India’s inflection points on
convergence of space science, technology, engineering and mathematics
for precise navigation for deep space missions,” the former ISRO chief
said in his address at the 21st convocation of Indian Institute of
Technology, Guwahati.


He said India’s space endeavour is ranked only next to the efforts of
USA, Russia, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan and China. According to
Radhakrishnan, Chandrayaan-2 will be a role model for reaching the
benefits of this frontline technology for economic growth, national
development and environmental sustainability.



“The hallmark of Indian space programme is to help humankind through
earth-oriented satellites for communication, remote sensing and
navigation along with an effective institutional tie up with all
stakeholders,” he said. “The national challenge is how well we
channelise the inventive power of our demographic dividend in the
frontiers of science and inter-disciplinary team-efforts on relevant and
substantial problems besides inspiring and facilitating them to
generate scientific and technical knowledge that would manifest as
cost-effective and reliable processes, products and services with
utility in the domestic and global market place.”
He said renewed interest for engagement in science is quite discernible
across the length and breadth of the country. “We also have a sterling
political leadership, a renewed industrial urge, an enabling ambience
and a willto-do-it by all stakeholders for a leap forward.” He said it
is ‘startling’ that India continues to be a major importer of capital
goods, aircraft, modern transport systems, electronic components and
products, computers, biomedical equipment as well as vital systems for
strategic sector.


I wish to be part of the mission. Please let me know the procedure to apply for the mission.

comments (0)
LESSON 3067 Sun 21 Jul 2019 https://www.burmese-art.com/contact Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES including Classical Sanskrit. Built a Pagoda at 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore, Karnataka State, India for teaching Meditation in Buddha’s own words. Also to create the entire teachings of the Buddha in the latest 7D laser Hologram format for the welfare, happiness, peace to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Teachings of Buddha The Buddha’s last days are described in the Pali text called the Great Parinibbana Sutta (Parinibbana meaning “completed nibbana”). in 36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართულ,38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית 45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 12:04 am

LESSON 3067 Sun 21 Jul 2019

https://www.burmese-art.com/contact


Analytic
Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES including Classical Sanskrit.

Built
a Pagoda at 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore,
Karnataka State, India for teaching Meditation in Buddha’s own words.
Also to create the entire teachings of the Buddha in the latest 7D laser
Hologram format for the welfare, happiness, peace to attain Eternal
Bliss as Final Goal.










Teachings of Buddha


The Buddha’s last days are described in the Pali text called the Great
Parinibbana Sutta (Parinibbana meaning “completed nibbana”).

in 36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართულ,
38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית

45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NT7PQ4JK_bQ
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Published on Nov 14, 2012
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36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
36) Galego clásico clásico galego,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[O don da verdade supera a todos os outros agasallos]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
Homenaxe ao Bendito, Un Realizado e Completamente Despertado


“Vaia, para o ben dos moitos, pola felicidade dos moitos, por compaixón
polo mundo, polo benestar, polo ben e pola felicidade dos deuses e dos
homes. Que ningún de vós saia na mesma dirección Ensine o Dhamma que é
fermoso no comezo, no medio e no final. Explique tanto a letra como o
espírito da vida santa cumpridos completamente e perfectamente puros.
(Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) “

Agradecido polos seguintes agasallos legados polo Dhamma:

O don da paz
O don do propósito
O don do perdón
O agasallo da metta
O don de karuna

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htm
Os últimos días do Buda descríbense no texto de Pali chamado o Gran
Parinibbana Sutta (Parinibbana que significa “nibbana completado”). O
nibbana vivo do Buda logrado durante o espertar á morte transfórmase a
nibbana sen residuo humano. O auto posuído, sen dor psicolóxica, sen
medo polos pensamentos da morte, o Buda identifica catro lugares da
futura peregrinación: os lugares do seu nacemento, o primeiro sermón de
espertar e a morte. “Pero non te estorgues por honrar os meus restos”,
engadiu.

Ao chegar á aldea de Kusinara, nas mallas do outro lado
do río Hiranyavati, o Buda percibiu que o seu fin se aproximaba. Dixo a
Ananda que lle preparase unha cama coa cabeza virada cara ao norte entre
dúas árbores salinas. Ananda que lle serviu durante 20 anos estaba
profundamente chat. “¡Non te afloje, Ananda!”, Consólelle o Buda. “A
natureza das cousas determina que debemos deixar os queridos. Todo o que
nace é o seu propio cese. Eu tamén, Ananda, eu estou de idade, e chea
de anos, a miña viaxe está a rematar, estou a 80 anos de idade, e así
como un carro desgastado só se pode facer con moito coidado adicional
para avanzar, así tamén o corpo do Buda só pode seguir coidando con
moito máis ”.

Como desexou o Buda, as mallas de Kusinara foron
informadas da súa morte inminente, e viñeron a respectarlle. Entre eles
atopábase un mendicante chamado Subhadra, un Brahman de 120 anos. Ananda
fora anteriormente desviado, pero cando o Buda oíu este chamouno ao seu
lado. Foi admitido no Sangha (orde budista) e inmediatamente despois da
súa conversión faleceu.

Cando se achegou o terceiro cuarto da
noite, o Buda preguntou aos seus discípulos tres veces se había dúbidas
sobre as ensinanzas ou as disciplinas. Os monxes quedaron en silencio.
“Ningún, Ananda, ten dúbidas. Todo acabará por espertar.

O Buda
dixo entón as súas últimas palabras: “Escoite, Monxes, digo isto: todas
as cousas condicionadas están suxeitas a decadencia, esforzanse con
dilixencia para a súa liberación”.

Despois pasou a absorcións de
meditación e entrou en Mahaparinibbana (o gran falecemento). Foi a lúa
chea do mes de Vaisakha (abril-maio) e probablemente o ano entre 487 e
483 aC. Con todo, segundo a tradición de Sri Lanka e outros países do
sueste, crese que o Buda entrou en Parinibbana en 544-543 aC.


Durante os seguintes seis días o corpo do Gran Mestre foi posto en
estado. Preparáronse para o seu funeral baixo a dirección de Anirudha,
primo e seguidor do Buda. O sétimo día, despois de honrar o corpo con
perfumes e guirlandas, foi levado ao Mukutbandhana Chaitya, o sagrado
santuario das Mallas. A última cerimonia foi realizada por Maha Kasapa e
o corpo do Gran Mestre foi incinerado co debido honor. Cando se
completou a cremación, as mallas recolleron as cinzas como reliquias,
que consistían nun óso do cranio, dentes e cubertas interiores e
externas. As reliquias foron distribuídas en oito partes entre os
representantes dos outros oito reinos que constituían o antigo norte da
India. Estas reliquias foron subdivididas de novo despois de que o rei
Ashoka decidise construír 84.000 stupas.

Hoxe estas reliquias están consagradas en estupas en toda Asia.

Templo de Mahaparinibbana, Kusinara.
O actual templo foi construído polo goberno indio en 1956 como parte da
conmemoración do ano 2.500 dos Mahaparinbbans ou 2500 BE (era budista).
Dentro deste templo, pódese ver a famosa imaxe de Buda recoñecida que
se atopa no seu lado dereito coa cabeza cara ao norte. A estatua ten 6,1
m de longo e descansa sobre un sofá de pedra. [ver enlace]

Na
parte dianteira do sofá hai tres esculturas que crían representar o Ven.
Ananda preto dos pés, Ven. Subhadda no medio e Ven. Dabba Malla na
esquina.No centro hai unha inscrición do século V dC, que indica que a
estatua era “un regalo do monxe Haribala do Mahavihara e foi formada por
Dinna”. Esta imaxe de Buda reclinada de 1.500 anos foi executada dun
bloque de pedra arenisca vermella de Mathura durante o período Gupta.
Foi descuberto en 1876 en condicións degradadas e os fragmentos
dispersos foron recompilados con éxito.

A excavación mostrou que o
templo orixinal do sitio consistía nun salón oblongo e unha antecámara
con entrada cara a oeste. Unha gran cantidade de ladrillos con
superficies talladas que se atopaban entre os desperdicios indicaban que
o templo tiña un teito con bóveda de barril que non era distinto do do
templo moderno.


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Published on Apr 9, 2015
ქართული მულტფილმი კომბლე.

რეჟისორი გიორგი (გივი) კასრაძეგიორგი (გივი) კასრაძე
Category
Film & Animation

37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
37) კლასიკური ქართული-კლასიკური ქართული,

საბა დანამ დმან დმან ჯინათის
[ჭეშმარიტების საჩუქარი ყველა სხვა საჩუქარს აღემატება]

“ნამოს ტასას ბჰაგავავტო არჰათო სამმა-შამუბუდას”
ნეტარ ერთი, მოხარული და სრულად გაღვიძებული


“წადი, მრავალთა სიკეთისთვის, მრავალთა ბედნიერების გამო, ქვეყნიერების
თანაგრძნობით, კეთილდღეობისთვის, კეთილსა და ბედნიერებას, როგორც ღმერთებს,
ისე კაცებს. დიმიმის სწავლა, რომელიც ლამაზია დასაწყისში, შუაში და ბოლოს,
განმარტეთ როგორც წმინდა წერილი სულისა და სრულიად სრულად შესრულებული და
სრულყოფილი სუფთაა (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) “

დიმადის მიერ ჩემთვის დამახასიათებელი შემდეგი საჩუქრებისთვის მადლობელი:

მშვიდობის საჩუქარი
მიზანი საჩუქარი
პატიება საჩუქრად
მეტას საჩუქარი
კარანის საჩუქარი

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htm
ბუდას უკანასკნელი დღეები აღწერილია პალის ტექსტში, სახელწოდებით The
Great Parinibbana Sutta (Parinibbana meaning “completed nibbana”). ბუდას
ცხოვრება Nibbana მიღწეული დროს გაღრმავების დროს გარდაცვალების
გარდაქმნას nibbana გარეშე ადამიანის ნარჩენების. თვითმკვლელობა,
ფსიქოლოგიური ტკივილის გარეშე, სიკვდილის ფიქრებიდან გამომდინარე, ბუდამ
განსაზღვრავს მომავალი მომლოცველთა ოთხი ადგილი: მისი დაბადების ადგილები,
გაღვიძება პირველი ქადაგება და სიკვდილი. “მაგრამ არ შეაფერხებს თავს მიერ
ჩემი ნაშთები,” დასძინა მან.

მდინარეების ჰირანიასის მთაზე მდებარე
მუსასის სოფელ კუცინარაში ჩასვლისას ბუდამ გააცნობიერა, რომ მისი დასასრული
სწრაფად უახლოვდება. მან განუცხადა ანანდას, რომ მისთვის საწოლის
მომზადება ორი ხელმძღვანელისგან ჩრდილოეთით აღმოჩნდა. ანანდა, რომელიც მას
20 წლის განმავლობაში ემსახურებოდა, ძალიან დაარღვია. “ნუ მწუხარე,
ანანდა!” ბუდას კონსოლები მას. “ბუნების რამ კარნახობს, რომ ჩვენ უნდა
დატოვონ იმ ძვირფასია ჩვენთვის. ყველაფერი დაიბეჭდა საკუთარი შეწყვეტა.
მეც, ანანდა, ძველი და წლების სავსე ვარ, ჩემი მოგზაურობა ახლოვდება, 80
წლის ასაკში ვბრუნდები, ისევე, როგორც ნახმარი კარტი, მხოლოდ უფრო მეტი
ზრუნვაა გასაკეთებელი, ამდენად, ბუდას სხეული მხოლოდ დაცული იქნება უფრო
მეტი ზრუნვით “.

ბუდას მიერ სასურველმა, კუსინარას მალებმა
შეატყობინეს მის მოსალოდნელ სიკვდილს და მისთვის პატივი მიაგეს. მათ შორის
იყო 120 წლის ბჰამანი, სახელად სუბჰადრა. მან ადრე ანანდა უარი თქვა,
მაგრამ როცა ბუდამ ეს ამბავი მოისმინა, მან თავის მხარეს უწოდა. მან აღიარა
Sangha (ბუდისტი წესრიგი) და დაუყოვნებლივ მას შემდეგ, რაც გარდაიცვალა.


როდესაც ღამის მესამე კვარტალში მიუახლოვდა, ბუდამ სთხოვა მოწაფეებს
სამჯერ, თუ იყო ეჭვები სწავლების ან დისციპლინების შესახებ. ბუკიკუსი
დუმილს იდგა. “არა ერთი, Ananda, აქვს misgivings. ყველაფერი საბოლოოდ
გაღრმავდება.

ბუდამ შემდეგ თქვა, რომ მისი სიტყვები, “მოუსმინე,
ბაიკუსი, ვამბობ ამას: ყველა განპირობებული რამ ექვემდებარება
განადგურებას, გააღიზიანებთ თქვენი გათავისუფლებისთვის”.

მას შემდეგ
ჩაუტარდა მედიტაციური შთანთქმის და შევიდა Mahaparinibbana (დიდი გავლის
დაშორებით). ეს იყო ვაშაკის თვეში (აპრილი-მაისი) სავსე მთვარე და წელიწადი
იყო ალბათ 487-დან 483-მდე. თუმცა, შრი-ლანკას ტრადიციისა და სხვა
სამხრეთ-აღმოსავლეთის ქვეყნების მიხედვით, ბუდი 525-543 წლებში პარიინბბაში
შევიდა.

მომდევნო ექვსი დღის განმავლობაში დიდი ბატონის ცხედარი
სახელმწიფოს მდგომარეობაში იყო. მისი დაკრძალვისთვის მზადება გაკეთდა
ანრიუდას მიმართულებით, ბუდის ბიძაშვილი და მიმდევარი. მეშვიდე დღეს,
სხეულის პარფიუმერულ ნივთებთან ერთად, მალთაბანჰან ჭატიას, მალასის წმინდა
ტაძარში გადაიყვანეს. ბოლო ცერემონია შესრულდა მაჰას კასპასა და დიდი
მეუფის ცხედარი სათანადო პატივისით დაიღალა. როდესაც დაკრძალვა დამთავრდა,
მწკრივებმა შეაგროვეს მთები, რომლებიც იყენებენ ქალას ძვლებს, კბილებს,
შინაურ და გარე ბრჭყალებს. აქედან რვავე აქციებს გადაეცათ რვა სამეფოს
წარმომადგენლები, რომლებიც წარმოადგენდნენ უძველეს ჩრდილოეთ ინდოეთს. ეს
ხუროთმოძღვრები კვლავ განთავისუფლდნენ მეფე აშოკოს 84,000 სუფსის
ასაშენებლად.

დღეს ეს სიწმინდე აზიის მასშტაბითაა განლაგებული.

მაჰაპარნიბბაბანის ტაძარი, კუსინარა.
დღევანდელი ტაძარი აშენდა ინდოეთის მთავრობას 1956 წელს, როგორც
მაჰაპარნბბანსის 2,500 წლის ხსენების ან 2500 BE (ბუდისტური ერა) ხსენების
ნაწილი. ამ ტაძრის შიგნით, ხედავთ ცნობილ მღელვარე ბუდას სურათს, მარჯვენა
მხარეს თავსა და ჩრდილოეთით. ქანდაკება 6.1 მეტრია და ქვის კვანშია
განთავსებული. [იხილეთ ბმული]

კუბის წინ სამი სკულპტურაა, რომელსაც
სჯერა, რომ ვენის. Ananda ახლოს ფეხები, Ven. სუბჰადდა შუა და ვენის Dabba
Malla კუთხეში.ცენტრში არის მე -5 საუკუნეში წარწერილი წარწერა, რომელშიც
აღნიშნულია, რომ ეს ქანდაკება “მაჰავიჰარის” მონასის ჰარიბალას საჩუქრად და
“დინას” მიერ იყო შექმნილი. ეს 1500 წლის ბრმა გამოსახულება გუპტას
პერიოდში წითელი ქვიშაქვის ერთ-ერთი ბლოკიდან მოკლეს. აღმოჩენილი იქნა 1876
წელს დანგრეული მდგომარეობის დროს და გაფანტული ფრაგმენტები წარმატებით
ხორციელდებოდა.

გათხრების შედეგად დადგინდა, რომ დედამიწის
ორიგინალური ტაძარი შედგებოდა დასასვენებელი დარბაზისა და ანტექამბერის
დასავლეთით მის შესასვლელთან. დიდი რაოდენობით აგური ნაგებობები, რომლებიც
აღმოჩენილია ნაგავს შორის, აღინიშნა, რომ ტაძარს ჰქონდა ბარელზე დაფარული
სახურავი, რომელიც არ იყო განსხვავებული თანამედროვე ტაძარში.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hrZt_sxJcY
Animated Gif mit Photoshop erstellen. [German/Deutsch]
SnuffsTuts
Published on Dec 4, 2009
http://snuffey.bplaced.net mein blog
Abonnieren bitte!

Hier zeige ich euch ganz einfach wie ihr in Photoshop CS3 Animated Gifs erstellt.
Auch für Anfänger geeignet.
Ich zeige euch alles bis zum speichern auf dem Computer.
Category
Howto & Style

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
38) Klassisches Deutsch,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[Das Geschenk der Wahrheit übertrifft alle anderen Geschenke]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
Hommage an den Erhabenen und Erweckten


“Geht hinaus zum Wohl der Vielen, zum Glück der Vielen, aus Mitgefühl
für die Welt, zum Wohlergehen, zum Guten und zum Glück der Götter und
Menschen. Lasst keinen von euch in die gleiche Richtung gehen Lehren Sie
das Dhamma, das am Anfang, in der Mitte und am Ende schön ist. Erklären
Sie sowohl den Buchstaben als auch den Geist des heiligen Lebens
vollständig erfüllt und vollkommen rein (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59).

Dankbar für die folgenden Geschenke, die mir der Dhamma hinterlassen hat:

Das Geschenk des Friedens
Das Geschenk des Zwecks
Das Geschenk der Vergebung
Das Geschenk von Metta
Das Geschenk von Karuna

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htm
Die letzten Tage des Buddhas werden im Pali-Text als “Great Parinibbana
Sutta” (Parinibbana bedeutet “fertiges Nibbana”) beschrieben. Das
lebende Nibbana des Buddha, das beim Erwachen im Tod erreicht wurde,
verwandelt sich ohne menschliche Überreste in Nibbana. Der Buddha
besitzt sich selbst, ohne psychische Schmerzen, und ist von den Gedanken
des Todes unberührt. Er identifiziert vier Orte zukünftiger
Pilgerreisen: die Orte seiner Geburt, der ersten Predigt des Erwachens
und des Todes. “Aber hindere dich nicht daran, meine sterblichen
Überreste zu ehren”, fügte er hinzu.

Als der Buddha das Dorf
Kusinara der Mallas auf der anderen Seite des Hiranyavati-Flusses
erreichte, erkannte er, dass sein Ende bald näher rückte. Er forderte
Ananda auf, ein Bett für ihn vorzubereiten, dessen Kopf zwischen zwei
Salzbäumen nach Norden gedreht war. Ananda, die ihn 20 Jahre lang
bediente, war zutiefst verärgert. “Trauere nicht, Ananda!” Tröstet ihn
der Buddha. „Die Natur der Dinge schreibt vor, dass wir diese lieben uns
überlassen müssen. Alles Geborene enthält sein eigenes Aufhören. Auch
ich, Ananda, bin alt und voller Jahre, meine Reise neigt sich dem Ende
zu, ich werde 80 Jahre alt, und so wie ein abgenutzter Karren nur mit
viel zusätzlicher Sorgfalt in Bewegung gesetzt werden kann, Auch der
Körper des Buddha kann nur mit viel zusätzlicher Sorgfalt in Gang
gehalten werden. “

Auf Wunsch des Buddha wurden die Mallas von
Kusinara über seinen bevorstehenden Tod informiert und kamen, um ihm
Respekt zu zollen. Unter ihnen befand sich ein Bettler namens Subhadra,
ein 120 Jahre alter Brahmane. Er war zuvor von Ananda abgewiesen worden,
aber als der Buddha dies hörte, rief er ihn an seine Seite. Er wurde in
den Sangha (buddhistischer Orden) aufgenommen und starb unmittelbar
nach seiner Bekehrung.

Als sich das dritte Viertel der Nacht
näherte, fragte der Buddha seine Schüler dreimal, ob es irgendwelche
Zweifel an den Lehren oder den Disziplinen gebe. Die Bhikkhus schwiegen.
„Nicht einer, Ananda, hat Bedenken. Alle werden irgendwann das Erwachen
erreichen.

Der Buddha sagte dann seine letzten Worte: „Hör zu,
Bhikkhus, ich sage dies: Alle konditionierten Dinge unterliegen dem
Verfall, bemühen sich mit Fleiß um deine Befreiung.“

Dann ging er
in meditative Absorptionen über und trat in Mahaparinibbana (das große
Vergehen) ein. Es war der Vollmond des Monats Vaisakha (April-Mai) und
das Jahr lag wahrscheinlich zwischen 487 und 483 v. Nach der Tradition
Sri Lankas und anderer südöstlicher Länder soll der Buddha jedoch
544-543 v. Chr. Nach Parinibbana gekommen sein.

Für die nächsten
sechs Tage wurde der Körper des Großen Meisters in Stand gelegt. Unter
der Leitung von Anirudha, einem Cousin und Anhänger Buddhas, wurden
Vorbereitungen für seine Beerdigung getroffen. Am siebten Tag, nachdem
der Körper mit Parfums und Girlanden geehrt worden war, wurde er zum
Mukutbandhana Chaitya, dem heiligen Schrein der Mallas, gebracht. Die
letzte Zeremonie wurde von Maha Kasapa durchgeführt und der Körper des
Großen Meisters wurde mit gebührender Ehre eingeäschert. Als die
Einäscherung abgeschlossen war, sammelten die Mallas die Asche als
Reliquien, die aus einem Schädelknochen, Zähnen sowie inneren und
äußeren Leichenteilen bestand. Die Reliquien wurden dann unter den
Vertretern der anderen acht Königreiche, die das alte Nordindien
bildeten, in acht Aktien aufgeteilt. Diese Relikte wurden erneut
unterteilt, nachdem König Ashoka beschlossen hatte, 84.000 Stupas zu
bauen.

Heute sind diese Relikte in ganz Asien in Stupas verwahrt.

Mahaparinibbana Tempel, Kusinara.
Der heutige Tempel wurde 1956 von der indischen Regierung im Rahmen des
Gedenkens an das 2500. Jahr der Mahaparinbbans oder 2500 BE
(Buddhistisches Zeitalter) erbaut. Innerhalb dieses Tempels kann man das
berühmte Reclinging Buddha-Bild sehen, das auf seiner rechten Seite mit
dem Kopf nach Norden liegt. Die Statue ist 6,1 m lang und ruht auf
einer Steincouch. [siehe Link]

Auf der Vorderseite der Couch
befinden sich drei Skulpturen, von denen angenommen wird, dass sie Ven
darstellen. Ananda in der Nähe der Füße, Ven. Subhadda in der Mitte und
Ven. Dabba Malla an der Ecke.In der Mitte befindet sich eine Inschrift
aus dem 5. Jahrhundert nach Christus, die besagt, dass die Statue „ein
Geschenk des Mönchs Haribala vom Mahavihara war und von Dinna gestaltet
wurde“. Dieses 1500 Jahre alte liegende Buddha-Bild wurde während der
Gupta-Zeit aus einem Block roter Sandsteinbrühe von Mathura ausgeführt.
Es wurde 1876 in einem baufälligen Zustand entdeckt und die verstreuten
Fragmente wurden erfolgreich zusammengesetzt.

Ausgrabungen
ergaben, dass der ursprüngliche Tempel auf dem Gelände aus einer
länglichen Halle und einer Vorkammer bestand, deren Eingang nach Westen
ausgerichtet war. Eine große Anzahl von Ziegeln mit geschnitzten
Oberflächen, die im Müll gefunden wurden, deuteten darauf hin, dass der
Tempel ein Tonnengewölbedach hatte, das dem des modernen Tempels nicht
unähnlich war.


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Ζουζούνια Παιδικό Πάρτι | Κλασσικά Ελληνικά Τραγούδια | Greek Nursery Rhymes | Paidika Tragoudia
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Ζουζούνια Παιδικό Πάρτι | Κλασσικά Ελληνικά Τραγούδια | Greek Nursery Rhymes | Paidika Tragoudia
Category
Film & Animation

39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
39) Κλασική Ελληνική-Κλασική English,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[Το δώρο της Αλήθειας υπερέχει όλα τα άλλα δώρα]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
Αφιέρωμα στον ευλογημένο, ολοκληρωμένο και πλήρως αφυπνισμένο


“Προχωρήστε, για το καλό των πολλών, για την ευτυχία των πολλών, από τη
συμπόνια για τον κόσμο, για την ευημερία, το καλό και την ευτυχία των
θεών και των ανδρών. Διδάξτε το Dhamma, το οποίο είναι όμορφο στην αρχή,
στη μέση και στο τέλος, και εξηγήστε τόσο το γράμμα όσο και το πνεύμα
της ιερής ζωής που πληρούνται πλήρως και τελείως καθαρά (Anattalakkhana
Sutta SN 22.59) “

Ευγνώμων για τα ακόλουθα δώρα που μου κληροδοτήθηκαν από το Dhamma:

Το δώρο της ειρήνης
Το δώρο του σκοπού
Το δώρο της συγχώρεσης
Το δώρο της μέτας
Το δώρο του καρούνα

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htm
Οι τελευταίες μέρες του Βούδα περιγράφονται στο κείμενο του Παλιού που
ονομάζεται “Μεγάλη Παριζιάννα Sutta” (Parinibbana meaning “completed
nibbana”). Η ζωντανή nibbana του Βούδα που επιτεύχθηκε κατά τη διάρκεια
της αφύπνισης κατά το θάνατο μεταμορφώνεται σε nibbana χωρίς ανθρώπινο
υπόλειμμα. Ο μόνος που κατέχει, χωρίς ψυχολογικό πόνο, ανυπόφορος από
τις σκέψεις του θανάτου, ο Βούδας προσδιορίζει τέσσερις θέσεις
μελλοντικού προσκυνήματος: τους τόπους της γέννησής του, τον πρώτο
κήρυγμα αφύπνισης και τον θάνατο. “Αλλά μην το εμποδίζετε να τιμάτε τα
απομεινάρια μου”, πρόσθεσε.

Όταν έφτασε στο χωριό Κουσινάρα του
Μαλλάς από την άλλη πλευρά του ποταμού Hiranyavati, ο Βούδας
συνειδητοποίησε ότι το τέλος του πλησίαζε γρήγορα. Είπε στην Ανάντα να
προετοιμάσει ένα κρεβάτι γι ‘αυτόν με το κεφάλι στραμμένο προς τα βόρεια
ανάμεσα σε δύο δέντρα. Η Ανάντα που τον υπηρέτησε για 20 χρόνια ήταν
βαθιά αναστατωμένος. “Μη λυπάστε, Ανάντα!” Ο Βούδας τον παρηγορεί. “Η
φύση των πραγμάτων υπαγορεύει ότι πρέπει να αφήσουμε τα αγαπητά μας. Όλα
όσα γεννιούνται έχουν τη δική τους παύση. Και εγώ, η Ανάντα, γερνάω και
γεμάτη χρόνια, το ταξίδι μου έρχεται στο κλείσιμό της, γυρίζω 80 ετών
και ακριβώς όπως ένα φθαρμένο καλάθι μπορεί μόνο με πολύ περισσότερη
προσοχή να γίνει για να προχωρήσει, έτσι και το σώμα του Βούδα μπορεί να
συνεχίζεται μόνο με πολύ περισσότερη φροντίδα ».

Όπως επιθυμούσε
ο Βούδας, ο Μάλλας της Κουσινάρας ενημερώθηκε για τον επερχόμενο θάνατό
του και ήρθαν να τον αποδώσουν σεβασμούς. Ανάμεσά τους ήταν ένας
μαντικανιστής που ονομάζεται Subhadra, ένας 120χρονος Brahmin. Είχε
προηγουμένως στραφεί από την Ανάντα, αλλά όταν ο Βούδας το είχε ακούσει,
τον κάλεσε στο πλευρό του. Έγινε δεκτός στη Σανγκά (βουδιστική τάξη)
και αμέσως μετά τη μετατροπή του πέθανε.

Όταν πλησίασε το τρίτο
τέταρτο της νύχτας, ο Βούδας ρώτησε τους μαθητές του τρεις φορές εάν
υπήρχαν αμφιβολίες σχετικά με τις διδασκαλίες ή τους κλάδους. Ο Bhikkhus
ήταν σιωπηλός. “Δεν υπάρχει κανένας, η Ανάντα, έχει αμφιβολίες. Όλα
τελικά θα φτάσουν στο αίσθημα της αφύπνισης.

Ο Βούδας είπε τότε
τα τελευταία του λόγια: “Ακούστε, Bhikkhus, το λέω αυτό: όλα τα
εξαρτήματα υπόκεινται σε φθορά, προσπαθήστε με επιμέλεια για την
απελευθέρωσή σας”.

Στη συνέχεια πέρασε σε διαλογιστικές
απορροφήσεις και εισήλθε στη Μαχαπαρινιμπάνα (το μεγάλο θάνατο). Ήταν η
πανσέληνος του μήνα Vaisakha (Απρίλιος-Μάιος) και το έτος ήταν πιθανώς
μεταξύ 487 και 483 π.Χ. Ωστόσο, σύμφωνα με την παράδοση της Σρι Λάνκα
και άλλες νοτιοανατολικές χώρες, πιστεύεται ότι ο Βούδας εισήλθε στην
Παρινιμπάνα το 544-543 π.Χ.

Για τις επόμενες έξι ημέρες το σώμα
του Μεγάλου Διδασκάλου τέθηκε σε κατάσταση. Προετοιμασίες έγιναν για την
κηδεία του κάτω από την καθοδήγηση του Anirudha ένας ξάδελφος και
οπαδός του Βούδα. Την έβδομη ημέρα, αφού τιμήσε το σώμα με αρώματα και
γιρλάντες, μεταφέρθηκε στο Mukutbandhana Chaitya, το ιερό τέμενος του
Mallas. Η τελευταία τελετή εκτελέστηκε από τον Maha Kasapa και το σώμα
του Μεγάλου Διδασκάλου θερμάνθηκε με μεγάλη τιμή. Όταν ολοκληρώθηκε η
αποτέφρωση, οι πέτρες συλλέχθηκαν από τους Μαλλάς ως λείψανα, τα οποία
αποτελούσαν ένα οστό κρανίου, δόντια και εσωτερικά και εξωτερικά
καλύμματα. Τα λείψανα στη συνέχεια διανεμήθηκαν σε οκτώ μετοχές μεταξύ
των αντιπροσώπων των άλλων οκτώ βασιλείων που αποτελούσαν την αρχαία
βόρεια Ινδία. Αυτά τα λείψανα υποδιαιρούνταν και πάλι αφού ο βασιλιάς
Ασόκα αποφάσισε να χτίσει 84.000 στάβες.

Σήμερα αυτά τα κειμήλια κατοχυρώνονται σε στάσους στην Ασία.

Ναός Mahaparinibbana, Kusinara.
Ο σημερινός ναός χτίστηκε από την ινδική κυβέρνηση το 1956 ως μέρος του
εορτασμού των 2.500 χρόνων των Mahaparinbbans ή 2500 BE (Βουδιστική
Εποχή). Μέσα σ ‘αυτό το ναό, μπορεί κανείς να δει τη διάσημη εικόνα του
Βούδα Reachinging που βρίσκεται στη δεξιά πλευρά του με το κεφάλι προς
τα βόρεια. Το άγαλμα έχει μήκος 6,1 μ. Και στηρίζεται σε έναν πέτρινο
καναπέ. [βλ. σύνδεσμο]

Στο μπροστινό μέρος του καναπέ είναι τρία
γλυπτά, που πιστεύεται ότι αντιπροσωπεύουν τον Βεν. Ανάντα κοντά στα
πόδια, ο Βεν. Subhadda στη μέση και Ven. Dabba Malla στη γωνία.Στο
κέντρο υπάρχει μια επιγραφή του 5ου αι. Μ.Χ., η οποία δηλώνει ότι το
άγαλμα ήταν “δώρο του μοναχού Χαριμπάλα της Μαχαβιχάρα και διαμορφώθηκε
από τη Δίννα”. Αυτή η εικόνα 1500 ετών που ξαπλώνει στον Βούδα
εκτελείται από ένα μπλοκ κόκκινου ψαμμίτη που εισέρχεται από τη Mathura
κατά την περίοδο Gupta. Ανακαλύφθηκε το 1876 σε κατασπαρμένη κατάσταση
και τα διάσπαρτα τεμάχια συντέθηκαν επιτυχώς μαζί.

Η εκσκαφή
έδειξε ότι ο αρχικός ναός στην περιοχή αποτελούταν από μια επιμήκη
αίθουσα και έναν προθάλαμο με την είσοδό της στραμμένη προς τα δυτικά.
Μεγάλος αριθμός τούβλων με σκαλισμένες επιφάνειες που βρέθηκαν ανάμεσα
στα σκουπίδια έδειξε ότι ο ναός είχε καμινάδα-θολωτή οροφή όχι αντίθετη
με εκείνη του σύγχρονου ναού.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=id5ytvzA5_E
garvigujarat60
Published on Aug 17, 2012
Gujarati Movie Tanariri (1975) - Staring : Sohrab Modi, Kanan Kaushal,
Bindu, Naresh Kumar, Arvind Pandya, Urmila Bhatt, Rajiv- Singers :
Mahendra Kapoor, Asha Bhonsle, Manna Dey, Usha Mangeshkar, Sulochna
Vyas, Kamal Barot, Manhar, Hansa Dave, Maheshkumar, Laxmiprasad &
Govindprasad - Lyrics : Kanti-Ashok - Music : Mahesh-Naresh - Producer
& Director : Chandrakant Sanghani
Category
Film & Animation
Music in this video
Learn more
Listen ad-free with YouTube Premium
Song
Saat Suro Na (tarana)
Artist
Various Artists
Album
Son Kansari / Tanariri
Licensed to YouTube by
saregama (on behalf of Saregama); The Royalty Network (Publishing), Broma 16

40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
40) ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,

સબ્બા દાનમ ધામ દાનમ જિનીતિ
[સત્યની ભેટ અન્ય તમામ ભેટોથી વધારે છે]

“નમો તસ્સા ભાગવતો અરાવતો સમમા-સંમ્ધધસ”
બ્લેસિડ વન, સમર્પિત અને સંપૂર્ણપણે જાગૃત એક માટે સમર્પણ


“ઘણા લોકોની સુખ માટે, ઘણાની સુખ માટે, દુનિયા માટે દયાથી, કલ્યાણ માટે,
બંને દેવતાઓ અને માણસોની સુખ અને સુખ માટે આગળ વધો. તમારામાંથી કોઈ પણ એક જ
દિશામાં જવું નહીં. શરૂઆતમાં, મધ્ય અને અંતમાં સુંદર જે ધમમ શીખવો. આ પત્ર
અને પવિત્ર જીવનની ભાવના સંપૂર્ણ રીતે પૂર્ણ અને સંપૂર્ણ શુદ્ધતા સમજાવે
છે. (અનંતલખાના સુત્ત એસ.એન. 22.59) “

ધમ્મા દ્વારા મને નીચેના ભેટો માટે આભારી:

શાંતિની ભેટ
હેતુ ની ભેટ
ક્ષમાની ભેટ
મેટા ની ભેટ
કરુણા ની ભેટ

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htm
બુદ્ધના છેલ્લા દિવસો પાલી લખાણમાં વર્ણવવામાં આવ્યા છે જેને ગ્રેટ
પરિનિબાન સુત્ત (પરિિનિબન એટલે “પૂર્ણ નિબ્બાન”) કહેવામાં આવે છે. મૃત્યુ
સમયે જાગૃતિ દરમિયાન પ્રાપ્ત બુદ્ધનું જીવંત નિબ્બાન માનવ અવશેષ વિના
નિબ્બાનમાં પરિવર્તિત થાય છે. આત્મવિશ્વાસ વગર, આત્મવિશ્વાસ વગર,
આત્મવિશ્વાસ વગર, આત્મવિશ્વાસથી મૃત્યુ પામ્યા વિના, બુદ્ધ ભવિષ્યના તીર્થ
સ્થળની ચાર સ્થાનોને ઓળખે છે: તેમના જન્મની સાઇટ્સ, સૌ પ્રથમ ઉપદેશ અને
મૃત્યુ. “પરંતુ મારા અવશેષોને માન આપીને પોતાને અટકાવશો નહીં,” તેમણે
ઉમેર્યું.

હિરણ્યવતી નદીના આગળના બાજુ મલ્લાસના કુસુનાર ગામમાં
પહોંચ્યા પછી, બુદ્ધને સમજાયું કે તેનો અંત ઝડપથી નજીક આવી રહ્યો છે. તેણે
આનંદને તેના માટે પથારી તૈયાર કરવા કહ્યું, તેના માથાને ઉત્તર તરફ તરફ
વળ્યા અને બે સલગમ વૃક્ષો વચ્ચે. આનંદ જેણે 20 વર્ષ સુધી તેની સેવા કરી હતી
તે ખૂબ જ અસ્વસ્થ હતો. “દુઃખી ન થાઓ, આનંદ!” બુદ્ધ તેને સહમત કરે છે.
“વસ્તુઓની પ્રકૃતિ સૂચવે છે કે આપણે આપણા માટે તે પ્રિય છોડીને જવું જોઈએ.
જન્મેલા દરેકમાં તેની પોતાની સમાપ્તિ છે. હું પણ, આનંદ, વૃદ્ધ થઈ ગયો છું,
અને વર્ષોથી ભરાયેલો છું, મારી મુસાફરી તેના નજીક છે, હું 80 વર્ષની વયે
ફેરવી રહ્યો છું, અને જેમ પહેરવામાં આવેલો કાર્ટ ફક્ત સાથે જ આગળ વધવા માટે
કરી શકાય છે, એટલું જ નહીં બુદ્ધના શરીરને ઘણી વધારાની સંભાળ સાથે જ
રાખવામાં આવે છે. “

બુદ્ધ દ્વારા ઇચ્છા મુજબ, કુસીનારના મલ્લાને
તેમની આજીવિકાના મૃત્યુ વિશે જાણ કરવામાં આવી હતી, અને તેઓ તેમના પ્રત્યે
માન આપવા આવ્યા હતા. તેમાં 120 વર્ષનો બ્રાહ્મણ સુભાત્રા નામનો એક સંવેદક
હતો. તે પહેલા આનંદ દ્વારા પાછો ફર્યો હતો, પરંતુ જ્યારે બુદ્ધે આ
સાંભળ્યું ત્યારે તેણે તેને પોતાની તરફ બોલાવ્યો. તેમને સંઘ (બૌદ્ધ
ક્રમમાં) માં દાખલ કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા અને તેમના પરિવર્તન પછી તરત જ તેઓ
મૃત્યુ પામ્યા હતા.

જ્યારે રાત્રે ત્રીજી ક્વાર્ટર આવી, ત્યારે
બુદ્ધે તેના શિષ્યોને ત્રણ વખત પૂછ્યું કે જો ઉપદેશો અથવા શિસ્ત વિશે કોઈ
શંકા હોય તો. ભીખુખસ ચૂપ રહ્યો. “કોઈ એક, આનંદ, ગેરમાર્ગે દોરતા નથી. બધા જ
આખરે જાગૃત થઈ જશે.

પછી બુદ્ધે તેના અંતિમ શબ્દો કહ્યું, “સાંભળો,
ભીખુખસ, હું આ કહું છું: બધી શરતવાળી વસ્તુઓ ક્ષતિને આધિન છે, તમારી મુક્તિ
માટે મહેનતથી પ્રયત્ન કરો.”

ત્યારબાદ તેમણે ધ્યાનના શોષણોમાં
પ્રવેશ કર્યો અને મહાપરિનિબાન (મહાન પસાર થઈ) માં પ્રવેશ કર્યો. તે વૈષ્ખ
મહિના (એપ્રિલ-મે) મહિનાનો સંપૂર્ણ ચંદ્ર હતો અને આ વર્ષ સંભવતઃ 487 અને
483 બીસી વચ્ચે હતું. જો કે, શ્રીલંકાના પરંપરા અને અન્ય દક્ષિણ-પૂર્વીય
દેશો અનુસાર, એવું માનવામાં આવે છે કે બુદ્ધે 544-543 બી.સી.માં
પરિણીબનામાં પ્રવેશ કર્યો હતો.

આગામી છ દિવસો માટે મહાન માસ્ટરનું
શરીર રાજ્યમાં નાખવામાં આવ્યું હતું. અનિરુદ્ધાની દિશામાં બુદ્ધના અનુયાયી
અને અનુયાયીની દિશામાં તેમની અંતિમવિધિની તૈયારી કરવામાં આવી હતી. સાતમા
દિવસે, પરફ્યુમ અને ગારલેન્ડ્સ સાથે શરીરના સન્માન કર્યા પછી, તેને
મલ્લાસના પવિત્ર મંદિર મુકુતબંધન ચૈત્યમાં લઈ જવાયા. અંતિમ સમારંભ મહા કસાપ
દ્વારા કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું અને ગ્રેટ માસ્ટરના શરીરને યોગ્ય સન્માન સાથે
અંતિમવિધિ કરવામાં આવ્યો હતો. જ્યારે સ્મશાન પૂરું થયું ત્યારે મલસ દ્વારા
અવશેષો રાખવામાં આવી હતી, જેમાં ખોપરી હાડકા, દાંત અને આંતરિક અને બાહ્ય
શ્રાઉન્ડ હતા. આ અવશેષો પછી અન્ય આઠ રાજ્યોના પ્રતિનિધિઓમાં આઠ શેરોમાં
વિતરિત કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા, જે પ્રાચીન ઉત્તરીય ભારતનું નિર્માણ કરે છે.
રાજા અશોકાએ 84,000 સ્તૂપ બનાવવાનું નક્કી કર્યું પછી આ અવશેષો ફરીથી
વિભાજિત કરવામાં આવ્યા.

આજે આ અવશેષો સમગ્ર એશિયામાં સ્તૂપમાં જોડાયેલા છે.

મહાપરિનબીબાના મંદિર, કુસીનાર.
હાલનું મંદિર ભારત સરકાર દ્વારા 1956 માં મહાપરિનબન અથવા 2500 બી (બૌદ્ધ
યુગ) ના 2,500 મી વર્ષના સ્મૃતિના ભાગ રૂપે બનાવવામાં આવ્યું હતું. આ
મંદિરની અંદર, પ્રખ્યાત રીકલિંગિંગ બુદ્ધની છબી તેના જમણા બાજુ પર ઉત્તર
તરફ આવેલા છે. આ મૂર્તિ 6.1 મીટર લાંબી છે અને પથ્થરની પથારી પર છે. [લિંક
જુઓ]

સોફાના આગળના ભાગમાં ત્રણ શિલ્પો છે, જે વેનનું પ્રતિનિધિત્વ
કરે છે. પગ નજીક આનંદ, વેન. મધ્યમાં અને વેન ખાતે સુભાધ્ધા. ખૂણા પર ડબ્બા
મલ્લા.કેન્દ્રમાં પાંચમી સદી એડીનું શિલાલેખ છે, જે દર્શાવે છે કે આ મૂર્તિ
“મહવિહિરના સાધુ હરિબલાનું ભેટ હતું અને તેને દિના દ્વારા બનાવવામાં આવી
હતી.” ગુપ્ત સમયગાળા દરમિયાન મથુરામાંથી લાલ બાલ્ધ પત્થરના એક બ્લોકમાંથી
1500 વર્ષીય આ મૂર્તિપૂજક બુદ્ધ છબીને અમલમાં મૂકવામાં આવી હતી. તેની શોધ
1876 માં જડિત સ્થિતિમાં થઈ હતી અને છૂટાછવાયા ટુકડાઓ સફળતાપૂર્વક મળીને
મળી આવ્યા હતા.

ખોદકામ દર્શાવે છે કે આ સ્થળ પરના મૂળ મંદિરમાં એક
લંબગોળ હૉલ અને એન્ટિચેમ્બરનો સમાવેશ થાય છે, જેનો પ્રવેશ પશ્ચિમ તરફ છે.
કચરોમાંથી મળી આવેલી કોતરણીવાળી સપાટીઓની મોટી સંખ્યા સૂચવે છે કે મંદિરમાં
બેરલ-વૉલ્ટવાળી છત છે જે આધુનિક મંદિરની જેમ નથી.


About This Website
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Gujarati Movie Tanariri (1975) - Staring : Sohrab Modi, Kanan Kaushal,…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bww_5gV-fhA
Fabiola Konn Konte - Haitian Children’s Book - Katia D. Ulysse

OneMooreBook
Published on Mar 15, 2015
Buy a copy of Fabiola Can Count at One Moore Bookstore here: http://bit.ly/1I4DKLw
Also available on Amazon here: http://amzn.to/1Cjrqp4


One Moore Book publishes and distributes culturally sensitive books for
children of countries with low literacy rates and underrepresented
cultures. One Moore Book provides literature for children whose
narratives are largely missing from the children’s book publishing
industry.

The books will also serve as a key to unknown people
and places for all kids who do not have access to cultures outside of
their own.

For more info visit www.onemoorebook.com
Find other stories here:
Gbagba: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhVdl
I am Riding!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KPAy
Jamonghoie Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9hTU8
Jamonghoie Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnvStR
Kukujumuku: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alNla
The Three Little Birds: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lImP


Fabiola Konn Konte {Fabiola Can Count} is a counting book about a young
restavek girl. A restavek is a child from the Haiti countryside who is
sent by their parents to work for a wealthier family, with the
expectation that the child will be educated and cared for.
Unfortunately, all restavek children do not get the education or care
they deserve.

Ulysse did an excellent job of raising awareness of
a social issue in Haiti that is important to her, while creating a
unique and relatable counting book that can be enjoyed by all children.
Category
Education

41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

41) Klasik kreyòl ayisyen-kreyòl,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[Kado verite a depase tout lòt kado]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
Omaj pou moun ki beni an, ki te reyalize e ki te konplètman leve


“Ale, pou bon nan anpil yo, pou bonè a nan anpil yo, soti nan konpasyon
pou mond lan, pou byennèt a, bon an ak kontantman a nan tou de bondye
yo ak moun. Pa kite de nan nou ale nan menm direksyon an … Anseye
Dhamma a ki se bèl nan kòmansman an, mitan an ak fen an. Eksplike tou de
lèt la ak lespri a nan lavi sa a ki apa pou Bondye konplètman rive vre
ak parfe pi bon kalite (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) “.

Rekonesan pou kado sa yo lèw m ‘pa Dhamma a:

Kado lapè
Kado a nan objektif
Kado padon an
Kado a nan metta
Kado a nan karuna

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-…/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htmRevisyon Parinirvana a


Dènye jou Bouda yo dekri nan tèks Pali ki rele Gran Parinibbana Sutta
(Parinibbana ki vle di “nibbana konplete”). Nibbana k ap viv nan Bouda a
reyalize pandan revèy nan lanmò transfòme nan nibbana san rezidi imen.
Tèt posede, san yo pa doulè sikolojik, tranbl nan panse yo nan lanmò,
Bouda a idantifye kat kote nan Pelerinaj nan lavni: sit sa yo nan nesans
li, reyaksyon premye prèch, ak lanmò. “Men, pa anpeche tèt ou pa onore
rès mwen an,” li te ajoute.

Lè yo rive nan vilaj la nan Kusinara
nan Mallas yo sou bò ki pi lwen nan larivyè Lefrat la Hiranyavati, Bouda
a reyalize ke fen l ‘te vit apwoche. Li te di Ananda pou prepare yon
kabann pou li ak tèt li vire nan direksyon nò a ant de pye bwa sal.
Ananda ki te sèvi l ‘pou 20 ane te pwofondman fache. “Pa gen lapenn,
Ananda!” Bouda a consoles l ‘. “Nati bagay yo dikte ke nou dwe kite moun
ki renmen nou yo. Tout bagay fèt gen sispansyon pwòp li yo. Mwen menm
tou, Ananda, mwen fin vye granmoun, ak tout ane, vwayaj mwen an ap fèmen
nan fèmen li yo, mwen vire 80 ane ki gen laj, ak jis kòm yon kabwa
chire-soti ka sèlman avèk anpil swen adisyonèl yo dwe fè pou avanse pou
pi ansanm, Se konsa tou ka Bouda a kenbe sèlman ale avèk anpil swen
adisyonèl ”.

Kòm vle pa Bouda a, Mallas yo nan Kusinara yo te
enfòme sou lanmò pwochen l ‘, epi yo rive nan respekte l’. Pami yo te
gen yon mandyan yo te rele Subhadra, yon 120 ane Brahmin fin vye
granmoun. Li te pi ta te vire do pa Ananda men lè Bouda a tande sa li te
rele l ‘bò kote l’ yo. Li te admèt nan Sangha a (lòd Boudis) epi
imedyatman apre konvèsyon li te pase.

Lè twazyèm ka nan mitan
lannwit lan apwoche, Bouda a te mande disip li yo twa fwa si te gen
nenpòt ki dout sou ansèyman yo oswa disiplin yo. Mi lan rete an silans.
“Pa gen yon sèl, Ananda, gen enpreyansyon. Tout evantyèlman pral rive
leve.

Lè sa a, Bouda a te di dènye mo li yo, “Koute, Miwa, mwen
di sa a: tout bagay kondisyone yo sijè a pouri, fè efò ak dilijans pou
liberasyon ou”.

Lè sa a, li pase nan absorption meditasyon ak
antre nan Mahaparinibbana (pase nan gwo lwen). Li te lalin lan plen nan
mwa a nan Vaisakha (avril-me) ak ane a te pwobableman ant 487 ak 483
B.C. Sepandan, dapre tradisyon Sri Lankan ak lòt peyi sidès, yo kwè ke
Bouda a te antre nan Parinibbana nan 544-543 B.C.

Pou sis pwochen
jou yo te kò a nan Gran Mèt la mete nan eta a. Preparasyon yo te fè pou
antèman l ‘anba direksyon Anirudha yon kouzen ak disip nan Bouda a. Sou
setyèm jou a, apre yo fin onore kò a ak pafen ak girland, li te pran
nan Chaitya a Mukutbandhana, chapèl lan sakre nan Mallas yo. Te dènye
seremoni an fèt pa Maha Kasapa ak kò a nan Gran Mèt la te boule ak onè
akòz. Lè yo te fini ensinerasyon an sann dife yo te ranmase pa Mallas yo
kòm debri, ki fèt nan zo zo bwa tèt, dan yo ak anndan ak anndan ekstèn.
Debri yo te Lè sa a, distribye nan uit aksyon pami reprezantan yo nan
uit lòt wayòm yo ki te konstitye ansyen Nò peyi Zend. Sa yo debri ankò
sibdivize apre wa Ashoka deside bati 84,000 stupa.

Jodi a sa yo debri enskri nan stupas nan tout pwovens Lazi.

Tanp Mahaparinibbana, Kusinara.
Gouvènman Endyen an te konstwi tanp lan kounye a an 1956 kòm yon pati
nan komemorasyon 2.500 ane Mahaparinbbans yo oswa 2500 BE (epòk Boudis).
Anndan tanp sa a, yon moun ka wè pi popilè Reclinging imaj la Bouda
kouche sou bò dwat li yo ak tèt la nan nò a. Estati a se 6.1 m long ak
repoz sou yon kanape wòch. [wè lyen]

Sou devan nan kanape a yo se
twa eskilti, kwè ki reprezante Ven. Ananda tou pre pye yo, Ven.
Subhadda nan mitan an ak Ven. Dabba Malla nan kwen an. Nan sant la se
yon inscription nan AD syèk la 5th, ki deklare estati a te “yon kado nan
Harkala a mwàn nan Mahavihara a ak te alamòd pa Dinna”. Sa a te
1500-ane fin vye granmoun chita bò tab Bouddès imaj egzekite soti nan
yon blòk nan grè wouj brouch nan soti nan Mathura pandan peryòd la
Gupta. Li te dekouvri an 1876 nan yon kondisyon Delambre ak fragman yo
gaye yo te avèk siksè pieced ansanm.

Excavation te montre ke tanp
lan orijinal la sou sit la fèt nan yon sal oblong ak antecamb ak antre
li yo ki ap fè fas a lwès la. Yon gwo kantite brik ak sifas fè mete
pòtre nan mitan fatra yo te endike tanp lan te gen yon do-kay ki te
voute nan barik ki pa parapò ak sa ki sou tanp lan modèn.

Kusinara Pagoda

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zAdbFaw6AGk
Learn Hausa: Food and drinks in Hausa
Hausa Lessons
Published on Nov 20, 2013
In this video we cover the food and drinks in Hausa
Our website: http://www.hausalessons.com/
Category
People & Blogs
42) Hausa-Hausa Hausa,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[Kyautar Gaskiya ta fi duk sauran kyauta]

“Hanyoyin samma-sambuddhasa”
Goma ga Mai Girma, Wanda Ya Kammala da Cikakken Ɗaya


“Ku fita, domin amfanin mutane da yawa, don farin cikin da yawa, da
tausayi ga duniya, jindadin alheri, alkhairi da farin ciki ga alloli da
mutane. Ka koyar da ƙarshen abin da yake da kyau a farko, tsakiya da
matuƙar bayani. Ka kuma bayyana wasiƙar da ruhun tsarkakakku cikakke
kuma tsarkakakke ne. (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) “

Abin godiya ga wadannan kyaututtuka da Dhamma ya ba ni:

Kyautar zaman lafiya
Kyautar manufa
Kyautar gafara
Kyautar metta
Kyautar karuna

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e…/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htmDaukarwar Parinirvana


An bayyana kwanakin ƙarshe na Buddha a cikin rubutun Pali da ake kira
Babban Parinibbana Sutta (ma’anar Parinibbana ma’anar “kammala
nibbana”). Yayin da ake samu na nibbana na Buddha a lokacin farkawa a
mutuwa ya canza zuwa nibbana ba tare da sauran mutane ba. Buddha da
kansa, ba tare da azanci na hankali ba, da tunanin mutuwa, Buddha ya
bayyana wurare huɗu na hajji mai zuwa: wuraren haihuwar sa, huduba ta
farko, da mutuwa. “Amma kar a hana kanka ta hanyar girmama raguna.”


Lokacin da Buddha ta isa kauyen Kusinara na Mallas a gefen hayin kogin
Hirayavati, Buddha ya fahimci cewa ƙarshensa ya kusa gabatowa. Ya gaya
Ananda ya shirya masa gado tare da kai ya juya zuwa arewa tsakanin
itatuwan salifo biyu. Ananda wanda ya bauta masa shekaru 20 ya yi baƙin
ciki matuka. “Kada ka yi baƙin ciki, Ananda!” Buddha yana ta’azantar da
shi. “Yanayin abubuwa ya nuna cewa dole ne mu bar wadanda muka kaunace
mu. Duk abin da aka haifa ya ƙunshi kansa kansa. Ni kaina, Ananda, na
tsufa, kuma cike da shekaru, tafiyata tana gab da kusantowa, Ina ɗan
shekara 80, kuma kamar yadda katako mai tsufa zai iya kawai tare da
ƙarin kulawa don tafiya, haka kuma jikin Buddha zai iya ci gaba da
tafiya tare da ƙarin kulawa “.

Kamar yadda Buddha ke so, aka
sanar da Mallas na Kusinara game da mutuwar sa, kuma sun zo sun girmama
shi. Daga cikin su akwai mai tsabta mai suna Subhadra, mai shekaru 120
da haihuwa Brahmin. Ananda ya juya shi baya tun lokacin da Buddha ya ji
wannan sai ya kira shi a gefensa. An shigar da shi cikin Sangha (umarnin
Buddhist) kuma nan da nan bayan musuluntarsa ​​ya mutu.

Lokacin
da rana ta uku ta kusanci, Buddha ya tambayi almajiransa sau uku idan
akwai shakku game da koyaswar ko horo. Bhikkhus ya yi shiru. “Babu ko
daya, Ananda, da yake da rashin yarda. Duk za su kai ga farkawa.


Sai Buddha ya faɗi kalmominsa na ƙarshe, “Saurara, Bhikkhus, ina faɗi
haka: duk abubuwanda ke lalatattu sun lalace, ku yi ƙoƙari sosai don
‘yantarku”.

Daga nan ya shiga nutsuwa yana shiga Mahaparinibbana
(Babban wucewa). Cikin wata watannin watan Vaisakha (Afrilu-Mayu) kuma
shekara ta kasance tsakanin 487 da 483 B.C. Koyaya, bisa ga al’adar Sri
Lankan da sauran ƙasashen kudu maso gabas, an yi imani cewa Buddha ya
shiga Parinibbana a cikin 544-543 B.C.

A kwana shida masu zuwa
aka sanya gawar Babban Jagora a cikin jihar. An shirya shirye-shirye
domin jana’izarsa karkashin jagorancin Anirudha dan uwan ​​da kuma bin
Buddha. A rana ta bakwai, bayan girmama gawar da turare da garran, sai
aka kai shi wurin Mukutbandhana Chaitya, gidan ibada mai tsarki na
Mallas. Maha Kasapa ne ya gabatar da bikin karshe kuma an binne gawar
Babban Jagora tare da girmamawa. Lokacin da aka gama gurnetin da Mallas
suka tattara tokar a matsayin relics, wanda ya ƙunshi ƙyallen kwanyar,
hakora da ƙyalli na ciki da na waje. Daga baya aka rarraba kayayyakin
zuwa kashi takwas a tsakanin wakilan sauran masarautun guda takwas
wadanda suka kasance tsohuwar arewacin India. An sake raba waɗannan
kayayyakin bayan Sarki Ashoka ya yanke shawarar gina ɓarayi 84,000.
A yau waɗannan abubuwan sake fasalin ana cike su cikin rudani a duk yankin Asiya.

Mahabadinibbana Temple, Kusinara.
Ginin Indiya na yanzu ya gina shi a shekara ta 1956 a matsayin abin
tunawa da shekaru 2,500 na Mahaparinbbans ko 2500 BE (Buddha Era). A
cikin wannan haikalin, mutum zai iya ganin littafin Buddha mai suna
Reclinging yana kwance a gefen dama tare da kai zuwa arewa. Mutum-mutumi
yana da tsawon mil 6.1 kuma yana kwance a kan babban gado. [duba
mahada]

A gaban babban kujera akwai zane-zane guda uku, waɗanda
aka yi imanin su wakilci Ven. Ananda kusa da ƙafa, Ven. Subhadda a
tsakiyar da Ven. Dabba Malla a kusurwa. A cibiyar rubutun ne a karni na 5
AD, wanda ya ce mutum-mutumi “kyauta ce ta Haribala na Mahavihara kuma
Dinna ne ya kirkireshi”. An kashe wannan mutum mai shekaru 1500 wanda
aka yi amfani da hoto na Buddha daga wani nau’i na yarinya mai dashi
daga Mathura a lokacin Gupta. An gano shi a cikin 1876 cikin yanayin
barkewar ciki kuma an samu nasarar hade gutsattsuran gaba daya tare.


Hannun nuni ya nuna cewa asali na farko a kan shafin yana kunshe da
wani zauren zauren da kuma ɗakin kwana tare da ƙofar da ke fuskantar
yamma. Yawancin tubali da sassaƙaƙƙun da aka gano a cikin laƙaran sun
nuna cewa haikalin yana da rufin ganga mai gangami ba kamar wannan ba a
cikin gidan zamani.

Kusinara Pagoda


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43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

43) Hawaiian Hawaiian Hawaiian,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[ʻO ka makana o ka maikaʻi ma mua o nā makana’ē aʻe]

“Hali i ka hanana samma-sambuddhasa”
Ka Homage i ka Mea Pōmaikaʻi, Hoʻopau a Hoʻokū Loaʻia


“E hele aku, no ka maikaʻi o nā mea he nui, no ka pōmaikaʻi o nā mea he
nui, no ke aloha no ke ao nei, no ka maikaʻi, ka maikaʻi a me ka
hauʻoli o nā akua a me nā kānaka. Mai hele aʻeʻelua oʻoukou ma ke ala
hoʻokahi. E aʻo i ka Dhamma e nani i ka hoʻomaka, i ka waena a me ka
hopena E wehewehe i ka leka a me kaʻuhane o ka ola ola e hoʻokō piha a
maikaʻi loa (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) “

Mahalo no nā makana i hāʻawiʻia iaʻu e ka Dhamma:

ʻO ka makana o ka maluhia
ʻO ka makana no ka manaʻo
ʻO ka makana o ke kalaʻana
ʻO ka makana o metta
ʻO ka makana o ka karuna

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-l…/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htmKaulana o ka Parinirvana


Hōʻikeʻia nā lā hope o Buddha ma ka Pali’ōlelo i kapaʻiaʻo ka
Parinibbana Sutta (ʻo Painibbanaʻo ia hoʻi keʻano o ka “nibbana piha”).
ʻO ka nibbana nohoʻana o Buddha i ka wā o ka ho’ālaʻana i ka make e lilo
i nibbana me ke koenaʻole o ke kanaka. ʻO ke kanaka me ka manaʻoʻole o
ka make, uaʻikeʻole ia e nā Buddha i nā wahiʻehā o ka noho malihiniʻana o
ka wā e hiki mai ana: nā wahi o kona hānauʻiaʻana,ʻo ka haʻi muaʻana, a
me ka make. “Akā, mai hōʻokiʻoe i kou ola ma ka hoʻomaikaʻiʻana i koʻu
mau kino,” wahi āna.

I ka hikiʻana aku i ke kauhale o Kusinara o
Mallas ma kahiʻaoʻao o ka muliwaiʻo Hiranyavati, ua hoʻomaopopoʻo Buddha
ua wikiwiki kona hopena. Ua’ōleloʻo ia iā Ananda e hoʻomākaukau i kahi
moena no ia me ka huliʻana o ke poʻo i ka’ākau ma waena o nā
kumulāʻauʻelua. ʻO’Ananda nāna i lawelawe iā ia no 20 makahiki, ua huhū
loa. “Maiʻehaʻeha, e Ananda!” E hoʻomaha maiʻo Buddha iā ia. “ʻO keʻano o
nā mea e’ōlelo nei e haʻalele kākou i kēlā mau mea aloha iā kākou. ʻO
nā mea a pau e loaʻa ana i kā lākou iho pono’ī. ʻO wau,ʻo Ananda,
uaʻelemakule a ua piha hoʻi i koʻu mau makahiki, ke hele nei au i kaʻu
hope, ua hoʻohuli wau he 80 mau makahiki, a e like me ka hanaʻana o ka
kaʻa kāhiko i nā mea’ē aʻe e neʻe aku ai, pēlā nō e mālamaʻia ke kino o
ka Buddha me nāʻoihana’ē aʻe. “

E like me ka makemake o ka
Buddha, ua loheʻia ke Mallas o Kusinara no kona make e hiki mai ana, a
ua hele mai lākou e mahalo iā ia. Aia ma waena o lākou kekahi mea i
kapaʻiaʻo Subhadra, he Brahmin 120 makahiki. Ua haʻaleleʻo Ananda i mua
iā ia akā i ka loheʻana o ka Buddha iā ia, ua kāheaʻo ia iā ia ma
konaʻaoʻao. Ua hoʻokomoʻiaʻo ia i ka Sangha (Buddhist order) a ma hope
koke o kona hoʻohuliʻana, ua hala.

I ka hikiʻana mai o kahiʻekolu
hapaha o ka pō, ua nīnauʻo Buddha i nā haumāna iʻekolu manawa inā he
mau kānalua no nā aʻo a me nā aʻoʻana. Ua kū mālie ka Bhikkhus. “ʻAʻole
hoʻokahi, Ananda, ua pohō. ʻO nā mea a pau e hōʻea i ka ala.

A
laila’ōlelo maila ka Buddha i kāna mau’ōlelo hope loa, “E hoʻolohe, e
Bhikkhus, ke’ōlelo aku nei au i kēia:ʻo nā mea a pau e pili ana i lalo e
kū i ke pala, e hooikaika me ka ikaika no kou hoʻokuʻuʻia.”

A
laila ua heleʻo ia i loko o nā hoʻonaninu liʻiliʻi a komo i
Mahaparinibbana (ka hala nui). ʻO ka mahina piha ia o ka malamaʻo
Vaisakha (ʻApelila-Mei) a he mau makahiki paha ma waena o 487 a 483 B.C.
Eia naʻe, e like me ka hana Sri Lanka a me nā’āina hema’ēhana’ē aʻe, ua
manaʻoʻia ua komoʻo Buddha i Painibbana i 544-543 B.C.

No nā
lāʻeono e hiki mai ana, ua waihoʻia ke kino o ka Luna Nui ma ka
moku’āina. Ua hoʻomākaukauʻia nā hana no kona kanu hoʻolewa ma lalo o ka
alakaʻi a’Anirudha i hoahānau a me ka ukaliʻo Buddha. I ka hiku o ka
lā, ma hope o ka mahaloʻana i ke kino me nā meaʻala a me nā lei, ua
laweʻia aku i ka Mukutbandhana Chaitya, ka hale kapu o Mallas. ʻO ka
hana hope loa i hanaʻia e Maha Kasapa a me ke kino o ka Luna Nui ua
puhiʻia me ka hanohano kūpono. I ka pauʻana o ka puhiʻiaʻana, ua
hōʻiliʻiliʻia ka lehu e nā Mallas e like me nā relics, a he poʻo
iwi’ā’ī, niho, a ma loko a ma waho hoʻi. Ua hoʻoheleʻia nā relic
iʻewalu’āpana ma waena o nāʻelele o nāʻewaluʻEwalu Aupuni i hoʻokumuʻia i
ka’āina’ākau’ākau o India. Ua hoʻokaʻawale houʻia kēia mau puʻupuʻu ma
hope o ka hoʻoholoʻana o ka Mō’ī Ashoka e kūkulu 84,000 mau pupule.
I kēia mau lā, ua hoʻopiliʻia kēia mau mea i loko o ka pupuhi ma’ō aku o Asia.

Ka Haleʻo Mahaparinibbana, Kusinara.
Ua kūkuluʻia ke luakini i kēia manawa e ke Aupuni’Anelani i ka makahiki
1956 ma keʻano he hoʻomanaʻo i ka makahiki 2,500 o nā Mahaparinbbans
aiʻole 2500 BE (Buddhist Era). I loko o kēia luakini,ʻikeʻia ka kiʻi
kaulana kaulanaʻo Buddha ma konaʻaoʻao’ākau me ke poʻo i ke kūkulu’ākau.
ʻO ke kiʻi he 6.1 m ka lōʻihi a kauʻia ma kahi moe moe. [nānā link]


Aia ma mua o ka moe heʻekolu kiʻi kālai’āina,ʻo ia hoʻiʻo Ven. Ananda
kokoke i nā wāwae, Ven. Subhadda ma waena a me Ven. ʻO Dabba Malla ma ke
kihi. Aia ma ke kikowaena kahi i kākauʻia ma ke kenekulia 5 o ka AD,ʻo
ia ka mea i’ōleloʻia ai ke kiʻi “he makana a ka mōneka Haribala o
Mahavihara a ua hakuʻia e Dinna”. ʻO kēia 1500 makahiki e noho nei i ka
Buddha kiʻi i hanaʻia i loko o kahi’āpana’āpanaʻeleʻele i Mathura i ka
manawaʻo Gupta. Uaʻikeʻia ia i ka makahiki 1876 ma kahiʻanoʻeleʻele
a’ōwiliʻia nā’āpana’ōwili.

Ua hōʻikeʻia ka papahana i ka heiau
mua ma luna o ka pūnaewele he hale āpau āpau a me kahi lumi hale me kona
puka e komo ana i ke komohana. ʻO ka nui o nā pōhaku pilikino me nā
kiʻi i kālaiʻia i loaʻa i waena o ka’ūpala i hōʻikeʻia he
haleʻahaʻainaʻo ka luakini iʻole e like me ka luakini o kēia manawa.

ʻO Kusinara Pagoda




44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית

https://wn.com/classical_hebrew/news
Biblical Hebrew


Biblical Hebrew (Hebrew: עִבְרִית מִקְרָאִית), also called Classical
Hebrew (Hebrew: עִבְרִית קְלַסִּית), is the archaic form of the Hebrew
language, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the in the area known
as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the
Mediterranean Sea. The term “Hebrew” was not used for the language in
the Bible, which referred to Canaanite or Judahite, but the name was
used in Greek and Mishnaic Hebrew texts. Biblical Hebrew is attested
from about the 10th century BCE, and persisted through and beyond the
Jewish Second Temple period (which in 70 CE ended by Roman destruction).
Biblical Hebrew eventually developed into Mishnaic Hebrew, which was
spoken until the 2nd century CE. Biblical Hebrew is best-attested in the
, the collection of Judaic religious and historical texts which reflect
various stages of the Hebrew language in its consonantal skeleton, as
well as a vocalic system which was added later, in the Middle Ages by
the Masoretes. There is also some evidence of regional dialectal
variation, including differences between Biblical Hebrew as spoken in
the northern Kingdom of Israel and in the southern Kingdom of Judah.
Read more
This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Biblical_Hebrew

44) עברית קלאסית- עברית קלאסית

סבא דנאם דמהמא דנאם ג’ינאטי
[המתנה של האמת מצטיינת בכל המתנות האחרות]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
מחווה למבורך, הושלמה והתעוררה לחלוטין


“לך הלאה, לטובת רבים, על אושר של רבים, מתוך חמלה על העולם, על רווחתם,
הטוב והאושר של שני האלים והאנשים.אל תלך שניכם ללכת באותו כיוון מלמד את
הדהאמא היפה בראשית, באמצע ובסוף, והסבירו הן את המכתב והן את רוח החיים
הקדושים במלואם וטהורים לחלוטין. (אנטאלכאנה סוטה 22.59) “

אסיר תודה על המתנות הבאות שהורשו לי על ידי הדמאמה:

מתנת השלום
מתנת המטרה
מתנת הסליחה
מתנה של מטה
מתנת קארונה

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htm הדיפרנציציה של פרינירוואנה


ימיו האחרונים של הבודהא מתוארים בטקסט הפאלי שנקרא “פאריניבאנה סאוטה”
(Pariniibana Sutta) (משמעות “ניבאנה”). הניבאנה החייתית של הבודהא שהושגה
במהלך ההתעוררות במוות הופכת לניבאנה ללא שאריות אנושיות. בעל בושה, ללא
כאב פסיכולוגי, שאינו מוטרד ממחשבות המוות, מזהה ארבעה מקומות של עלייה
לרגל עתידית: אתרי לידתו, התעוררות הדרשה הראשונה והמוות. “אך אל תפריע
לעצמך על ידי כיבוד שרידי”, הוסיף.

כשהגיע לכפר קוסינארה שבמאלאס,
בצד השני של נהר היראניאוואטי, הבין הבודהא כי סופו מתקרב במהירות. הוא אמר
לאננדה להכין לו מיטה בראש מורכן לכיוון צפון בין שני עצי סאל. אננדה
ששירתה אותו במשך 20 שנה היתה מוטרדת מאוד. “אל תתאבל, אננדה!” הבודהא מנחם
אותו. “טבע הדברים מכתיב שעלינו להשאיר את היקרים לנו. כל מה שנולד מכיל
הפסקות משלו. גם אני, אננדה, מבוגרת, ומלאה שנים, המסע שלי מתקרבת לסגירתו,
אני מגיעה לגיל 80, וכמו עגלה שחוקה יכולה רק עם הרבה עזרה נוספת כדי
להתקדם, כך גם הגוף של הבודהה יכול להיות רק המשיך עם הרבה טיפול נוסף “.


על פי רצונו של הבודהה, נמסרו למלאס של קוסינארה על מותו הקרב, והם באו
לכבד אותו. ביניהם היה נער בשם סובדרה, ברהמין בן 120. קודם לכן הוא פונה
על ידי אננדה, אבל כשהבודהא שמע את זה הוא קרא לו לצדו. הוא התקבל לסנגהא
(צו בודהיסטי) ומיד לאחר גיוריו הוא נפטר.

כאשר התקרב הרבע השלישי
של הלילה, שאל הבודהה את תלמידיו שלוש פעמים אם היו ספקות לגבי תורתו או
הדיסציפלינות. הבהיקוס עמד דומם. “אף אחד, אננדה, לא חושש. כולם יגיעו
בסופו של דבר להתעוררות.

הבודהא אמר אז את דבריו הסופיים, “שמע, Bhikkhus, אני אומר את זה: כל הדברים המותנים נתון לריקבון, שואפים בחריצות לשחרורך”.


לאחר מכן הוא עבר לתוך ספיגות meditational ונכנס Mahaparibibbana (הגדול
נפטר). זה היה ירח מלא של חודש Vaisakha (אפריל, מאי) והשנה היה כנראה בין
487 ו 483 B.C. עם זאת, על פי המסורת של סרי לנקה ומדינות דרום מזרח אחרות,
ההערכה היא שהבודהה נכנס לפריניבנה בשנת 544-543 לפנה”ס.

במשך ששת
הימים הבאים גופתו של האדון הגדול הונחה במצב. נערכו הכנות להלווייתו
בהנהגתו של אנירודה בן דוד וחסידי הבודהה. ביום השביעי, לאחר שכיבד את
הגופה בשמים וגרלנדים, הוא נלקח למוקוטבנדאנה צ’איטה, המקדש הקדוש של
המאלאס. הטקס האחרון בוצע על ידי Maha Kasapa ואת גופתו של המאסטר הגדול
היה שרפו עם הכבוד הראוי. עם השלמת ההשרפה נאספו האפרות על ידי המאלאס
כשרידים, שכללו עצם גולגולת, שיניים ותכריכים פנימיים וחיצוניים. השרידים
חולקו לאחר מכן לשמונה מניות בין נציגי שמונה הממלכות האחרות שהקימו את
צפון הודו העתיקה. שרידים אלה חולקו שוב לאחר שהמלך אשוקה החליט להקים
84,000 סטופות.
כיום שרידים אלה מעוגנים בסטות ברחבי אסיה.

מקדש Mahaparinibbana, Kusinara.
המקדש הנוכחי נבנה על ידי ממשלת הודו בשנת 1956 כחלק מהנצחת שנת 2,500
השנה למהפראנבאנס או 2500 BE (עידן בודהיסטי). בתוך בית המקדש הזה, ניתן
לראות את דמות הבודהה המתבודדת המפורסמת שוכבת על צדה הימני עם הראש צפונה.
אורכו של הפסל הוא 6.1 מ ‘ונח על ספת אבן. [ראה קישור]

בחזית הספה
שלושה פסלים, האמינים כי הם מייצגים את ון. אננדה ליד הרגליים, Ven.
סבהאדדה באמצע וונ. דבה מללה בפינה. במרכזו כתובת של המאה החמישית לספירה,
הקובעת שהפסל היה “מתנה של הנזיר חריבאלה מהאבהארה ועוצב על ידי דינה”. זו
תמונה בת 1500 בודהה השוכבת נעשתה מתוך בלוק אחד של אבן חול אדומה דרך מ
Mathura במהלך תקופת גופטה. הוא התגלה בשנת 1876 במצב רעוע והשברים
המפוזרים נחברו יחד.

החפירה הראתה כי המקדש המקורי באתר כלל אולם
מלבני וחדר כניסה עם הכניסה למזרח. מספר גדול של לבנים עם משטחים מגולפים
שנמצאו בין הזבל העידו כי למקדש היה גג מקומר קנה שלא היה דומה לזה שבמקדש
המודרני.

פגודת קוסינארה

45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEjKkeUpUzs
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Category
News & Politics
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

Sabba danam tag nrho cov phooj ywg
[Lub txiaj ntsim ntawm qhov tseeb ua rau txhua yam txiaj ntsim tau zoo tshaj plaws]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
Homage to Blessed One, Tiav thiab Ua Siab Dhau Ib


“Tawm mus, rau qhov zoo ntawm ntau, rau kev zoo siab ntawm ntau, tawm
ntawm txoj kev hlub rau lub ntiaj teb, rau txoj kev noj qab haus huv,
qhov zoo thiab kev zoo siab ntawm ob qho tib si cov txiv neej thiab cov
txiv neej Cia ob leeg ntawm koj mus hauv tib Qhia txog Dhamma uas zoo
nkauj nyob hauv qhov pib, nruab nrab thiab qhov kawg. Piav tsab ntawv
thiab tus ntsuj plig ntawm lub neej dawb huv tiav thiab zoo kawg nkaus
dawb huv (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59) “

Xav thov ua tsaug rau cov khoom plig nram no bequeathed rau kuv los ntawm Dhamma:

Lub txiaj ntsim ntawm kev thaj yeeb
Lub txiaj ntsim ntawm lub hom phiaj
Lub txiaj ntsim ntawm kev zam txim
Qhov khoom plig ntawm metta
Lub txiaj ntsim ntawm karuna

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learn…/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htmTej lus ntawm Parinirvana


Lub Buddha cov hnub kawg tau piav nyob rau hauv Pali ntawv hu ua Great
Parinibbana Sutta (Parinibbana lub ntsiab lus “tiav nibbana”). Lub
Buddha nyob ntawm nibbana tiav thaum lub sij hawm awakenment ntawm kev
tuag transforms mus rau nibbana tsis muaj neeg residue. Nws tus kheej
muaj, tsis muaj kev mob puas siab ntsws, tsis xav txog qhov kev tuag,
Buddha qhia txog plaub qhov chaw ntawm kev mus tsev tom ntej: qhov chaw
ntawm nws yug los, tsim kev nyuaj siab thawj cov lus qhuab qhia, thiab
kev tuag. “Tab sis tsis txhob hinder koj tus kheej los ntawm honoring
kuv nyob,” nws ntxiv.

Thaum ncav lub zos ntawm Kusinara ntawm lub
Mallas nyob rau sab sab ntawm Hiranyavati dej, Buddha pom tau hais tias
nws kawg tau ceev ceev. Nws hais rau Ananda los npaj lub txaj rau nws
nrog nws lub taub hau tig mus rau sab qaum teb ntawm ob tsob ntoo tuaj.
Ananda uas tau ua hauj lwm rau nws tau 20 xyoo tau chim heev. “Tsis
txhob tu siab, Ananda!” Tus Buddha consoles nws. “Qhov xwm ntawm cov lus
hais tias peb yuav tsum tso cov neeg muaj hmoo rau peb. Txhua yam yug
los muaj nws tus kheej tas. Kuv dhau los, Ananda, kuv laus laus lawm,
thiab muaj ntau xyoo, Kuv txoj kev taug mus rau nws lub sijhawm, Kuv
tabtom xa 80 xyoo, thiab ib yam li lub laub npog yuav tsuas nrog kev
pabcuam ntxiv rau kom txav mus rau, ces dhau ntawm lub cev ntawm cov
Buddha tau tsuas yog khaws cia mus nrog ntau ntau kev saib xyuas “.


Raws li xav los ntawm Buddha, Mallas ntawm Kusinara tau paub txog nws
txoj kev ploj tuag, thiab lawv tau tuaj them nqi rau nws. Ntawm lawv yog
ib tug mendicant npe Subhadra, ib tug 120 xyoo Brahmin. Nws tau ua dhau
los lawm los ntawm Ananda tab sis thaum Buddha tsuaj no nws hu ua nws
mus rau nws sab. Nws tau tuaj nyob hauv Sangha (Haujsam kev txiav txim)
thiab tam sim ntawd tom qab nws hloov dua siab tshiab nws tau tso tseg.


Thaum lub peb hlis ntuj thib peb ntawm qhov tsaus ntuj, lub Buddha tau
thov nws cov thwjtim peb zaug yog tias lawv tsis paub tseeb txog cov lus
qhuab qhia los yog cov kev qhuab qhia. Lub Bhikkhus sawv ntsiag to.
“Tsis muaj ib, Ananda, tau misgivings. Txhua tus yuav xaus mus txog kev
ua si.

Buddha ces hais nws cov lus kawg, “Mloog, Bhikkhus, Kuv
hais li no: txhua yam kev mob nkeeg yuav raug kev tsim txom, sim siv zog
rau koj kev dim daws”.

Nws ces dhau mus rau hauv kev xav
absorptions thiab nkag Mahaparinibbana (lub zoo dhau lawm). Nws yog lub
hli tag nrho ntawm lub hli ntawm Vaisakha (Plaub Hlis Ntuj-Tsib Hlis)
thiab lub xyoo yog zaum ntawm 487 thiab 483 B.C. Txawm li cas los xij,
raws li Sri Lankan kev lig kev cai thiab lwm cov teb sab qab teb, nws
ntseeg tias Buddha nkag mus Parinibbana hauv 544-543 B.C.

Rau rau
hnub tom ntej no, lub cev ntawm tus Tswv Poj Loj tau muab tso rau hauv
xeev. Npaj tau ua rau nws kev pam tuag nyob rau hauv cov kev taw qhia
ntawm Anirudha ib tug npawg thiab raws li Buddha. Nyob rau hnub xya, tom
qab hwm lub cev nrog perfumes thiab garlands, nws raug coj mus rau
Mukutbandhana Chaitya, lub sanctuary ntawm Mallas. Lub xeem ceremony tau
ua los ntawm Maha Kasapa thiab lub cev ntawm tus Tswv Loj tau raug tsim
txom vim muaj kev hwm. Thaum cov xwm txheej tiav tag nrho cov hluav
taws tau sau los ntawm Mallas raws li kev pov thawj, uas muaj ntawm pob
txha taub hau, cov hniav thiab puab thiab sab hauv. Cov kev faib tawm
ces tau muab faib mus rau hauv yim lub npe ntawm cov neeg sawv cev ntawm
lwm qhov Kingdoms uas yog cov teb chaws Asmeskas qaum teb. Cov kev rov
qab no tau rov qab sib koom ua ke tom qab King Ashoka txiav txim siab
tsim kom muaj 84,000 tus tub lag tub luam.
Niaj hnub no cov kev relics yog nyob rau hauv stupas thoob plaws Asia.

Mahaparinibbana tuam tsev, Kusinara.
Lub tuam tsev tam sim no tau tsim los ntawm Tsoomfwv Huab Tswm Xyoo
1956 los ntawm qhov kev nco txog lub xyoo 2,500 ntawm Mahaparinbbans
lossis 2500 BE (Buddhist Era). Hauv lub tuam tsev no, ib tug pom tau
qhov nrov Reclinging Buddha duab dag ntawm nws sab xis nrog lub taub hau
mus rau sab qaum teb. Tus pej thuam yog 6.1 m ntev thiab rests ntawm
lub txaj zeb. [saib txuas]

Nyob rau sab xub ntiag ntawm lub rooj
zaum yog 3 sculptures, ntseeg sawv cev Ven. Ananda nyob ze ntawm taw,
Ven. Subhadda ntawm nruab nrab thiab Ven. Dabba Malla ntawm lub ces
kaum. Ntawm qhov chaw yog ib daim ntawv sau nyob rau xyoo 5th AD, uas
hais tias tus mlom yog “lub txiaj ntsim ntawm Haribala ntawm Mahavihara
thiab tau tsim Dinna”. Xyoo 1500-xyoo no tau ua hauj lwm ua hauj lwm
tawm ntawm ib ntu ntawm pob zeb sandstone los ntawm Mathura thaum lub
sijhawm Gupta. Nws tau pom nyob hauv 1876 hauv ib qho kev mob nkeeg
thiab cov tawg tsam tawg ntho tawg tau ua ke.

Excavation tsom
tias cov thawj lub tuam tsev rau ntawm qhov chaw muaj ib qho cuab yeej
cuab tam thiab antechamber nrog nws txojkev nkag rau sab hnub poob. Ntau
lub cib uas muaj cov pob zeb ntawm cov pob zeb tau pom muaj qhia tias
lub tuam tsev muaj lub ru tsev-vaulted tsis zoo li hauv lub tuam tsev
niaj hnub no.

Kusinara Pejthos


About This Website
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Stay informed! Get involved! Thank you for watching! To show case your…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lj_fHPg-HHg
The beautiful magyar (Hungarian) language.
rikanov
Published on Jul 14, 2009
http://www.es.hu/?view=doc;25741


This video is devoted to show the beauty and unique nature of Hungarian
language that is a member of the Uralic family of languages. It is
distantly related to Finnish, but is most closely related to Khanty and
Mansi (which each have a only few thousand speakers todays).
Effectively, Hungarian is an isolate in Central Europe and unrelated to
the Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages spoken in neighboring states
(and all of which are a part of the Indo-European language family).


I will argue about neither historical facts nor fictions but all of
chauvinist comments will be removed promptly and no matter which
nationality their authors belong to.
Category
Education
46) Klasszikus magyar-Klasszikus magyar,

Sabba danam dhamma danam jinati
[Az Igazság ajándéka minden más ajándékot kiemel]

“Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma-sambuddhasa”
Tisztelgés az áldott, teljesített és teljes mértékben felébredt emberre


- Menjetek ki a sokak jósága érdekében a sok boldogságaért, a világ
iránti együttérzésért, az istenek és az emberek jóságáért, jóságáért és
boldogságáért. Tanítsd meg a Dhammát, ami szép, az elején, a közepén és a
végén, és magyarázd el mind a szent élet betűjét, mind a szellemét,
teljes mértékben teljes és tiszta. (Anattalakkhana Sutta SN 22.59)

Hálásak a következő ajándékokért, amelyeket a Dhamma hozott:

A béke ajándéka
A cél ajándék
A megbocsátás ajándéka
A metta ajándéka
A karuna ajándéka

https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/

https://buddhanet.net/…/buddhistwor…/images/parinibbana2.jpg
https://buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/kusinaga.htmA Parinirvana


A Buddha utolsó napjait a Nagy Parinibbana Sutta nevű Pali szöveg írja
le (Parinibbana, ami „befejezett nibbana”). A Buddha élő nibbana a halál
felébredése során emberi maradék nélkül nibbanává alakul. Az önmaga
pszichológiai fájdalom nélkül, a halál gondolataival megdöbbenve, a
Buddha négy jövőbeni zarándokhelyet azonosít: születésének, ébredésének
első prédikációjának és halálának helyszíneit. - De ne akadályozzátok
meg magadat a maradványaim tiszteletével - tette hozzá.

A Budaiha
a Hiranyavati folyó másik oldalán, a Mallas-i Kusinara faluhoz érve
rájött, hogy a vége gyorsan közeledik. Azt mondta Anandának, hogy
készítsen neki egy ágyat, ahol a fejét észak felé fordította két salf
között. Ananda, aki 20 évig szolgált neki, mélyen ideges volt. - Ne
nyúlj, Ananda! - konzerválja a Buddha. „A dolgok természete azt
diktálja, hogy hagyjuk ezeket a kedveseket nekünk. Minden születés
magában foglalja a megszűnését. Én is, Ananda, öreg vagyok, és évekig
tele vagyok, az útom közelebb kerül, 80 éves koromban fordulok, és csak
egy elhasználódott kocsi csak annyira óvatosan mozoghat, úgyhogy a
Buddha teste csak sok további gondossággal tartható ”.

A Buddha
kívánsága szerint Kusinara Mallasját tájékoztatták a közelgő haláláról,
és azért jöttek, hogy tiszteletben tartsák őt. Közülük egy Subhadra nevű
kórház, egy 120 éves brahmin. Korábban Ananda elfordította, de amikor a
Buddha ezt hallotta, az ő oldalára hívta. Őt felvették a Sanghába
(buddhista rendbe), és azután, hogy megfordult, elhunyt.

Amikor a
harmadik éjszaka közeledik, a Buddha háromszor megkérdezte
tanítványait, ha kétség merülne fel a tanításokkal vagy a
tudományágakkal kapcsolatban. A Bhikkhus csendben állt. - Nem, Anandanak
van kétségei. Végül mindenki felébred.

A Buddha aztán elmondta
az utolsó szavait: „Figyelj, Bhikkhus, ezt mondom: minden feltételezett
dolog bomlásnak van kitéve, szorgalommal törekszik a
felszabadulásodért”.

Ezután elmúlt a meditációs felszívódásokba,
és belépett Mahaparinibbanába (a nagy elmozdulás). Vaisakha hónapjának
teljes holdja volt (április-május), és az év valószínűleg 487 és 483
között volt. A Srí Lanka-i hagyomány és más délkeleti országok szerint
azonban úgy vélik, hogy a Buddha az 544-543-as B.C.

A következő
hat napig a Nagy Mester testét állapították meg. Anirudha, az
unokatestvér és a Buddha követője irányítása alatt előkészületeket
végeztek a temetésére. A hetedik napon, miután megtisztelte a testet
parfümökkel és koszorúkkal, azt a Mukutbandhana Chaityához, a Mallas
szent szentélyéhez vitték. Az utolsó szertartást Maha Kasapa végezte, és
a Nagy Mester testét tisztelettel hamvasztották. Amikor a hamvasztást
befejezték, a Mallas a hamut összegyűjtötte ereklyé, amely egy
koponyatestből, fogakból és belső és külső burkolatokból állt. Ezután az
emlékeket nyolc részvényre osztották a többi nyolc királyság képviselői
között, amelyek az ókori Észak-Indiát alkotják. Ezeket az emlékeket
ismét felosztották, miután Ashoka király úgy döntött, hogy 84.000 stupát
épít.
Napjainkban ezek az emlékek az Ázsiában található stupákban találhatók.

Mahaparinibbana templom, Kusinara.
A jelenlegi templomot az indiai kormány 1956-ban építette a
Mahaparinbbanok 2500. évfordulójának megünneplése vagy 2500 BE
(buddhista kor) részeként. A templom belsejében látható a híres
Reclinging Buddha-kép, amely jobb oldalán fekszik, a fej észak felé. A
szobor 6,1 m hosszú és egy kő kanapén fekszik. [lásd link]

A
kanapé elején három szobor található, amelyekről úgy gondolják, hogy
Venet képviselik. Ananda a lábak közelében, Ven. Subhadda középen és
Ven. Dabba Malla a sarokban. A központban az 5. századi felirat látható,
amely szerint a szobor „a Mahavihara szerzetes Haribala ajándéka volt,
és Dinna által készítették”. Ezt az 1500 éves fekvő Buddha-képet a Gurta
időszak alatt a Mathura egyik vörös homokkőbordájának egy tömbjéből
hajtották végre. 1876-ban felderített állapotban fedezték fel, és a
szétszórt töredékeket sikeresen osztották össze.

Az ásatás azt
mutatta, hogy az eredeti templom a helyszínen egy hosszúkás csarnokból
és előszobából állt, melynek bejárata nyugat felé nézett. A szemét
között talált faragott felületek nagy száma azt jelzi, hogy a templomban
egy hordós boltíves tető volt, amely nem különbözik a modern templomban
található tetőtől.

Kusinara Pagoda


About This Website
youtube.com


in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,


02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,


04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,


84) Classical Sanskrit,टिपितक-Bउद्ध Vअचन - Bउद्ध’स् ओwन् wओर्द्स् इन् षन्स्क्रित्


85) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

86) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
 87)  Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
88) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
89)  Classical Sindhi,
90) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
91)  Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
92) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
93) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
94) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
 95) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
96) Classical Swahili,
97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
98) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,

 100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
101) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
102) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
103) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
104)  Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
105) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,

106) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

107) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
108) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

109) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

110) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,


111) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu









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http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
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http://www.translate.google.com/

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