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Mithila Institute of Post Graduate Studies and Research In Sanskrit, Darbhanga Darbhanga Pali Language || Importance of Pali in Buddhism || Episode -1 -2-3 Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 -1-2, 1-3, 1-4 Recollection of the
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MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTER
( Affiliated to Karntaka Samskrit University, Bengaluru)
No. 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru -560009)

Term-End

Examination                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              



Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019

Paper - I History of Pali Language and Literature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

Time: 03 Hours Max. marks: 100



Section - A

1. Write each sub-question in four sentences. Each question carries 2 marks. 8×2=16




a) Write Pali sentence of your choices in the following sentence form.

i.) S+o+o+v.

ii.) S+o+c+v.

iii.) Time phrase + S + Direction + Manner phrase + v.

iv.) S+c+v.

S+o+v.


b) Write any pali sentence of your choice in the following sentence form.

i.) S+ place + v.

ii.) S + O + reason phrase _ v.

iii.) yatha………….tatha…….

iv.) Yattha………….tattha…..…..


c). Write any pali sentence in your choice in the following sentence form.

i.) Yada ………….tada….

ii.) ……V+anto……….

iii.) ……V+ante………..

iv.) …….V+tva………..


d). Write pali sentence in your choice in the following sentence form.

i.) Yasma……tasma……

ii.) Sace…………………..

iii.) Tathapi………pana…

iv.) ……………to….. (in compare)

e). State any two causes and two outcomes of 3rd Sangayana ?

f). State the essence of Anguttara Nikaya & Dhammapada ?

g). State the essence of Digha Nikaya in four sentences ?

h). State the essence of Samutta Nikaya in four sentences ?


Section -B


II. Answer any threes Questions. Each question carries eight marks 3×8=24




Section -C


Answer any four Questions. Each carries 15 marks 4×15=60


6. Correctly make verb form with the following roots word in present tense, past tense and future tense in both active and passive forms.

a. vlabh, b. vpac

7. Discuss the history and origin of pali literature in three periods - i) From Buddha’s time to 5th Century AD ii) 5th Century to 11th century AD iii) from 12th century AD onwards?

8. How Buddhism is relevant in 21th century ‘VUCA world’ - Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity.

9. Discuss the essence and content of Patthana ?

10.Explain the importance of Duka and Tika Nipita ?


Paper II - Life of Bhagavan Buddha



Time: 03 Hours Max. marks: 100

_______________________________________________________________

Section - A


1. Briefly Answer the following. Each question carries two marks 8×2=16


a.) The dream of Queen Mahamaya.

b.) What was the Prince Siddhartha’s proclamation at his birth.

c.) What is Bodhi and how many kinds of Bodhi are there ?

d.) Who is a Bodhisatta and how many types of Bodhisatta are there ?

e.) Write four sights seen by the prince Siddhartha along with Channa ?

f.) Write the meaning of Three Refuges (Ti-sarana) ?

g.) What is the difference between the Bodhisatta and The Buddha ?

h.) Write any four qualities of Sangha in Pali & English ?



Section - B


II. Answer any three. Each question carries 8 marks 3×8=24


a) How can a middle path be explaines in terms of ethics, psychology and philosophy ?

b) Discuss the Aditta pariyaya sutta, and its essence ?

c) Analyse verses no. 127 and 128 of papa Vagga from Dhammapada with back ground story ?

d) Enumerate briefly the seven weeks of Awakenment ( Satta Sattaha)

e) Write any 10 verses Yamaka Vagga in Pali or English ?


Section - C



III. Answer any four. Each question carries 15 marks 4×15=60


1.) Write short Notes on Catu Arakkha bhavana The four protective meditations ?

a) Discuss the nature of Awakenment in Buddha’s own words aqs atated in Dona Sutta ?

b) Explain the difference between and ordinary act of Dana (giving) and an act of Dana Parami (perfection of giving) with the help of examples.

c) Who is the true conquer (jino), and why so ? Elaborate quoting from Upaka sutta.

d) What is Parami ? How many Paramis are there ? How do Paramis determine the attainment of different types of Bodhi ?’

e) Give details account of Ashoka’s nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?


*********************




Mithila Institute of Post Graduate Studies and Research In Sanskrit, Darbhanga Darbhanga

Pali Language || Importance of Pali in Buddhism || Episode -1 -2-3


Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 -1-2, 1-3, 1-4 Recollection of the


https://www.icbse.com/colleges/mithila-institute-of-post-graduate-studies-and-research-in-s-91zzly


Mithila Institute of Post Graduate Studies and Research In Sanskrit, Darbhanga Darbhanga


Source: https://www.icbse.com


Mithila Institute of Post Graduate Studies and Research In Sanskrit,
Darbhanga located at - Darbhanga Bihar is one of the popular colleges
in India. The College has been liked by 2 people on iCBSE. This College
is counted among the top-rated Colleges in Bihar with an excellent
academic track record. If you’re looking for more details regarding
admission/application forms, syllabus, courses offered, results,
placements or examinations schedule, kindly get in touch with the
relevant department of the college.


http://www.mridarbhanga.bih.nic.in/mithila_vidyapeetham.htm


Mithila Vidyapeetham


Our Mission


The institute was established in 1951 with a view to promoting
advanced research in various aspects of Sanskrit learning and to impart
teaching of the post-graduate standard to a limited number of students
in the stimulating environments of a residential community.


Institute Profile


The Government of Bihar established the Mithila Institute of Post
Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning at Darbhanga in 1951
with the object, inter-alia, to promote advanced studies and research in
Sanskirt learning, to bring together and modern scholars which their
technique of research and investigations, to publish works of permanent
value to scholars. This Institute is one of he five others planned by
this Governmen as a token of their homage to the tradition of learning
and scholarship for which ancient Bihar was noted. Apart from the
Mithila Institute, three others have been established and have been
doing useful work - Nalanda Institute of Research and Post-Graduate
Studies in Buddhist Learning and Pali at Nalanda, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal
Research Institute at Patna and the Bihar Rashtra Bhasa Parishad for
research and advance studies in Hindi at Patna. In the establishment of
the Mithila Institute the state. Government received a generous donation
from the Maharajadhiraja of Darbhanga for construction of building on a
plot of land also donated by him.


As a part of this programme of rehabilitating and re-orientation of
ancient learning and scholarship, the editing and publication of this
volume has been undertaken with co-operation of scholars in Bihar and
outside. The Government of Bihar hope to continue to sponsor such
projects and trust that this humble service to the world of scholarship
and learning would bear fruit in the fullness of time.


The necessity of rehabilitating and revitalizing the ancient
Sanskrit Learning was ardently felt during the Congress Ministry of
1937-39 and a committee under the Presidentship of the Late Maharaja
dhiraja of Darbhanga Sir Kameshwara Singhjee Bahadur, K.C.I.E, LLB.,
D.LITT., was appointed to devise a scheme for promoting Sanskrit
Education in this state.


Through the initiative of Shri M.S.Anney, Governor of Bihar, Shri
Acarya Badrinatha Verma, Minister of Education, Bihar and Shri J.C.
Mathur, ICS, Secretary to the Department of Education, the matter was
taken up in earnest in 1951. On the 20th October, 1951 Shri J.C.Mathur
places his scheme before the Government for the establishment of the
Sanskrit Research Institute in Mithila, dealing with its aims and
objectives, research project, administrative structure and method of
teaching. It also places emphasis on the collection and survey of rare
manuscripts, laid down rules for admission of students and so forth.


It was on November 21, 1951 that the foundation stone of the Mithila
Institute of Post-graduate Studies and research in Sanskrit Learning
was laid by the late lamented dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President
of the Indian Union at Maheshanagar, Darbhanga on the 61 Bighas, 13
Katthas, 13 Dhurs and 44 Dhurkis of land donated by the late
Maharajadhiraja Shri Kameshwara Singh. Thus the Mithila Research
Institute was born on the 16th June, 1951 in this land of perennial
light. As regard the functioning of the institute, this institute has
been running under the education (HRD) department of Government of Bihar
right from the date of its inception. Apart from its teaching and
research faculties, the institute has been running with three
significant sections:


Manuscript Section: This section plays a vital role in the academic
activities of the institute. The institute has been successfully
collecting rare and valuable manuscripts since its early days. The
present number of manuscripts in the institute is 11316 (Eleven thousand
three hundred sixteen), some of which date back to the 9th century A.D.
Collection covers almost all significant branches of Sanskrit leaning.
Constant errors are being made to enrich this section by fresh
acquisition. It is to be noted that on account of its large number and
priceless treasures, this collection happens to be the richest of its
type in the whole state.
Library: This Institute has a very rich library of rare books, Journals
and reference materials. At present the number of books and research
Journals is 23309 (Twenty three thousand three hundred nine). The
Encyclopedia-section of this library is so rich that it has been highly
appreciated by national as well as foreign research scholars whenever
they have visited the library.
Publication Division: The institute has its own publication division
which has been bringing out books and Journals of International repute
since its early days. At present the total number of books including the
Mahayana Texts is 81 (Eighty one) and the bulletins total 9 (Nine).
Aims and Objects


This Institute was established with a view to promoting advanced
studies and researches in various branches of Sanskrit Learning. It was
intended to serve as the meeting ground of the modern researchers and
the traditional Sanskrit scholars, so that while the former might get an
opportunity to dive deep into the original Sanskrit Tests, the latter
might get a training in modern methods of research. The Institute stands
dedicated to the task of preservation and propagation of the spiritual
heritage of ancient India.


Scope and Principal Features


This is a residential Institute and so all the students and the
members of the staff reside in its premises. The Institute prepares the
selected students for the degrees of Master of Arts, Doctor of
Philosophy and Doctor of Literature, which are awarded by the
L.N.Mithila University, Darbhanga. All the scholars are required to be
present in the premises of the Institute during working hours. They
cannot leave the station without obtaining the previous permission of
the Director.


The institute selects student for a PG degree of Masters of Arts and Ph.D. and D.Litt. and other research degrees.
The M.A. course of the institute is much more specialized and intensive
than the courses in other universities. The institute provides by means
of a course, or by any other means, a training in the methodology of
research and the principles of critical interpretation to not only young
modern scholars going up for research degree but also, if possible to
the traditional Pandits.
As a foundation for carrying on research in the future and as a means of
preserving useful source materials, the institute takes up the
collection and survey of manuscripts and other important source material
available in mithila in particulars and also in other parts of Bihar.


GOVERNING AUTHORITIES OF THE INSTITUTE


(a) General Council
(b) Executive Committee
(c) Publication Committee
(d) Board of Advisers
(e) Committee for Courses of Studies
(f) Examination Committee


OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE


Adhisthata - Rajyapala, Bihar
Adhyaksa - Education Minister, Bihar
Sanraksaka - Maharajadhiraja of Darbhanga
Pithapradhana - Director of the Institute
Pithasthavira - Registrar of the Institute


mithilavidyapeetham@gmail.com


https://www.icbse.com/regional-offices#Bengaluru?utm_source=icbse.com


Mithila Institute of Post Graduate Research Dharbanga Bihar


mithilavidyapeetham@gmail.com


 info.cbse@gov.in,

directoracad.cbse@nic.in,

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WeadpWJLxs
Pali Language || Importance of Pali in Buddhism || Episode -1
Team Twenty Two
Published on Jan 16, 2019
This is the first episode of Pali series by Sudhir Raj Singh
Bahujan Video Book
Sudhir Raj Singh
E-mail - team22india@gmail.com
Category
News & Politics
License
Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BI7fZ6_hjFw
Learning Pali - 01 | Shraddha TV

Shraddha TV
Published on Sep 8, 2013
Shraddha tv can be watched twenty-four hours a day via Peo TV channel
number 99 and Dialog TV channel number 27 in Sri Lanka. The live
streaming can be watched world wild via youtube and www.shraddha.lk/tv as well.

You also can contribute to this meritorious deed of gifting dhamma.
Bank: Sampath Bank, Kaduwela Branch.
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Account No: 016 2 100 00 910

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youtube.com
Shraddha tv can be watched twenty-four hours a day via Peo TV channel…




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UslaN_ssg7w&t=908s
Learning Pali - 02 | Shraddha TV
Shraddha TV
Published on Sep 15, 2013
Shraddha tv can be watched twenty-four hours a day via Peo TV channel
number 99 and Dialog TV channel number 27 in Sri Lanka. The live
streaming can be watched world wild via youtube and www.shraddha.lk/tv as well.

You also can contribute to this meritorious deed of gifting dhamma.
Bank: Sampath Bank, Kaduwela Branch.
Account Name: “Shraddha Media Network”
Account No: 016 2 100 00 910

© ShraddhaTV
Tel:+94 112 571 471, Fax +94 112 54 84 00
info@shraddha.lk / www.shraddha.lk
Category
Nonprofits & Activism


About This Website
youtube.com
Shraddha tv can be watched twenty-four hours a day via Peo TV channel…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RG69ucqpktM
Learning Pali - 03 | Shraddha TV
Shraddha TV
Published on Oct 9, 2013
Shraddha tv can be watched twenty-four hours a day via Peo TV channel
number 99 and Dialog TV channel number 27 in Sri Lanka. The live
streaming can be watched world wild via youtube and www.shraddha.lk/tv as well.

You also can contribute to this meritorious deed of gifting dhamma.
Bank: Sampath Bank, Kaduwela Branch.
Account Name: “Shraddha Media Network”
Account No: 016 2 100 00 910

© ShraddhaTV
Tel:+94 112 571 471, Fax +94 112 54 84 00
info@shraddha.lk / www.shraddha.lk
Category
Nonprofits & Activism


About This Website
youtube.com
Shraddha tv can be watched twenty-four hours a day via Peo TV channel…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63XPDqgxx3M&t=189s
Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 Recollection of the Bhikkhu Buddhadatta

BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
Published on Aug 29, 2016
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course
with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi

Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part 1-1 Recollection of the Buddha

The four protective meditations are a group of meditation topics
designed to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The
four are: recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness,
mindfulness of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over five
Saturdays in late July and August, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi will conduct a
course of day-long sessions on these subjects.
Category
Education


About This Website
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Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 Recollection of the Buddha

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Trd1LoCX_Q
Four protective meditations - Part 1-2 Recollection of the Bhikkhu Buddhadatta

BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
Published on Aug 29, 2016
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course
with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi

Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part 1-2 Recollection of the Buddha

The four protective meditations are a group of meditation topics
designed to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The
four are: recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness,
mindfulness of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over five
Saturdays in late July and August, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi will conduct a
course of day-long sessions on these subjects.
Category
Education


About This Website
youtube.com
Four protective meditations - Part 1-2 Recollection of the Buddha

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7TZomP8V0E
Four protective meditations - Part 1-3 Recollection of the Bhikkhu Buddhadatta
BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
Published on Aug 29, 2016
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course
with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi

Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part 1-3 Recollection of the Buddha

The four protective meditations are a group of meditation topics
designed to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The
four are: recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness,
mindfulness of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over five
Saturdays in late July and August, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi will conduct a
course of day-long sessions on these subjects.

00031
Category
Education


About This Website
youtube.com
Four protective meditations - Part 1-3 Recollection of the Buddha

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E-CNK7toTvs
Four protective meditations - Part 1-4 Recollection of the Bhikkhu Buddhadatta
BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
Published on Aug 29, 2016
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course
with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi

Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part 1-4 Recollection of the Buddha

The four protective meditations are a group of meditation topics
designed to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The
four are: recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness,
mindfulness of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over five
Saturdays in late July and August, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi will conduct a
course of day-long sessions on these subjects.

00032
Category
Education


About This Website
youtube.com
Four protective meditations - Part 1-4 Recollection of the Buddha

http://www.palitext.com/subpages/lan_lite.htm
The Pāli Language and Literature

Pāli is the name given to the language of the texts of Theravāda
Buddhism, although the commentarial tradition of the Theravādins states
that the language of the canon is Māgadhī, the language supposedly
spoken by the Buddha Gotama. The term Pāli originally referred to a
canonical text or passage rather than to a language and its current use
is based on a misunderstanding which occurred several centuries ago. The
language of the Theravādin canon is a version of a dialect of Middle
Indo-Āryan, not Māgadhī, created by the homogenisation of the
dialects in which the teachings of the Buddha were orally recorded and
transmitted. This became necessary as Buddhism was transmitted far
beyond the area of its origin and as the Buddhist monastic order
codified his teachings.

The tradition recorded in the
ancient Sinhalese chronicles states that the Theravādin canon was
written down in the first century B.C.E. The language of the canon
continued to be influenced by commentators and grammarians and by the
native languages of the countries in which Theravāda Buddhism became
established over many centuries. The oral transmission of the Pāli
canon continued for several centuries after the death of the Buddha,
even after the texts were first preserved in writing. No single script
was ever developed for the language of the canon; scribes used the
scripts of their native languages to transcribe the texts. Although
monasteries in South India are known to have been important centres of
Buddhist learning in the early part of this millennium, no manuscripts
from anywhere in India, except for one in Nepal have survived. The
majority of the manuscripts available to scholars since the PTS began
can be dated to the 18th or 19th centuries C.E. and the textual
traditions of the different Buddhist countries represented by these
manuscripts show much evidence of interweaving. The pattern of
recitation and validation of texts by councils of monks has continued
into the 20th century.

The main division of the Pāli canon
as it exists today is threefold, although the Pāli commentarial
tradition refers to several different ways of classification. The three
divisions are known as piṭakas and the canon itself as the Tipiṭaka; the
significance of the term piṭaka, literally “basket”, is not clear. The
text of the canon is divided, according to this system, into Vinaya
(monastic rules), Suttas (discourses) and Abhidhamma (analysis of the
teaching). The PTS edition of the Tipiṭaka contains fifty-seven books
(including indexes), and it cannot therefore be considered to be a
homogenous entity, comparable to the Christian Bible or Muslim Koran.
Although Buddhists refer to the Tipiṭaka as Buddha-vacana, “the word of
the Buddha”, there are texts within the canon either attributed to
specific monks or related to an event post-dating the time of the Buddha
or that can be shown to have been composed after that time. The first
four nikāyas (collections) of the Sutta-piṭaka contain sermons in which
the basic doctrines of the Buddha’s teaching are expounded either
briefly or in detail.

The early activities of the Society
centred around making the books of the Tipiṭaka available to scholars.
As access to printed editions and manuscripts has improved, scholars
have begun to produce truly critical editions and re-establish lost
readings. While there is much work still needed on the canon, its
commentaries and subcommentaries, the Society is also beginning to
encourage work on a wider range of Pāli texts, including those composed
in Southeast Asia.


palitext.com
The Pali Language and Literature

https://ariyajoti.wordpress.com/…/a-brief-history-of-pali-…/
A Brief History of Pāli Language
Posted on October 9, 2018 by Ariyajyoti Bhikkhu

Pāli (巴利语) is an Indo-European language, a kind of Prakrit. Prakrit and
Vedic Sanskrit (吠陀梵語) are the most ancient Indo-European languages in
India.Pāli is a dialect in ancient India. It is regarded as an ancient
dialect of Ujjayini (鄔闍衍那) because it stands closest to the language of
the Asokan-inscriptions of Girnar, Gujarat, Western India.[1]Pāli is a
form of Magadhi called Magadhi Prakrit (摩揭陀俗語) or Suddhamagadhi (Pure
Magadhi) while Jainism used Ardhamagadhi (lit. half-Magadhi).
Ardhamagadhi is thought to be the predecessor of Magadhi Prakrit. Pāli
does not have a systematized grammar compared to Classical Sanskrit.
However, Pāli is older than Classical Sanskrit (古典梵文).

Literally,
Pāli means “line, row, or series”. The early Buddhist masters extended
the meaning of the term to mean “a series of books”. Thus, Palibhāsa
means “language of the texts”. Pāli Tipiṭaka means the teachings of the
Buddha. According to Pāli Grammar, Pāli means protection because it
protects the Teaching of the Buddha (Dhamma).[2]It is synonymous with
Tanti, Mūlabhāsā (original language), Sabhāvanirutti (natural language),
Māgadhi bhāsa (the language of Magadha) (摩揭陀).

During the second
Buddhist Council, the Sthavira’s (上座部) elder monks who dwelt in Avanti,
Western India, was more influential in this area. Mahāvihāra School of
Sri Lanka was a sub-division of Sthaviravāda School. Mahāvihāra School
had preserved a complete set of the Pāli Tipiṭaka which was directly
introduced from India. Since Mahāvihāra School was a sub-division of
Sthaviravāda, it is assumed that the Tipitaka was the original text of
Sthaviravāda School.

After the 3rdBuddhist Council, Emperor
Asoka (阿育王) dispatched Venerable Mahinda (摩哂陀) and other monks who were
well-versed in Tipiṭaka to Sri Lanka. Because of the good support of
King Devanampiyatissa, Buddhism was well-established in Sri Lanka.

Due to famine and turmoil, the elders decided to compile the Tipiṭaka
to preserve it because at that time the Tipiṭaka was maintained by oral
transmission.[3]In the fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka at the
Alu-vihara Temple about 1stcentury B C E , the Pāli Canon was first
written down during the reign ofVaṭṭagāmaṇī-Abhaya.Later sometimes
palm-leaf manuscripts containing the completed PāliCanon were taken to
other countries such as Burma, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.

It is
assumed that Pali was popular in South India during that period. As the
Dipavaṃsa states, many monks from Sri Lanka moved to South India,
Kañcipuram. In the fifth Century CE,Venerable Buddhaghosa came from
India to Ceylon to study the Sinhalese Commentaries at the Mahāvihāra,
under Sanghapāla (probably at that period the entire Tipiṭaka and
commentaries were not available in India). To prove his capability, he
wrote Visuddhi-Magga, and having thereby won the approval of the Elders
of the Mahāvihāra, he translated the Sinhalese Commentaries into Pāli
language.[4] It is the transition period of colloquial Pāli into the
period of literal Pāli.

Like any other classical Buddhist
languages, studying Pāli has lots of benefits. Pāli is the only
classical Buddhist language which preserves a complete set of Tipiṭaka.
By understanding Pāli, one may be able to access the original sources.
Moreover, one will be able to comprehend the technical terminologies
such as Dukkkha, Nibbāna, Kusala, Akusala, Puñña, Sukha etc. The Pāli
Nikāyas (collections) and Chinese Āgama are the teachings of early
Buddhist Schools. For the academic purpose, one can explore and conduct
research and compare and contrast between Pāli Nikāyas and the Chinese
Āgama. Pāli language is inevitable for Theravada Buddhism for chanting,
taking precepts, listening to Sutta and sharing merits. Theravāda
countries value and study the Pāli Tipiṭaka and its commentaries. Sri
Lanka emphasizes the Suttapiṭaka, whereas Myanmar focuses on
Abhidhammapiṭaka. Furthermore, Thailand gives priority to Vinayapiṭaka.

Notes

[1]https://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebsut059.htm

[2]Pāleti rakkhatīti pāli. Dhammaṃ pāleti, pālayati.

[3]Dīpavaṃsa., and Hermann OLDENBERG. 1879. The Dípavamsa: an ancient
Buddhist Historical Record. Edited and translated by H. Oldenberg. Pâli
and Eng. Williams and Norgate: London, Berlin.

[4]http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/b/buddhagosa.htm
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Pāli
(巴利语) is an Indo-European language, a kind of Prakrit. Prakrit and
Vedic Sanskrit (吠陀梵語) are the most ancient Indo-European languages in
India.Pāli is a dialect in ancient India. It is regarde…


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