KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL
From Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
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LESSON 3148 Sat 12 Oct 2019 KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI CETIA at 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org runs Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University 
in
 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL to Propagate TIPITAKA BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA Suttas word by word and the Constitution of our Country - Complete Course on our Dhamma and Polity for the welfare, happiness and peace of all Awakened Aboriginal Societies and for their Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. When a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com Meditate throughout life for Welfare, Happiness and Peace in all postures of the body including, sitting, standing, lying, walking, cycling, swimming, performing martial arts, Tai Chi, Kung Fu, Karate, Kalari and so on. Why because: Buddha was asked, “What have you gained by Meditation?” He replied “Nothing!” “However, Buddha said, let me yell you what I lost: Anger, Anxiety, Depression, Insecurity, Fear of Old Age and Death” — In brief —1. The Buddha claimed no place for Himself in His own Dhamma- Natural Human language in34) Classical French- Français classique,Tamil and Chinese language: Reimagining Indian history from the Buddhist perspective
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 8:49 am

LESSON 3148 Sat 12 Oct 2019

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI CETIA

at 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India

through

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

runs

Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University 
in
 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

to DO GOOD
BE MINDFUL to Propagate TIPITAKA BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA Suttas word by
word and the Constitution of our Country - Complete Course on our Dhamma
and Polity for the welfare, happiness and peace of all Awakened
Aboriginal Societies and for their Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

When a just
born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby,
after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language
known as
Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com

Meditate
throughout life for Welfare, Happiness and Peace in all postures of the
body including, sitting, standing, lying, walking, cycling, swimming,
performing martial arts, Tai Chi, Kung Fu, Karate, Kalari and so on.

Why because:

Buddha was asked, “What have you gained by Meditation?”
He replied “Nothing!”
“However, Buddha said, let me yell you what I lost:
Anger,
Anxiety,
Depression,
Insecurity,

Fear of Old Age and Death”


— In brief —1. The Buddha claimed no place for Himself in
His own Dhamma-
Natural Human language in34) Classical French- Français classique,
Tamil and Chinese language: Reimagining Indian history from the Buddhist perspective


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/08/an08-053.html



AN 8.53 (A iv 280)

Saṅkhitta Sutta


— In brief —
[saṅkhitta]


The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.




Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word



Pāḷi



Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati mahā-vane kūṭāgāra-sālāyaṃ. Atha kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī yena bhagavā ten·upasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:





Sādhu me, bhante, bhagavā saṅkhittena dhammaṃ desetu, yam·ahaṃ bhagavato dhammaṃ sutvā ekā vūpakaṭṭhā appamattā ātāpinī pahitattā vihareyya nti.


Ye kho tvaṃ, gotami, dhamme jāneyyāsi:ime dhammā sarāgāya saṃvattanti, no virāgāya; saṃyogāya saṃvattanti, no visaṃyogāya; ācayāya saṃvattanti, no apacayāya; mahicchatāya saṃvattanti, no appicchatāya; asantuṭṭhiyā saṃvattanti, no santuṭṭhiyā; saṅgaṇikāya saṃvattanti, no pavivekāya; kosajjāya saṃvattanti, no vīriyārambhāya; dubbharatāya saṃvattanti, no subharatāyāti, ekaṃsena, gotami, dhāreyyāsi:n·eso dhammo n·eso vinayo n·etaṃ satthu-sāsananti.


Ye kho tvaṃ, gotami, dhamme jāneyyāsi:ime dhammā virāgāya saṃvattanti, no sarāgāya; visaṃyogāya saṃvattanti, no saṃyogāya; apacayāya saṃvattanti, no ācayāya; appicchatāya saṃvattanti, no mahicchatāya; santuṭṭhiyā saṃvattanti, no asantuṭṭhiyā; pavivekāya saṃvattanti, no saṅgaṇikāya; vīriyārambhāya saṃvattanti, no kosajjāya; subharatāya saṃvattanti, no dubbharatāyāti, ekaṃsena, gotami, dhāreyyāsi:n·eso dhammo n·eso vinayo n·etaṃ satthu-sāsananti.



AN 8.53 (A iv 280)

Saṅkhitta Sutta


— In brief —
[saṅkhitta]


The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.




Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word


English



On one occasion, the Bhagavā was dwelling at Vesāli, in the Great
Forest, in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. Then, Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī
approached the Bhagavā; having drawn near, she paid homage to the
Bhagavā and stood on one side. Standing on one side, Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī
addressed the Bhagavā thus:



It would be good, Bhante, if the Bhagavā taught me the Dhamma in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Bhagavā, I may dwell solitary, secluded, diligent, ardent and resolute.



Of these dhammas, Gotami, of which you may know: ‘These dhammas are conducive to passion, not to virāga; conducive to being fettered, not to being unfettered; conducive to accumulation, not to diminution; conducive to mahicchata, not to appicchata;
conducive to dissatisfaction, not to satisfaction; conducive to
socialization, not to solitude; conducive to laziness, not to
application of vīriya; conducive to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome’, you can definitely hold: ‘This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the instruction of the Teacher’.


Of these dhammas, Gotami, of which you may know: ‘These dhammas are conducive to virāga,
not to passion; conducive to being unfettered, not to being fettered;
conducive to diminution, not to accumulation; conducive to appicchata, not to mahicchata; conducive to satisfaction, not to dissatisfaction; conducive to solitude, not to socialization; conducive to application of vīriya, not to laziness; conducive to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome’, you can definitely hold: ‘This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the instruction of the Teacher’.


AN 8.53 (A iv 280)
ச itt கித்தா சுட்டா
- சுருக்கமாக -
[Saṅkhitta]

கொடுக்கப்பட்ட
அறிக்கை அவரது போதனைக்கு சொந்தமானதா இல்லையா என்பதைப் பாகுபடுத்த புத்தர்
தனது முன்னாள் செவிலியருக்கு இங்கே எட்டு அளவுகோல்களைக் கொடுக்கிறார், இது
இப்போதெல்லாம் எளிது.

குறிப்பு: தகவல் each ஒவ்வொரு பாலி வார்த்தையிலும் குமிழ்கள்

ஆங்கிலம்

ஒரு
சந்தர்ப்பத்தில், பகவான் வெசாலி, பெரிய வனப்பகுதியில், மண்டபத்தில் உச்சக்
கூரையுடன் வசித்து வந்தார். பின்னர், மஹாபஜபாத கோதமா பகவையை அணுகினார்;
அருகில் வந்ததும், அவள் பகவத்திற்கு மரியாதை செலுத்தி ஒரு பக்கத்தில்
நின்றாள். ஒரு பக்கத்தில் நின்று, மகாபஜபாத கோதமா பகவவை இவ்வாறு
உரையாற்றினார்:

- பக்தே, தர்மத்தை சுருக்கமாக எனக்குக் கற்றுக்
கொடுத்தால் நல்லது, அதனால், பாகவாவிடமிருந்து தர்மத்தைக் கேட்டதால், நான்
தனிமையாகவும், ஒதுங்கியதாகவும், விடாமுயற்சியுடனும், தீவிரமாகவும்,
உறுதியுடனும் வாழலாம்.

- இந்த தம்மங்களில், கோட்டாமி, உங்களுக்குத்
தெரிந்திருக்கலாம்: ‘இந்த தம்மங்கள் உணர்ச்சிக்கு உகந்தவை, விராகாவுக்கு
அல்ல; பிணைக்கப்படுவதற்கு உகந்ததாக இருக்கிறது, தடையின்றி இருக்கக்கூடாது;
குவியலுக்கு உகந்தது, குறைவதற்கு அல்ல; மஹிச்சட்டாவுக்கு உகந்தது,
அப்பிச்சாட்டா அல்ல; அதிருப்திக்கு உகந்தது, திருப்திக்கு அல்ல; தனிமையில்
அல்ல, சமூகமயமாக்கலுக்கு உகந்தது; சோம்பேறித்தனத்திற்கு உகந்தது, வரியாவின்
பயன்பாடு அல்ல; சுமையாக இருப்பதற்கு உகந்ததாக இருக்கிறது, சுமையாக
இருக்கக்கூடாது ‘, நீங்கள் நிச்சயமாக வைத்திருக்கலாம்:’ இது தர்மம் அல்ல,
இது வினயா அல்ல, இது ஆசிரியரின் அறிவுறுத்தல் அல்ல ‘.

இந்த
தம்மங்களில், கோட்டாமி, உங்களுக்குத் தெரிந்திருக்கலாம்: ‘இந்த தம்மங்கள்
விராகாவுக்கு உகந்தவை, உணர்ச்சிக்கு அல்ல; தடையின்றி இருப்பதற்கு உகந்தது,
பிணைக்கப்படாமல்; குறைவதற்கு உகந்தது, குவிப்பதற்கு அல்ல;
மச்சிச்சட்டாவுக்கு அல்ல, அப்பிச்சட்டாவுக்கு உகந்தது; திருப்திக்கு
உகந்தது, அதிருப்திக்கு அல்ல; தனிமையில் உகந்தது, சமூகமயமாக்கலுக்கு அல்ல;
சோம்பேறித்தனத்திற்கு அல்ல, வரியாவின் பயன்பாட்டிற்கு உகந்தது; சுமையாக
இருக்கக்கூடாது, சுமையாக இருக்கக்கூடாது என்பதற்கு உகந்தது ‘, நீங்கள்
நிச்சயமாக வைத்திருக்கலாம்:’ இது தர்மம், இது வினயா, இது ஆசிரியரின்
அறிவுறுத்தல் ‘.


84) छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित् छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
आण् 8.53 (आ इव् 280)
षṅखित्त षुत्त
— ईन् ब्रिएf —
[सṅखित्त]

ठे
Bउद्ध गिवेस् हेरे तो हिस् fओर्मेर् नुर्से एइघ्त् च्रितेरिअ तो
दिस्च्रिमिनते wहेथेर् अ गिवेन् स्ततेमेन्त् बेलोन्ग्स् तो हिस्
तेअच्हिन्ग् ओर् नोत्, wहिच्ह् मय् हप्पेन् तो बे हन्द्य् नोwअदय्स्.

णोतेः इन्fओ·बुब्ब्लेस् ओन् एवेर्य् Pअलि wओर्द्

Eन्ग्लिस्ह्

Oन्
ओने ओच्चसिओन्, थे Bहगव्ā wअस् द्wएल्लिन्ग् अत् Vएस्āलि, इन् थे ङ्रेअत्
Fओरेस्त्, इन् थे ःअल्ल् wइथ् थे Pएअकेद् ऋओओf. ठेन्, ंअह्āपज्āपत्ī ङोतम्ī
अप्प्रोअच्हेद् थे Bहगव्ā; हविन्ग् द्रwन् नेअर्, स्हे पैद् होमगे तो थे
Bहगव्ā अन्द् स्तोओद् ओन् ओने सिदे. ष्तन्दिन्ग् ओन् ओने सिदे,
ंअह्āपज्āपत्ī ङोतम्ī अद्द्रेस्सेद् थे Bहगव्ā थुसः

– ईत्
wओउल्द् बे गोओद्, Bहन्ते, इf थे Bहगव्ā तौघ्त् मे थे ढम्म इन् ब्रिएf, सो
थत्, हविन्ग् हेअर्द् थे ढम्म fरोम् थे Bहगव्ā, ई मय् द्wएल्ल् सोलितर्य्,
सेच्लुदेद्, दिलिगेन्त्, अर्देन्त् अन्द् रेसोलुते.

– Of थेसे
धम्मस्, ङोतमि, ओf wहिच्ह् योउ मय् क्नोwः ‘ठेसे धम्मस् अरे चोन्दुचिवे तो
पस्सिओन्, नोत् तो विर्āग; चोन्दुचिवे तो बेइन्ग् fएत्तेरेद्, नोत् तो
बेइन्ग् उन्fएत्तेरेद्; चोन्दुचिवे तो अच्चुमुलतिओन्, नोत् तो दिमिनुतिओन्;
चोन्दुचिवे तो महिच्च्हत, नोत् तो अप्पिच्च्हत; चोन्दुचिवे तो
दिस्सतिस्fअच्तिओन्, नोत् तो सतिस्fअच्तिओन्; चोन्दुचिवे तो सोचिअलिशतिओन्,
नोत् तो सोलितुदे; चोन्दुचिवे तो लशिनेस्स्, नोत् तो अप्प्लिचतिओन् ओf
व्īरिय; चोन्दुचिवे तो बेइन्ग् बुर्देन्सोमे, नोत् तो बेइन्ग्
उन्बुर्देन्सोमे’, योउ चन् देfइनितेल्य् होल्दः ‘ठिस् इस् नोत् थे ढम्म,
थिस् इस् नोत् थे Vइनय, थिस् इस् नोत् थे इन्स्त्रुच्तिओन् ओf थे
टेअच्हेर्’.

Of थेसे धम्मस्, ङोतमि, ओf wहिच्ह् योउ मय् क्नोwः
‘ठेसे धम्मस् अरे चोन्दुचिवे तो विर्āग, नोत् तो पस्सिओन्; चोन्दुचिवे तो
बेइन्ग् उन्fएत्तेरेद्, नोत् तो बेइन्ग् fएत्तेरेद्; चोन्दुचिवे तो
दिमिनुतिओन्, नोत् तो अच्चुमुलतिओन्; चोन्दुचिवे तो अप्पिच्च्हत, नोत् तो
महिच्च्हत; चोन्दुचिवे तो सतिस्fअच्तिओन्, नोत् तो दिस्सतिस्fअच्तिओन्;
चोन्दुचिवे तो सोलितुदे, नोत् तो सोचिअलिशतिओन्; चोन्दुचिवे तो
अप्प्लिचतिओन् ओf व्īरिय, नोत् तो लशिनेस्स्; चोन्दुचिवे तो बेइन्ग्
उन्बुर्देन्सोमे, नोत् तो बेइन्ग् बुर्देन्सोमे’, योउ चन् देfइनितेल्य्
होल्दः ‘ठिस् इस् थे ढम्म, थिस् इस् थे Vइनय, थिस् इस् थे इन्स्त्रुच्तिओन्
ओf थे टेअच्हेर्’.





BOOK THREE: 
WHAT THE BUDDHA TAUGHT

Book Three, Part I—His Place in
His Dhamma

1. *The Buddha claimed no place
for Himself in His Own Dhamma
* — 2. *The Buddha
did not promise to give salvation. He said He was Marga Data (Way
Finder) and not Moksha Data (Giver of Salvation)
* — 3. *The
Buddha did not claim any Divinity for Himself or for His Dhamma. It was
discovered by man for man. It was not a Revelation
*

 



§ 1. The Buddha claimed no place for Himself in
His own Dhamma

    1. Christ claimed to be the Prophet of Christianity.

    2. He further claimed that he was the Son of God.

    3. Christ also laid down the condition that there
was no salvation for a person unless he accepted that Christ was the Son
of God.

    4. Thus Christ secured a place for Himself by making
the salvation of the Christian depend upon his acceptance of Christ as
the Prophet and Son of God.

    5. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, claimed that
he was a Prophet sent by God.

    6. He further claimed that no one could get salvation
unless he accepted two other conditions.

    7. A seeker of salvation in Islam must accept that
Mohammad is the Prophet of God.

    8. A seeker after salvation in Islam must further
accept that he is the last prophet.

    9. Salvation in Islam is thus ensured only to those
who accept these two conditions.

    10. Mohammad thus secured a place for Himself by
making the salvation of the Muslim depend upon his acknowledgement of Mohammed
as the Prophet of God.

    11. No such condition was ever made by the Buddha.

    12. He claimed that he was no more than the natural
son of Suddhodana and Mahamaya.

    13. He carved for himself no place in his religion
by laying down any such conditions regarding himself for salvation as Jesus
and Mahommad did.

    14. That is the reason why we are left to know so
little about himself even though abundant material was available.

    15. As is known, the first Buddhist congregation
was held soon after the death of the Buddha at Rajagraha.

    16. Kassyappa presided over the congregation. Anand,
Upali and many others who belonged to Kapilavatsu and who wandered with
him wherever he went, and were with him till his death, were present.

    17. But what did Kassyappa the President do?

    18. He asked Anand to repeat the Dhamma and put
the question to the congregation, “Is this right?” They answered in the
affirmative. And Kassyappa then closed the question.

    19. Thereafter he asked Upali to repeat the Vinaya
and put the question to the congregation, ” Is this right ?” They answered
in the affirmative. Kassyappa then closed the question.

    20. Kassyappa then should have put the third question
to someone present in the congregation to record some important incidents
in the life of the Buddha.

    21. But Kassyappa did not. These were the only two
questions with which he thought the Sangh was concerned.

    22. If Kassyappa had collected the record of the
Buddha’s life we would have had today a full-fledged biography of the Buddha.

    23. Why did it not strike Kassyappa to collect the
record about the Buddha’s life?

    24. It could not be indifference. The only answer
one can give is that the Buddha had carved no niche for himself in his
religion.

    25. The Buddha and his religion were quite apart.

    26. Another illustration of the Buddha keeping himself
out of his religion is to be found in his refusal to appoint a successor.

    27. Twice or thrice the Buddha was requested by
his followers to appoint a successor.

    28. Every time the Buddha refused.

    29. His answer was, “The Dhamma must be its own
successor.

    30. “Principle must live by itself, and not by the
authority of man.

    31. “If principle needs the authority of man, it
is no principle.

    32. “If every time it becomes necessary to invoke
the name of the founder to enforce the authority of Dhamma, then it is
no Dhamma.”

    33. Such was the view he took of his own position
regarding his Dhamma.

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_buddha/03_01.html

புத்தகம் மூன்று: புத்த தட் என்ன

புத்தகம் மூன்று, பகுதி I His அவரது தம்மத்தில் அவரது இடம்

1.
* புத்தர் தனது சொந்த தம்மத்தில் தனக்கு இடமில்லை என்று கூறிக்கொண்டார் * -
2. * புத்தர் இரட்சிப்பைக் கொடுப்பதாக வாக்குறுதி அளிக்கவில்லை. அவர்
மார்கா டேட்டா (வே ஃபைண்டர்) என்றும், மோக்ஷா டேட்டா (இரட்சிப்பைக்
கொடுப்பவர்) அல்ல என்றும் அவர் கூறினார் * - 3. * புத்தர் தனக்காகவோ அல்லது
அவரது தம்மத்திற்காகவோ எந்த தெய்வீகத்தையும் கோரவில்லை. இது மனிதனுக்காக
மனிதனால் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டது. இது ஒரு வெளிப்பாடு அல்ல *
 

§ 1. புத்தர் தனது சொந்த தம்மத்தில் தனக்கு இடமில்லை என்று கூறினார்

    1. கிறிஸ்து கிறிஸ்தவத்தின் நபி என்று கூறினார்.
    2. அவர் மேலும் தேவனுடைய குமாரன் என்று கூறினார்.
    3.
கிறிஸ்து தேவனுடைய குமாரன் என்பதை ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளாவிட்டால் ஒருவருக்கு
இரட்சிப்பு இல்லை என்ற நிபந்தனையையும் கிறிஸ்து வகுத்தார்.
    4.
இவ்வாறு கிறிஸ்துவின் இரட்சிப்பை கிறிஸ்துவின் தீர்க்கதரிசி மற்றும்
கடவுளின் மகன் என்று ஏற்றுக்கொள்வதைப் பொறுத்து கிறிஸ்து தனக்கென ஒரு
இடத்தைப் பெற்றார்.
    5. இஸ்லாத்தின் நபி முகமது, அவர் கடவுள் அனுப்பிய நபி என்று கூறினார்.
    6. மேலும் இரண்டு நிபந்தனைகளை ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளாவிட்டால் யாரும் இரட்சிப்பைப் பெற முடியாது என்று அவர் மேலும் கூறினார்.
    7. இஸ்லாத்தில் இரட்சிப்பைத் தேடுபவர் முகமது கடவுளின் நபி என்பதை ஏற்றுக்கொள்ள வேண்டும்.
    8. இஸ்லாத்தில் இரட்சிப்பின் பின்னர் தேடுபவர், அவர் கடைசி தீர்க்கதரிசி என்பதை மேலும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ள வேண்டும்.
    9. இந்த இரண்டு நிபந்தனைகளையும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்பவர்களுக்கு மட்டுமே இஸ்லாத்தில் இரட்சிப்பு உறுதி செய்யப்படுகிறது.
    10.
முஹம்மது கடவுளின் நபி என்று முகமதுவை ஏற்றுக்கொள்வதைப் பொறுத்து
முஸ்லிமின் இரட்சிப்பைச் செய்வதன் மூலம் முகமது தனக்கென ஒரு இடத்தைப்
பெற்றார்.
    11. அத்தகைய நிபந்தனை புத்தரால் இதுவரை செய்யப்படவில்லை.
    12. அவர் சுத்தோதன மற்றும் மகாமாயாவின் இயல்பான மகன் அல்ல என்று கூறினார்.
    13.
இயேசுவும் மஹம்மதுவும் செய்ததைப் போல இரட்சிப்பிற்காக தன்னைப் பற்றிய
எந்தவொரு நிபந்தனையையும் அவர் முன்வைத்ததன் மூலம் அவர் தனது மதத்தில்
தனக்கு இடமில்லை.
    14. ஏராளமான பொருள் கிடைத்திருந்தாலும், அவரைப் பற்றி நாம் கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சமாக அறிந்து கொள்ள இதுவே காரணம்.
    15. அறியப்பட்டபடி, ராஜகிரகாவில் புத்தர் இறந்த உடனேயே முதல் புத்த சபை நடைபெற்றது.
    16.
கஸ்யப்ப சபைக்கு தலைமை தாங்கினார். ஆனந்த், உபாலி மற்றும் கபிலவாட்சுவைச்
சேர்ந்தவர்கள் மற்றும் அவர் எங்கு சென்றாலும் அவருடன் அலைந்து
திரிந்தவர்கள், இறக்கும் வரை அவருடன் இருந்தவர்கள் பலர் கலந்து கொண்டனர்.
    17. ஆனால் ஜனாதிபதி கஸ்யப்பா என்ன செய்தார்?
    18.
அவர் ஆனந்திடம் தம்மத்தை மீண்டும் சொல்லும்படி கேட்டார், “இது சரியா?”
அவர்கள் உறுதிமொழியில் பதிலளித்தனர். பின்னர் கஸ்யப்பா கேள்வியை மூடினார்.
    19.
அதன்பிறகு உபாலியிடம் வினயாவை மீண்டும் சொல்லும்படி கேட்டார், “இது
சரியா?” அவர்கள் உறுதிமொழியில் பதிலளித்தனர். பின்னர் கஸ்யப்பா கேள்வியை
மூடினார்.
    20. கஸ்யப்பா பின்னர் புத்தரின் வாழ்க்கையில் சில
முக்கியமான சம்பவங்களை பதிவு செய்ய சபையில் இருக்கும் ஒருவரிடம் மூன்றாவது
கேள்வியை வைத்திருக்க வேண்டும்.
    21. ஆனால் கஸ்யப்பா அவ்வாறு செய்யவில்லை. சங்கம் சம்பந்தப்பட்டதாக அவர் நினைத்த இரண்டு கேள்விகள் மட்டுமே இவை.
    22. கஸ்யப்ப புத்தரின் வாழ்க்கையின் பதிவை சேகரித்திருந்தால், இன்று புத்தரின் முழு வாழ்க்கை வரலாற்றை நாம் பெற்றிருப்போம்.
    23. புத்தரின் வாழ்க்கையைப் பற்றிய பதிவுகளை சேகரிக்க கஸ்யப்பாவை ஏன் தாக்கவில்லை?
    24.
அது அலட்சியமாக இருக்க முடியாது. ஒருவர் தரக்கூடிய ஒரே பதில்
என்னவென்றால், புத்தர் தனது மதத்தில் தனக்கென ஒரு முக்கிய இடத்தையும்
செதுக்கவில்லை.
    25. புத்தரும் அவரது மதமும் முற்றிலும் வேறுபட்டவை.
    26.
புத்தர் தன்னை தனது மதத்திலிருந்து விலக்கி வைத்திருப்பதற்கான மற்றொரு
எடுத்துக்காட்டு, ஒரு வாரிசை நியமிக்க மறுத்ததில் காணப்படுகிறது.
    27. ஒரு வாரிசை நியமிக்க புத்தர் தம்மைப் பின்பற்றுபவர்களால் இரண்டு அல்லது மூன்று முறை கோரப்பட்டார்.
    28. ஒவ்வொரு முறையும் புத்தர் மறுத்துவிட்டார்.
    29. அவரது பதில், “தம்மம் அதன் சொந்த வாரிசாக இருக்க வேண்டும்.
    30. “கோட்பாடு தானாகவே வாழ வேண்டும், மனிதனின் அதிகாரத்தால் அல்ல.
    31. “கொள்கைக்கு மனிதனின் அதிகாரம் தேவைப்பட்டால், அது கொள்கை அல்ல.
    32. “தம்மின் அதிகாரத்தை செயல்படுத்த ஒவ்வொரு முறையும் ஸ்தாபகரின் பெயரைக் கோருவது அவசியமானால், அது தர்மம் அல்ல.”
    33. அவரது தம்மத்தைப் பற்றி அவர் தனது சொந்த நிலைப்பாட்டை எடுத்தார்.

84) छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित् छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्

BOOK टःऋEEः  Wःआट् टःE Bऊड्डःआ टाऊङःट्

Bओओक् ठ्रेए, Pअर्त् ई—ःइस् Pलचे इन् ःइस् ढम्म

1.
*ठे Bउद्ध च्लैमेद् नो प्लचे fओर् ःइम्सेल्f इन् ःइस् Owन् ढम्म* — 2.
*ठे Bउद्ध दिद् नोत् प्रोमिसे तो गिवे सल्वतिओन्. ःए सैद् ःए wअस् ंअर्ग डत
(Wअय् Fइन्देर्) अन्द् नोत् ंओक्स्ह डत (ङिवेर् ओf षल्वतिओन्)* — 3. *ठे
Bउद्ध दिद् नोत् च्लैम् अन्य् डिविनित्य् fओर् ःइम्सेल्f ओर् fओर् ःइस्
ढम्म. ईत् wअस् दिस्चोवेरेद् ब्य् मन् fओर् मन्. ईत् wअस् नोत् अ
ऋएवेलतिओन्*
 

§ 1. ठे Bउद्ध च्लैमेद् नो प्लचे fओर् ःइम्सेल्f इन् ःइस् ओwन् ढम्म

    1. छ्ह्रिस्त् च्लैमेद् तो बे थे Pरोफेत् ओf छ्ह्रिस्तिअनित्य्.
    2. ःए fउर्थेर् च्लैमेद् थत् हे wअस् थे षोन् ओf ङोद्.
   
3. छ्ह्रिस्त् अल्सो लैद् दोwन् थे चोन्दितिओन् थत् थेरे wअस् नो
सल्वतिओन् fओर् अ पेर्सोन् उन्लेस्स् हे अच्चेप्तेद् थत् छ्ह्रिस्त् wअस्
थे षोन् ओf ङोद्.
    4. ठुस् छ्ह्रिस्त् सेचुरेद् अ प्लचे fओर्
ःइम्सेल्f ब्य् मकिन्ग् थे सल्वतिओन् ओf थे छ्ह्रिस्तिअन् देपेन्द् उपोन्
हिस् अच्चेप्तन्चे ओf छ्ह्रिस्त् अस् थे Pरोफेत् अन्द् षोन् ओf ङोद्.
    5. ंओहम्मद्, थे Pरोफेत् ओf ईस्लम्, च्लैमेद् थत् हे wअस् अ Pरोफेत् सेन्त् ब्य् ङोद्.
    6. ःए fउर्थेर् च्लैमेद् थत् नो ओने चोउल्द् गेत् सल्वतिओन् उन्लेस्स् हे अच्चेप्तेद् त्wओ ओथेर् चोन्दितिओन्स्.
    7. आ सेएकेर् ओf सल्वतिओन् इन् ईस्लम् मुस्त् अच्चेप्त् थत् ंओहम्मद् इस् थे Pरोफेत् ओf ङोद्.
    8. आ सेएकेर् अfतेर् सल्वतिओन् इन् ईस्लम् मुस्त् fउर्थेर् अच्चेप्त् थत् हे इस् थे लस्त् प्रोफेत्.
    9. षल्वतिओन् इन् ईस्लम् इस् थुस् एन्सुरेद् ओन्ल्य् तो थोसे wहो अच्चेप्त् थेसे त्wओ चोन्दितिओन्स्.
   
10. ंओहम्मद् थुस् सेचुरेद् अ प्लचे fओर् ःइम्सेल्f ब्य् मकिन्ग् थे
सल्वतिओन् ओf थे ंउस्लिम् देपेन्द् उपोन् हिस् अच्क्नोwलेद्गेमेन्त् ओf
ंओहम्मेद् अस् थे Pरोफेत् ओf ङोद्.
    11. णो सुच्ह् चोन्दितिओन् wअस् एवेर् मदे ब्य् थे Bउद्ध.
    12. ःए च्लैमेद् थत् हे wअस् नो मोरे थन् थे नतुरल् सोन् ओf षुद्धोदन अन्द् ंअहमय.
   
13. ःए चर्वेद् fओर् हिम्सेल्f नो प्लचे इन् हिस् रेलिगिओन् ब्य् लयिन्ग्
दोwन् अन्य् सुच्ह् चोन्दितिओन्स् रेगर्दिन्ग् हिम्सेल्f fओर् सल्वतिओन्
अस् ञेसुस् अन्द् ंअहोम्मद् दिद्.
    14. ठत् इस् थे रेअसोन् wह्य् wए
अरे लेfत् तो क्नोw सो लित्त्ले अबोउत् हिम्सेल्f एवेन् थोउघ् अबुन्दन्त्
मतेरिअल् wअस् अवैलब्ले.
    15. आस् इस् क्नोwन्, थे fइर्स्त् Bउद्धिस्त् चोन्ग्रेगतिओन् wअस् हेल्द् सोओन् अfतेर् थे देअथ् ओf थे Bउद्ध अत् ऋअजग्रह.
   
16. Kअस्स्यप्प प्रेसिदेद् ओवेर् थे चोन्ग्रेगतिओन्. आनन्द्, ऊपलि अन्द्
मन्य् ओथेर्स् wहो बेलोन्गेद् तो Kअपिलवत्सु अन्द् wहो wअन्देरेद् wइथ्
हिम् wहेरेवेर् हे wएन्त्, अन्द् wएरे wइथ् हिम् तिल्ल् हिस् देअथ्, wएरे
प्रेसेन्त्.
    17. Bउत् wहत् दिद् Kअस्स्यप्प थे Pरेसिदेन्त् दो?
   
18. ःए अस्केद् आनन्द् तो रेपेअत् थे ढम्म अन्द् पुत् थे qउएस्तिओन् तो थे
चोन्ग्रेगतिओन्, “ईस् थिस् रिघ्त्?” ठेय् अन्स्wएरेद् इन् थे अffइर्मतिवे.
आन्द् Kअस्स्यप्प थेन् च्लोसेद् थे qउएस्तिओन्.
    19. ठेरेअfतेर् हे
अस्केद् ऊपलि तो रेपेअत् थे Vइनय अन्द् पुत् थे qउएस्तिओन् तो थे
चोन्ग्रेगतिओन्, ” ईस् थिस् रिघ्त् ?” ठेय् अन्स्wएरेद् इन् थे
अffइर्मतिवे. Kअस्स्यप्प थेन् च्लोसेद् थे qउएस्तिओन्.
    20.
Kअस्स्यप्प थेन् स्होउल्द् हवे पुत् थे थिर्द् qउएस्तिओन् तो सोमेओने
प्रेसेन्त् इन् थे चोन्ग्रेगतिओन् तो रेचोर्द् सोमे इम्पोर्तन्त्
इन्चिदेन्त्स् इन् थे लिfए ओf थे Bउद्ध.
    21. Bउत् Kअस्स्यप्प दिद् नोत्. ठेसे wएरे थे ओन्ल्य् त्wओ qउएस्तिओन्स् wइथ् wहिच्ह् हे थोउघ्त् थे षन्घ् wअस् चोन्चेर्नेद्.
   
22. ईf Kअस्स्यप्प हद् चोल्लेच्तेद् थे रेचोर्द् ओf थे Bउद्ध’स् लिfए wए
wओउल्द् हवे हद् तोदय् अ fउल्ल्-fलेद्गेद् बिओग्रफ्य् ओf थे Bउद्ध.
    23. Wह्य् दिद् इत् नोत् स्त्रिके Kअस्स्यप्प तो चोल्लेच्त् थे रेचोर्द् अबोउत् थे Bउद्ध’स् लिfए?
   
24. ईत् चोउल्द् नोत् बे इन्दिffएरेन्चे. ठे ओन्ल्य् अन्स्wएर् ओने चन्
गिवे इस् थत् थे Bउद्ध हद् चर्वेद् नो निच्हे fओर् हिम्सेल्f इन् हिस्
रेलिगिओन्.
    25. ठे Bउद्ध अन्द् हिस् रेलिगिओन् wएरे qउइते अपर्त्.
   
26. आनोथेर् इल्लुस्त्रतिओन् ओf थे Bउद्ध केएपिन्ग् हिम्सेल्f ओउत् ओf
हिस् रेलिगिओन् इस् तो बे fओउन्द् इन् हिस् रेfउसल् तो अप्पोइन्त् अ
सुच्चेस्सोर्.
    27. ट्wइचे ओर् थ्रिचे थे Bउद्ध wअस् रेqउएस्तेद् ब्य् हिस् fओल्लोwएर्स् तो अप्पोइन्त् अ सुच्चेस्सोर्.
    28. Eवेर्य् तिमे थे Bउद्ध रेfउसेद्.
    29. ःइस् अन्स्wएर् wअस्, “ठे ढम्म मुस्त् बे इत्स् ओwन् सुच्चेस्सोर्.
    30. “Pरिन्चिप्ले मुस्त् लिवे ब्य् इत्सेल्f, अन्द् नोत् ब्य् थे औथोरित्य् ओf मन्.
    31. “ईf प्रिन्चिप्ले नेएद्स् थे औथोरित्य् ओf मन्, इत् इस् नो प्रिन्चिप्ले.
   
32. “ईf एवेर्य् तिमे इत् बेचोमेस् नेचेस्सर्य् तो इन्वोके थे नमे ओf थे
fओउन्देर् तो एन्fओर्चे थे औथोरित्य् ओf ढम्म, थेन् इत् इस् नो ढम्म.”
    33. षुच्ह् wअस् थे विएw हे तोओक् ओf हिस् ओwन् पोसितिओन् रेगर्दिन्ग् हिस् ढम्म.



When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
language known as
Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com

34) Classical French- Français classique,
34) Français classique - Français classique

https://wisdomquotes.com/buddha-quotes/

150 citations de Bouddha qui vous rendront plus sage (rapide)

Par Maxime Lagacé maxime lagace small Obtenez la citation du jour

    Il n’y a pas de peur pour celui dont l’esprit n’est pas rempli de désirs. Bouddha

    Travaillez votre propre salut. Ne comptez pas sur les autres. Buddha Cliquez pour tweeter

    Si quelque chose en vaut la peine, faites-le de tout votre cœur. Buddha Cliquez pour tweeter

    Un
homme ne s’appelle pas sage parce qu’il parle encore et encore; mais
s’il est paisible, aimant et sans peur, il est en vérité appelé sage.
Bouddha

    Ne cherchez pas de sanctuaire chez qui que ce soit. Bouddha

    Personne
ne nous sauve que nous-mêmes. Personne ne peut et personne ne peut.
Nous devons nous-mêmes marcher sur le chemin. Bouddha

    Pour vivre une vie pure et désintéressée, il ne faut rien compter comme étant propre au milieu de l’abondance. Bouddha

    Tout ce que nous sommes est le résultat de ce que nous avons pensé. Bouddha

    Si nous ne prenons pas soin des autres lorsqu’ils ont besoin d’aide, qui s’occupera de nous? Bouddha

    Celui qui agit sur la vérité est heureux dans ce monde et au-delà. Bouddha

Les meilleures citations de Bouddha

    Donnez, même si vous n’en avez qu’un peu.

    Même la mort ne doit pas être craint par celui qui a vécu sagement.

    Les
irrigants canalisent les eaux; fletchers redresser les flèches; les
menuisiers plient le bois; les sages se maîtrisent eux-mêmes.

    Le pot d’eau est rempli goutte à goutte. De même, le sage, le ramassant peu à peu, se remplit de bien.

    Le plus beau des cadeaux est de donner aux gens votre illumination, de la partager. Ce doit être le meilleur.

    Si vous saviez ce que je sais sur le pouvoir de donner, vous ne laisseriez pas passer un seul repas sans le partager.

    La racine de la souffrance est l’attachement.

    Faites
taire l’homme en colère avec amour. Faites taire l’homme méchant avec
gentillesse. Faites taire l’avare avec générosité. Faites taire le
menteur avec la vérité.

    Les gens qui ont des opinions vont simplement se gêner.

    Même
si une roche solide n’est pas ébranlée par le vent, il en va de même
pour le sage inébranlable ni par la louange ni par le blâme.

    Vous devez vous-même vous efforcer. Les bouddhas indiquent seulement le chemin. Cliquez pour tweeter

    Rien ne peut vous nuire autant que vos propres pensées sans surveillance.

    Méditez… ne tardez pas, de peur de le regretter plus tard.

    Mieux que mille mots creux, un seul mot apporte la paix.

    La compréhension est le cœur des mots bien prononcés.

    Cesser de faire le mal, cultiver le bien, purifier le cœur: tel est l’enseignement des Bouddhas.

    Plaisir de méditation et de solitude. Composez-vous, soyez heureux. Vous êtes un chercheur.

    Fait ardemment aujourd’hui ce qu’il faut faire. Qui sait? Demain, la mort vient.

    Ce que tu es est ce que tu as été. Ce que tu vas faire est ce que tu fais maintenant.

    Si vous proposez de parler, demandez-vous toujours: est-ce vrai, est-ce nécessaire, est-ce gentil?

    Si
vous ne trouvez personne pour vous soutenir sur le chemin spirituel,
marchez seul. (C’est l’une de mes citations préférées du Bouddha.
Laissez une réponse et dites-moi ce qui vous revient!)

Partie 2. Citations de Bouddha qui sont…
Citations inspirantes de Bouddha

    Stop STOP. Ne parlez pas. La vérité ultime n’est même pas de penser.

    Nous sommes ce que nous pensons. Tout ce que nous sommes naît avec nos pensées. Avec nos pensées, nous faisons le monde.

    Tout
comme le grand océan a un goût, le goût du sel, cet enseignement et
cette discipline ont aussi un goût, le goût de la libération.

    Celui
en qui n’existe plus le désir et la soif qui perpétuent le devenir;
comment pouvez-vous suivre celui qui est Éveillé, sans piste et d’une
portée illimitée.

    L’endurance est l’une des disciplines les plus difficiles, mais c’est à celui qui endure que la victoire finale vient.

    La
nuit est longue pour celui qui est éveillé; long est un kilomètre pour
celui qui est fatigué; longue est la vie aux insensés qui ne connaissent
pas la vraie loi.

    Quel que soit le bijou précieux qui existe dans les mondes célestes, il n’ya rien de comparable à celui qui est Éveillé.

    Notre
vie est façonnée par notre esprit. Nous devenons ce que nous pensons.
La joie suit une pensée pure comme une ombre qui ne quitte jamais.

    Comme
une belle fleur, belle à regarder mais sans odeur, de belles paroles
sont sans fruit chez un homme qui ne les respecte pas.

    Nos
théories sur l’éternel sont aussi valables que celles qu’un poussin qui
n’a pas percé dans sa coquille pourrait former du monde extérieur.

    Une idée développée et mise en œuvre est plus importante qu’une idée qui n’existe que comme idée.

    Quel
que soit le nombre de paroles saintes que vous lisez, quel que soit le
nombre que vous parlez, à quoi vous serviront-elles si vous n’agissez
pas en conséquence?

    Le chaos est inhérent à toutes les choses composées. S’efforcer avec diligence.

Citations Bouddha Courtes

    L’attachement mène à la souffrance.

    Que tous les êtres aient un esprit heureux.

    Né par souci de tous les êtres.

    Je suis le miracle.

    Un pot remplit goutte à goutte.

    Chaque être humain est l’auteur de sa propre santé ou maladie.

    La langue comme un couteau tranchant… Tue sans faire couler le sang.

    La voie n’est pas dans le ciel. Le chemin est dans le coeur.Partie 3. Citations De Bouddha À PROPOS DE…
Citations de Bouddha sur la vie, la famille et l’amitié

    Vivez chaque acte pleinement, comme si c’était votre dernier.

    La vertu est plus persécutée par le méchant que par le bien-aimé.

    Rien n’existe jamais tout seul; tout est en relation avec tout le reste.

    La pureté ou l’impureté dépend de soi. Personne ne peut en purifier un autre.

    Soutenir mère et père, aimer femme et enfant et avoir un moyen de subsistance simple; c’est la bonne chance.

    Un moment peut changer un jour, un jour peut changer une vie et une vie peut changer le monde.

    Elle qui connaît la vie coule, ne ressent aucune usure, ne nécessite aucune réparation.

    Un
ami mal sincère et méchant est plus à craindre qu’une bête sauvage; une
bête sauvage peut blesser votre corps, mais un mauvais ami blessera
votre esprit.

    Quels que soient les mots que nous prononçons
devraient être choisis avec soin, les gens les entendront et en seront
influencés pour le meilleur ou pour le pire.

    Être inactif est
un court chemin vers la mort et être diligent est un mode de vie; les
fous sont oisifs, les sages sont diligents.

    Si un chercheur ne trouve pas un compagnon meilleur ou égal, laissez-le suivre résolument un cours solitaire.

    Si nous pouvions voir clairement le miracle d’une seule fleur, notre vie entière changerait.

Citations de Bouddha sur l’amour et la gratitude

    Le véritable amour naît de la compréhension.

    Rayonner un amour sans bornes vers le monde entier.

    Vous méritez votre amour et votre affection autant que quiconque dans l’univers entier.

    L’ambition est comme l’amour, impatiente des retards et des rivaux.

    L’amour est le don de l’âme la plus profonde à l’autre, de sorte que les deux peuvent être entiers.

    Laissez les pensées qui englobent tous les êtres vous appartenir.

    Nous
développerons et cultiverons la libération de l’esprit en faisant
preuve de compassion, nous en ferons notre véhicule, nous en ferons
notre base, nous le stabiliserons, nous nous y exercerons et nous le
perfectionnerons pleinement.

    La haine ne cesse jamais par la haine. La haine cesse par l’amour. C’est une loi inaltérable.

    Celui qui aime 50 personnes a 50 malheurs; celui qui n’aime personne n’a pas de malheurs.

    La gentillesse devrait devenir le mode de vie naturel, pas l’exception.

    Ne
parlez que des paroles attachantes, des paroles bienvenues. La parole,
quand elle ne cause aucun mal aux autres, est une chose agréable.

    On ne s’appelle pas noble qui nuit aux êtres vivants. En ne nuisant pas aux êtres vivants, on est appelé noble.

    Etre profondément instruit et compétent, être bien formé et utiliser des mots bien prononcés: c’est de la chance.

    Tout
comme une mère voudrait protéger son enfant unique de sa vie, de même
qu’on cultive un amour sans bornes envers tous les êtres.

    En qui il n’y a pas de sympathie pour les êtres vivants: le connaître comme un paria.

    Levons-nous
et soyons reconnaissants, car si nous n’avions pas beaucoup appris
aujourd’hui, au moins nous avons appris un peu, et si nous n’avons pas
appris un peu, au moins nous ne sommes pas tombés malades, et si nous
sommes tombés malades au moins nous ne sommes pas morts; alors, soyons
tous reconnaissants.

Citations de Bouddha sur l’esprit et la maîtrise de soi

    Il est capable qui pense qu’il est capable.

    C’est l’esprit de l’homme, et non son ennemi ou son ennemi, qui l’attire dans des voies diaboliques.

    Enchanter dans la vigilance! Garde bien tes pensées!

    Tout
est basé sur l’esprit, est dirigé par l’esprit, est façonné par
l’esprit. Si vous parlez et agissez avec un esprit pollué, la souffrance
vous suivra, comme les roues de la charrette à boeufs suivent les
traces du boeuf.

    Il n’y a rien d’aussi désobéissant qu’un esprit indiscipliné et il n’y a rien d’aussi obéissant qu’un esprit discipliné.

    Un
esprit non troublé par les aléas de la fortune, de la douleur libérée,
des souillures nettoyées, de la peur libérée - c’est la plus grande
bénédiction.

    Sachez des rivières dans les fentes et les
crevasses: celles dans les petits canaux coulent bruyamment, les grandes
coulées silencieuses. Tout ce qui n’est pas complet fait du bruit. Tout
ce qui est plein est calme.

    Vous êtes un chercheur. Délectez-vous de la maîtrise de vos mains et de vos pieds, de vos paroles et de vos pensées.

    Voyez-les,
pataugeant dans leur sens du mien, comme des poissons dans les flaques
d’un cours d’eau asséché - et, voyant cela, ne vivez pas avec les miens,
ne créez pas d’attachement pour les états de devenir.

    ‘Tels
que je suis, ils sont aussi. C’est comme ça que je le suis. »Etablissez
le parallèle avec vous-même, ne tuez pas et ne faites pas tuer les
autres.

    Toutes les expériences sont précédées par l’esprit, ayant pour maître l’esprit, créé par l’esprit.

    Pour
jouir d’une bonne santé, apporter le vrai bonheur à sa famille,
apporter la paix à tous, il faut tout d’abord discipliner et contrôler
son propre esprit. Si un homme peut contrôler son esprit, il peut
trouver le chemin de l’illumination, et toute sagesse et vertu lui
viendront naturellement.

    Toute faute est due à l’esprit. Si le mental est transformé, est-ce que l’injustice peut rester?

    Ce
que nous sommes aujourd’hui vient de nos pensées d’hier et nos pensées
actuelles construisent notre vie de demain: Notre vie est la création de
notre esprit.

    Celui qui s’est vaincu est un héros bien plus grand que celui qui a vaincu mille fois mille hommes.

L’intelligence
transcendantale se développe lorsque l’esprit intellectuel atteint sa
limite et si l’on veut réaliser les choses dans leur nature vraie et
essentielle, ses processus de pensée doivent être transcendés par un
appel à une faculté cognitive supérieure.

    Je ne regarderai pas le bol d’un autre qui a l’intention de trouver la faute: un entraînement à observer.

    Le
monde extérieur n’est qu’une manifestation des activités de l’esprit
lui-même, et l’esprit le saisit comme un monde extérieur simplement à
cause de son habitude de discrimination et de faux raisonnements. Le
disciple doit prendre l’habitude de regarder les choses avec véracité.

    L’esprit précède tous les états mentaux. L’esprit est leur chef; ils sont tous forgés par l’esprit.

Citations de Bouddha sur le bonheur et la joie

    Il n’y a pas de chemin qui mène au bonheur: le bonheur est le chemin.

    Le bonheur survient lorsque votre travail et vos paroles sont utiles à vous-même et aux autres.

    Celui
qui est éclairé, soucieux de jhana, devrait se délecter de la forêt,
devrait pratiquer jhana au pied d’un arbre pour atteindre sa propre
satisfaction.

    Des milliers de bougies peuvent être allumées à
partir d’une seule bougie et la durée de vie de la bougie ne sera pas
raccourcie. Le bonheur ne diminue jamais en étant partagé.

    C’est dans la nature des choses que la joie naît chez une personne sans remords.

    Mettez votre coeur à faire le bien. Faites-le encore et encore, et vous serez rempli de joie.

    Ne
demeure pas dans le passé, ne rêve pas d’avenir, concentre l’esprit sur
le moment présent. Voir aussi: 10 conseils pour commencer à vivre dans
le présent

    Si une personne fait le bien, laissez-le le faire
encore et encore. Laissez-le y trouver du plaisir, car le bonheur est
l’accumulation du bien.

    Nous sommes formés et modelés par nos
pensées. Ceux dont l’esprit est formé par des pensées désintéressées
procurent de la joie quand ils parlent ou agissent. La joie les suit
comme une ombre qui ne les quitte jamais.

Citations de Bouddha sur la méditation et la spiritualité

    Tout comme une bougie ne peut pas brûler sans feu, les hommes ne peuvent pas vivre sans vie spirituelle.

    Regardant profondément la vie telle qu’elle est en ce moment même, le méditant demeure dans la stabilité et la liberté.

    La
méditation apporte la sagesse; le manque de médiation laisse
l’ignorance. Sachez bien ce qui vous fait avancer et ce qui vous retient
et choisissez le chemin qui mène à la sagesse.

    Quel que soit
le moine qui continue à poursuivre sa réflexion et ses réflexions, cela
devient l’inclination de sa conscience.

Citations de Bouddha sur la paix, le pardon et l’abandon

    Entraînez-vous résolument à la paix.

    En
effet, le sage qui est complètement éteint est à l’aise dans tous les
sens; aucun désir sensoriel n’adhère à celui dont les feux se sont
refroidis, privés de carburant. Tous les attachements ont été coupés, le
cœur a été éloigné de la douleur; tranquille, il repose avec la plus
grande facilité. L’esprit a trouvé son chemin vers la paix.

    Celui
qui est assis seul dort seul et marche seul, qui est fatigué et se
soumet seul, se délectera de la solitude de la forêt.

    Ne détournez pas ce qui vous est donné, et ne cherchez pas ce qui est donné aux autres, de peur de troubler votre quiétude.

    Ceux qui sont libres de pensées pleines de ressentiment trouvent sûrement la paix.

Citations de Bouddha sur la sagesse et les vertus

    Le fou qui se sait fou est d’autant plus sage. Cliquez pour tweeter

    Tout ce qui a la nature de survenir a la nature de cesser.

    L’unité ne peut être manifestée que par le binaire. L’unité elle-même et l’idée d’unité sont déjà deux.

    Quel
est le comportement approprié pour un homme ou une femme au milieu de
ce monde, où chaque personne s’accroche à son débris? Quelle est la
salutation appropriée entre les gens qui se croisent dans cette
inondation?

    Lorsque vous veillez sur vous-même, vous
surveillez les autres. Lorsque vous surveillez les autres, vous veillez
sur vous-même.

    Que personne ne trouve à redire aux autres;
que personne ne voie les omissions et les commissions des autres. Mais
que l’on voie ses propres actes accomplis et défaits.

    Le vrai maître vit dans la vérité, dans la bonté et la retenue, la non-violence, la modération et la pureté.

    N’offense
ni en paroles ni en actes. Mangez avec modération. Vivez dans votre
coeur. Cherchez la plus haute conscience. Maîtrisez-vous selon la loi.
C’est l’enseignement simple de l’éveillé.

    La vie est comme
une corde de harpe, si elle est trop serrée, elle ne jouera pas, si elle
est trop lâche, elle s’accroche, la tension qui produit le magnifique
son se situe au centre.

    Ne croyez en rien simplement parce
que vous l’avez entendu. Ne croyez rien en rien simplement parce que
beaucoup le disent et le disent. Ne croyez rien en rien simplement parce
que cela se trouve écrit dans vos livres religieux. Ne croyez rien en
la seule autorité de vos professeurs et de vos anciens. Ne croyez pas
aux traditions car elles sont transmises depuis de nombreuses
générations. Mais après observation et analyse, lorsque vous constatez
que tout ce qui est en accord avec la raison et qui favorise le bien et
le bénéfice de tout un chacun, acceptez-le et respectez-le.

De
même que des trésors sont découverts sur la terre, de même la vertu
découle de bonnes actions et la sagesse apparaît d’un esprit pur et
paisible. Pour marcher en toute sécurité dans le dédale de la vie
humaine, il faut la lumière de la sagesse et la guidance de la vertu.

    Les sages ont façonné le discours avec leur pensée, le tamisant à mesure que le grain est passé au crible.

    Les vertus, comme les muses, se voient toujours en groupe. Un bon principe n’a jamais été trouvé solitaire dans aucun sein.

Citations de Bouddha sur Kamma et Nibbana

    Quelqu’un
qui est monté dans le véhicule d’un bodhisattva devrait décider que «je
dois mener tous les êtres au nirvana, dans ce royaume du nirvana qui ne
laisse rien derrière». Quel est ce royaume de nirvana qui ne laisse
rien derrière?

Citations de Bouddha sur le changement, l’échec et la souffrance

    Rien n’est éternel sauf le changement.

    Il
n’y a pas de feu comme la passion, il n’y a pas de requin comme la
haine, il n’y a pas de piège comme la folie, il n’y a pas de torrent
comme la cupidité.

    Autrefois et maintenant, je décris seulement la souffrance et la cessation de la souffrance.

    Celui
qui pourra maîtriser sa colère dès qu’elle se présentera, un antidote
opportun, permettra de contrôler le venin de serpent qui s’étend si
rapidement, tel un moine abandonne l’ici et au-delà, tout comme un
serpent jette sa peau usée.

    Que tous ceux qui ont la vie soient délivrés de la souffrance.

    Il
est facile de voir les défauts des autres, mais difficile de voir ses
propres défauts. On montre les fautes des autres comme une balle tirée
par le vent, mais on cache ses propres fautes comme un joueur rusé cache
ses dés.

Bouddha Citations Sur La Peur

    Ceux qui sont attachés à la notion «je suis» et à des opinions parcourent le monde offensant les gens.

    Il
n’y a rien de plus terrible que l’habitude du doute. Le doute sépare
les gens. C’est un poison qui désintègre les amitiés et rompt des
relations agréables. C’est une épine qui irrite et fait mal; c’est une
épée qui tue.

    Les hommes, poussés par la soif, courent comme
un lièvre au piège; laissez donc le mendiant chasser la soif, en luttant
pour lui-même sans passion.

    Quand on a le sentiment de ne
pas aimer le mal, quand on se sent tranquille, on a du plaisir à écouter
de bons enseignements; quand on a ces sentiments et qu’on les apprécie,
on est libre de peur.

    Dès l’instant où nous ressentons de la
colère, nous avons déjà cessé de rechercher la vérité et avons commencé
à lutter pour nous-mêmes.

Citations de Bouddha sur la colère et la jalousie

    Vous ne serez pas punis pour votre colère, vous serez punis par votre colère.

    Portez votre ego comme un vêtement ample.

    Certains ne comprennent pas que nous devons mourir, mais ceux qui s’en rendent compte règlent leurs querelles.

    Tous
tremblent de violence; tous craignent la mort. En se mettant à la place
d’un autre, il ne faut pas tuer ni faire tuer un autre.

    Je ne discute pas avec le monde; c’est plutôt le monde qui se dispute avec moi.

    Ils
blâment ceux qui restent silencieux, ils blâment ceux qui parlent
beaucoup, ils blâment ceux qui parlent avec modération. Il n’y a
personne au monde qui ne soit blâmé.

    Ceux qui s’accrochent à des perceptions et à des points de vue errent dans le monde et offensent les gens.

    Quiconque ne s’attaque pas à une personne en colère gagne une bataille difficile à gagner.

    La
colère ne disparaîtra jamais tant que des pensées de ressentiment sont
chéries dans l’esprit. La colère disparaîtra dès que les pensées de
ressentiment seront oubliées.

    Ne surestime pas ce que tu as
reçu, n’envie pas les autres. Celui qui envie les autres n’obtient pas
la tranquillité d’esprit.

Citations de Bouddha sur le succès, la patience et la force

    Ni le feu ni le vent, ni la naissance ni la mort ne peuvent effacer nos bonnes actions.

    Si vous trouvez un critique avisé pour signaler vos fautes, suivez-le comme un guide des trésors cachés.

    Comme
un éléphant sur le champ de bataille résiste aux flèches lancées par
des arcs tout autour, je subirai malgré tout des abus.

    Louange
et blâme, gain et perte, plaisir et chagrin vont et viennent comme le
vent. Pour être heureux, reposez-vous comme un arbre géant au milieu de
tous.

    La plus grande misère du monde se trouve dans la séparation. dans la compassion réside la vraie force du monde.

    Soyez
une lampe pour vous-mêmes. Soyez votre propre refuge. Ne cherchez pas
d’autre. Tout doit passer. Efforcez-vous avec diligence. Ne pas
abandonner.

    Mieux vaut vivre un jour en voyant la montée et
la chute de choses que de vivre cent ans sans jamais voir la montée et
la chute de choses.

    Si vous ne changez pas de direction, vous risquez de vous retrouver là où vous vous dirigez.

Bouddha Citations sur la santé

    La santé est le plus beau cadeau, le contentement la plus grande richesse, la fidélité la meilleure relation. Bouddha

    Garder le corps en bonne santé est un devoir… sinon nous ne pourrons pas garder notre esprit fort et clair.

    Sans santé, la vie n’est pas la vie. ce n’est qu’un état de langage et de souffrance - une image de la mort.

    Le
secret de la santé de l’esprit et du corps n’est pas de pleurer sur le
passé, de ne pas s’inquiéter de l’avenir, de ne pas anticiper sur
l’avenir, mais de vivre le moment présent avec sagesse et sérieux.Citations de Bouddha sur la vérité

    Ceux qui n’ont pas réussi à travailler pour la vérité ont manqué le but de la vie.

    Enseignez
cette triple vérité à tous: un cœur généreux, un discours bon, une vie
de service et de compassion sont les éléments qui renouvellent
l’humanité.

    Il y a deux erreurs que l’on peut commettre sur le chemin de la vérité: ne pas aller jusqu’au bout et ne pas commencer.

    Les
calmés disent que ce qui est bien parlé est le meilleur; deuxièmement,
il faut dire ce qui est juste et non pas injuste; troisièmement, ce qui
est agréable et non déplaisant; quatrièmement, ce qui est vrai, pas
faux.

    Vaincre le fâché en ne le faisant pas; vaincre les
méchants par la bonté; vaincre l’avarice par la générosité et le menteur
en disant la vérité.

    Trois choses ne peuvent pas être cachées longtemps: le soleil, la lune et la vérité.

Partie 4. Citations sur Bouddha

    Si vous utilisez votre esprit pour rechercher un Bouddha, vous ne verrez pas le Bouddha. Bodhidharma

    Et le Bouddha est la personne qui est libre: libre de plans, de soucis. Bodhidharma

    Tant que vous chercherez un Bouddha ailleurs, vous ne verrez jamais que votre propre esprit est le Bouddha. Bodhidharma

    Bouddha
signifie conscience, conscience du corps et de l’esprit qui empêche le
mal de surgir dans l’un ou l’autre. Bodhidharma

    Les bouddhas ne pratiquent pas le non sens. Bodhidharma

    Un Bouddha est une personne qui trouve la liberté dans la bonne et la mauvaise fortune. Bodhidharma

    Les bouddhas se déplacent librement à travers la naissance et la mort, apparaissant et disparaissant à volonté. Bodhidharma

    Mais
les gens induits en erreur ne réalisent pas que leur propre esprit est
le Bouddha. Ils continuent à chercher à l’extérieur. Bodhidharma

    Pour trouver un Bouddha, il suffit de voir sa nature. Bodhidharma

    Personne
ne peut nous forcer à transformer notre esprit, pas même Bouddha. Nous
devons le faire volontairement. C’est pourquoi Bouddha a déclaré: “Vous
êtes votre propre maître”. Dalaï Lama

    La couleur des montagnes est le corps de Bouddha; le son de l’eau courante est son grand discours. Dogen

    Le Bouddha et tous les êtres sensibles ne sont que des expressions du même esprit. Il n’y a rien d’autre. Huang Po

    Réveiller
soudainement le fait que votre propre esprit est le Bouddha, qu’il n’y a
rien à atteindre ou une seule action à accomplir. C’est la voie
suprême. Huang Po

    Les paroles du Bouddha offrent cette
vérité: la haine ne cesse jamais par la haine mais par l’amour seul est
guéri. Jack Kornfield

    Respectez Bouddha et les dieux sans compter sur leur aide. Miyamoto Musashi

    Même
le Bouddha ne veut pas que quelqu’un le suive. Même les plus grands
maîtres ne peuvent vous donner un seul commandement. Ils vous voient si
bien que vous, ils voient que votre liberté est si unique pour vous.
Osho

    Juste deux petites choses: la méditation et lâcher
prise. Rappelez-vous ces deux mots clés: méditation et soumission. La
méditation vous emmènera et l’abandon vous emmènera dans le tout. Et
c’est la totalité de la religion. Dans ces deux mots, Bouddha a condensé
toute l’essence de la religion. Osho

    Il n’y a pas besoin de
Dieu! Si vous voulez méditer, vous pouvez méditer sans Dieu. Bouddha a
médité sans Dieu; il ne croyait pas en Dieu. Osho

    Un Bouddha est un Bouddha, un Krishna est un Krishna et vous êtes vous-même. Osho

    Il
a enseigné la vertu, la pleine conscience et la sagesse. Ce sont les
trois piliers de la pratique bouddhiste, ainsi que les sources du
bien-être quotidien, de la croissance psychologique et de la réalisation
spirituelle. Rick Hanson

    Si vous ne pouvez pas vous incliner devant Bouddha, vous ne pouvez pas être un Bouddha. C’est de l’arrogance. Shunryu Suzuki

    Bouddha
dit qu’il existe deux types de souffrance: celle qui entraîne davantage
de souffrances et celle qui met fin à la souffrance. Terry Tempest
Williams

    Vous devez avoir confiance que vous avez la capacité
de devenir un Bouddha, la capacité de transformation et de guérison.
Thich Nhat Hanh

Partie 5. Bouddhisme Et Citations Zen

    L’homme ne souffre que parce qu’il prend au sérieux ce que les dieux ont fait pour s’amuser. Alan Watts

    La
seule chose qui soit finalement réelle dans votre voyage est le pas que
vous faites en ce moment. C’est tout ce qu’il y a jamais. Alan Watts

    Tout en modération, y compris la modération. Dicton bouddhiste

    Apprendre
à lâcher prise doit être appris avant d’apprendre à obtenir. La vie
devrait être touchée et non étranglée. Vous devez vous détendre, laisser
faire les choses de temps en temps et aller de l’avant avec d’autres.
Ray Bradbury

    Même si les choses ne se déroulent pas comme
prévu, ne vous découragez pas et n’abandonnez pas. Celui qui continue
d’avancer gagnera à la fin. Daisaku Ikeda

    Si nous apprenons à
ouvrir nos cœurs, n’importe qui, y compris les personnes qui nous
rendent fous, peut devenir notre enseignant. Pema Chödrön

    La sensibilisation est le plus grand agent de changement. Huang Po Cliquez pour tweeter

    Zen n’a pas d’affaires avec des idées. Suzuki Roshi

    Tout comprendre c’est tout pardonner. Osho

    Nous
ne tournons pas en rond, nous montons. Le chemin est une spirale; nous
avons déjà gravi plusieurs marches. Hermann Hesse

    Le secret
du bouddhisme est de supprimer toutes les idées, tous les concepts, afin
que la vérité ait une chance de pénétrer, de se révéler. Thich Nhat
HanhSi vous voulez changer le monde, commencez par la prochaine personne qui vient à vous dans le besoin. Maezumi Roshi

    Nous sommes ici pour nous réveiller de notre illusion de séparation. Martin Luther King jr

    Lorsque
vous faites quelque chose, vous devriez vous brûler complètement, comme
un bon feu de joie, ne laissant aucune trace de vous-même. Eckhart
Tolle

    Où que vous soyez, soyez-y totalement. Eckhart Tolle

    Seule la main qui efface peut écrire la vraie chose. Meister Eckhart

    Traitez chaque moment comme votre dernier. Ce n’est pas la préparation à autre chose. Shunryu Suzuki

Partie 6. Auteurs similaires à Bouddha sur l’amour, la paix, la sagesse et le bonheur

    Lâcher
prise nous donne la liberté, et la liberté est la seule condition du
bonheur. Si, dans notre cœur, nous nous accrochons toujours à quelque
chose - à la colère, à l’anxiété ou à des biens - nous ne pouvons pas
être libres. Thich Nhat Hanh

    Si dans notre vie quotidienne
nous pouvons sourire, si nous pouvons être en paix et heureux, non
seulement nous, mais tout le monde en profitera. C’est le genre le plus
fondamental de travail pour la paix. Thich Nhat Hanh

    Il est
possible de vivre heureux ici et maintenant. Tant de conditions de
bonheur sont disponibles - plus que suffisant pour que vous soyez
heureux en ce moment. Vous n’avez pas à courir dans le futur pour en
avoir plus. Thich Nhat Hanh

Bodhidharma

    Tous connaissent le chemin; peu le marchent réellement. Bodhidharma

    La
capacité de l’esprit est illimitée et ses manifestations sont
inépuisables. Voir des formes avec vos yeux, entendre des sons avec vos
oreilles, sentir les odeurs avec votre nez, goûter aux saveurs avec
votre langue, chaque mouvement ou chaque état est votre esprit.
Bodhidharma

    Chercher, c’est souffrir. Ne rien chercher est un bonheur. Bodhidharma

Confucius

    Notre plus grande gloire n’est pas de ne jamais tomber, mais de nous lever chaque fois que nous tombons. Confucius

    Peu importe votre lenteur tant que vous ne vous arrêtez pas. Confucius

    Seuls les hommes les plus sages et les plus stupides ne changent jamais. Confucius

Dalaï Lama

    Soyez gentil autant que possible. C’est toujours possible. Dalaï Lama

    Rappelez-vous
que la meilleure relation est celle dans laquelle votre amour l’un pour
l’autre dépasse votre besoin l’un pour l’autre. Dalaï Lama

    Ma religion est très simple. Ma religion est la gentillesse. Dalaï Lama

Lao Tzu

    La nature ne se dépêche pas, pourtant tout est accompli. Lao Tzu

    La
santé est la plus grande possession. Le contentement est le plus grand
trésor. La confiance est le meilleur ami. Le non-être est la plus grande
joie. Lao Tzu

    Maîtriser les autres est la force. Se maîtriser soi-même est une véritable force. Lao Tzu

Platon

    Les sages parlent parce qu’ils ont quelque chose à dire; des imbéciles, parce qu’ils doivent dire quelque chose. Platon

    Nous
pouvons facilement pardonner à un enfant qui a peur du noir; la vraie
tragédie de la vie est quand les hommes ont peur de la lumière. Platon

    Vous pouvez en apprendre plus sur une personne en une heure de jeu qu’en une année de conversation. Platon

Aristote

    Se connaître soi-même est le début de toute sagesse. Aristote

    Le bonheur dépend de nous. Aristote

    Éduquer l’esprit sans éduquer le cœur n’est pas une éducation du tout. Aristote

Jiddu Krisnamurti

    Ce n’est pas une mesure de la santé que d’être bien adapté à une société profondément malade. Jiddu Krisnamurti

    Si
vous commencez à comprendre ce que vous êtes sans essayer de le
changer, alors ce que vous êtes subit une transformation. Jiddu
Krishnamurti

    La tradition devient notre sécurité et lorsque l’esprit est en sécurité, il est en décomposition. Jiddu Krisnamurti

Socrate

    La vraie connaissance existe en sachant que vous ne savez rien. Socrate

    Il est le plus riche qui se contente du moins, car le contenu est la richesse de la nature. Socrate

    L’éducation est l’allumage d’une flamme, pas le remplissage d’un navire. Socrate



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hxbHP2_3K8

Leshan Giant Buddha, Sichuan, China in 4K (Ultra HD)

Amazing Places on Our Planet
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Leshan Giant Buddha is 71 m (233 ft) tall statue, carved out of a cliff
face during the 8th century, for more than 90 years. It is the largest
stone Buddha in the world and the tallest pre-modern statue in the
world. (Wikipedia)
The Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Recorded October 2015 in 4K (Ultra HD) with Sony AX100. Edited with Adobe Premiere Pro CC

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Tamil and Chinese language: Reimagining Indian history from the Buddhist perspective


The forthcoming visit of Xi Jinping to India and his summit with
Narendra Modi at Mahabalipuram has raised a twitter storm. The people of
Tamil Nadu extending a warm welcome to Xi Jinping and Why asking
Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting institutions
(Modi) to go back. He tampered the fuaud EVMs to capture the Master Key
as he is remotely controlled by just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant,
numberone terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching,
crooked, cunning, lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners from BENE ISRAEL
chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy/ Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) full of
hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity to wards 99.9% All
Aboriginal Awakened Societies which wantewd tro force the chitpavan
brahmins quit Prabuddha Bharat from 1st January 2020. What is really
happening in Prabuddha Bharat is worth pondering at this moment. China
errected the tallest Buddha statue in China while the chitpavan brahmins
errected tall statue of Patel but prevented Buddha’s tallest statue
coming up in UP Kushinana.

Mahabalipuram was a historical place
in Asia before there were political nation states of India and China.
Both India and China had many small and big kingdoms. The nature of
polity was different from what it is today. The unifying force
throughout the region was Buddhism.

The place Mahabalipuram is
named after the great Bali who is revered in South India as the greatest
emperor who was tricked by a dwarf Chitpavan Brahmin, Vamana. People in
Maharashtra still miss the welfare state of the great non-Chitpavan
Brahmin emperor as Mahatma Phule showed by frame analysis of folk lores:
ida pida tado, baliche rajya yevo( may all illness and suffering go,
and kingdom of Bali should emerge).

The great Bodhidharma from
Tamil speaking region went to China and helped to establish Shaolin
Temple. He is a revered figure in China and Japan. The 2000 years old
inscription in China shows that there was a sustained interaction
between South India and Kingdoms in China.

David Shulman’s
biography of Tamil language is a beautiful history of Tamil language.
The Tamil language and the language family called Dravidian language are
very old and very advanced languages. The Hindi language is really a
child language before the richness and depth of Tamil and south Indian
languages.

Because China maintained records and copied everything
coming from Indian subcontinent as sacred scriptures of Buddhism, the
modern Chinese knew more about Indian history than the people of India
and hence their records came handy when Indian history was
reconstructed.
When a just born baby is kept isolated without
anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it will speak and
human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical Magahi
Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa
(Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in
Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com
As Buddha gave permission to teach his teaching in their own languages,
Buddhism exploded into many vernacular literary movements. The extant
Indian languages owe their existence to the literary revolutions brought
by the Buddhists. Buddhist do not believe in one nation, one language,
one philosophical system, or anything that reduces uniqueness of every
individuals to superficial race, caste, or language. The obsession to
one is damaging, and the Buddha taught Shunya as the way of bringing
harmony and unity. Babasaheb Ambedkar, the Buddhist leader of last
century summarised this well: one person, one value.

The Indian
languages in their richness and diversity show that the human
experiences are varied and can be expressed in many ways and many modes.
Their survival is a testimony to the diverse richness of Indian
subcontinent.

The Brahminical Sanskrit is just one of the
languages which was however never spoken anywhere. It was not the
people’s language and hence no practical knowledge so necessary for the
development of science and technology is absent in it. Instead, it is
steeped in fanciful thinking of Brahmins, arguments in supporting the
caste system, and justification of supremacy of a particular caste over
others.

Being an anti-people language, the Brahminical sanskrit stunted the growth of majority of people when it is imposed.


Only with the emergence of English by the colonial masters, the project
of India as a political entity became a possibility. Even today,
English is the only language that bridges the language divide and
today’s English is free from colonial biases. India transformed (and
other countries too) English as much as English transformed India.


Founders of modern India, foremost among them, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar,
knew the history of India and his intellectual honesty led him to create
a constitutional framework to accomodate diversity of cultures and
languages existing in Indian subcontinent. He understood the beauty and
depth of the languages and strove to preserve them by making them the
part of fundamental rights as right to preserve the langauge. The
English became the official language to conduct the mundane business of
administration.

He also saw how Buddhism could connect humanity
irrespective of languages in the past. If the new nation of India was to
be preserved, it was to be founded on liberty, equality, and fraternity
which he saw as the core principles for demos (the people) to have real
human freedom. He attributed these values to Buddha’s teachings.

India is constituted on these universal principles and in their survival lies the bright future of India.


What we need in India today is the awakening of the spirit of Ashoka
whose emblem adorns our national flag as a guide to new India and his
polity based on Buddha’s keen insights into human nature. Ashoka also
promoted many languages as is evident from his edicts.


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आमशिन्ग् Pलचेस् ओन् Oउर् Pलनेत्
492K सुब्स्च्रिबेर्स्
Lएस्हन् ङिअन्त् Bउद्ध इस् 71 म् (233 fत्) तल्ल् स्ततुए, चर्वेद् ओउत् ओf अ च्लिff
fअचे दुरिन्ग् थे 8थ् चेन्तुर्य्, fओर् मोरे थन् 90 येअर्स्. ईत् इस् थे लर्गेस्त्
स्तोने Bउद्ध इन् थे wओर्ल्द् अन्द् थे तल्लेस्त् प्रे-मोदेर्न् स्ततुए इन् थे
wओर्ल्द्. (Wइकिपेदिअ)
ठे ंओउन्त् Eमेइ ष्चेनिच् आरेअ, इन्च्लुदिन्ग् Lएस्हन् ङिअन्त् Bउद्ध ष्चेनिच् आरेअ हस् बेएन् लिस्तेद् अस् अ ऊण्Eष्छ्O Wओर्ल्द् ःएरितगे षिते.

ऋएचोर्देद् Oच्तोबेर् 2015 इन् 4K (ऊल्त्र ःड्) wइथ् षोन्य् आX100. Eदितेद् wइथ् आदोबे Pरेमिएरे Pरो छ्छ्

ंउसिचः
ड्ञ् ःअबेत्त् - ंओओद्स् - 01 - ऊन्देर्स्तन्द्
हबेत्त्.नेत्, लिचेन्सेद् उन्देर् थे “छ्रेअतिवे छोम्मोन्स् आत्त्रिबुतिओन्-ष्हरेआलिके 3.0 ऊन्पोर्तेद् Lइचेन्से (छ्छ् BY-षा 3.0)”
ठिस् विदेओ इस् लिचेन्सेद्/स्हरेद् उन्देर् थे आत्त्रिबुतिओन्-ष्हरेआलिके 3.0 ईन्तेर्नतिओनल् Lइचेन्से (छ्छ् BY-षा 3.0)

————————————–
आबोउत् आमशिन्ग् Pलचेस् ओन् Oउर् Pलनेतः
ईम्मेर्से योउर्सेल्f इन् स्चेनिच् बेऔतिfउल् प्लचेस् ओन् ओउर् प्लनेत् wइथोउत् थे दिस्त्रच्तिओन् ओf wओर्द्स्.
णेw 4K विदेओ एवेर्य् Fरिदय् ओर् एवेर्य् सेचोन्द् Fरिदय्.
Vइदेओ fओओतगे चन् बे लिचेन्सेद् ओउत् ब्य् चोन्तच्तिन्ग् मे.

षुब्स्च्रिबेः ह्त्त्प्सः//गोओ.ग्ल्/आओय्म्5प्
Fअचेबोओकः ह्त्त्प्सः//fअचेबोओक्.चोम्/मिलोस्ह्9क्
ट्wइत्तेरः ह्त्त्प्सः//त्wइत्तेर्.चोम्/मिलोस्ह्9क्
ङोओग्ले+ः ह्त्त्प्सः//प्लुस्.गोओग्ले.चोम्/+मिलोस्ह्9क्
Wएब्सितेः ह्त्त्प्सः//मिलोस्ह्9क्.चोम्
ंओविएस् Oन् ंअपः ह्त्त्प्सः//गोओ.ग्ल्/Lद्ण्ण्qX

Wअत्च्ह् ंओरे आमशिन्ग् Pलचेस् ओन् Oउर् Pलनेतः आल्ल् 4K ऊल्त्र ःड् Vइदेओसः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=Bऋह्ज्5स्Lआ6…
ऊष् णतिओनल् Pअर्क्स् इन् 4Kः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=ःLम्Oक्ड्Bfx…
छनद इन् 4Kः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=Lह्fण्र्स्Eघ्…
छ्हिन इन् 4Kः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=OEब्Z5Y-स्x…
षोउथेर्न् आfरिच इन् 4Kः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=इय्wqप्द7द्…
आमशिन्ग् ट्रैल्सः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=Fइष्4उ98ष्च्…
ईन्दोनेसिअ इन् 4Kः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=Bःqण्Wक्कंश्…
ईचेलन्द् इन् 4Kः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=O7ओक्Oओ1च्B…
Bएस्त् सेलेच्तिओन् ब्य् येअरः ह्त्त्प्सः//योउतुबे.चोम्/wअत्च्ह्?व्=ईछ्FQष्_ज्प्श्…
छतेगोर्य्
ट्रवेल् & Eवेन्त्स्
षोउर्चे विदेओस्
टमिल् अन्द् छ्हिनेसे लन्गुअगेः ऋएइमगिनिन्ग् ईन्दिअन् हिस्तोर्य् fरोम् थे Bउद्धिस्त् पेर्स्पेच्तिवे

ठे fओर्थ्चोमिन्ग् विसित् ओf Xइ ञिन्पिन्ग् तो ईन्दिअ अन्द् हिस् सुम्मित् wइथ्
णरेन्द्र ंओदि अत् ंअहबलिपुरम् हस् रैसेद् अ त्wइत्तेर् स्तोर्म्. ठे पेओप्ले ओf
टमिल् णदु एxतेन्दिन्ग् अ wअर्म् wएल्चोमे तो Xइ ञिन्पिन्ग् अन्द् Wह्य् अस्किन्ग्
ंउर्देरेर् ओf देमोच्रतिच् इन्स्तितुतिओन्स् अन्द् ंअस्तेर् ओf दिलुतिन्ग् इन्स्तितुतिओन्स्
(ंओदि) तो गो बच्क्. ःए तम्पेरेद् थे fउऔद् EVंस् तो चप्तुरे थे ंअस्तेर् Kएय्
अस् हे इस् रेमोतेल्य् चोन्त्रोल्लेद् ब्य् जुस्त् 0.1% इन्तोलेरन्त्, विओलेन्त्, मिलितन्त्,
नुम्बेरोने तेर्रोरिस्त्स् ओf थे wओर्ल्द्, एवेर् स्होओतिन्ग्, मोब् ल्य्न्च्हिन्ग्,
च्रोओकेद्, चुन्निन्ग्, लुनतिच्, मेन्तल्ल्य् रेतर्देद् fओरेइग्नेर्स् fरोम् BEण्E ईषृआEL
च्हित्पवन् ब्रह्मिन्स् ओf ऋओwद्य्/ ऋअक्स्हस ष्wअयम् षेवक्स् (ऋष्ष्) fउल्ल् ओf
हत्रेद्, अन्गेर्, जेअलोउस्य्, देलुसिओन्, स्तुपिदित्य् तो wअर्द्स् 99.9% आल्ल्
आबोरिगिनल् आwअकेनेद् षोचिएतिएस् wहिच्ह् wअन्तेwद् त्रो fओर्चे थे च्हित्पवन्
ब्रह्मिन्स् qउइत् Pरबुद्ध Bहरत् fरोम् 1स्त् ञनुअर्य् 2020. Wहत् इस् रेअल्ल्य्
हप्पेनिन्ग् इन् Pरबुद्ध Bहरत् इस् wओर्थ् पोन्देरिन्ग् अत् थिस् मोमेन्त्. छ्हिन
एर्रेच्तेद् थे तल्लेस्त् Bउद्ध स्ततुए इन् छ्हिन wहिले थे च्हित्पवन् ब्रह्मिन्स्
एर्रेच्तेद् तल्ल् स्ततुए ओf Pअतेल् बुत् प्रेवेन्तेद् Bउद्ध’स् तल्लेस्त् स्ततुए
चोमिन्ग् उप् इन् ऊP Kउस्हिनन.

ंअहबलिपुरम् wअस् अ हिस्तोरिचल् प्लचे
इन् आसिअ बेfओरे थेरे wएरे पोलितिचल् नतिओन् स्ततेस् ओf ईन्दिअ अन्द् छ्हिन.
Bओथ् ईन्दिअ अन्द् छ्हिन हद् मन्य् स्मल्ल् अन्द् बिग् किन्ग्दोम्स्. ठे नतुरे ओf
पोलित्य् wअस् दिffएरेन्त् fरोम् wहत् इत् इस् तोदय्. ठे उनिfयिन्ग् fओर्चे
थ्रोउघोउत् थे रेगिओन् wअस् Bउद्धिस्म्.

ठे प्लचे ंअहबलिपुरम् इस्
नमेद् अfतेर् थे ग्रेअत् Bअलि wहो इस् रेवेरेद् इन् षोउथ् ईन्दिअ अस् थे ग्रेअतेस्त्
एम्पेरोर् wहो wअस् त्रिच्केद् ब्य् अ द्wअर्f छ्हित्पवन् Bरह्मिन्, Vअमन. Pएओप्ले इन्
ंअहरस्ह्त्र स्तिल्ल् मिस्स् थे wएल्fअरे स्तते ओf थे ग्रेअत् नोन्-छ्हित्पवन्
Bरह्मिन् एम्पेरोर् अस् ंअहत्म Pहुले स्होwएद् ब्य् fरमे अनल्य्सिस् ओf fओल्क् लोरेसः
इद पिद तदो, बलिच्हे रज्य येवो( मय् अल्ल् इल्ल्नेस्स् अन्द् सुffएरिन्ग् गो,
अन्द् किन्ग्दोम् ओf Bअलि स्होउल्द् एमेर्गे).

ठे ग्रेअत् Bओधिधर्म fरोम्
टमिल् स्पेअकिन्ग् रेगिओन् wएन्त् तो छ्हिन अन्द् हेल्पेद् तो एस्तब्लिस्ह् ष्हओलिन्
टेम्प्ले. ःए इस् अ रेवेरेद् fइगुरे इन् छ्हिन अन्द् ञपन्. ठे 2000 येअर्स् ओल्द्
इन्स्च्रिप्तिओन् इन् छ्हिन स्होwस् थत् थेरे wअस् अ सुस्तैनेद् इन्तेरच्तिओन्
बेत्wएएन् षोउथ् ईन्दिअ अन्द् Kइन्ग्दोम्स् इन् छ्हिन.

डविद् ष्हुल्मन्’स्
बिओग्रफ्य् ओf टमिल् लन्गुअगे इस् अ बेऔतिfउल् हिस्तोर्य् ओf टमिल् लन्गुअगे.
ठे टमिल् लन्गुअगे अन्द् थे लन्गुअगे fअमिल्य् चल्लेद् ड्रविदिअन् लन्गुअगे अरे
वेर्य् ओल्द् अन्द् वेर्य् अद्वन्चेद् लन्गुअगेस्. ठे ःइन्दि लन्गुअगे इस् रेअल्ल्य् अ
च्हिल्द् लन्गुअगे बेfओरे थे रिच्ह्नेस्स् अन्द् देप्थ् ओf टमिल् अन्द् सोउथ् ईन्दिअन्
लन्गुअगेस्.

Bएचौसे छ्हिन मैन्तैनेद् रेचोर्द्स् अन्द् चोपिएद् एवेर्य्थिन्ग्
चोमिन्ग् fरोम् ईन्दिअन् सुब्चोन्तिनेन्त् अस् सच्रेद् स्च्रिप्तुरेस् ओf Bउद्धिस्म्, थे
मोदेर्न् छ्हिनेसे क्नेw मोरे अबोउत् ईन्दिअन् हिस्तोर्य् थन् थे पेओप्ले ओf ईन्दिअ
अन्द् हेन्चे थेइर् रेचोर्द्स् चमे हन्द्य् wहेन् ईन्दिअन् हिस्तोर्य् wअस्
रेचोन्स्त्रुच्तेद्.
Wहेन् अ जुस्त् बोर्न् बब्य् इस् केप्त् इसोलतेद् wइथोउत्
अन्योने चोम्मुनिचतिन्ग् wइथ् थे बब्य्, अfतेर् अ fएw दय्स् इत् wइल्ल् स्पेअक् अन्द्
हुमन् नतुरल् (Pरक्रित्) लन्गुअगे क्नोwन् अस् छ्लस्सिचल् ंअगहि
ंअगधि/छ्लस्सिचल् छ्हन्दसो लन्गुअगे/ंअगधि Pरक्रित्/छ्लस्सिचल् ःएल Bअस
(ःएल Lअन्गुअगे)/छ्लस्सिचल् Pअलि wहिच्ह् अरे थे समे. Bउद्ध स्पोके इन्
ंअगधि. आल्ल् थे 7111 लन्गुअगेस् अन्द् दिअलेच्त्स् अरे ओff स्होओत् ओf छ्लस्सिचल्
ंअगहि ंअगधि. ःएन्चे अल्ल् ओf थेम् अरे छ्लस्सिचल् इन् नतुरे (Pरक्रित्) ओf
ःउमन् Bएइन्ग्स्, जुस्त् लिके अल्ल् ओथेर् लिविन्ग् स्पिएचेस् हवे थेइर् ओwन् नतुरल्
लन्गुअगेस् fओर् चोम्मुनिचतिओन्. 111 लन्गुअगेस् अरे त्रन्स्लतेद् ब्य् ह्त्त्प्सः//त्रन्स्लते.गोओग्ले.चोम्
आस् Bउद्ध गवे पेर्मिस्सिओन् तो तेअच्ह् हिस् तेअच्हिन्ग् इन् थेइर् ओwन् लन्गुअगेस्,
Bउद्धिस्म् एxप्लोदेद् इन्तो मन्य् वेर्नचुलर् लितेरर्य् मोवेमेन्त्स्. ठे एxतन्त्
ईन्दिअन् लन्गुअगेस् ओwए थेइर् एxइस्तेन्चे तो थे लितेरर्य् रेवोलुतिओन्स् ब्रोउघ्त्
ब्य् थे Bउद्धिस्त्स्. Bउद्धिस्त् दो नोत् बेलिएवे इन् ओने नतिओन्, ओने लन्गुअगे,
ओने फिलोसोफिचल् स्य्स्तेम्, ओर् अन्य्थिन्ग् थत् रेदुचेस् उनिqउएनेस्स् ओf एवेर्य्
इन्दिविदुअल्स् तो सुपेर्fइचिअल् रचे, चस्ते, ओर् लन्गुअगे. ठे ओब्सेस्सिओन् तो
ओने इस् दमगिन्ग्, अन्द् थे Bउद्ध तौघ्त् ष्हुन्य अस् थे wअय् ओf ब्रिन्गिन्ग्
हर्मोन्य् अन्द् उनित्य्. Bअबसहेब् आम्बेद्कर्, थे Bउद्धिस्त् लेअदेर् ओf लस्त्
चेन्तुर्य् सुम्मरिसेद् थिस् wएल्लः ओने पेर्सोन्, ओने वलुए.

ठे ईन्दिअन्
लन्गुअगेस् इन् थेइर् रिच्ह्नेस्स् अन्द् दिवेर्सित्य् स्होw थत् थे हुमन्
एxपेरिएन्चेस् अरे वरिएद् अन्द् चन् बे एxप्रेस्सेद् इन् मन्य् wअय्स् अन्द् मन्य् मोदेस्.
ठेइर् सुर्विवल् इस् अ तेस्तिमोन्य् तो थे दिवेर्से रिच्ह्नेस्स् ओf ईन्दिअन्
सुब्चोन्तिनेन्त्.

ठे Bरह्मिनिचल् षन्स्क्रित् इस् जुस्त् ओने ओf थे
लन्गुअगेस् wहिच्ह् wअस् होwएवेर् नेवेर् स्पोकेन् अन्य्wहेरे. ईत् wअस् नोत् थे
पेओप्ले’स् लन्गुअगे अन्द् हेन्चे नो प्रच्तिचल् क्नोwलेद्गे सो नेचेस्सर्य् fओर् थे
देवेलोप्मेन्त् ओf स्चिएन्चे अन्द् तेच्ह्नोलोग्य् इस् अब्सेन्त् इन् इत्. ईन्स्तेअद्, इत् इस्
स्तेएपेद् इन् fअन्चिfउल् थिन्किन्ग् ओf Bरह्मिन्स्, अर्गुमेन्त्स् इन् सुप्पोर्तिन्ग् थे
चस्ते स्य्स्तेम्, अन्द् जुस्तिfइचतिओन् ओf सुप्रेमच्य् ओf अ पर्तिचुलर् चस्ते ओवेर्
ओथेर्स्.

Bएइन्ग् अन् अन्ति-पेओप्ले लन्गुअगे, थे Bरह्मिनिचल् सन्स्क्रित् स्तुन्तेद् थे ग्रोwथ् ओf मजोरित्य् ओf पेओप्ले wहेन् इत् इस् इम्पोसेद्.

Oन्ल्य् wइथ् थे एमेर्गेन्चे ओf Eन्ग्लिस्ह् ब्य् थे चोलोनिअल् मस्तेर्स्, थे प्रोजेच्त्
ओf ईन्दिअ अस् अ पोलितिचल् एन्तित्य् बेचमे अ पोस्सिबिलित्य्. Eवेन् तोदय्,
Eन्ग्लिस्ह् इस् थे ओन्ल्य् लन्गुअगे थत् ब्रिद्गेस् थे लन्गुअगे दिविदे अन्द्
तोदय्’स् Eन्ग्लिस्ह् इस् fरेए fरोम् चोलोनिअल् बिअसेस्. ईन्दिअ त्रन्स्fओर्मेद् (अन्द्
ओथेर् चोउन्त्रिएस् तोओ) Eन्ग्लिस्ह् अस् मुच्ह् अस् Eन्ग्लिस्ह् त्रन्स्fओर्मेद् ईन्दिअ.

Fओउन्देर्स् ओf मोदेर्न् ईन्दिअ, fओरेमोस्त् अमोन्ग् थेम्, ड्र् Bअबसहेब् आम्बेद्कर्,
क्नेw थे हिस्तोर्य् ओf ईन्दिअ अन्द् हिस् इन्तेल्लेच्तुअल् होनेस्त्य् लेद् हिम् तो च्रेअते
अ चोन्स्तितुतिओनल् fरमेwओर्क् तो अच्चोमोदते दिवेर्सित्य् ओf चुल्तुरेस् अन्द्
लन्गुअगेस् एxइस्तिन्ग् इन् ईन्दिअन् सुब्चोन्तिनेन्त्. ःए उन्देर्स्तोओद् थे बेऔत्य् अन्द्
देप्थ् ओf थे लन्गुअगेस् अन्द् स्त्रोवे तो प्रेसेर्वे थेम् ब्य् मकिन्ग् थेम् थे
पर्त् ओf fउन्दमेन्तल् रिघ्त्स् अस् रिघ्त् तो प्रेसेर्वे थे लन्गौगे. ठे
Eन्ग्लिस्ह् बेचमे थे ओffइचिअल् लन्गुअगे तो चोन्दुच्त् थे मुन्दने बुसिनेस्स् ओf
अद्मिनिस्त्रतिओन्.

ःए अल्सो सw होw Bउद्धिस्म् चोउल्द् चोन्नेच्त् हुमनित्य्
इर्रेस्पेच्तिवे ओf लन्गुअगेस् इन् थे पस्त्. ईf थे नेw नतिओन् ओf ईन्दिअ wअस् तो
बे प्रेसेर्वेद्, इत् wअस् तो बे fओउन्देद् ओन् लिबेर्त्य्, एqउअलित्य्, अन्द् fरतेर्नित्य्
wहिच्ह् हे सw अस् थे चोरे प्रिन्चिप्लेस् fओर् देमोस् (थे पेओप्ले) तो हवे रेअल्
हुमन् fरेएदोम्. ःए अत्त्रिबुतेद् थेसे वलुएस् तो Bउद्ध’स् तेअच्हिन्ग्स्.

ईन्दिअ इस् चोन्स्तितुतेद् ओन् थेसे उनिवेर्सल् प्रिन्चिप्लेस् अन्द् इन् थेइर् सुर्विवल् लिएस् थे ब्रिघ्त् fउतुरे ओf ईन्दिअ.

Wहत् wए नेएद् इन् ईन्दिअ तोदय् इस् थे अwअकेनिन्ग् ओf थे स्पिरित् ओf आस्होक
wहोसे एम्ब्लेम् अदोर्न्स् ओउर् नतिओनल् fलग् अस् अ गुइदे तो नेw ईन्दिअ अन्द् हिस्
पोलित्य् बसेद् ओन् Bउद्ध’स् केएन् इन्सिघ्त्स् इन्तो हुमन् नतुरे. आस्होक अल्सो
प्रोमोतेद् मन्य् लन्गुअगेस् अस् इस् एविदेन्त् fरोम् हिस् एदिच्त्स्.

आबोउत् ठिस् Wएब्सिते
योउतुबे.चोम्
Lएस्हन् ङिअन्त् Bउद्ध, षिच्हुअन्, छ्हिन इन् 4K (ऊल्त्र ःड्)
Lएस्हन् ङिअन्त् Bउद्ध इस् 71 म् (233 fत्) तल्ल् स्ततुए, चर्वेद् ओउत् ओf अ च्लिff fअचे…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCuDU-GKQQE

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தமிழ் மற்றும் சீன மொழி: சரித்திர கண்ணோட்டத்தில் இந்திய வரலாற்றை மறுவடிவமைத்தல் வரலாறு

ஜி
ஜின்பிங்கின் இந்தியா வருகை மற்றும் மகாபலிபுரத்தில் நரேந்திர மோடியுடன்
அவர் நடத்திய உச்சிமாநாடு ட்விட்டர் புயலை எழுப்பியுள்ளது. ஜி
ஜின்பிங்கிற்கு தமிழக மக்கள் அன்பான வரவேற்பு அளிக்கிறார்கள், ஏன் Murderer
of democratic institutions & Master of diluting institutions (Modi)
திரும்பிச் செல்லுமாறு கேட்டுக் கொள்கிறார்கள். உலகின் 0.1%
சகிப்புத்தன்மையற்ற, வன்முறை, போர்க்குணமிக்க, பயங்கரவாதிகள், எப்போதும்
துப்பாக்கிச் சூடு, கும்பல் கொலை, வக்கிரமான, தந்திரமான,
பைத்தியக்காரத்தனமான, மனநலம் குன்றிய வெளிநாட்டினரால் பென் இஸ்ரேல்
சி
த்பவான் பிராமணர்கள் தொலைதூரத்தில் கட்டுப்படுத்தப்படுவதால் அவர் மாஸ்டர் கீயைக்
கைப்பற்றுவதற்காக fraud EVM  Rowdy / Rakshasa  Swayam Sevakகர்களின்
(RSS) பிராமணர்கள் வெறுப்பு, கோபம், பொறாமை, மாயை, வார்டுகளுக்கு
முட்டாள்தனம் 99.9% சிட்ட்பவன் பிராமணர்கள் கட்டாயப்படுத்த விரும்பும்
அனைத்து பழங்குடி விழித்தெழுந்த சமூகங்களும் 2020 ஜனவரி 1 முதல் பிரபுத
பாரதத்திலிருந்து வெளியேறினர். பிரபாவில் உண்மையில் என்ன நடக்கிறது இந்த
நேரத்தில் பாரத் சிந்திக்க வேண்டியது அவசியம். சீனாவில் மிக உயரமான புத்தர்
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உயரமான சிலையை நிறுவினர், ஆனால் உ.பி. குஷினானாவில் புத்தரின் மிக உயரமான
சிலை வருவதைத் தடுத்தனர்.


இந்தியா மற்றும்
சீனாவின் அரசியல் தேசிய மாநிலங்கள் இருப்பதற்கு முன்பு ஆசியாவில்
மகாபலிபுரம் ஒரு வரலாற்று இடமாக இருந்தது. இந்தியா மற்றும் சீனா இரண்டிலும்
பல சிறிய மற்றும் பெரிய ராஜ்யங்கள் இருந்தன. அரசியலின் தன்மை இன்றைய
நிலையில் இருந்து வேறுபட்டது. இப்பகுதி முழுவதும் ஒன்றுபடும் சக்தி
புத்தமாகும்.

மகாபலிபுரம் என்ற இடத்திற்கு தென்னிந்தியாவில் புகழ்பெற்ற
பெரிய பாலி பெயரிடப்பட்டது, வாமன என்ற குள்ள சித்பவன் பிராமணரால்
ஏமாற்றப்பட்ட மிகப்பெரிய பேரரசர். மகாராஷ்டா புலே நாட்டுப்புறக் கதைகளின்
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சக்கரவர்த்தியின் நலன்புரி நிலையை மகாராஷ்டிராவில் மக்கள் இன்னும்
இழக்கிறார்கள்: ஐடா பிடா தடோ, பாலிச்சே ராஜ்ய யெவோ (எல்லா நோய்களும்
துன்பங்களும் போகக்கூடும், பாலி இராச்சியம் தோன்ற வேண்டும்).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NeZuE_ZjGR4

போதி தருமன் / Bodhidharma

உலகம் சிவமயம்
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கிளாசிக்கல் மகாஹி மாகதி / கிளாசிக்கல் சந்தாசோ மொழி / மகாதி பிரகிருத் /
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தகவல்தொடர்புக்கு அவற்றின் சொந்த இயற்கை மொழிகளைக் கொண்டுள்ளன. 111 மொழிகள்
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புத்தர் தனது போதனைகளை தங்கள் சொந்த மொழிகளில் கற்பிக்க அனுமதி
அளித்ததால், புத்தம் பல வடமொழி இலக்கிய இயக்கங்களில் வெடித்தது.
தற்போதுள்ள இந்திய மொழிகள் ப .த்தர்களால் கொண்டுவரப்பட்ட இலக்கிய
புரட்சிகளுக்கு அவற்றின் இருப்புக்கு கடமைப்பட்டிருக்கின்றன. புத்தர்கள்
ஒரு தேசம், ஒரு மொழி, ஒரு தத்துவ அமைப்பு அல்லது மேலோட்டமான இனம்,
சாதி அல்லது மொழி ஆகியவற்றில் ஒவ்வொரு நபரின் தனித்துவத்தையும் குறைக்கும்
எதையும் நம்பவில்லை. ஒருவருக்கான ஆவேசம் தீங்கு விளைவிக்கும்,
நல்லிணக்கத்தையும் ஒற்றுமையையும் கொண்டுவருவதற்கான வழியாக புத்தர்
ஷுன்யாவைக் கற்பித்தார். கடந்த நூற்றாண்டின் புத்த தலைவரான
பாபாசாகேப் அம்பேத்கர் இதை நன்கு சுருக்கமாகக் கூறினார்: ஒரு நபர், ஒரு
மதிப்பு.

இந்திய மொழிகள் அவற்றின் செழுமையிலும் பன்முகத்தன்மையிலும்
மனித அனுபவங்கள் மாறுபட்டவை என்பதையும் அவை பல வழிகளிலும் பல முறைகளிலும்
வெளிப்படுத்தப்படலாம் என்பதைக் காட்டுகின்றன. அவர்களின் உயிர்வாழ்வு இந்திய
துணைக் கண்டத்தின் மாறுபட்ட செழுமைக்கு ஒரு சான்றாகும்.

பிராமணிய
சமஸ்கிருதம் என்பது எங்கும் பேசப்படாத மொழிகளில் ஒன்றாகும். இது மக்களின்
மொழி அல்ல, எனவே அறிவியல் மற்றும் தொழில்நுட்ப வளர்ச்சிக்கு தேவையான
நடைமுறை அறிவு எதுவும் அதில் இல்லை. மாறாக, அது பிராமணர்களைப் பற்றிய
கற்பனையான சிந்தனை, சாதி அமைப்பை ஆதரிப்பதில் வாதங்கள் மற்றும் ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட சாதியின் மேலாதிக்கத்தை மற்றவர்கள் மீது நியாயப்படுத்துதல்
ஆகியவற்றில் மூழ்கியுள்ளது.

மக்கள் விரோத மொழியாக இருப்பதால், பிராமணிய சமஸ்கிருதம் திணிக்கப்படும்போது பெரும்பான்மையான மக்களின் வளர்ச்சியைக் குன்றியது.


காலனித்துவ எஜமானர்களால் ஆங்கிலம் தோன்றியவுடன், இந்தியா ஒரு அரசியல்
நிறுவனமாக இருக்கும் திட்டம் சாத்தியமாகியது. இன்றும் கூட, ஆங்கிலம்
மட்டுமே மொழிப் பிரிவைக் கட்டுப்படுத்தும் ஒரே மொழியாகும், இன்றைய ஆங்கிலம்
காலனித்துவ சார்புகளிலிருந்து விடுபட்டுள்ளது. ஆங்கிலம் இந்தியாவை
மாற்றியதைப் போலவே இந்தியாவும் (மற்றும் பிற நாடுகளும்) ஆங்கிலத்தை
மாற்றியது.

நவீன இந்தியாவின் நிறுவனர்கள், அவர்களில் முதன்மையானவர்
டாக்டர் பாபாசாகேப் அம்பேத்கர், இந்தியாவின் வரலாற்றை அறிந்திருந்தார்,
மேலும் அவரது அறிவுசார் நேர்மை, இந்திய துணைக் கண்டத்தில் இருக்கும்
கலாச்சாரங்கள் மற்றும் மொழிகளின் பன்முகத்தன்மைக்கு ஏற்ப ஒரு அரசியலமைப்பு
கட்டமைப்பை உருவாக்க அவரை வழிநடத்தியது. அவர் மொழிகளின் அழகையும்
ஆழத்தையும் புரிந்து கொண்டார், மேலும் அவற்றை அடிப்படை உரிமைகளின் ஒரு
பகுதியாக மாற்றுவதன் மூலம் அவற்றைப் பாதுகாக்க பாடுபட்டார். நிர்வாகத்தின்
இவ்வுலக வியாபாரத்தை நடத்துவதற்கான அதிகாரப்பூர்வ மொழியாக ஆங்கிலம் ஆனது.


கடந்த காலங்களில் மொழிகளைப் பொருட்படுத்தாமல் புத்தம் எவ்வாறு
மனிதகுலத்தை இணைக்க முடியும் என்பதையும் அவர் கண்டார். இந்தியாவின் புதிய
தேசம் பாதுகாக்கப்பட வேண்டுமானால், அது சுதந்திரம், சமத்துவம் மற்றும்
சகோதரத்துவம் ஆகியவற்றின் அடிப்படையில் நிறுவப்பட வேண்டும், இது உண்மையான
மனித சுதந்திரத்தைக் கொண்டிருப்பதற்கான டெமோக்களுக்கான (மக்கள்) அடிப்படைக்
கொள்கைகளாக அவர் கண்டார். இந்த மதிப்புகளை அவர் புத்தரின் போதனைகளுக்குக்
காரணம் கூறினார்.

இந்த உலகளாவிய கொள்கைகளின் அடிப்படையில் இந்தியா
அமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது, அவற்றின் உயிர்வாழ்வில் இந்தியாவின் பிரகாசமான
எதிர்காலம் உள்ளது.

இன்று இந்தியாவில் நமக்குத் தேவையானது, புதிய
இந்தியாவிற்கான வழிகாட்டியாக நமது தேசியக் கொடியை அலங்கரிக்கும் அசோகாவின்
ஆவியின் விழிப்புணர்வு மற்றும் மனித இயல்பு பற்றிய புத்தரின் தீவிர
நுண்ணறிவுகளின் அடிப்படையில் அவரது அரசியல். அசோகா பல மொழிகளையும்
ஊக்குவித்தார்.


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https://blog.ipleaders.in/step-step-guide-setting-co-opera…/
Step by step guide to setting up a co-operative society
In this article, B Shiva Ram Sharma pursuing Diploma in
Entrepreneurship Administration and Business Laws from NUJS, Kolkata,
discusses Step by step guide to setting up a co-operative society.
Introduction


To form or setup a co-operative society one has to follow certain set
rules or guidelines which have to be followed in sequential order which
will be dealt in the latter part of this paper, but firstly it is
important to ascertain the nature and importance or advantages of
forming a society in present scenario over other business structures.
The co-operative movement started because to protect the interests of
weaker sections of society. The primary or main objective of this
movement is ‘how to protect economically weaker sections of society’
from the middlemen who gain illegally by eating away the major chunk of
the profits. In all forms of business structures whether be it is a sole
trade, partnership or joint stock company, the primary motive is to
increase profits.

The laws governing the societies are “THE
co-operative societies act, 1912[1]” which is a central Act formed by
the Union with the liberty to the concerned states to form their State
Act governing the societies to suit their local conditions but the
condition being that it should not be in derogation to the central Act.
Many states have enacted their own co-operative society Act and rules
there under but more or less the requirements to be met by persons who
want to form the society remains the same.

Promotion of its
object, self-help and mutual aid are the fundamental principles of
co-operation. The objectives of commercial organization and co-operative
organizations are fundamentally different. In a commercial
organization, earning and maximizing the profits can be the sole motive
but whereas in a co-operative organization profit cannot or should not
be the sole motive. It should almost in all circumstances conduct itself
in a business like a manner in attaining its objectives efficiently.
Laws Applicable to Co-Operative Society


The Cooperative Societies Act, 1912 expanded the sphere of cooperation
between its members and provided for supervision by central
organization. A cooperative society, which has its object the promotion
of the economic interests of its members in accordance with the
co-operative principles may be registered with limited or unlimited
liability by filing application to the registering authority with
requisite documents to be submitted by them

A Co-operative Society has to conduct itself as per the following listed below:

Co-operative Societies Act under which the same is registered whether it be under state Act or Cental Act.
Co-operative Societies rules made there under whether it be central or state rules
Bye-laws approved by the registrar at the time of registration and
amendments made from time to time and approved by the registrar, these
bye-laws have to be formed by the concerned members themselves and
present it to the registration authority for its approval.
Notification and Orders by the concerned Government

The following steps have to be followed while forming a Co-operative society, they are
Step 1: Ten Individuals together who are desirous of forming a Society


To form a society, law mandates that 10 members minimum must show
intention to be part of the society having same aim and objective to be
achieved through the society for their mutual benefit and thereby be
desirous to be part of it.
Step 2: Provisional Committee to select Chief Promoter


Once a group of individuals have a desire to form a society the next
step should be there must be a provisional committee of which everyone
is part of and all of them should by mutual consent or by majority
whichever their prefer must choose a person who will be a chief promoter
of the society which is going to be formed by them.
Step 3: A Name for the Society has to be selected


Thereafter once a chief promoter is selected by set of individuals
among them, they have to select a name for the co-operative society
which they wish to form
Step 4: Application has to be made to the Registration Authority


Once the name of the society is selected by the members then they have
to make a application to the registration authority stating that they
have a intention to form a society and the name of the society has to be
given to the authority for its approval and registering authority has
to confirm that name is in conformity with laws and issue a confirmation
certificate to the members. Then when the members get their name
approval from the authority it is valid for 3 months from the date of
approval.
Step 5: entrance fees and share capital

Thereafter
once name approval comes from the concerned authority, the entrance fee
and the share capital must be collected from the concerned prospective
members to meet the statutory requirements under law and it can be
prescribed by the members themselves or society act mandates certain
fees to be paid by them.
Step 6: Bank Account

Thereafter once
the prescribed fee and share capital is collect from the prospective
members, then as per the directions of the registering authority
promoter has to open a bank account in the name of the society and
deposit the said fees and share capital in that account and a
certificate has to be obtained from the bank to that effect
Step 7: Application for registration


Once the bank formalities are completed then the promoter has to apply
for the society formation to the registration authority and it has to be
accompanied with set of documents, they are

Form No. A in quadruplicate signed by 90% of the promoter members
1. List of promoter members
2. Bank Certificate
3. Detailed explanation of working of the society.
4. Four copies of proposed bye-laws of the society.
5. Proof of payment of registration charges.
6. other documents such as affidavits, indemnity bonds, any documents specified by the Registrar also have to be submitted.


All these documents have to be submitted at the time of applying for
registration of the society to the registering authority and the
authority after it is satisfied with the documents submitted to it has
to apply its mind to whether or not to register the said society.
Step 8: Registrar has to acknowledge


After the submission of the said documents has mentioned in step 7, the
registrar of that municipal ward has to enter the particulars in the
book called the “register of Application” which is generally specified
in form B and give it a serial number to the application. Thereafter the
registrar has to issue a receipt to that effect and give it to
prospective members to know the status of the application when it is
pending.

Then the registrar after perusal of the records
submitted to him/her has to make a decision whether has to issue a
certificate of registration or not and if there are any discrepancies
noticed then he/she has to inform the members of the same and get it
rectified if any.
Step 9: Registration

Last step is that the
registering authority after being satisfied with the documents meeting
the legal requirements will notify the registration of the society in
the official gazette mentioned by the state or central government and
should issue the registration certificate of the society and give it to
the members of the society.
Conclusion

In India, Co-operative
Societies were regarded as ideal instruments to motivate the people to
come together and help themselves in the process of eliminating the
unscrupulous middlemen making a huge profit at the expense of the
society.

The main guiding factor if an individual or group of
individuals want to form a society must be whether all the concerned
members have common goal to achieve or not, it is important factor
because only when they share common desire or intention then only
society is desirable otherwise the whole purpose of forming a society
will be defeated.

Societies like any other business structure come with certain advantages and disadvantages, they are:
Advantages


Cooperative stores supply quality goods unlike other shops wherein
adulterated foods maybe given to its consumers and thus saved them from
adulteration and other malpractices.
As consumers or members of
the society are the owners and managers of such stores, genuine
requirements of the majority of consumers can be met. In other words,
goods required by a majority of the customers or members of the society
are always dealt by such stores.
Cooperative societies are an
important form of democratic business enterprise because ownership is
not vested in one person completely so as a result, no single group can
secure control over the organisation.

Disadvantages

It
only caters to the needs of small and medium-income groups so when
there are large group with higher economic interest then it is
preferable to choose another business model.
There is much
dependence on the honesty, integrity and loyalty of members and workers
and once there are trust issues between the members it is hard to
transact business thereafter.
It is limited to certain objectives hence profits are minimal.
Management of society usually rests in the hands of people with
less managerial experience due to which society will suffer and many do
not invest in hiring professionals to handle the society due to lack of
funds or interest so henceforth growth of the society maybe put to stake
by its own members.

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References

[1] https://indiankanoon.org/doc/108006076/


About This Website
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http://agricoop.nic.in/sites/default/files/Mdl1522012.pdf

Microsoft Word - Model Bye-laws -National Level.docx

Model Bye-laws of National level Cooperative Society/Federal Cooperative/Multi-State Cooperative
Society.

NOTE:-“The Model Bye-laws are simply a representative sample and a guide to frame bye-laws of a multi
state cooperative society. The society is required to refer to the MSCS Act. 2002 and the Multi
state Cooperative Societies Rules 2002 to ensure that the bye-laws framed are consistent with
the MSCS Act 2002 and rules”.

  1. Name and area of operation :

    1. (i)  The society shall be called ____________________;

    2. (ii)  The Society shall have a principal place of business which shall be the registered office of

      the society. The Headquarter of the society shall be at __________________. (Full
      address). Any change in address shall be notified to the Central Registrar within 15 days of
      its change and also published in local newspaper and shall be made by an amendment of
      its bye-laws after following the procedures laid down in Sec. 11 of the Multi State Coop.
      Societies Act 2002.

    3. (iii)  The Society shall have a Common Seal. The Common Seal shall be kept in the safe
      custody of the Officer authorised by the Board and shall be used on the authority of a
      resolution of the Board constituted under the bye-laws of the society;

    4. (iv)  The area of operation of the society shall extend to the ———- (Please indicate the
      proposed of area of operation).

    5. (v)  The society is body corporate which shall sue and be sued in its name.

  2. Definitions:-

    The words/expressions appearing in these bye-laws shall have the following meaning
    unless otherwise provided :

    1. a)  “Act” means the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002 as amended time to time.

    2. b)  “Area of Operation” means the area from which the persons can be admitted as members

      of the society.

    3. c)  “Board” means the Board of Directors of the Society.

    4. d)  “Bye-laws” means the Bye-laws of the society for the time being in force which have been

      duly registered or deemed to have been registered under the Multi State Cooperative
      Societies Act in force and includes amendments thereto which have been duly registered or
      deemed to have been registered under the Act;

    5. e)  “Central Registrar”, means the Central Registrar of Cooperative Societies appointed under
      the provisions of the MSCS Act;

    6. f)  “Chief Executive” means Chief Executive/Managing Director, by whatever name he may be
      called, of the Society;

1

  1. g)  A ‘Cooperative Bank’ means a multi state cooperative society which undertakes banking
    business;

  2. h)  “Cooperative Society” means a cooperative society registered or deemed to be registered
    under any law relating to cooperative societies for the time being in-force in any State or
    Union Territory;

  3. i)  “Cooperative Year” means the period from 1st of April to 31st March;

  4. j)  “Cooperative Principles” means the cooperative principles as specified in the first schedule

    of the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002.

  5. k)  ‘Deposit Insurance Corporation’ means the Deposit Insurance & Credit Guarantee

    Corporation established under Sec. 3 of the Deposit Insurance Corporation Act 1961;

  6. l)  “Defaulter” means a member who has defaulted in payment of any kind of dues payable to

    the society;

  7. m)  “Delegate” means a person who is duly appointed/elected by the members of the society or

    part thereof in accordance with its bye-laws as its representatives to the General Body of
    the society or a person who is duly authorised by the Board of the member society to
    represent the society in General body of the society of which the society is a member.

  8. n)  “Federal Cooperative” means a federation of cooperative societies registered under the
    MSCS Act and whose membership is available only to a cooperative society or a multi-
    state cooperative society;

  9. o)  “General Body”, means all the members of the Society and in relation to a national
    cooperative society or a federal cooperative means all the delegates of member
    cooperative societies or delegates of multi state cooperative society and includes a body
    constituted under the provisions of the Act;

  10. p)  “General Meeting” means a meeting of the general body of the society and includes special
    general meeting;

  11. q)  “Member” means a cooperative society/individual who is admitted as member of the society
    and continues to be so for the time being;

  12. r)  “Multi State Cooperative Society” means a cooperative society registered or deemed to be
    registered under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act 2002;.

  13. s)  “National Cooperative Society” means a Multi-State Cooperative Society specified in the
    second schedule to the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002;

  14. t)  “Nominal’ member means a person who has been admitted as a nominal member or
    associate member under the bye-law of the society.

  15. u)  ‘Officer’ means a President, Vice-President, Chairperson, Vice-chairperson, Managing
    Director, Secretary, Manager, Members of the Board, Treasure, Liquidator, an
    Administrator appointed under Sec. 123 and includes any other person empowered under

2

v)

Multi State Cooperative Societies Act or the rules or the Bye-laws to give direction in regard

to business of the society.
“Rules” means the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Rules, 2002 made under Multi-State

Cooperative Societies Act, 2002 and as amended time to time.
“Reserve Bank’ means the Reserve Bank of India constituted under the RBI Act 1934 – 2 of
1934;

w)
3.
Objects, and functions:

a)

b)

c)

Objects :

The principal object of the society will be to promote the interests of all its
members to attain their social and economic betterment through self-help and mutual aid
in accordance with the cooperative principles.

(N.B.: The statement of objects of the society should clearly show the activities carried
out / proposed to be carried out in each state from where the members are
drawn.)

Functions:

In furtherance of the above objects, the society may undertake any or all the
following activities :-

1
2
3
(to be specified as per the objects of the society)

In addition to above, federal cooperative shall also undertake following functions:-

Subject to the provisions of this Act and any other law for the time being in force, a
federal cooperative may discharge the functions to facilitate the voluntary formation and
democratic functioning of cooperative societies as federal cooperative or multi State cooperatives
based on self-help and mutual aid.
Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in sub-section(1), the federal
cooperative may—

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(e)
(f)
(g)

ensure compliance of the cooperative principle;
make model bye-laws and policies for consideration of its member cooperative;
provide specialised training, education and data-based information;

undertake research, evaluation and assist in preparation of perspective development
plans for its member cooperative;
promote harmonious relations amongst member cooperative;

help member cooperative to settle disputes among themselves;
undertake business services on behalf of its member cooperative, if specifically required
by or under the resolution of the general body or the board, or bye-laws of a member co-
operative;

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  1. (h)  provide management development services to a member cooperative;

  2. (i)  evolve code of conduct for observance by a member cooperative;

  3. (j)  evolve viability norms for a member cooperative;

  4. (k)  provide legal aid and advice to a member cooperative;

  5. (l)  assist member cooperative in organising self-help;

  6. (m)  develop market information system, logo brand promotion, quality control and technology

    up-gradation.

4. Membership :

A society shall have following categories of members:-

  1. (i)  Ordinary members

  2. (ii)  Nominal/ associate members

Who can be ordinary members :

(i)

(ii)

a)
b)

c)
d)
e)

f)
g)
h)

Any person who resides within the area of operation of the society and who genuinely
need the services provided by the society and whose interest does not conflict with the
interest of the society;
No person shall be admitted as a member of a multi-State co-operative society except
the following namely:-

An individual, competent to contract under section 11 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872;
Any multi-State co-operative society or any co-operative society;(Applies in case of
federal and national society)
The Central Government;
A State Government;
The National Co-operative Development Corporation established under the National Co-
operative Development Corporation Act, 1962;
Any other corporation owned or controlled by the Government
Any Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956;
Such class or classes of persons or association of persons may be permitted by the
Central Registrar having regard to the nature and activities of a multi-State co-operative
society.

Note : This is illustrative list and society should clearly indicate the category whom they intend to
make Member. Prior consent of Government or Govt. Institutions/ Company would be
necessary before including them as members in the Bye-laws.

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  1. (iii)  No right of membership shall be exercisable until a person has made such payments to
    the Society in respect of membership or acquired such interest in the society as may be
    prescribed by the society in its Bye-laws as per the provisions of the Act and rules.

  2. (iv)  Every member shall pay an admission fee as specified in the bye-laws of the society.

Note : No individual person shall be eligible for admission as a member of a national co-operative
society or a federal cooperative.

  1. Nominal or Associate Member
    Society may, in the interest of promotion of the business of the society, admit a person as

    nominal member or associate member on payment of fee of Rs——only.

    Provided that such members will not be entitled to subscribe to the share capital of the society.

    They will not be allowed to have any interest in the management of the society including right to
    vote, contest election as director of the board or participate in the general body meetings of the
    society.

  2. Application :

    The application for membership of the society shall be submitted by the applicant to the Chief
    Executive of the society in the prescribed form and at least —-% of the value of shares to be
    deposited by the applicant at the time of submission of application.

    Disposal :

    The applications for membership of the society found complete in all respects shall be disposed
    of within the period of four months from the date of receipt of the application by the society. The
    same shall be communicated to the applicant within fifteen days of the decision by Registered
    Post.

  3. A member may, with the approval of the Board of Directors, transfer its shares to another
    member of the multi-State cooperative society.
    A fee of Rs.—– per share as mentioned in the Bye-laws, shall be payable to the society for each
    such transfer.

  4. The Board may, on application, by a Member:

    (i) approve conversion of shares allotted to it or a part thereof into those of other
    denominations subject to such conditions as the Board may decide to impose;

    (ii) consolidate all or some of the partly paid shares already allotted to member.

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  1. Disqualifications of membership :
    No person shall be eligible for being or continuing as a member of the society if :-

    1. a)  His business is in conflict or competitive with the business of the society; or

    2. b)  He did not make annual transactions of the value of at least Rs. ___________ for

      continuously two years (to be specified in the bye-laws); or

    3. c)  He did not attend the three consecutive general meetings and such absence was not

      condoned by the 2/3rd majority of the members attending the meeting; or

    4. d)  Has defaulted in payment of all dues including contributions, subscriptions, if any, as
      decided by the board of the society from time to time and has not made the payment within

      30 days after receiving the notice for payment.

  2. Cessation of membership :

    The membership of the cooperative society may cease in case of :-

    1. (i)  resignation or death of the member.

    2. (ii)  cancellation of registration of the member society;

    3. (iii)  all the shares are transferred to another person/ society;

    4. (iv)  expelled by the general body;

    5. (v)  incurring any of the disqualifications of membership.

  3. Withdrawal from membership :
    Any member of the society may withdraw from membership of the society only after ——-

    years by giving at least a three months notice and duly approved by the Board of the society.

  4. Expulsion of Members :

    Members of the society may be expelled by a resolution of the general body passed by
    2/3
    rd majority present and voting if :

    1. (i)  Any member has defaulted in payment of dues as per bye-laws of the society for a

      continuous period of one year;

    2. (ii)  Any activity of a member is found to be conflicting or competitive with the interest or

      activities of the society.

    3. (iii)  Provided that the member concerned shall not be expelled unless he has been given a

      reasonable opportunity of making representation in the matter.

    4. (iv)  No member of the society who has been expelled shall be eligible for re-admission as a

      member of the society for a period of one year from the date of such expulsion.

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  1. Rights of member :

    Every member of the society shall have the following rights :-

    1. a)  One vote in the general body meetings of the society and no member shall be permitted
      to vote by proxy;

      Provided that a multi-State co-operative society or a co-operative society or any other
      institution which is a member of any other multi-state cooperative society may appoint its
      representative by a resolution passed by its Board to vote on its behalf in the affairs of
      such multi-State cooperative society.

    2. b)  Right to receive notice of general body meetings as per bye-laws of the society;

    3. c)  Right to attend and take active part in the proceedings of the General Body Meetings;

    4. d)  Take part in elections and contest for any post as per provision of the Act, Rules and

      bye-laws of the society;

    5. e)  Inspect member registers, books of accounts or any other record and obtain certified

      copies of the resolutions or documents on a payment of fee as may be prescribed by the
      society from time to time.

  2. Liability :

1)
2) (i)

(ii)

Liability of the members shall be limited to the share capital subscribed by them;
In the case of a past member, on the date on which he ceased to be a member;
In the case of a deceased member, on the date of his death.

Shall continue for a period of two years from such date.

Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where a Multi State Co-operative society
is ordered to be wound up under section 86, the liability of a past member who ceased to be a member
or of the estate of a deceased member who died within two years immediately preceding the date of the
order of winding up, shall continue until the entire liquidation proceedings are completed, but such
liability shall extend only to the debts of the society as they existed on the date of cessation of
membership or death, as the case may be.

15. Authorised Share Capital :
The authorised share capital of the society shall be Rs. ________which shall comprise

of _______ shares of the face value of Rs. _________each.
(
N.B.: Indicate details about equity holding by the Govt. of India, State Govt. or any other Govt.
Undertakings if they are the members)

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  1. The society may with approval of the General Body retire shares, if any, held by the
    Central/State Government, Central/ State Government organizations at any time. However,
    retirement of such share shall be at face value. (Society to clearly specify the modalities for
    redemption of shares).

  2. (i) A member shall subscribe to minimum of _____number of shares ____% of share value
    shall be paid at the time of application and rest in _____equal instalments.

(ii) Manner of allotment, transfer, redemption and/or repatriation shall be at face value and
as per the provisions of the Act.

  1. Joint Shareholders

    Shares may be purchased in the names of more than one person jointly.

    1. i)  On death of a joint-holder, the surviving person/ persons shall be recognized as joint

      shareholder/holders

    2. ii)  The joint-holder of any share shall be liable severally as well as jointly for all payments

      which are to be made in respect of such share or shares.

    3. iii)  The person whose name stands first written on the share certificate shall enjoy all the rights

      of a member and be responsible for all the liabilities of a member. He shall be entitled to

      receive the annual dividend and notice of the General Meeting.

    4. iv)  Where a share of the society is held jointly by more than one person, the person whose

      name stands first in the share certificate, if present, shall have the right to vote. But in his
      absence, the person whose name stands second and, in the absence of both, the person
      whose name stands next, and likewise in the absence of preceding persons the person
      whose name is next on the share certificate, who is present and who is not a minor, shall
      have right to vote.

  2. Share Certificate

    Every person admitted as member shall be entitled to receive a share certificate gratis
    stating the number of share/s and their distinctive number/s. The share certificates shall be
    signed by the Chairman, or any Director duly authorized and the Chief Executive Officer. The
    share certificate shall bear the Society’s seal.

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20.

Transfer of Shares

A member may transfer his share or shares after holding them for not less than one year to
any person duly approved by the Board of Directors. The transfer is not complete until the
name of the transferee has been duly entered in the register of members and the transfer fee
of ……….. per share is paid.

If any certificate be worn out, defaced, destroyed or lost, a new share certificate’s may be
issued in lieu thereof on payment of a fee of …………… per share. It shall, however, be
necessary to produce evidence to the satisfaction of the Board of Directors that the share
certificates were worn out, defaced, destroyed or lost, or in absence of such evidence, on
such indemnity as the Board of Directors may deem sufficient.

Nomination

A member may nominate a person to receive the member’s interest in the society after
his death. Nomination shall be made in the prescribed form and entered in the special register
kept at the society’s registered office. Prior approval of the Board shall be necessary if the
person to be nominated is an employee of the society.

Death of a Shareholder

On death of a shareholder, the society may pay to the person or persons nominated a
sum representing the value of the shareholder’s interest in the society within six months from the
death of the shareholder. In the absence of nomination, the society may pay to such person or
persons as may appear to the Board of Directors to be entitled to receive the same as heir or
legal representative of the deceased shareholder on his or their executing an appropriate deed
of indemnity in favour of the society.

Lien on Shares, Dividends and Deposits

The society shall have the first and paramount lien or charge upon all the shares,
dividends and deposits of any member of past member for all moneys due from him to the
society from time to time. The society may at any time set off any sum credited by or payable to
the member or past member towards payment of any liability of such member as past-member.

Capital and Funds :

The society may receive funds from any or all the following sources :

  1. (i)  admission fee;

  2. (ii)  share capital;

21.

22.

23.

24.

i)

ii)

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  1. (iii)  loans and deposits;

  2. (iv)  grants-in-aid;

  3. (v)  donations;

  4. (vi)  contributions;

  5. (vii)  subscriptions;

  6. (viii)  profit.

  1. Maximum Borrowing Limit

    The multi-State cooperative society shall be eligible to receive deposits and loans from
    members and other upto ten times of the sum of its subscribed share capital plus accumulated
    reserves minus accumulated losses, if any.

  2. Constitution of a General Body:
    The General Body of a Multi-State Cooperative Society shall consist of all the members

    of such society. The final authority of the Society shall vest in the General Body.

    (i) Each member-society shall be represented by one delegate elected to the general body
    as specified in the Bye-laws of the society;

    NOTE: No individual can become member of a National Cooperative Society.

Smaller General Body (if applicable)

(A Multi State Cooperative Society with a membership exceeding 1000, may provide in its Bye-laws for
the constitution of a smaller body consisting of delegates of members of the society elected or selected
in accordance with such Bye-laws).

Such smaller general body may be constituted with delegates elected or selected from among
the member-societies on the basis to be elaborated in the Bye-laws of a multi State cooperative society.
That smaller body shall exercise such powers of the general body as may be specified in the Bye-laws of
the multi-State Cooperative Society

Such delegate of the society shall be the Chairman/President or the Chief Executive of the
society or a member of the Board of such cooperative society if such member is authorised by the Board
of the nominating society. Where there is no Board, such society shall be represented through its
administrator by whatever name called;

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The delegates shall continue to be members of the General Body of the society for a period of 5
years or till their successors are elected or as specified in the nomination by the concerned member
society.

The procedure for election of delegates in the General Body shall be in accordance with the
election regulations framed by the Board of Directors in accordance with the provisions of the Act &
Rules framed there under.

The delegate of a member society which has not been a member of the society for atleast 30
days before the date of General Body Meeting may attend the General Body Meeting but shall not be
eligible either to exercise the right to vote, participate in the election or to contest election for any post;

Delegates from defaulting member societies shall not be entitled to exercise the right to vote or
to seek election to any office. The delegates of defaulting society, if holding any office of the society shall
forfeit their right to hold such office w.e.f. the date on which the society becomes defaulter under these
bye-laws provided, due notice has been given to the defaulting society and it has failed to pay its dues
within 30 days after the receipt of notice.

27. Annual General Meeting and Powers and functions of the General Body :

The Board of the society under a resolution shall within six months after the close of the
corresponding year call the annual general meeting at the principal place of business of the
society for the purpose of :

  1. a)  Consideration of the audited statement of accounts;

  2. b)  Consideration of the audit report and annual report;

  3. c)  Consideration of audit compliance report;

  4. d)  Disposal of net profits;

  5. e)  Approval for appointment of Auditors & fixation of remuneration;

  6. f)  Review of operational deficit, if any;

  7. g)  Creation of specific reserves and other funds;

  8. h)  Approval of the annual budget;

  9. i)  Review of actual utilisation of reserve and other funds;

  10. j)  Creation of specific reserves and other funds;

  11. k)  Approval of the long-term perspective plan and the annual operational plan;

  12. l)  Review of annual report and accounts of subsidiary institution, if any;

  13. m)  Expulsion of members;

  14. n)  List of employees who are relatives of members of the board or of the chief Executive;

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  1. o)  Amendment of bye-laws, if any;

  2. p)  Formulation of code of conduct for the members of the board and officers;

  3. q)  Election & removal of members of the board, if any;

  4. r)  Consider the statement showing details of loans or goods on credit if any given to any

    director or to the spouse of the director or his/her son or daughter during the preceding

    year or outstanding against any of them;

  5. s)  Any other matter laid before it by the Board of Directors.

  1. Amendment to Bye-laws:
    The amendment to bye-laws shall only be passed by a resolution of the meeting of the

    general body in which a quorum is present by a vote of not less than two thirds of the members
    present there and not less than 15 clear days’ notice for considering of such amendment has
    been previously given.

  2. Special General Meeting:

    The Chief Executive, may at anytime, on the direction of the board, call a Special
    General Body Meeting of the Society and shall call such meeting within one month after the
    receipt of requisition from the Central Registrar or from _____ (%age to be mentioned) of the
    total number of members of the society to transact the business as stated in notice of the
    meeting.

  3. Notice for the General Meetings and Special General Meetings:

    1. a)  Annual General Meeting of the society may be called by giving not less than 14 days notice

      in writing to all the members of the society.

    2. b)  Special General Meeting of the society may be called by giving not less than 7 days notice
      in writing to all the members of the society;

    3. c)  The notice of the Annual General Meeting shall be accompanied by a copy of each of the
      audited balance-sheet, profit and loss account together with the auditors report relating to
      the preceding year and the report of the Board of Directors thereon.

    4. d)  The notice of general body meeting shall be sent to members by any of the following modes
      namely.

      1. i)  By local delivery or

      2. ii)  Under postal certificate. Besides, notice shall also be published in the local
        news papers having wide circulation.

        Notice of the general body meeting shall also be affixed on the notice board of
        the society and its branches, if any.

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31. Quorum of the meeting:

  1. (i)  The quorum for the general meeting shall be one fifth of the total number of members of
    the society or 1/5 of the total number of delegates of the smaller representative general
    body(as applicable);

  2. (ii)  No business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless there is a quorum at the
    time when the business of the meeting is due to commence;

  3. (iii)  If within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting, quorum is not present, the
    meeting shall stand adjourned and would be held after half an hour at which the quorum
    will not be required.

  4. (iv)  If at any time during the meeting sufficient number of members are not present to form
    the quorum, the Chairman or the member presiding over the meeting on his own, or on
    his attention being drawn to this fact, shall adjourn the meeting and the business that
    remains to be transacted at this meeting, if any, shall be disposed off in the usual
    manner at the adjourned meeting;

(iv) Where a meeting is adjourned under sub-clause (iii) or (iv) the adjourned meeting shall
be held either on the same day or on such date, time and place as may be decided by
the Chairman or the member presiding over the meeting, but within 7 days from the date
of adjourned meeting.

  1. (vi)  No business shall be transacted at any adjourned meeting other than the business on
    the agenda of the adjourned meeting;

  2. (vii)  The adjourned meeting will transact its regular business even without the quorum being
    present at the meeting.

32. Board of Directors:

The Board of Directors of the society shall consist of ______ Directors (not more than
21) excluding functional directors and co-opted directors’

  1. (i)  Directors to be elected by the General Body (number as may be specified in the Bye-

    laws;

  2. (ii)  Nominated Directors (number as may be specified in the Bye-laws, if applicable);

  3. (iii)  Chief Executive and Functional Directors shall be the ex-officio members of the Board.

  4. (iv)  Two eminent persons may be co-opted by the Board of Directors;

NOTE: Functional Directors are applicable in case of National Cooperative Societies only.

(v) Two subject matter specialists may be invited by the Board in any of its meetings;

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(vi) Nominees of the Central Government, if any, as per the provisions of the Act.
Where the Central Government or a State Government has subscribed to the share
capital.
(The number of the Government Nominees shall be as per the equity share capital held
by the Central Government in the multi-State cooperative society i.e. one person if the
equity share capital is less than 26%, two persons if the equity share capital is 26% or
more but less than 51%; and three persons if the equity share capital is 51% or more of
the total issued share capital)
Provided that such nominated persons shall not exceed one third of the total number of
members of the Board.
Where the Central Government or a State Government has guaranteed the repayment
of principal and payment of interest on debentures issued by a multi-State cooperative
society or has guaranteed the repayment of principal and payment of interest on loans
and advances to a multi-State cooperative society or has given any assistance by way
of grants or otherwise to a multi-State cooperative society, the Central Government or
the State Governments in this behalf, as the case may be, or any person authorised by
the Central Government, shall have the right to nominate person on the Board of such a
society in the manner as may be prescribed.
A persons nominated under this section shall hold office during the pleasure of the
Government by which he has been so nominated.

33. Meetings of the Board of Directors:

  1. (i)  The Board of Directors shall meet at least once in every quarter;

  2. (ii)  The meetings of the Board of Directors shall normally be held at the registered office of

    the society. In exceptional cases, the meetings of the board may be held at any other

    place but within the area of operation of the society;

  3. (iii)  The meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman or in his

    absence by the Vice Chairman and in the absence of both Chairman & Vice-Chairman,
    the Directors present in the Meeting shall elect a Chairman for the meeting from among
    themselves;

  4. (iv)  14 days notice shall ordinarily be necessary for the meeting of the Board of Directors;

  5. (v)  The quorum for the meeting of the Board of Directors shall be 1/3rd of its total strength or

    as specified in the Bye-laws of the multi-State cooperative society.

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  1. Term of the Board of Directors:
    The term of the office of the elected Members of the Board of Directors shall be —–

    years from the date of election (not more than 5 years).

    The term of office of the members of the Board who are nominees of the Government or
    institutions or federations shall be as indicated from time to time by the Government or the
    concerned Institutions. However, their term will be co-terminus with the term of the elected
    Directors/Board; and the Government/concerned institutions shall make fresh nominations for
    the new Board;

    The elected members of the Board shall be eligible for re-election.

  2. Powers & Functions of the Board of Directors:

    1. (i)  To admit members;

    2. (ii)  To elect Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the society;

    3. (iii)  To authorise convening of Meetings of the General Body;

    4. (iv)  To interpret the organisational objectives and set-up specific goals to be achieved

      towards these objectives;

    5. (v)  To make periodic appraisal of objectives;

    6. (vi)  To appoint, suspend or remove the Chief Executive and such other employee of the

      society as may be prescribed;

    7. (vii)  To make provisions for regulating the appointment of the society and the scales of pay,

      allowances and other conditions of service, including disciplinary action against such

      employees;

    8. (viii)  To place the annual report, annual financial statements, annual plan and budget for the

      approval of the general body;

    9. (ix)  To consider audit and compliance report and place the same before the general body;

    10. (x)  To acquire or dispose off immovable property;

    11. (xi)  To review the membership in other cooperatives;

    12. (xii)  To approve annual and supplementary budget;

    13. (xiii)  To recommend to the General Body distribution of profits;

    14. (xiv)  To raise funds;

    15. (xv)  To sanction loans to the members;

    16. (xvi)  To fill any vacancy/vacancies in the Board by election;

    17. (xvii)  To approve the panel of auditors for placing in the General Body;

    18. (xviii)  To appoint such Committees, Sub-Committees as may be necessary and delegate to

      them such powers as may be appropriate;

15

  1. (xix)  To frame regulations for the election of delegates to the General Body, Members to the
    Board of Directors and for the conduct of Meetings of the General Body and the Board
    of Directors as per the provisions of the Act;

  2. (xx)  To take such other measures or to do such other acts as may be prescribed or required
    under this act or the bye-laws or as may be delegated by the general body.

36. Disqualifications of Board of Directors:

1. No member of the multi state co-operative society or nominee of a member society or a
National Co-operative society shall be eligible for being chosen as or for being a member
of the Board of a multi state co-operative society, if such member:-

  1. a)  Has been adjudged by a competent Court to be insolvent or of unsound mind;

  2. b)  Is concerned or participates in the profits of any contract with the society;

  3. c)  Has been convicted for an offence involving moral turpitude;

  4. d)  Holds any office or place of profit under the society :-

    Provided that the Chief Executive or such full-time employee of the Society as
    may be notified by the Central Government from time to time or a person elected
    by the employees of such Society to represent them on the board of such Society
    shall be eligible for being chosen as, or for being, a member of such board;

  5. e)  Has been a member of the Society for less than twelve months immediately
    preceding the date of such election or appointment;

  6. f)  Has interest in any business of the kind carried on by the Society of which he is
    member:

  7. g)  Has taken loan or goods on credit from the Society of which he is a member, or
    is otherwise indebted to such Society and after the receipt of a notice of default
    issued to him by such Society, has defaulted;-

    1. i)  In repayment of such loan or debt or in payment of the price of the goods
      taken on credit, as the case may be, within the date extended, which in
      no case shall exceed six months, within the date so extended, or

    2. ii)  When such loan or debt or the price of goods taken on credit is to be
      paid in installments, in payment of any installment, and the amount in
      default or any part thereof has remained unpaid on the expiry of six
      months from the date of such default:

    Provided that a member of the board who has ceased to hold office as such
    under this clause shall not be eligible, for a period of one year, from the date on
    which he ceased to hold office, for re-election as a member of the board of the
    Multi-State Cooperative Society of which he was a member or for the election to
    the board of any other Multi-State Co-operative Society.

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  1. h)  Is a person against whom any amount due under a decree, decision or order is
    pending recovery under this Act:

  2. i)  Is retained or employed as a legal practitioner on behalf of or against the Society,
    or on behalf of or against any other Multi-State Co- operative Society.

    Explanation- For the purposes of this clause, “legal practitioner” has the same
    meaning as in Clause (i) of sub- section (1) of section 2 of the Advocates Act,
    1961(25 of 1961);

  3. j)  has been convicted for any offence under this Act;

  4. k)  is disqualified for being a member under Section 29;

  5. l)  has been expelled as a member under Section 30;

  6. m)  absents himself from three consecutive board meetings and such absence has
    not been condoned by the board;

  7. n)  absents himself from three consecutive general body meetings and such
    absence has not been condoned by the members in the general body.

2. A person shall not be eligible for being elected as member of board of the Society for a
period of five years if, the Board fails:

  1. a)  to conduct election of the Board under section 45 of the Act: or

  2. b)  to call the general body meeting under Section 39 of the Act: or

  3. c)  to prepare the financial statement and present the same in the annual general
    meeting.

  1. Removal of Elected Members of the Board by the General Body.

    An elected member of a board, who has acted adversely to the interests of the Society, may on
    the basis of a report of the Central Registrar or otherwise be removed from the board upon a
    resolution of the general body passed at its meeting by a majority of not less than two-third of the
    members present and voting at the meeting;

    Provided that the member concerned shall not be removed unless he has been given a
    reasonable opportunity of making a representation in the matter.

  2. Filling up of casual Vacancies on the Board:
    If any vacancy arise in the Board of Directors, it shall be filled by election by the members in the

    General Body for the remaining unexpired term of the Board.

  3. Committees of the Board:

    The Board of Directors shall constitute an Executive Committee and other committees or
    sub-committees as may be considered necessary. Provided that other committees or sub-
    committees, other than the Executive Committee shall not exceed 3 at a given point of time.

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  1. Executive Committee
    Composition & Functions of the Executive Committee or other committee or sub-committee may

    be specified in the Bye-laws of the Society.

  2. Chairman and Vice-Chairman

    There shall be a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman elected by the Board of Directors from
    among themselves. The Chairman and in his absence, the Vice-Chairman shall preside over the
    Meeting of the General Body and the Board of Directors.

    The terms of office of the Chairman and Vice-Chairman shall be co-terminus with the
    term of the elected Members of the Board unless Chairman or Vice-Chairman ceases to be a
    Director earlier. In case of any vacancy within this period, the Board shall fill up the vacancy
    through re-election for the unexpired term of the Board.

  3. Powers and functions of the Chairman :

    The Chairman shall have the following powers and functions:

    1. (i)  He shall preside over the meeting of the general body, Board of Directors and executive
      committee;

    2. (ii)  The Chairman shall sign the proceedings of all the meetings presided over by him;

    3. (iii)  In the event of equality of votes on a resolution the Chairman shall have casting vote in

      the meeting;

    4. (iv)  To convene the meeting of the Board of Directors, Executive Committee and other

      committees of which he is the Chairman;

    5. (v)  The Chairman may delegate any of his powers and functions to the Vice-Chairman;

  4. Prohibition to hold office of Chairperson, or President or Vice- Chairperson or Vice-President
    in certain cases.

    1. 1)  No member of the Board shall be eligible to be elected as Chairman or Vice- Chairman
      of the Society if he/ she is a Minister in the Central or State Government;

    2. 2)  No member of the Board shall be eligible to be elected as Chairperson or President of
      the Society if he has held office during two consecutive terms whether full or part.

    Provided that a member who has creased to hold the office of the Chairperson and President

continuously for one full term shall again be eligible for election to the office as such.

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44. Holding of office in co-operative society
No person shall be eligible to hold at the same time, office of the President or Chairperson or

Vice- President or Vice-Chairperson on the Board of more than two Multi- State Co-operative Societies.

  1. Functional Directors:
    They shall be appointed by the Board and will be whole time employees of the Society

    and Members of the Board.

    (Functional Directors are applicable in case of National Cooperative Societies).

  2. Chief Executive

    The Chief Executive is called ———— (the designation to be specified) and he/she shall
    be appointed by the Board and shall aid and assist the Board of Directors in its functions. He
    shall be member of all the committees, sub-committees of the Board of Directors as may be
    constituted.

  3. Powers and functions of the Chief Executive:

    Subject to overall control and general supervision of the Board of Directors, the Chief
    Executive /Managing Director by whatever name he is called shall have the following powers,
    functions and responsibilities:

    1. (i)  To assist the Board of Directors in the formulation of policies, objectives and planning;

    2. (ii)  To implement the policies and plans duly approved by the General Body or the Board
      and furnish to the Board of Directors periodical information necessary for appraising the
      activities and progress of achievement towards implementations of the policies and

      programmes;

    3. (iii)  To summon meetings of various committees including the general body under the

      instructions of the Chairman;

    4. (iv)  To maintain proper records of the society;

    5. (v)  To manage the funds of the society, cause proper accounts to be maintained and

      audited;

    6. (vi)  To attend to all correspondence of the society;

    7. (vii)  To be responsible for collection and safety of the funds;

    8. (viii)  To execute the policies/programmes and business of the society and take such action

      as is necessary to give effect to the resolutions of the general body, Board of Directors

      or any other committee constituted under bye-laws;

    9. (ix)  To sign all deposit receipts of the society with banks in accordance with the resolution of

      the executive committee;

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48.

  1. (x)  To endorse and transfer promissory notes and other securities and to endorse, sign,
    encash cheques and negotiate instruments on behalf of the society;

  2. (xi)  To be the office of the society to sue or to be sued on behalf of the society and sign all
    books and arrangements in favour of the society;

  3. (xii)  To appoint such personnel in the society as may be approved by the Board of Directors;

  4. (xiii)  To determine powers, functions and responsibilities of the employees of the society of

    all categories;

  5. (xiv)  To maintain a list of members correct and up-to-date;

  6. (xv)  To exercise administrative control in respect of all officers and staff, including granting of

    leave, granting of annual increments and other matters relating to the service conditions

    of the employees;

  7. (xvi)  To delegate powers to other officers of the society;

  8. (xvii)  To sanction contingent expenditure in so far as the amount involved is upto Rs.

    __________;

  9. (xviii)  To sign on behalf of the society and conduct its correspondence;

  10. (xix)  To present the draft annual report and financial statements for the approval of the

    Board;

  11. (xx)  To record proceedings of meeting and have duly signed;

  12. (xxi)  To perform all duties entrusted to him and to exercise such other powers as may be

    delegated to him by the Board of Directors, executive committee and Chairman from
    time to time.

Deposits:

Deposits may be received from Members at any time within the limits determined under the
Cooperative Societies Act and Rules, on such rates of interest and subject to such rules and
regulations as may be fixed by the Board of Directors and also subject to the directives issued
by the Reserve Bank of India ( in case of cooperatives banks ) in this behalf from time to time.
Deposits may be received on current, savings, fixed, recurring, cumulative and under any other
special scheme/s.

All the deposits of the bank shall be insured under DICGC Act 1961 and shall be governed by
the various sections of the DICGC Act. ( Applies on Cooperative Banks )

Loans and Advances :

Loans, cash credits and/or overdrafts on current accounts may be granted to members on
securities mentioned below or other security or securities approved by the Board of Directors or
without security.

49.

1)

i)

ii)
iii)

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2)

50.

51.

i)
ii)
iii)

iv)

v)
vi)

vii)
viii)
ix)

Personal security and/or surety/sureties of other member/members.
Collateral security of movable and immovable property.
Industrial, mercantile, agricultural and other marketable commodities or machinery under pledge,
hypothecation or charge of the Bank.
Pledge of government, trustee securities, shares of approved companies, debentures and fixed
deposits
Insurance policies assigned to the Bank within the surrender value.
Warehouse receipts

Gold and silver ornaments

Any other tangible security

The Board may frame detailed loan regulations prescribing proportion of unsecured loans to total
loans and advances, proper terms and conditions and the nature of securities acceptable for
loans and advances for different purposes.
Short-term loans will be for periods up to 15 months, medium-term loans for 15 months to 5
years and long-term loans over 5 years.

Linking of Shareholding with Loan Limits

A borrower should hold at least 5 per cent of his borrowings if such borrowings are on an
unsecured basis, i.e. in the form of clean overdrafts, loans against one or two personal sureties
and purchase/discount of clean bills and cheques.
A borrower against tangible securities should hold shares of the bank to the extent of at least 2
1⁄2 per cent of his borrowings from the Bank.

In the case of loans for small-scale industrial units, the linking of share capital might be fixed
initially at one per cent of the borrowings, to be raised in the course of the next two years to 2 1⁄2
percent. The total amount of share capital held by a member will, however, have to be within the
limits laid down under the Cooperative Societies Act.

Disposal of net Profit :

(A) Subject to the provisions of the Act and Rules framed there under, the net profits of a
multi-State cooperative society shall be distributed by the General Body as follows:

  1. (i)  transfer at least 25% of net profit to the reserve fund;

  2. (ii)  credit one per cent of its net profit to the cooperative education fund maintained by the

    National Cooperative Union of India;

  3. (iii)  an amount of at least 10% shall be transferred to the reserve fund for meeting

    unforeseen losses.

a)

b)
c)

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52.

(B) The balance of the net profit may be utilised for all or any of the following purposes :-

  1. a)  Payment of dividend to members on their paid up capital at the rate
    as specified in the Bye-laws;

  2. b)  Any other privileges to members; if any; as specified in the Bye-laws;

  3. c)  Contribution to the education fund at the rate of 5% or more and not exceeding 10%.
    The fund may be utilised for the education and training of members, directors and

    employees as approved by the Board of Directors;

  4. d)  Donation for the development of the cooperative movement or charitable purpose as

    defined in section 2 of the Charitable Endowment Act 1890 not exceeding 5%.

  5. e)  Payment of ex-gratia amount to employees as approved by the Board of Directors;

Investment of funds :

The society may invest or deposit its funds in :-

  1. a)  A cooperative bank including cooperative land development bank;

  2. b)  Securities specified in section 20 of the Indian Trust Act 1882;

  3. c)  Shares and securities of any other cooperative society/subsidiary institutions;

  4. d)  Any scheduled bank as defined under RBI Act;

Reserve Fund

In addition to the sum prescribed under the Co-operative Societies Act and Bye-laws , all
admission fees, entrance fees, nominal membership fees, amount of forfeited shares and
dividends and donations shall be carried to the Reserve Fund.
Any loss occurring as the net result of the year’s working may with the previous sanction of the
Registrar, be made good from the Reserve Fund or from the profits of the next ensuing year or
years.

The Reserve Fund shall be separately invested in government and trustee securities or other
approved securities or in fixed deposits with the District Central Co-operative Bank or the State
Co-operative Bank.

Dividend :

The dividend declared shall be paid to the person whose name stands as the registered
shareholder in the books of the Society on the last day of the co-operative year to which the
dividend relates.
Dividend shall be proportionate to the amount paid on shares and the period in whole months for
which the amount stood to the credit of the shareholder.

53.

i)

ii)

iii)

54.

i)

ii)

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55.

1.

i)

ii)

56.

57.

58.

iii)

Any dividend remaining undrawn for three years after having been declared shall be forfeited
and shall be carried to the Reserve Fund of the society.
Unpaid dividend shall be payable on application provided the same has not been forfeited.

Accounts and Records

Accounts and records shall be maintained in forms prescribed or approved by the
Registrar and the Reserve Bank of India ( in case of Cooperative banks ) with such additions as
the Board of Directors consider necessary. Any member of the Bank/Society may inspect any of
the registers or records during office hours in so far as they relate to his own business
transaction.

Audit

The accounts of the society shall be audited by an auditor appointed from the panel of auditors
approved by the Central Registrar or from a panel of auditors, if any, prepared by the society at
least once in each year and the remuneration of auditors shall be fixed by the Central Registrar
or the society as the case may be.

Audit Committee (applicable in case of cooperative banks):

Each multi state coop. bank shall constitute audit committee of their boards to look into
implementation of guidelines issued by RBI from time to time in this regard.

Settlement of Disputes:

All the disputes shall be referred to Arbitration in accordance with the provisions of the Multi state
Cooperative Societies Act and Rules .

Limitations:

The limitation period in disputes shall be as per the provisions of the Act.

Miscellaneous

No act of the General Body or the Board of Directors shall be deemed invalid by reason
of any defect in the election of a Member thereof or by reason of any vacancy therein not having
been filled in;

Service Rules :

The society shall have service rules for regulating the service conditions of its
employees as formulated and amended by the Board from time to time.

The Society shall maintain a Contributory Provident Fund for the benefit of its
employees in accordance with the provisions of Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous
Provisions Act, 1952.

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