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LESSON 3258 Thu 30 Jan 2020 Free Online NIBBANA TRAINING from KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN PEACE and ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL VOICE of ALL ABORIGINAL AWAKENED SOCIETIES (VoAAAS) Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist) All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch) http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_buddha/ THE BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — with best animated Buddha image in22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
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LESSON 3259  Fri 31 Jan 2020

Free Online NIBBANA TRAINING

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Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist)


All Aboriginal  Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)


http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_buddha/


THE
BUDDHA

AND
HIS
DHAM
MA           


by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — with best animated Buddha image in

http://www.columbia.edu/…/00ambe…/ambedkar_buddha/03_01.html
BOOK THREE: WHAT THE BUDDHA TAUGHT

Book Three, Part I—His Place in His Dhamma


1. *The Buddha claimed no place for Himself in His Own Dhamma* — 2.
*The Buddha did not promise to give salvation. He said He was Marga Data
(Way Finder) and not Moksha Data (Giver of Salvation)* — 3. *The
Buddha did not claim any Divinity for Himself or for His Dhamma. It was
discovered by man for man. It was not a Revelation*


§ 1. The Buddha claimed no place for Himself in His own Dhamma

1. Christ claimed to be the Prophet of Christianity.
2. He further claimed that he was the Son of God.
3. Christ also laid down the condition that there was no salvation
for a person unless he accepted that Christ was the Son of God.

4. Thus Christ secured a place for Himself by making the salvation of
the Christian depend upon his acceptance of Christ as the Prophet and
Son of God.
5. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, claimed that he was a Prophet sent by God.
6. He further claimed that no one could get salvation unless he accepted two other conditions.
7. A seeker of salvation in Islam must accept that Mohammad is the Prophet of God.
8. A seeker after salvation in Islam must further accept that he is the last prophet.
9. Salvation in Islam is thus ensured only to those who accept these two conditions.
10. Mohammad thus secured a place for Himself by making the
salvation of the Muslim depend upon his acknowledgement of Mohammed as
the Prophet of God.
11. No such condition was ever made by the Buddha.
12. He claimed that he was no more than the natural son of Suddhodana and Mahamaya.
13. He carved for himself no place in his religion by laying down
any such conditions regarding himself for salvation as Jesus and
Mahommad did.
14. That is the reason why we are left to know so little about himself even though abundant material was available.
15. As is known, the first Buddhist congregation was held soon after the death of the Buddha at Rajagraha.
16. Kassyappa presided over the congregation. Anand, Upali and many
others who belonged to Kapilavatsu and who wandered with him wherever
he went, and were with him till his death, were present.
17. But what did Kassyappa the President do?
18. He asked Anand to repeat the Dhamma and put the question to the
congregation, “Is this right?” They answered in the affirmative. And
Kassyappa then closed the question.
19. Thereafter he asked
Upali to repeat the Vinaya and put the question to the congregation, ”
Is this right ?” They answered in the affirmative. Kassyappa then closed
the question.
20. Kassyappa then should have put the third
question to someone present in the congregation to record some important
incidents in the life of the Buddha.
21. But Kassyappa did not. These were the only two questions with which he thought the Sangh was concerned.
22. If Kassyappa had collected the record of the Buddha’s life we
would have had today a full-fledged biography of the Buddha.
23. Why did it not strike Kassyappa to collect the record about the Buddha’s life?
24. It could not be indifference. The only answer one can give is
that the Buddha had carved no niche for himself in his religion.
25. The Buddha and his religion were quite apart.
26. Another illustration of the Buddha keeping himself out of his
religion is to be found in his refusal to appoint a successor.
27. Twice or thrice the Buddha was requested by his followers to appoint a successor.
28. Every time the Buddha refused.
29. His answer was, “The Dhamma must be its own successor.
30. “Principle must live by itself, and not by the authority of man.
31. “If principle needs the authority of man, it is no principle.
32. “If every time it becomes necessary to invoke the name of the
founder to enforce the authority of Dhamma, then it is no Dhamma.”
33. Such was the view he took of his own position regarding his Dhamma.


§ 2. The Buddha did not promise to give Salvation. He said He was Marga
Data (Way Finder) and not Moksha Data (Giver of Salvation)

1. Most religions are described as revelations. But the Buddha’s religion is not a revelation.
2. A revealed religion is so called because it is a message of God
to His creatures to worship their maker (i.e., God) and to save their
souls.
3. Often the message is sent through a chosen individual
who is called a prophet, to whom the message is revealed and who reveals
it to the people. It is then called Religion.
4. The obligation of the prophet is to ensure salvation to the faithful.
5. Salvation of the faithful means the saving of their souls from
being sent to hell, provided they obey God’s commands and recognise the
prophet as his messenger.
6. The Buddha never claimed that he was a prophet or a messenger of God. He repudiated any such description.
7. A more important point than this is that his religion is a
discovery. As such, it must be sharply distinguished from a religion
which is called Revelation.
8. His religion is a discovery in
the sense that it is the result of inquiry and investigation into the
conditions of human life on earth; and understanding of the working of
human instincts with which man is born; the moulding of his instincts
and dispositions which man has formed as a result of history and
tradition, and which are working to his detriment.
9. All
prophets have promised salvation. The Buddha is the one teacher who did
not make any such promise. He made a sharp distinction between a moksha
data and a marga data, one who gives salvation and one who only shows
the way.
10. He was only a marga data. Salvation must be sought by each for himself by his own effort.
11. He made this very clear to the Brahmin Moggallana in the following Sutta.
12. “Once the Exalted One was staying at Shravasti, in the East Park, at the [multi-]storeyed house of Migara’s mother.
13. “Then the Brahmin Moggallana, the accountant, came to the
Exalted One and gave him friendly greeting, and after the exchange of
courtesies sat down at one side. So seated, the Brahmin Moggallana, the
accountant, said this to the Exalted One:
14. “‘Just as, Master
Gautama, one gets a gradual view of this [multi-]storeyed house, a
progress, a graduated path, and so on right up to the last step of the
stairs, just so is the progressive training of us Brahmins: that is to
say, in our course of study in the Vedas.’
15. “‘Just as in a
course of archery, Gautama, with us the Brahmins, the training, the
progress, the approach is step by step; for instance, in counting.’

16. “‘When we take a private pupil we make him count thus: ‘One one,
twice two, thrice three, four times four, and so on up to a hundred.’
Now is it possible. Master Gautama, for you to point to a similar
progressive training on the part of your followers in your Dhamma?’

17. “‘It is so, Brahmin. Take the case, Brahmin, of a clever
horse-trainer. He takes a thoroughbred in hand, gives him his first
lesson with bit and bridle, and then proceeds to the further course.’
18. “‘Just so, Brahmin, the Tathagata takes in hand a man who is to
be trained and gives him his first lesson, thus: ‘Come thou, brother!
Be virtuous. Abide, constrained by the restraint of the obligation.’
19. ‘Become versed in the practice of right behaviour; seeing
danger in trifling faults, do you undertake the training and be a pupil
in the moralities.’
20. “‘As soon as he has mastered all that,
the Tathagata gives him his second lesson, thus: ‘Come thou brother!
Seeing an object with the eye, be not charmed by its general appearance
or its details.’
21. “‘Persist in the restraint of that
dejection that comes from craving, caused by the sense of sight
uncontrolled–these ill states, which would overwhelm one like a flood.
Guard the sense of sight, win control over the sense of sight.’

22. “‘And so do with the other organs of sense. When you hear a sound
with the ear, or smell a scent with the nose, taste a taste with the
tongue, or with body touch things tangible, and when with mind you are
conscious of a thing, be not charmed with its general appearance or its
details.’
23. “‘As soon as he has mastered all that, the
Tathagata gives him a further lesson, thus: ‘Come thou, brother! Be
moderate in eating; earnest and heedful do you take your food, not for
sport not for indulgence, not for adding personal charm or comeliness to
body, but do it for body’s stabilising, for its support, for protection
from harm, and for keeping up the practice of the righteous life, with
this thought: ‘I check my former feeling. To no new feeling will I give
rise, that maintenance and comfort may be mine.’
24. “‘Then,
Brahmin, when he has won restraint in food, the Tathagata gives him a
further lesson thus: ‘Come thou, brother! Abide given to watchfulness.
By day, when walking or sitting, cleanse your heart from things that may
hinder you. By night spend the first watch walking up and down or
sitting, and do likewise. By night in the second watch, lie down on the
right side in the posture of a lion, and placing one foot upon the
other, mindful and self-possessed, set your thoughts on the idea of
exertion. Then in the third watch of the night rise up, and walking up
and down, or sitting, cleanse the heart of things that may hinder.’

25. “‘Then, Brahmin, when the brother is devoted to watchfulness,
the Tathagata gives him a further lesson, thus: ‘Come thou, brother!
Be possessed of mindfulness and self-control. In going forth or going
back, have yourself under control. In looking forward or looking back,
in bending or relaxing, in wearing robes or carrying robe and bowl, in
eating, chewing, tasting, in easing yourself, in going, standing,
sitting, lying, sleeping or waking, in speaking or keeping silence have
yourself under control.’
26. “‘Then Brahmin, when he is
possessed of self-control, the Tathagata gives him a further lesson
thus: ‘Come thou, brother! Seek out a secluded lodging, a forest or
root of a tree, a mountain or a cave or a mountain grotto, a charnel
field, a forest retreat, the open air, a heap of straw.’ And he does so.
And when he has eaten his food he sits down crosslegged, and keeping
his body straight up, he proceeds to practise the four ecstacies.’

27. “‘Now, Brahmin, for all brothers who are pupils, who have not yet
attained mastery of mind, who abide aspiring, for such is the manner of
my training.’
28. “‘But as to those brethren who are arhants,
who have destroyed the asavas, who have lived the life, done their task,
laid down the burden, won their own salvation, utterly destroyed the
fetters of becoming, and are released by the perfect insight, for such
as those these things are conducive to ease in the present life and to
mindful self-control as well.’
29. “When this was said, the Brahmin Moggallana, the accountant, said to the Exalted One :
30. “‘But tell me, Master Gautama. Do the disciples of the worthy
Gautama,–do all of them win the absolute perfection which is Nibbana,
or do some fail thus to attain?’
31. “Some of my disciples, Brahmin, thus advised and trained by me, do so attain. Others do not.”
32. “But what is the reason, Master Gautama? What is the cause,
Master Gautama? Here we have Nibbana. Here we have the Path to Nibbana.
Here we have the worthy Gautama as instructor. What is the reason, I
say, why some disciples thus advised and trained do attain, while
others do not attain?”
33. “That, Brahmin, is a question that I
will answer. But first do you answer me this, so far as you think fit.
Now how say you. Brahmin–Are you well skilled in the road to
Rajagraha?”
34. “I am, master, Skilled indeed am I in the road to Rajagraha!’
35. “Well, thus instructed, thus advised, he takes the wrong road, and off he goes with his face set to the west.
36. “Then a second man comes up with the same request, and you give
him the same instructions. He follows your advice and comes safe to
Rajagraha.
37. “‘That is my business?’
38. “‘What do I in the matter. Brahmin? The Tathagata is one who only shows the way.’
39. Here is a full statement that he does not promise salvation. He only shows the way.
40. Besides, what is salvation?
41. With Mohammad and Jesus, salvation means saving the soul from being sent to hell, by the intercession of the Prophet.
42. With Buddha, salvation means Nibbana, and Nibbana means control of passions.
43. What promise of salvation can there be in such a Dhamma?


§ 3. The Buddha did not Claim any Divinity for himself or for his
Dhamma. It was discovered by man for man. It was not a Revelation
1. Every founder of religion has either claimed divinity for himself or for his teachings.
2. Moses, although he did not claim for himself any divine origin,
did claim divine origin for his teachings. He told his followers that if
they wished to reach the land of milk and honey they must accept the
teachings, because they were the teachings of Jehovah the God.

3. Jesus claimed divinity for himself. He claimed that he was the Son
of God. Naturally His teachings acquired a divine origin.
4. Krishna said that he was God himself, and the Gita was his own word.
5. The Buddha made no such claim, either for himself or his Sasana.
6. He claimed that he was one of the many human beings and his message to the people was the message of man to man.
7. He never claimed infallibility for his message.
8. The only claim he made was that his message was the only true way to salvation as he understood it.
9. It was based on universal human experience of life in the world.
10. He said that it was open to anyone to question it, test it, and find what truth it contained.
11. No founder has so fully thrown open his religion to such a challenge.




in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,


03)Magadhi Prakrit,

04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),


05) Classical Pāḷi

06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,

84) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्

85) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

86) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
87) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
88) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
89) Classical Sindhi,
90) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
91) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
92) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
93) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
94) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
95) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
96) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,
97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
98) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
101) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
102) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
103) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
104) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
105) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z
106) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ


107) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
108) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
109) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

110) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

111) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu





























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Awakeness Practices







All
84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally the are 84,000
Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the
Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This
web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN,
SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:







The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses.
The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from
Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these
are 84,000 Khandas
maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of
the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the
commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those
of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing
737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA



Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — Interested in All
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This wide-ranging sutta, the
longest one in the Pali canon, describes the events leading up to,
during, and immediately following the death and final release
(parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative contains a wealth
of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final instructions that
defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long after the
Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also depicts, in
simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
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When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
language known as
Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com


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Part III
Fundamental Rights

General

12. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, “the State”
includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and
the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities
within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of
India.

13. (1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately
before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are
inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of
such inconsistency, be void.
(2) The State
shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred
by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to
the extent of the contravention, be void.
(3) In this article, unless the context otherwise requires, —

(a) “law” includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation,
notification, custom or usage having in the territory of India the force
of law;

(b) “laws in force” includes laws passed or made by a Legislature or
other competent authority in the territory of India before the
commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed,
notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in
operation either at all or in particular areas.

Definition.

Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.


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Right to Equality

14. The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or
the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

15. (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on
grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of
them.
(2) No citizen
shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or
any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or
condition with regard to —

(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or

(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of
public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or
dedicated to the use of the general public.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

16. (1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens
in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the
State.
(2) No citizen
shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of
birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated
against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.
(3) Nothing in
this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing,
in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an
office under any State specified in the First Schedule or any local or
other authority within its territory, any requirement as to residence
within that State prior to such employment or appointment.
(4) Nothing in
this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the
reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of
citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately
represented in the services under the State.

Equality before law.

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.


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(5) Nothing in
this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that
the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any
religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing
body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or
belonging to a particular denomination.

17. “Untouchability” is abolished and its practice in any form is
forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of
“Untouchability” shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

18. (1) No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State.
(2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.
(3) No person who
is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or
trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any
title from any foreign State.
(4) No person
holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the
consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of
any kind from or under any foreign State.

Right to Freedom

19. (1) All citizens shall have the right —

(a) to freedom of speech and expression;

(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;

(c) to form associations or unions;

(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;

(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India;

(f) to acquire, hold and dispose of property; and

(g) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a)
of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far
as it relates to, or prevent the State from making any law relating to,
libel, slander, defamation, contempt of court or any matter which
offends against decency or morality or which

Abolition of Untouchability.

Abolition of titles.

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.


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undermines the security of, or tends to overthrow, the State.
(3) Nothing in sub-clause (b)
of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so
far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing,
in the interests of public order, reasonable restrictions on the
exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.
(4) Nothing in sub-clause (c)
of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so
far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing,
in the interests of public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on
the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.
(5) Nothing in sub-clauses (d), (e) and (f)
of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so
far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing,
reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred
by the said sub-clauses either in the interests of the general public or
for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe.
(6) Nothing in sub-clause (g)
of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so
far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing,
in the interests of the general public, reasonable restrictions on the
exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause, and, in
particular, nothing in the said sub-clause shall affect the operation of
any existing law in so far as it prescribes or empowers any authority
to prescribe, or prevent the State from making any law prescribing or
empowering any authority to prescribe, the professional or technical
qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on
any occupation, trade or business.

20. (1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for
violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act
charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that
which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of
the commission of the offence.
(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.

Protection in respect of conviction for offences.


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(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

21. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

22. (1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody
without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such
arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended
by, a legal practitioner of his choice.
(2) Every person
who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before the
nearest magistrate within a period of twenty-four hours of such arrest
excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to
the court of the magistrate and no such person shall be detained in
custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate.
(3) Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply —

(a) to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien; or

(b) to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.

(4) No law
providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a
person for a longer period than three months unless —

(a) an Advisory Board consisting of persons who are, or have been, or
are qualified to be appointed as, Judges of a High Court has reported
before the expiration of the said period of three months that there is
in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention:

Provided that nothing in this sub-clause shall authorise the detention
of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by
Parliament under sub-clause (b) of clause (7); or

(b) such person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any law made by Parliament under sub-clauses (a) and (b) of clause (7).

Protection of life and personal liberty.

Protection against arrest and detention in certain, cases.


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(5) When any
person is detained in pursuance of an order made under any law providing
for preventive detention, the authority making the order shall, as soon
as may be, communicate to such person the grounds on which the order
has been made and shall afford him the earliest opportunity of making a
representation against the order.
(6) Nothing in
clause (5) shall require the authority making any such order as is
referred to in that clause to disclose facts which such authority
considers to be against the public interest to disclose.
(7) Parliament may by law prescribe—

(a) the circumstances under which, and the class or classes of
cases in which, a person may be detained for a period longer than three
months under any law providing for preventive detention without
obtaining the opinion of an Advisory Board in accordance with the
provisions of sub-clause (a) of clause (4);

(b) the maximum period for which any person may in any class or classes of cases be detained under any law providing for
preventive detention; and

(c) the procedure to be followed by an Advisory Board in an inquiry under sub-clause (a) of clause (4).

Right against Exploitation

23. (1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar
forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this
provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
(2) Nothing in
this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service
for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not
make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or
class or any of them.

24. No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to
work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous
employment.

Right to Freedom of Religion

25. (1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other
provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of
conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate

Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.

Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.


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religion.
(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law —

(a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial,
political or other secular activity which may be associated with
religious practice;

(b) providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing
open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all
classes and sections of Hindus.

Explanation I.—The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion.

Explanation II.—In sub-clause (b) of clause (2),
the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to
persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the
reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed
accordingly.

26. Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right —

(a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;

(b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;

(c) to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and

(d) to administer such property in accordance with law.

27. No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of
which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the
promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious
denomination.

28. (1) No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
(2) Nothing in
clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is
administered by the State but has been established under any endowment
or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in
such institution.
(3) No person
attending any educational institution recognised by the State or
receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any
religious instruction that may be imparted in such

Freedom to manage religious affairs.

Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.

Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.


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institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted
in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such
person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent
thereto.

Cultural and Educational Rights

29. (1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of
India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture
of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
(2) No citizen
shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by
the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of
religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

30. (1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language,
shall have the right to establish and administer educational
institutions of their choice.
(2) The State
shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate
against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the
management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.

Right to Property

31. (1) No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.
(2) No property,
movable or immovable, including any interest in, or in any company
owning, any commercial or industrial undertaking, shall be taken
possession of or acquired for public purposes under any law authorising
the taking of such possession or such acquisition, unless the law
provides for compensation for the property taken possession of or
acquired and either fixes the amount of the compensation, or specifies
the principles on which, and the manner in which, the compensation is to
be determined and given.
(3) No such law
as is referred to in clause (2) made by the Legislature of a State shall
have effect unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration
of the President, has received his assent.
(4) If any Bill
pending at the commencement of this Constitution in the Legislature of a
State has, after it has been passed by such

Protection of interests of minorities.

Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Compulsory acquisition of property.


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Legislature, been reserved for the consideration of the President and
has received his assent, then, notwithstanding anything in this
Constitution, the law so assented to shall not be called in question in
any court on the ground that it contravenes the provisions of clause
(2}.

(5) Nothing in clause (2) shall affect —

(a) the provisions of any existing law other than a law to which the provisions of clause (6) apply, or

(b) the provisions of any law which the State may hereafter make —

(i) for the purpose of imposing or levying any tax or penalty, or
(ii) for the promotion of public health or the prevention of danger to life or property, or

(iii) in pursuance of any agreement entered into between the Government
of the Dominion of India or the Government of India and the Government
of any other country, or otherwise, with respect to property declared by
law to be evacuee property.

(6) Any law of the State enacted not more than eighteen months before
the commencement of this Constitution may within three months from such
commencement be submitted to the President for his certification; and
thereupon, if the President by public notification so certifies, it
shall not be called in question in any court on the ground that it
contravenes the provisions of clause (2) of this article or has
contravened the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 299 of the
Government of India Act, 1935.

Right to Constitutional Remedies

32. (1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate
proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is
guaranteed.
(2) The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.


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by this Part.
(3) Without
prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by clauses (1)
and (2), Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise
within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers
exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause (2).
(4) The right guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution.

33. Parliament may by law determine to what extent any of the
rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to the members
of the Armed Forces or the Forces charged with the maintenance of
public order, be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper
discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them.

34. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this
Part, Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the
Union or of a State or any other person in respect of any act done by
him in connection with the maintenance or restoration of order in any
area within the territory of India where martial law was in force or
validate any sentence passed, punishment inflicted, forfeiture ordered
or other act done under martial law in such area.

35. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, —

(a) Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws —

(i) with respect to any of the matters which under clause (3) of
article 16, clause (3) of article 32, article 33 and article 34 may be
provided for by law made by Parliament; and

(ii) for prescribing punishment for those acts which are declared to be
offences under this Part; and Parliament shall, as soon as may be after
the commencement of this Constitution, make laws for prescribing
punishment for the acts referred to in sub-clause (ii);

(b) any law in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in the territory of India with respect to

Power to Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces.

Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.

Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.


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