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06/14/20
Akshaya Patra
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Akshaya Patra Foundation




About Us

The Akshaya Patra Foundation is an NGO in India headquartered
in Bengaluru. Our organisation strives to eliminate classroom hunger by
implementing the Mid-Day Meal Scheme in the government schools and
government-aided schools. Alongside, Akshaya Patra also aims at
countering malnutrition and supporting the right to education of
socio-economically disadvantaged children.

Since 2000, Akshaya Patra has been concerting all its efforts towards
providing fresh and nutritious meals to children on every single school
day. We are continuously leveraging technology to multiply our reach.
The state-of-the-art kitchens have become a subject of study and have attracted curious visitors from around the world.

Our partnership with the Government of India and various
State Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates,
individual donors, and well-wishers have helped us to grow from serving
just 1,500 children in 5 schools in 2000 to serving 1.8 million
children.

Today, Akshaya Patra is the world’s largest (not-for-profit
run) Mid-Day Meal Programme serving wholesome food every school day to
over 1.8 million children from 19,039 schools across 12 states & 2
Union territories of India.

The Growth of The Akshaya Patra Foundation – A Quick Overview 

On 28 November 2001, the Supreme Court of India passed a mandate, “Cooked mid-day meal is to be provided in all the Government and Government-aided primary schools in all the states.” And, Akshaya Patra was also called upon to provide testimonies to the Supreme Court.

By the time the Ministry of Human Resource Development - Department
of School Health and Education extended its support to the initiative in
2003, Akshaya Patra was already reaching out to 23,000 children.

Today, Akshaya Patra has 52 kitchens spread across 12 states & 2
Union territories of India, a result of the successful partnership with
the Government of India, various State Governments and generous
supporters.

Comparative Number of Meals

Blog



Akshaya Patra’s COVID-19 Food Relief Services In India


The Akshaya Patra Foundation has once again come forward to
support the needy during a crisis hour, and this time for a totally
unforeseen one – the COVID-19 Pandemic.





Photo Gallery


COVID-19 (coronavirus) Relief Services


Akshaya Patra’s COVID-19 Relief Services



So far, Akshaya Patra has served 2,40,44,290 freshly cooked
meals’ and distributed 6,77,949 packed grocery kits’, a kit serves 2
people for 21 days with 42 meals.

Akshaya Patra Serves Meal

https://www.akshayapatra.org/vision-and-mission


    Home » About Us » Vision and Mission

Vision and Mission

Vision

NO CHILD IN INDIA SHALL BE DEPRIVED OF EDUCATION
BECAUSE OF HUNGER.

 

Mission

TO FEED 5 MILLION CHILDREN BY 2025.

 

Vision-and-mission-of-akshaya-patra-foundation

Through our Mid-Day Meal Programme, our attempt is to feed
the millions of children in India who lack the means, but, have the zeal
to learn and achieve. By feeding them one wholesome meal a day, we give
them the nourishment and motivation they need to pursue an education
for a better future. It is our endeavour to reach out to every child at
the grass root level of the society.

https://www.akshayapatra.org/history

    Home » About Us » History

History of The Akshaya Patra Foundation

History of The Akshaya Patra FoundationLooking
out of a window, one day in Mayapur, a village near Calcutta, His
Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada saw a group of
children fighting with stray dogs over scraps of food. From this simple,
yet heart-breaking incident was born a determination that no child
within a radius of ten miles from our centre should go hungry.

His inspiring resolve sowed the seeds of The Akshaya Patra Foundation. With the vision: “No child in India shall be deprived of education because of hunger,” Akshaya
Patra started the Mid-Day Meal Programme in June 2000 by serving
mid-day meals to 1,500 children across five government schools in
Bengaluru, Karnataka. A humble beginning, yet, the initial days of
implementing the programme was not a smooth sail. Soon came the helping
hands of Mohandas Pai, who took the initiative of donating the first
vehicle to transport food to the schools; and Abhay Jain, who promised
to bring in more donors to contribute for the further expansion of the
programme.

In partnership with the Government of India and various State
Governments, as well as philanthropic donors; the organisation is
running the world’s largest Mid-Day Meal Programme. Built on a
Public-Private Partnership model, Akshaya Patra combines good
management, innovative technology, and smart engineering to deliver
nutritious and hygienic school lunch on every school day. 

Success Story

Stories of Children-hope stories

Mahesh’s BIG wish to be on the Headlines!


Ch Mahesh is an Akshaya Patra beneficiary and a student of 7th grade at UPS Rajampet, Sangareddy dis

https://www.akshayapatra.org/board-of-trustees

Board of Trustees

The Akshaya Patra
Foundation (TAPF) is a public, charitable, secular Trust, registered in
Bengaluru. The Board of Trustees comprise missionaries of ISKCON
Bengaluru, corporate professionals, and entrepreneurs.

Our empowered teams spread across India, the USA and the UK
play a large role in understanding the complex issues faced by children
and spreading our cause through well-defined processes.

COMPOSITION OF THE BOARD

At Akshaya Patra, we firmly believe that good governance and
ethics are the necessary foundations of any Non-Governmental
Organisation. In pursuit of the same, the Foundation’s Board of Trustees
play a primary role in ensuring good governance and functioning of the
Foundation.

The Foundation’s Board comprises of Board of Trustees and
Board of Advisors. Presently, there are eight Trustees and seven
Advisors in the Foundation’s Board.



Madhu Pandit Dasa

Chairman, The Akshaya Patra Foundation

Madhu Pandit Dasa was born in Nagercoil,
India. Armed with a B.Tech in Civil Engineering from IIT-Mumbai, he
dedicated himself to the service of humanity while doing his M.Tech from
IIT-Mumbai in 1981. In 1994, he initiated an integrated social
development project for the benefit of rural people in Karnataka’s
Mysuru and Mandya districts. He set up a prototype organic farm based on
environment-friendly farming methods, and an internationally-accredited
farmer-training centre, on 110-acre land by the banks of the river
Kaveri in Srirangapatam. Inspired by his spiritual guru, Srila
Prabhupada’s message, he initiated the Akshaya Patra school lunch
programme alongwith Sh. Mohan Das Pai, to provide mid-day meals to
children studying in five government schools in Bengaluru. He was
instrumental in designing the first centralised and mechanised kitchen
of Akshaya Patra, to provide mid-day meals to underprivileged children
in Government schools of Bengaluru Rural District, in July 2000.
Currently, he is involved in devising strategies for innovative new
models, governance, visionary guidance and in envisioning the path
forward for the programme implementation.

Chanchalapathi Dasa

Vice Chairman, The Akshaya Patra Foundation

Chanchalapathi
Dasa, populary known as “CPP” did his Masters in Electrical
Communication Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.
While pursuing his Bachelor’s degree, he came across with the teachings
of Srila Prabhupada’s and met with Madhu Pandit Dasa to carry forward
the mission together. He became a full-time member to fullfill the
vision & aspiration of his spiritual guru Srila Prabhupada. Comitted
to the cause since 1984, he is currently involved in strategy, growth,
and governance of Akshaya Patra.


Abhay Jain

Abhay Jain

Advisor–Group Corporate Affairs - Manipal Education & Medical Group

Abhay Jain
has been serving as a trustee of the foundation since its inception.
Born in Rajasthan, India, Mr Jain completed his graduation in Science
from St. Joseph’s College and his Bachelor of Law from Bangalore
University. He also holds a PG Diploma in Management. He is one of the
largest distributors of polymers in South India and has served as Vice
President in Birla Group of Companies. Presently, he is Advisor, Group
Corporate Affairs, of Manipal Education & Medical Group, and Member
of the Board - Jain University, Bengaluru. The impressive networking
skills he brings to the table, are a valuable asset to the Foundation.

Jaganmohan Krishna Dasa

Jaganmohan Krishna Dasa

Trustee, The Akshaya Patra Foundation

Jaganmohan
Krishna Dasa was born in the Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh. He
holds a Bachelors degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering.
In 2005, he served Akshaya Patra as a Programme Coordinator for the
Jaipur unit, where he was involved in kitchen development from
inception. He has also been involved in the operations of the Vrindavan
and Gujarat units; and helped set up and run the Ahmedabad, Surat,
Vadodara & Nathdwara kitchen projects. Having a keen faculty for
design and innovation, Jaganmohan Krishna Dasa implemented various
development initiatives in Akshaya Patra’s kitchens. Keeping with the
latest in food technology, he studied and implemented innovative
alternatives from Germany and Sweden. Presently, he serves as the
President of Akshaya Patra’s Gujarat region.

Raj P Kondur

Raj P Kondur

CEO of Plank Labs

Raj P.
Kondur has been a Trustee of The Akshaya Patra Foundation since April
2002. He is also the member of Akshaya Patra’s Audit Committee. Raj is
the CEO of Plank Labs, a technology and media business incubator and
holding company.
Raj previously co-founded and was Managing Director of Chrys Capital,
India’s largest independent private equity fund with over US$ 4 billion
under management. He was also a partner at Ascent Capital, another of
India’s leading private equity firms.
His prior experience includes several years in the US with Morgan
Stanley (M&A, and private equity), and AT Kearney (management
consulting).
Raj is a former professional tennis player and attended college in the
US on a tennis scholarship. Raj has a BBA degree from Georgia State
University, and an MBA from Harvard Business School.

T.V. Mohandas Pai

T.V. Mohandas Pai

Chairman, Manipal Global Education Services

Mohandas Pai
has been serving as a trustee of The Akshaya Patra Foundation since its
founding days. He is also the Chairperson of the Board of Manipal
Global Education Services Private Limited and Advisor to the Manipal
Education and Medical Group. He actively interfaces with key leadership
at Indian regulators to improve the business ecosystem. His focus areas
are Education, Information Technology and Human Resource Development.
Among his many laurels are ’Best CFO in India’ award from Finance Asia
in 2002. Apart from being a strategic visionary of the Foundation, he is
also a patron donor.

V. Balakrishnan

V. Balakrishnan

Founder & Chairman, Exfinity Venture

V.
Balakrishnan joined Akshaya Patra Board of Trustees in June 2006. He
presently serves as the Chairman of Akshaya Patra Audit Committee. He
has significant experience in leadership positions in the Finance
domain, with expertise in Corporate Finance, International Taxation,
Risk Management and Mergers & Acquisitions. He is also a Founder and
Chairman of Exfinity, a Private Equity Fund focused on investing in the
technology space. He is also the Chairman of MicroGraam, which is a
peer-to-peer lending platform that empowers rural entrepreneurs with
access to loans from socially-minded investors. Mr Balakrishnan holds a
B.Sc. from the Madras University and is an Associate Member of Institute
of Chartered Accountants of India, Institute of Cost and Works
Accountants of India and Institute of Company Secretaries of India. Also
a recipient of the ‘Best CFO’ award from CNBC and Finance Asia

https://www.akshayapatra.org/board-of-advisors

Board of Advisors

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Dr. Devi Shetty
Cardiologist
Narayana Hrudayalaya


 

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Rajendra Babu S
Chairman - Advisory Board,The Akshaya Patra Foundation
Former Chief Justice of India
Former Chairperson of NHRC, Chair Professor - NLSIU

 

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Ravindra Chamaria
Vice Chairman - Advisory Board
The Akshaya Patra Foundation 
Chairman & Managing Director
Infinity Infotech Parks Ltd.
 

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Rajendra J Hinduja
Managing Director
Gokaldas Exports Ltd.


 

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Ramesh Ramanathan
Co-Founder
Janaagraha


 

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Sangita Jindal
Chairperson
JSW Foundation


 

akshaya-patra-advisor-rajendra_babu

 

Shannu Kaw
Director- Global Business Services
Cisco Systems

https://www.akshayapatra.org/consultative-council








Consultative council









Anil Swarup

Anil Swarup
is an Indian author and retired Indian Administrative Service officer of
Uttar Pradesh cadre from 1981 batch. Mr. Anil Swarup has served in
various capacities in his 38 years of career and later went on to become
the Secretary to the Government of India.
He has served in various key positions for both the Union Government and
the Government of Uttar Pradesh, as Education Secretary of India, Coal
Secretary of India, Additional Secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat of
India, Additional Secretary of Labour & Empowerment, Export
Commissioner in the Ministry of Commerce & Industry of India and as
the District Magistrate of Lakhimpur Kheri during the Babri Masjid-Ram
Janmabhoomi agitation under the former Chief Minister Kalyan Singh.



Chef Sanjeev Kapoor

Chef Sanjeev Kapoor

A recipient of Padma Shri and ‘Best Chef of India’ award

Chef Sanjeev
Kapoor, unarguably is one of the most recognised faces of Indian
television. He was in people’s living rooms for almost two decades
introducing them to the delights of Indian and International cuisine in
his inimitable cheery manner. The show Khana Khazana was one of those
trailblazing cookery shows on Zee. No wonder, he has a massive fan
following across all age groups, genders and countries and has also been
conferred the ‘Best Chef of India’ award by the Government of India. He
represented India in the World Association of Chefs’ Societies in South
Korea where he introduced people to the wonders of the ancient Indian
way of Ayurvedic cooking. He was the Indian ambassador for UN’s Clean
Cook Stoves campaign for the underprivileged of developing countries and
also represented India as a Food ambassador in Spain under the Spanish
Government’s Indian Future Leaders Programme (IFLP). He has done cookery
shows all over the globe with famous culinary personalities like Rachel
Ray, Richard Quest and Rene Redzepi. He has also cooked for many
dignitaries, including the Honorable Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi
and has achieved the Guinness World Record by cooking 918 kg khichdi
live at World Food India 2017, New Delhi. His business of world class
kitchen gadgets, Wonderchef has enabled and continues to empower women, a
cause close to his heart.


Divya Balagopal

Divya is the
co-founder and senior partner of Mundkur Law Partners, a boutique
corporate law firm that she and her husband set up in 2007. The firm’s
practice focusses on five areas: international M&A (including
private equity and venture capital transactions), education law, life
sciences and healthcare, insolvency resolution and complex commercial
disputes. The firm also strongly supports innovation and social
entrepreneurship initiatives and has assisted governments and
international agencies with policy formulation. She heads the firm’s
education law, regulatory compliance and policy development practices.
What Mrs. Divya enjoys the most is exploring new avenues and creating
linkages – often taking the firm’s expertise to areas not traditionally
associated with corporate law; and also working closely on child rights
and child protection issues where ever they might arise.



DR. P. Sadananda Maiya

DR. P. Sadananda Maiya

Promoter and Director, Maiyas Beverages and Foods Pvt. Ltd.

Belonging to
a well-known hotelier family of Yajnanarayana Maiya from Dakshina
Kannada, Dr. Sadananda Maiya, learnt the sophisticated art of making new
items of food products at an early age from his father at MTR
Restaurant. In 1971, he joined the management of MTR Restaurant. In no
time, with his strategic approaches and innovative ideas, he made ‘MTR’ a
brand name to echo. Dr. Maiya is a recipient of several
awards/recognitions from various Institutions/Organizations such as
Narasimha Award from Koota Maha Jagath, Saligram Udupi, Bharagava
Prashathi from Dakshina Kannadigara Vdeike, K.M. Karanth Award for his
multifaced achievements. He was a keynote speaker at various
National/International conferences of Food & Nutrition and also the
Editor-In-Chief of the Recent Trends in Food Science & Technology,
Tumkur University.


M S Unnikrishnan

MANAGING DIRECTOR & CEO

M.S.
Unnikrishnan is the Managing Director & CEO of the Company since 1st
July 2007. His current term as Managing Director & CEO is from 1st
July 2017 to 30th June 2020. Mr. Unnikrishnan began his career with
Thermax after graduating in Mechanical engineering from VNIT, Nagpur in
1982. He is a graduate in Advanced Management Programme from the Harvard
Business School, USA.

He worked with the EID-Parry group for 5 years as the Head of its
Engineering business and with Terrazzo Inc, U.A.E from 1992 to 1997 as
an Assistant General Manager. He re-joined Thermax as General Manager in
1997. Since then, he headed the Waste Management and Absorption Cooling
divisions of Thermax. In 2000, he became a member of the newly formed
Executive Council. He has also led the Human Resources department of the
Company and spearheaded the transformation initiative of the Company.

Mr. Unnikrishnan is actively involved in initiatives forimprovement of
technical education in India. He is a member of the AICTE Jury Committee
for annual ranking of technical and management institutes of the
country. He Co-Chairs the Apex Council to implement the ‘Prime
Minister’s Fellowship Scheme for Doctoral Research’, a joint initiative
from the government and industry to encourage industrial research and
nurture talent.



Pankaj Chaddah

Pankaj Chaddah

Pankaj was
the Co-Founder and COO of Zomato. Prior to Zomato, Pankaj worked with
Bain and Company, in New Delhi. In his last role, Pankaj oversaw sales
and operations for Zomato in local and international markets. He has
also been responsible for all mobile development and distribution across
platforms.Pankaj graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering from
IIT Delhi in 2007.
Zomato co-founder, Pankaj Chaddah also has chosen to don the hat of
entrepreneurship again with his new gig in mental health space. Chaddah
along with his wife Pooja Khanna have been working on setting up a chain
of mental fitness studios.


Sahil Barua

Sahil Barua

Sahil is one of the founders and serves as CEO of Delhivery.

Sahil began
his career in management consulting at Bain and Company, working across
the London and New Delhi offices. At Bain he worked on growth strategy,
M&A and performance improvement across the private equity,
telecommunications, healthcare and consumer products spaces.

He quit Bain in 2011 to start Delhivery, which has now become the
largest and fastest growing e-commerce enabler in India. As CEO Sahil
sets the strategic direction for the company and plays an active role in
the company’s operations and engineering efforts.

Sahil is a Gold Medalist from IIM Bangalore and has a B.Tech degree in
Mechanical Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Surathkal.



Sandeep Banerjee

Sandeep Banerjee

EX Managing Director of Compass Group (India)

“Sandeep
Banerjee is the ex Managing Director of Compass Group (India), the
world’s largest institutional food services company. An Honors graduate
in Science, followed by a Master’s in Business Administration and an
Advanced Management programme on Global Leadership from ISB- Kellogg,
Sandeep has had successful stints in large organizations in India and
overseas, spanning over twenty five years. Currently on a sabbatical,
Sandeep is nurturing some new ventures and associating with social
causes for the larger good. He is a business architect and transformer
and a firm believer of building Purpose led, Values driven, enduring
organisations at scale. Prior to Compass Group, Sandeep was with Accor (
Services) as their Managing Director and CEO (India). His earlier
stints have been with Thomas Cook, Blow Plast, IFB Bosch and Bata. He
loves travelling, meeting people and is keen on the social impact of
food, education and health.“


Sri Rajan

Sri Rajan

Chairman, Bain India

Sri Rajan is
the Chairman of Bain India, with over 21 years of management consulting
experience in India and the US. He has been a founder of the Indian
operations of Bain & Company and has served as its Managing Partner.

Sri also has significant experience working with Private Equity firms
and companies across various sectors. He has been responsible for the
creation and execution of turnaround strategies for multiple diversified
firms.

Sri has been the co-founder of a tech startup in Silicon Valley. He is
currently on the board of Delhivery, an e-commerce logistics startup as
well as Central Square Foundation, a leading foundation focused on
education. He is also on the Board of Bridgespan India, which is an
affiliate of Bain & Company that focuses on advising foundations,
philanthropists and non-profit organizations. He has invested in and is
on the advisory boards of various startups in India.

Sri earned his MBA from Wharton where he was a Palmer Scholar for
distinguished academic achievement and has a PGDM from IIM Calcutta,
where he has been nominated as a Distinguished Alumnus. He has also
received a BS degree in Physics.

He writes regularly for top-tier publications such as Mint and The
Economic Times. He is the Vice-Chair of the Regional Strategy Group on
South Asia of the World Economic Forum.







Vinita Bali


Vinita Bali
is a global business leader with extensive experience in leading large
companies both in India and overseas. In addition to workking in
Britannia Industries Ltd., India, she has worked with eminent
multinational companies like The Coca-Cola Company and Cadbury Schweppes
PLC, in a variety of Marketing, General Management and Chief Executive
roles in UK, Nigeria, South Africa, Latin America and USA,. Effective
April 2014, Vinita moved from a full-time operational role as an MD
& CEO in Britannia to pursue her wide-ranging interests in the
corporate and development sectors. She is a Non-Executive Director on
the Global Board of Smith & Nephew plc, Chairman of GAIN (Global
Alliance for Improved Nutrition), a Swiss Foundation based in Geneva,
and the Advisory Board of Cornell University’s Department of Nutritional
Science. She also served on the Global Board of Syngenta International
AG from April 2012 to June 2017. In India, Vinita serves as a
Non-Executive Director on the Boards of CRISIL Ltd, Titan Industries
Ltd, and Kasturi& Sons Ltd;. She is a Member of the Board of
Governors of Indian Institute of Management – Bangalore; and an Advisory
Board Member of PwC. Cognizant Technology Solutions, a US-based IT
company with a large presence in India, appointed Vinita Bali as an
independent director on 24th February 2020.

https://www.akshayapatra.org/presidents









Presidents


Each centre of The Akshaya
Patra Foundation operates under the guidance of Presidents who, on a
voluntary basis, oversee the functioning of the organisation. The
Presidents, with their missionary zeal and expertise, manage the
governance and administration of Akshaya Patra at the location level.








Achyutha Krishna Dasa

Achyutha Krishna Dasa

President, Odisha

Achyutha
Krishna Dasa is providing guidance and governance support for overseeing
the overall Operations of Odisha region located Puri, Bhubaneswar,
Rourkela and Nayagarh Units Operations In-Charge.



Amitasana Dasa

Amitasana Dasa

President, Maharashtra

Amitasana
Dasa was born in 1969 in Namrup, Assam, India. He studied B. Tech. in
Computer Science from REC Kurukshetra, later worked in Kirloskar
Computer Services, Bangalore as a Software Engineer and then joined
ISKCON, Bangalore in 1992.

He is currently the Governing Body Commissioner of ISKCON Bangalore
Group of Temples as well as a Governing Council Member,ISKCON Bangalore
Society Trustee, Hare Krishna Movement


Jaganmohan Krishna Dasa

Jaganmohan Krishna Dasa

President, Gujarat

Jaganmohan
Krishna Dasa is the Unit President of Gujarat Units and he is
responsible for overseeing the overall Operations of Gujarat Region
units located in Gandhinagar, Surat, Vadodara and Nathdwara and is also
providing guidance and governance to the Unit Operations In-Charge.



Jai Chaitanya Dasa

Jai Chaitanya Dasa

President, Mysuru

Jai
Chaitanya Dasa is responsible for overseeing the overall Operations of
Mysuru Unit and is also providing guidance and governance to the Unit
Operations In-Charge.


Janardhana Dasa

Janardhana Dasa

President, Guwahati

Janardhana
Dasa is the Unit President, Guwahati Unit and he is responsible for
overseeing the overall operations and execution of Mid-Day-Meal program
at Guwahati and is also providing guidance and governance to the Unit
Operations In-Charge.



Karunya Sagar Dasa

Karunya Sagar Dasa

President, Mangaluru

Karunya
Sagar Dasa is responsible for overseeing the overall Operations of
Mangaluru Unit and is also providing guidance and governance to the Unit
Operations In-Charge.


Niskinchana Bhakta Dasa

Niskinchana Bhakta Dasa

President, Vishakhapatnam

Niskinchana
Bhakta Dasa is responsible for overseeing the overall Operations of
Vishakhapatnam Unit and is also providing guidance and governance to the
Unit Operations In-Charge. A Doctor by profession, he served in the
medical field for few years before he started his spiritual journey.



Rajiv Lochan Dasa

Rajiv Lochan Dasa

President, Hubballi

Rajiv Lochan
Dasa is the Unit President, Hubballi Unit and is responsible for
overseeing the operations and execution of Mid-Day-Meal program at
Hubballi.

Rajiv Lochan Dasa holds a Bachelor’s degree in Science and he started
his spiritual journey with ISKCON Bengaluru from December 1993.


Satya Gaura Chandra Dasa

Satya Gaura Chandra Dasa

President, Hyderabad

Satya Gaura
Chandra Dasa is responsible for overseeing the overall Operations of
Hyderabad Unit and is also providing guidance and governance to the Unit
Operations In-Charge.

Satya Gaura Chandra Dasa holds an M.Tech degree from IIT Chennai. He had
worked with American MNC, Novell Software prior to starting his
spiritual journey.



Suvyakta Narasimha Dasa

Suvyakta Narasimha Dasa

President, Vrindavan

Suvyakta
Narasimha Dasa is the Unit President, Vrindavan Unit and is also
responsible for overseeing the upcoming Lucknow Project.

He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering and has worked in
Lincoln Helios India Ltd. prior to starting his spiritual journey.






Vyomapada Dasa



Vyomapada Dasa



President, Bhilai



Vyomapada
Dasa is responsible for overseeing the overall Operations of Bhilai Unit
and is also providing guidance and governance to the Unit Operations
In-Charge.



https://www.akshayapatra.org/management-team

Management Team

The organisation’s
Executive Management Team consists of individuals with specific skills
in fields of Management, Operations, Finance and Accountancy,
Communications and the like. Their knowledge base, along with the
guidance of the Unit Presidents, helps in the operation of the
organisation in an efficient manner and ensures best usage of resources.

 

Shridhar Venkat

Chief Executive Officer


 


Shridhar has over 25 years of work
experience and has been associated with leading multinationals like
Philips, ABB, Webex Communications (now CISCO), etc. Prior to joining
Akshaya Patra he was Vice President – Sales, Webex Communications. He
joined Akshayapatra in search of existential purpose in life .He holds a
Bachelor’s Degree in Engineering and a Master’s Degree in Management.
He has been inducted in the hall of distinguished alumni leaders by
NMIMS. Shridhar is an Eisenhower Fellow for Innovation and is a graduate
of the Advanced Management Program from Wharton Business School . He is
a recipient of Mother Teresa Social Leadership Scholarship . In Akshaya
Patra, he brings to the table strong people management and organization
skills. He believes that it is important to blend missionary spirit and
professionalism to deliver value .

 


Ajay Kavishwar

Ajay Kavishwar

Director PR, Planning & Advocacy

Ajay is a
seasoned professional with eighteen years of rich experience in
strategic change management, resource mobilisation and communications,
technology innovation and research and in development. Before joining
Akshaya Patra, Ajay had a successful career with leading technology
companies like Tejas Networks, American Power Conversion (now Schneider
Electric) and Hical Technologies. He has led technology innovation and
transition projects in telecom, automotive and electronics sectors and
provided turnkey solutions to clients across the globe.

At Akshaya Patra, he is currently managing and directing the
organisation’s strategic communications, advocacy and research wing. He
offers strategic directions to innovative interventions, enhancing
community engagement, vision document and advocacy roadmap for Akshaya
Patra.

Ganesh R

Ganesh R

Chief Financial Officer

Ganesh is a
Chartered Accountant (ACA) and a Public Accountant (CPA). He has over 24
years of experience with leading businesses (Indian & MNCs).

Prior to Akshaya Patra he worked with TVS (since March 2012). In the
past, he had worked with Mphasis (VP – Controllership); ICICI Bank
(Regional Head for Retail Assets Operations Group); S.B. Billimoria
& Co., Chartered Accountants (Audit Manager); SRF Finance Ltd
(Finance Manager).

At Akshaya Patra he spearheads the finance function by managing end to
end responsibility for the finance function. He will also strategise and
execute plans for sustainability and growth of the organisation.

Sundeep Talwar

Sundeep Talwar

Chief Marketing Officer

Sundeep
Talwar has a Post Graduate in Management from Duke and IIM-Ahmedabad,
and is also a certified Black-Belt in Six Sigma. He has over 20 years of
work experience in marketing and communications with leading
corporates, especially from the Telecom sector.

Previous to joining Akshaya Patra he was the National Business Head
(Mobility Operations) with Aircel, prior to that he has worked in Senior
Leadership Roles with brands like Airtel, Motorola, Escotel and Essar,
across India and in Africa. He has also received international
accreditation from BID Spain for developing the first anti-virus
application. He has won several accolades like Excellence Award in Sales
Motorola, Deployment of Airtel University with Bharti, Standardisation
of customer experience (Project Bhartiyam) in Airtel, Best Circle
Operations Head with Aircel and many more.

At Akshaya Patra he leads the Corporate Fund Raising, Government
Relations, Innovation and Volunteering teams, collaborates with the
Leadership team to strategise and execute plans for sustainability and
growth, strategises and executes fund raising initiatives that help in
the sustainability of existing kitchens and ensures the availability of
funds for upcoming kitchen projects, and strengthens the relationship
with corporates who are partnering with Akshaya Patra and reaches out to
other corporates to build a partnering relationship.

Vijay Kumar

Vijay Kumar

Director, IT

Mr. Vijay
Kumar is a post graduate in Software Programming. He has over 38 years
of experience in the industry, of which 30 years were dedicated to the
field of Information Technology. Prior to Akshaya Patra he was
associated with The Himalaya Drug Company where he has experience of
more than 25 years. There he was instrumental in setting up the entire
IT infrastructure. He has also proven his proficiency in international
operations by setting IT hubs and Data Centres across Dubai for Himalaya
Drug. He has also rolled out SAP ERP in all the International Hubs.

Adding to Vijay Kumar’s excellence, he was also instrumental in the
implementation of State of the Art Data Centre, Complete Business
Continuity Plan, EMC Avamar Data backup, MLPS as well as providing
internet connectivity to 42 plants and 35 warehouses across the country
ensuring 24 hour ERP Connectivity. He has also implemented SAP R3, SAP
PLM and SAP HCM & Microsoft Dynamics across the organization. Vijay
Kumar’s expertise also lies in setting up of Enterprise Scale IT
Infrastructure.

Previous to Himalaya Drug, he was also associated with organisations
like International Instruments India and MICRO Focus UK.

https://www.akshayapatra.org/how-your-money-spent


How is your money spent?

Your money ultimately is for the children. Every donation is
diligently spent for the food that is served directly or indirectly.  On
an average, 92% of the total funds is used towards meeting the
programme cost and 8% towards the programme management cost. The
organisation upholds maximum transparency in funds utilisation.

Cost Per Meal Calculation:

Cost Elements

Cost per Meal

PROGRAM COSTS

11.42

Cost of materials & utilities,
distribution costs and factory overheads including manpower, Repairs,
depreciation and other factory running expenses

 

Administrative Overheads

0.42

Cost of activities relating to General Management and Administration

 

Outreach Cost

0.62

Cost of publicity, communication, Donor Reporting, Advocacy and travel related

 

Gross Cost per Meal in Rs.

12.46

Less: Subsidy from Government per meal

6.28

Less: Interest and other income

1.38

Cost to be absorbed by TAPF per meal through donations

4.8

National Average of school working days in an academic year

232

Cost to run the MDM program for 1 child per year in Rs.

1,113.96

Rounded off to

1,100.00

 

Note: Revised as on 1st July 2018

 

Analysis of the total revenue expenditure for the year 2017-18:

Analysis of Revenue Expenditure
 

To support the Mid-Day Meal Programme, you can donate today






Video Gallery

See how food is made for more than 66,000 students!


On December 24, 2019, Hon’ble Deputy Chief Minister of Delhi, Shri. Manish Sisodia inaugurated Aksha




News




The National Health Authority signs MoU with Akshaya Patra,



NHA signed an agreement with The Akshaya Patra Foundation, HelpAge India, and Bharti Foundation


https://www.akshayapatra.org/audit-system

Audit Committee

We believe internal control is the key to good governance.
Hence, we strive to ensure stringent measures are in place to meet the
highest standards of transparency.

In order to ensure the effectiveness of the internal controls, the
organisation has appointed Chartered Accountant firms of repute as
Branch Auditors. The Branch Auditors submit the audited reports of their
respective branches to the management periodically. These reports are
then reviewed by the Audit Committee.

The Audit Committee is a sub-committee of the Board of Trustees that
was formed to ensure the effectiveness of the internal control
environment.

The composition of the Audit Committee is as follows:


V. Balakrishnan – Chairman
Raj Kondur – Member
Suresh Senapaty – Member

Our Policies:



 https://www.akshayapatra.org/transparency


Transparency

Transparency, especially for an NGO, is the key to trust and
reliability. Akshaya Patra hence upholds absolute transparency in all
its activities.

For this purpose, we comply with the International Financial
Reporting Standards (IFRS). The IFRS reporting which was adopted in
2008-09 has contributed substantially to building confidence amongst the
stakeholders of the organisation.

We also comply with the Indian Accounting Standards issued by the
Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and are up to date on
accounting standards. At the end of each financial year, an Annual
Report with financial audits and statements is published and made
available to the stakeholders.

Donations Received in lakhs


Our continuous and rigorous focus on transparency has been recognised with:

  • ICAI Gold Shield Award for “Excellence in Financial Reporting” for
    five consecutive years since  2008-09 inducting Akshaya Patra into Hall of Fame

  • South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA) Best Presented Accounts
    Award for four consecutive years: 2008-09 (Certificate of Merit),
    2009-10 (2nd runner-up), 2010-11(Gold Award), 2011-12 (Silver Award) and
    2012-13 (Gold Award)

  • CSO Partners Award for the Outstanding Annual Report in the NGO
    category for three consecutive years: 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11

  • Gold Award at League of American Communications Professionals (LACP) Vision Award for two consecutive years: 2010-11 and 2011-12

Find out more on Annual Report 2016-17.

https://www.akshayapatra.org/financial-reports


Financial Reports



Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2018-19

Annual Report 2018-19


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2017-18

Annual Report 2017-18


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2016-17

Annual Report 2016-17


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2015-16

Annual Report 2015-16


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2014-15

Annual Report 2014-15


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2013-14

Annual Report 2013-14


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2012-13

Annual Report 2012-13


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2011-12

Annual Report 2011-12


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2010-11

Annual Report 2010-11


Click here to Downloads Annual Report 2009-10

Annual Report 2009-10


Financial Information for 2010-11

Financial Report as on 30th Jun 2010

Financial Report as on 30th Sep 2010 

Financial Report as on 31st Dec 2010

Financial Information for 2009-10

Report for the quarter July-September 2009
Report for the quarter October-December 2009 

Financial Information for 2008-09

Annual Report for the Year 2008 - 2009
Financial Information and Statements of Accounts

Financial Information for 2007-08

Auditors’ report R & P 07-08 
Financials R&P 2007-08
Auditors’ report 07-08
Financials 2007-08
Significant accounting Policies
Schedules to Financials 2007-08
Notes to accounts 07-08 

Financial Information for 2006-07

Financials R&P 2006-07
Financials 2006-07 
Significant accounting Policies
Schedules to Financials 2006-07
Notes to accounts 06-07

Financial Information for 2005-06

Auditors’ report R & P 05-06
Financials R&P 2005-06
Auditors’ Report
Financials 2005-06
Significant accounting Policies 
Schedules to Financials 2005-06
Notes to accounts 05-06 

https://www.akshayapatra.org/fcra-reports


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வைகை புயல் வடிவேல், கோவை சரளா இணைந்து தந்த சரளமான சரவெடி காமெடிகள் Vadivelu Kovaisarala Comedy
Tamil cinema
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வைகை புயல் வடிவேல், கோவை சரளா இணைந்து தந்த சரளமான சரவெடி காமெடிகள் Vadivelu Kovaisarala Comedy
Tamil cinema
4.08M subscribers

வைகை புயல் வடிவேல், கோவை சரளா இணைந்து தந்த சரளமான சரவெடி காமெடிகள் Vadivelu Kovaisarala Comedy


Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta


1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4.
priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata, 7. Samyutta
Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima Nikaya,10.
arya” or “ariy,
11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21. Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,27. Samsara,28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31. Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,
36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37. Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,

40.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya


Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya


Assamedha


Sassamedha


Naramedha


Purisamedha


Sammapasa


Vajapeyya


Niraggala


Sila


Samadhi        


Panna


Samma-sankappa


Sigalovada Sutta


Brahmajala Sutta


Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
dhammamahamatras




in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,

03)Magadhi Prakrit,



04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),



05) Classical Pāḷi

06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-C
orsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,
26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

57) Classical Kinyarwanda
58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
61) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
62) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

63) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

64) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
65) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

66) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
67) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
68) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

70) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
71) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
73) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

74) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

75) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
76) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,
77) Classical Odia (Oriya)
78) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
79) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
80) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
81) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
82) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
83) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
84) Classical Russian-Классический русский,

85) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,

86) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्

87) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
88) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
89) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,

90) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
91) Classical Sindhi,
92) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
93) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

94) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

95) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
96) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
97) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
98) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

99) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
100) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
101) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
102) Classical Tatar
103) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
104) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
105) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
106) Classical Turkmen
107) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
108) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
109) Classical Uyghur
110) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z
111) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ

112) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
113) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

114) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

115) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,


116) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu







Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/


Awakeness Practices

All
84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally the are 84,000
Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the
Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This
web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN,
SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses.
The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from
Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these
are 84,000 Khandas
maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of
the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the
commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those
of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing
737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.




ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA




Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — Interested in All
Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser
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from



Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES



Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc

for
Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This wide-ranging sutta, the
longest one in the Pali canon, describes the events leading up to,
during, and immediately following the death and final release
(parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative contains a wealth
of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final instructions that
defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long after the
Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also depicts, in
simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among the
Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of their
beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/




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Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the
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When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso
language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical
Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages
and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com


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buddhasaid2us@gmail.com,kushinaranibbana@gmail.com

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is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio
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of people all over the world in 116 Classical languages.

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University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal





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Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the
body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming,
martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body.

When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso
language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical
Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages
and dialects are off shoot of Classical
Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of
Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural
languages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com


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is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio
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of people all over the world in 116 Classical languages.

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LESSON 3354 Mon 15 Jun 2020 Free Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness from Free Online step by step creation of Virtual tour in 3D Circle-Vision 360° for Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda The High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development is the central UN platform for the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015. 2019 Hunger Report About Lion’s Roar The Akshaya Patra Foundation is an NGO in India headquartered in Bengaluru. https://srv1.worldomeuters.info/ 7,791,431,516 Crrent World Population-COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic-Recovered:4,108,029 Last updated: June 15, 2020, 03:11 GMT are all well, happy and secure having calm, quiet, alert attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:18 pm
LESSON 3354 Mon 15 Jun  2020

Free

Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart


Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU)

For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

At

WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Magadhi Karnataka State

PRABUDDHA BHARAT


DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT

Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness

from

Free Online step by step creation of Virtual tour in 3D Circle-Vision 360° for Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda

The High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development is the central
UN platform for the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development adopted at the United Nations Sustainable
Development Summit on 25 September 2015.

2019 Hunger Report
About Lion’s Roar
The Akshaya Patra Foundation is an NGO in India headquartered
in Bengaluru.

https://srv1.worldomeuters.info/
7,791,431,516 Crrent World Population-COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic-Recovered:4,108,029

Last updated: June 15, 2020, 03:11 GMT
are
all well, happy and secure having calm, quiet, alert attentive and
equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!




63,848,119 Births this year
137,744 Births today


Natural 26,804,970 Deaths this year while COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic-Deaths:435,493


57,828 Deaths today



Coronavirus Cases:7,989,989

Awakened One with Awareness said that “Hunger is the worst illness.”in



29) Classical English,Roman

Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU)
For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
At
WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Magadhi Karnataka State
PRABUDDHA BHARAT

DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT       
Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness   
    from
Free Online step by step creation of Virtual tour in 3D Circle-Vision 360° for Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda

Awakened One with Awareness said that

 “Hunger is the worst illness.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”   

“Freedom and happiness are found in the flexibility and ease with which we move through change.”        

“There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom.  “   

“He who causes suffering shall suffer. There is no escape.”    

“We are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are shaped by selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act.”

“I
knew that most people never see this reality because they attach to the
material aspect of the world. Illusions of self and other fill their
vision. I also realized there are those with little dust limiting their
vision.”                                   

 ”Every experience,
no matter how bad it seems, holds within a blessing of some kind. The
goal is to find it.”                                     

“Your mind is a powerful thing. When you filter it with positive thoughts, your life will start to change.”

 ”Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little.”

 ”
The way to happiness is: keep your heart free from hate, your mind from
worry. Live simply, give much. Fill your life with love. Do as you
would be done by.”

“Sometimes it’s better to be kind than to be
right. We do not need an intelligent mind that speaks, but a patient
heart that listens. You will not be punished for your anger, you will be
punished by your anger”                                             
    
 
” Pain is certain, suffering is optional.”

” Happiness will never come to those who fail to appreciate what they already have.”
                        
 
“You can search throughout the entire universe for someone who is more
deserving of your love and affection than you are yourself, and that
person is not to be found anywhere. You yourself, as much as anybody in
the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.”
                      
 ”Do not judge yourself harshly. Without mercy for ourselves we cannot love the world.”            

 ” Change is never painful, only the resistance to change is painful”

 ”One moment can change a day, One day can change a life and One life can change the world”   

  “Do not learn how to react. Learn how to respond.”

Harm no other beings. They are just your brothers and sisters.”       
              
 ”Forgive and be free. Forget that you have forgiven and be freer.”
   
 ”It is your mind that creates the world.”                 

 ”When
you move your focus from competition to contribution life becomes a
celebration. Never try to defeat people, just win their hearts.”

 
“If you cannot find a good companion to walk with, walk alone, like an
elephant roaming the jungle. It is better to be alone than to be with
those who will hinder your progress.”
                     
 ”Do not speak - unless it improves on silence.”

 ”The
world is a looking glass. It gives back to every man a true reflection
of his own thoughts. Rule your mind or it will rule you.”

   “Serenity comes when you trade expectations for acceptance.”
   
 - Gautama Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness

Ashoka

“No society can prosper if it aims at making things easier-instead it should aim at making people stronger.”

“Let all listen, and be willing to listen to the doctrines professed by others.”
       
 ”It is forbidden to decry other sects; the true believer gives honour to whatever in them is worthy of honour.”
                      
 ”When
an unconquered country is conquered, people are killed… . That the
beloved of the Gods finds very pitiful and grievous. … If anyone does
him wrong, it will be forgiven as far as it can be forgiven… . The
beloved of the Gods considers that the greatest of all victories is the
victory of righteousness.”

“May the partisans of all doctrines in
all countries unite and live in a common fellowship. For all alike
profess mastery to be attained over oneself and purity of the heart.”

“He
who does reverence to his own sect, while disparaging the sects of
others with intent to enhance the glory of his own sect, by such conduct
inflicts the severest injury on his own sect.”
                        
- Ashoka         

Fighting World Hunger The Awakened One with Awareness Way:

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgPJYRH3l9I&list=RDCMUCCaiUfpgquuFMmO3Sf5AsYQ&start_radio=1&t=4

“hunger is the worst kind of illness” said the Awakened One with Awareness.

https://youtube.com/watch?v=wnUrBPqKarQ&list=RDCMUCpnrBXS4UppD-r2PJGjTbZQ&start_radio=1&t=71

The
Awakened with Awareness faith calls to stand alongside women and
children around the world to provide leadership toward a well-nourished
world.

https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/07/1042411

UN News
Over 820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge

Economic Development

After
nearly a decade of progress, the number of people who suffer from
hunger has slowly increased over the past three years, with about one in
every nine people globally suffering from hunger today, the United
Nations said in a new report released on Monday.

This fact
underscores “the immense challenge” to achieving the Zero Hunger target
of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, according to the
State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019.

The
report, launched on the margins of the High-level Political Forum (HLPF)
– the main UN platform monitoring follow-up on States’ actions on the
SDGs – currently under way in New York, breaks down statistics by
region, and shows that hunger has risen almost 20 per cent in Africa’s
subregions, areas which also have the greatest prevalence of
undernourishment.

Although the pervasiveness of hunger in Latin
America and the Caribbean is still below seven per cent, it is slowly
increasing. And in Asia, undernourishment affects 11 per cent of the
population.

Although southern Asia saw great progress over the
last five years, at almost 15 per cent, it is still the subregion with
the highest prevalence of undernourishment.

“Our actions to
tackle these troubling trends will have to be bolder, not only in scale
but also in terms of multisectoral collaboration,” the heads of the UN
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for
Agricultural Development (IFAD), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the
World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) urged
in their joint foreword to the report.

Hunger is increasing in
many countries where economic growth is lagging, particularly in
middle-income countries and those that rely heavily on international
primary commodity trade.

The annual UN report also found that
income inequality is rising in many of the countries where hunger is on
the rise, making it even more difficult for the poor, vulnerable or
marginalized to cope with economic slowdowns and downturns.

“We
must foster pro-poor and inclusive structural transformation focusing on
people and placing communities at the centre to reduce economic
vulnerabilities and set ourselves on track to ending hunger, food
insecurity and all forms of malnutrition,” the UN leaders said.

 Food insecurity

This year’s edition of the report takes a broader look at the impact of food insecurity – beyond hunger.

It
introduces, for the first time, a second indicator for monitoring
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 2.1 on the Prevalence of
Moderate or Severe Food Insecurity that shows that 17.2 per cent of the
world’s population, or 1.3 billion people, lacked regular access to
“nutritious and sufficient food”.

“Even if they were not
necessarily suffering from hunger, they are at greater risk of various
forms of malnutrition and poor health”, according to the report.The
combination of moderate and severe levels of food insecurity brings the
estimate to about two billion people, where in every continent, women
are slightly more food insecure than men.

Low birthweight still a major challenge

Turning to children, the report disclosed that since 2012, no progress has been made in reducing low birthweight.

Additionally,
while the number of under-age-five children affected by stunting has
decreased over the past six years by 10 per cent globally, the pace of
progress is too slow to meet the 2030 target of halving the number of
stunted children.

Furthermore, overweight and obesity continue to
increase throughout all regions, particularly among school-age children
and adults. Income inequality increases the likelihood of severe food
insecurity – UN report

To safeguard food security and nutrition,
the 2019 report stresses the importance to economic and social policies
to counteract the effects of adverse economic cycles when they arrive,
while avoiding cuts in essential services.

It maintains that the
uneven pace of economic recovery “is undermining efforts to end hunger
and malnutrition, with hunger increasing in many countries where the
economy has slowed down or contracted”, mostly in middle-income nations.

 
Moreover, economic slowdowns or downturns disproportionally undermine
food security and nutrition where inequalities are greater.
The
report concludes with guidance on what short- and long-term policies
must be undertaken to safeguard food security and nutrition during
episodes of economic turmoil or in preparation for them, such as
integrating food security and nutrition concerns into poverty reduction
efforts using pro-poor and inclusive structural transformations.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZprQu6SbswY

Solving India’s hunger problem
The Hindu

The
Supreme Court has agreed to examine a plea that starvation deaths
continue to eat into the right to life and dignity of social fabric and a
“radical” new measure like community kitchens need to be set up across
the country to feed the poor and the hungry.

A Bench led by
Justice N.V. Ramana issued notice on Monday to the government on the
petition filed jointly by activists Anun Dhawan, Ishann Dhawan and
Kunjana Singh, represented by advocates Ashima Mandla and Fuzail Ahmad
Ayyubi.

The petition said State-funded community kitchens was not
a novel concept in the country. They pointed out how Tamil Nadu’s Amma
Unavagam had become a roaring success by involving peers in self-help
groups, employing the poor to serve hygienic food to eradicate the
gnawing problem of hunger on the streets.The petition also referred to
how Rajasthan’s Annapurna Rasoi, Indira Canteens in Karnataka, Delhi’s
Aam Aadmi Canteen, Anna Canteen in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand
Mukhyamantri Dal Bhat and Odisha’s Ahaar Centre were combating
starvation and malnutrition crisis.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDnIlhB8vYA

Where India’s Hunger Struggle Is Headed | Chanchalapathi Dasa | TEDxBMSCETEDx Talks

The
Vice-Chairman of the Akshaya Patra foundation talks about the journey
so far and what the future holds in the mission to end hunger for
children in India. See how technology is used in mass production and the
fantastic results produced. He also talks about other initiatives of
the Akshaya Patra foundation which help children from underprivileged
backgrounds achieve their dreams. Come be a part of this humbling
journey presented by Chanchalapati Dasa.

 Chanchalapathi Dasa,
populary known as “CPP” did his Masters in Electrical Communication
Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. While pursuing
his Bachelor’s degree, he came across with the teachings of Srila
Prabhupada’s and met with Madhu Pandit Dasa to carry forward the mission
together. He became a full-time member to fullfill the vision &
aspiration of his spiritual guru Srila Prabhupada. Comitted to the cause
since 1984, he is currently involved in strategy, growth, and
governance of Akshaya Patra. This talk was given at a TEDx event using
the TED conference format but independently organized by a local
community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx

youtube.com/watch?v=ZprQu6SbswY

Solving India’s hunger problem
The
Supreme Court has agreed to examine a plea that starvation deaths
continue to eat into the right to life and dignity of social fabric and a
“radical” new…

youtube.comyoutube.com/watch?v=ZprQu6SbswYyoutube.com/watch?v=pgPJYRH3l9I&list=RDCMUCCaiUfpgquuFMmO3Sf5AsYQ&start_radio=1&t=4

Manimegalai
Full Story | மணிமேகலை கதை | Aimperum Kappiyangal Stories | AppleBox
SabariAPPLEBOX By SabariThis is Manimegalai Full Story | மணிமேகலை கதை |
Aimperum Kappiyangal Stories.If you like this Manimekalai
StoryManimegalai Full Story | மணிமேகலை கதை | Aimperum Kappiyangal
Stories…This is Manimegalai Full Story | மணிமேகலை கதை | Aimperum
Kappiyangal Stories. If you like this Manimekalai Story, you can also
check other stories from
Apple…youtube.com@buddhasaid2us·23hhttps://youtube.com/watch?v=wnUrBPqKarQ&list=RDCMUCpnrBXS4UppD-r2PJGjTbZQ&start_radio=1&t=71Manimegalai:
Full Story | மணிமேகலை முழு கதைSorry for the video being cut short: 190
பக்கங்கள் தான் எளிமையா வாசித்திடலாம். ஆனா கொஞ்சம் நிதானமா வாசிக்கணும்.
நன்றி நண்பர்களே Amazon: youtube.comManimegalai : Full Story | Tamil epic
Manimegalai…The complete story of tamil epic Manimegalai. It is written
by Seethalai Sathanar. This depicts the story of a young girl
Manimegalai.

             B. R. Ambedkar

“If
you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason.
There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in
any other religion.”

“Lost rights are never regained by appeals
to the conscience of the usurpers, but by relentless struggle….goa ts
are used for sacrificial offerings and not lions.”   

“Constitution is not a mere lawyers document, it is a vehicle of Life, and its spirit is always the spirit of Age.”   

“If I find the constitution being misused, I shall be the first to burn it.”   

 ”History shows that where ethics and economics come in conflict, victory is always with economics.”   

“Democracy is not a form of government, but a form of social organisation.”   

 ”My
final words of advice to you are educate, agitate and organize; have
faith in yourself. With justice on our side I do not see how we can
loose our battle. The battle to me is a matter of joy. The battle is in
the fullest sense spiritual. There is nothing material or social in it.
For ours is a battle not for wealth or for power. It is battle for
freedom. It is the battle of reclamation of human personality.”   

 ”Caste
is a state of mind. It is a disease of mind. The teachings of the Hindu
religion are the root cause of this disease. We practice casteism and
we observe Untouchability because we are enjoined to do so by the Hindu
religion. A bitter thing cannot be made sweet. The taste of anything can
be changed. But poison cannot be changed into nectar.”   

 ”Religion is for man and not man for religion.”   

 ”A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is ready to be the servant of the society.”   

 ”If you believe in living a respectable life, you believe in self-help which is the best help!”   

 ”A
people and their religion must be judged by social standards based on
social ethics. No other standard would have any meaning if religion is
held to be necessary good for the well-being of the people.”       

 ”For
a successful revolution it is not enough that there is discontent. What
is required is a profound and thorough conviction of the justice,
necessity and importance of political and social rights.”       

 ”Man
is mortal. Everyone has to die some day or the other. But one must
resolve to lay down one’s life in enriching the noble ideals of
self-respect and in bettering one’s human life. We are not slaves.
Nothing is more disgraceful for a brave man than to live life devoid of
self-respect.”   

 ”Law and Order are the medicine of the body politic and when the body politic gets sick, medicine must be administered.”
                      
-  B. R. Ambedkar

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Awakened
One with Awareness said that “Hunger is the worst illness” erradicated
through Akshaya Patra of Manimegali and Navaneetham’s Recipies for the
Poor.

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/pm-cares-fund-now-has-an-independent-auditor-pmo-is-the-trusts-head-office/articleshow/76342540.cms

Supreme
Court, Parliament, Executive, Election Commission and the Media
respecting our Marvelous Modern Constitution must say We “DON’T CARE”
just like the 99.9% Awakened Aboriginal societies for the Income Tax
Free unconstitutional Trust the Murderer of democratic institutions ”
MODI CARES”  ”modi account  like gandhi account mala (Shit) not nirmala”
 who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs remotely
controlled by just 0.1% intolerant, ever shooting, mob lynching, number
one terrorists of the the world practicing hatred, anger,
delusion,stupidity which are defilement  of the mind requiring mental
treatment in mental asylums for these foreigners kicked out from Bene
Israel, Tibet, Africa etc., the chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks (RSS) who also have their trust collecting tax free
unconstitutional from Guru Dakshana for their manusmriti propagating
activities to convert hindutvastan instead of Discovery of Mettiyya
Awakened One with awareness Universe. These funds must be ordered by the
Supreme Court for using the funds for eradicating Hunger the worst kind
of illness. The Congress leaders’ & cinema stars’ massive hidden
assets due to corruption.Funds must support migration workers suffering
from unemployment leading to hunger deaths through Akshaya Patra  of
Manimegali and Navaneetham’s Recipie for the Poor having  kitchens
spread across all the  states & 2 Union territories of Prabuddha
Prapanch to the result of the successful partnership with the Central
Government , various State Governments and generous supporters.

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321725#alleviate-hunger-pains

To alleviate hunger pains, especially when dieting, people can try the following:
Eat at regular intervals

Ghrelin is released in response to what someone’s usual mealtimes are.

Sticking
to a schedule will ensure food reaches the stomach in time to meet the
stomach acid released in response to ghrelin spikes.

It
can also be helpful to carry healthful, low-calorie snacks, such as
fruit and nuts, when outside the home, in case it is not possible to eat
a full meal at a designated meal time.

Choose nutrient-dense foods

Eating healthful foods including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, are recommended to alleviate hunger pains.

Eat balanced meals that contain:

  • lean protein, such as beans, lentils
  • whole grains, including brown rice, oats, quinoa, and whole-wheat products
  • fruits and vegetables, including fresh, frozen, and canned (without added sugar)
  • healthful fats, found in avocados, olives, nuts, and seeds
  • low-fat dairy products or dairy alternatives

A
person should try to limit the intake of foods that are high in sugar,
salt, saturated fats, and trans fats. Refined carbohydrates, including
white bread and white pasta, should be eaten in moderation or not at
all.

Fill up on low-calorie foods

Some low-calorie foods
are considered high-volume, meaning they take up space in the stomach
yet do not contribute to weight gain.

A full stomach will cause levels of ghrelin to drop, which alleviates hunger pains. High-volume, low-calorie foods include:

  • salads
  • raw or lightly steamed green vegetables



















































  • The Spruce




  • Spicy chilies pair well fresh mangoes, and with a bit of ginger for
    an extra kick, this is a cold soup recipe to keep. It’s an unusual
    flavor combination, so if you’re bored with your regular raw food
    recipes, try this spicy raw mango soup recipe.


    • Total:
      10 mins

    • Prep:
      10 mins

    • Cook:
      0 mins




    All of the ingredients in this recipe for spicy mango soup are fresh
    and healthy. This cold soup recipe is suitable for those on a
    gluten-free diet or a raw food diet, as it is vegetarian, vegan and uses all fresh, raw food ingredients. And it’s fat-free and gluten-free too! 

    Spicy chilies pair well fresh mangoes, and with a bit of ginger for an extra kick, this is a cold soup recipe to keep!

    Ingredients


    • 1 large mango (peeled and destoned)

    • 1/2 onion (chopped)

    • 1/2 cup cold water

    • 1 to 2 small chili peppers (minced)

    • Juice from 1 lime

    • 1/2 tsp. ginger (grated or minced)




    Steps to Make It


    1. Process all ingredients together in a blender until smooth and creamy, adding a bit more or less water as needed.

    2. Chill before serving.





  • homemade vegetable soups

  • https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/25742/tomato-soup-ii/?internalSource=rotd&referringId=16570&referringContentType=Recipe%20Hub

    Tomato Soup II


    This recipe has been in
    my family for years, the tomato soup is great, plus it can double as
    juice, so you can use it in many dishes all winter. Serve it as is,
    freeze it or can it!

    Recipe Summary



    prep:

    1 hr


    cook:

    3 hrs


    total:

    4 hrs


    Servings:

    52


    Yield:

    13 quarts


    Ingredients

    52
    Original recipe yields 52 servings

    Ingredient Checklist

  • green smoothies

Stay hydrated

Sip water throughout the day.
Aim to drink 8 glasses daily. Limit diuretic drinks, such as caffeine
and alcohol, which contribute to dehydration.

Get enough sleep

It
is sensible to avoid food cravings caused by sleep deprivation by
establishing a sleep routine. It helps to go to bed and get up at the
same time every day and aim to sleep for 7 to 9 hours nightly.

Practice mindful eating

When eating, focus on the taste and texture of each bite. Chew food thoroughly. Do not watch television during mealtimes.

Use distractions

A person can try to ignore hunger pains if they are not based on a real need for food.

Effective distractions include:

  • reading
  • dancing
  • exercise
  • working
  • socializing


Money needed for 5 member family. one earner. price level 2020 . Spending on items.

1.
Rice/ata Rs 1500 monthly. 2.veg Rs 2000.3. oil salt etc Rs1000.4 gas
electricity Rs 1500.5. Education Rs 1000.6. House rent Rs 00( own
house)7. medical Rs 500.8. vehicles Rs1000.9. savings ( future
EXPENDITURE) Rs 1000.10 Hospitality Rs 1000 monthly. 11. others Rs 4000.
TOTAL is about Rs 15000.

37,043,382Net population growth this year

80,149Net population growth today


Government & Economics

$ 5,429,212,422Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 3,713,131,191Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,688,620,811Public Military expenditure today
35,888,642Cars produced this year
68,697,096Bicycles produced this year
114,060,261Computers produced this year

Society & Media

1,221,281New book titles published this year
171,392,328Newspapers circulated today
240,327TV sets sold worldwide today
2,341,095Cellular phones sold today
$ 104,863,693Money spent on videogames today
4,589,219,493Internet users in the world today
94,414,357,663Emails sent today
2,488,196Blog posts written today
280,226,173Tweets sent today
2,597,373,949Google searches today

Environment

2,370,190Forest loss this year (hectares)
3,190,917Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
16,478,843,975CO2 emissions this year (tons)
5,469,116Desertification this year (hectares)
4,462,971 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year
Food

843,751,122Undernourished people in the world
1,694,673,096Overweight people in the world
758,875,017Obese people in the world
11,028People who died of hunger today
$ 208,427,808Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 68,169,372Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today

Water

1,987,188,693Water used this year (million L)
383,772Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
800,327,497People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy

168,308,686Energy used today (MWh), of which:
143,273,858- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
25,345,820- from renewable sources (MWh)
1,054,630,594,608 Solar energy striking Earth today
34,520,074Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,505,855,745,685Oil left (barrels)
15,704Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,095,343,882,136Natural Gas left (boe)

57,650Days to the end of natural gas

4,315,725,201,807Coal left (boe)

148,818Days to the end of coal


Health

5,916,132Communicable disease deaths this year

222,048Seasonal flu deaths this year
3,464,013Deaths of children under 5 this year
19,379,987Abortions this year
140,860Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,867,954HIV/AIDS infected people
766,108Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
3,742,859Deaths caused by cancer this year
447,016Deaths caused by malaria this year
5,458,339,021Cigarettes smoked today
2,278,200Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,139,818Deaths caused by alcohol this year
488,699Suicides this year
$ 182,313,463,422 Money spent on illegal drugs this year
615,186 Road traffic accident fatalities this year

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld







Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Follow-up

The High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development is the central
UN platform for the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development adopted at the United Nations Sustainable
Development Summit on 25 September 2015.

Preamble

This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. It
also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. We recognise
that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including
extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable
requirement for sustainable development.
All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership,
will implement this plan. We are resolved to free the human race from
the tyranny of poverty and want and to heal and secure our planet. We
are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are
urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient
path. As we embark on this collective journey, we pledge that no one
will be left behind.
The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets which we are
announcing today demonstrate the scale and ambition of this new
universal Agenda. They seek to build on the Millennium Development Goals
and complete what these did not achieve. They seek to realize the human
rights of all and to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all
women and girls. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the
three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and
environmental.

The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years
in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet:

People

We are determined to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and
dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their
potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.

Planet

We are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including
through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its
natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that
it can support the needs of the present and future generations.

Prosperity

We are determined to ensure that all human beings can enjoy prosperous
and fulfilling lives and that economic, social and technological
progress occurs in harmony with nature.

Peace

We are determined to foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies which
are free from fear and violence. There can be no sustainable
development without peace and no peace without sustainable development.

Partnership

We are determined to mobilize the means required to implement this
Agenda through a revitalised Global Partnership for Sustainable
Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity,
focussed in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable
and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all
people.

The interlinkages and integrated nature of the Sustainable Development
Goals are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new
Agenda is realised. If we realize our ambitions across the full extent
of the Agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our
world will be transformed for the better.

DECLARATION

Introduction

1. We, the Heads of State and Government and High Representatives,
meeting at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 25-27
September 2015 as the Organization celebrates its seventieth
anniversary, have decided today on new global Sustainable Development
Goals.

2. On behalf of the peoples we serve, we have adopted a historic
decision on a comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred set of
universal and transformative Goals and targets. We commit ourselves to
working tirelessly for the full implementation of this Agenda by 2030.
We recognize that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions,
including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an
indispensable requirement for sustainable development. We are committed
to achieving sustainable development in its three dimensions – economic,
social and environmental – in a balanced and integrated manner. We will
also build upon the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals
and seek to address their unfinished business.

3. We resolve, between now and 2030, to end poverty and hunger
everywhere; to combat inequalities within and among countries; to build
peaceful, just and inclusive societies; to protect human rights and
promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to
ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources.
We resolve also to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and
sustained economic growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all,
taking into account different levels of national development and
capacities.

4. As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one
will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is
fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations
and peoples and for all segments of society. And we will endeavour to
reach the furthest behind first.

5. This is an Agenda of unprecedented scope and significance. It is
accepted by all countries and is applicable to all, taking into account
different national realities, capacities and levels of development and
respecting national policies and priorities. These are universal goals
and targets which involve the entire world, developed and developing
countries alike. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the
three dimensions of sustainable development.

6. The Goals and targets are the result of over two years of intensive
public consultation and engagement with civil society and other
stakeholders around the world, which paid particular attention to the
voices of the poorest and most vulnerable. This consultation included
valuable work done by the General Assembly Open Working Group on
Sustainable Development Goals and by the United Nations, whose
Secretary-General provided a synthesis report in December 2014.

Our vision

7. In these Goals and targets, we are setting out a supremely ambitious
and transformational vision. We envisage a world free of poverty,
hunger, disease and want, where all life can thrive. We envisage a world
free of fear and violence. A world with universal literacy. A world
with equitable and universal access to quality education at all levels,
to health care and social protection, where physical, mental and social
well-being are assured. A world where we reaffirm our commitments
regarding the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and
where there is improved hygiene; and where food is sufficient, safe,
affordable and nutritious. A world where human habitats are safe,
resilient and sustainable and where there is universal access to
affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.

8. We envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human
dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of
respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal
opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and
contributing to shared prosperity. A world which invests in its children
and in which every child grows up free from violence and exploitation. A
world in which every woman and girl enjoys full gender equality and all
legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment have been
removed. A just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world
in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met.

9. We envisage a world in which every country enjoys sustained,
inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all. A
world in which consumption and production patterns and use of all
natural resources – from air to land, from rivers, lakes and aquifers to
oceans and seas - are sustainable. One in which democracy, good
governance and the rule of law as well as an enabling environment at
national and international levels, are essential for sustainable
development, including sustained and inclusive economic growth, social
development, environmental protection and the eradication of poverty and
hunger. One in which development and the application of technology are
climate-sensitive, respect biodiversity and are resilient. One in which
humanity lives in harmony with nature and in which wildlife and other
living species are protected.

Our shared principles and commitments

10. The new Agenda is guided by the purposes and principles of the
Charter of the United Nations, including full respect for international
law. It is grounded in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
international human rights treaties, the Millennium Declaration and the
2005 World Summit Outcome Document. It is informed by other instruments
such as the Declaration on the Right to Development.

11. We reaffirm the outcomes of all major UN conferences and summits
which have laid a solid foundation for sustainable development and have
helped to shape the new Agenda. These include the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development; the World Summit on Sustainable
Development; the World Summit for Social Development; the Programme of
Action of the International Conference on Population and Development,
the Beijing Platform for Action; and the United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development (”Rio+ 20″). We also reaffirm the follow-up to
these conferences, including the outcomes of the Fourth United Nations
Conference on the Least Developed Countries, the Third International
Conference on Small Island Developing States; the Second United Nations
Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries; and the Third UN World
Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction.

12. We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment
and Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but
differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof.

13. The challenges and commitments contained in these major conferences
and summits are interrelated and call for integrated solutions. To
address them effectively, a new approach is needed. Sustainable
development recognizes that eradicating poverty in all its forms and
dimensions, combatting inequality within and among countries, preserving
the planet, creating sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic
growth and fostering social inclusion are linked to each other and are
interdependent.

Our world today

14. We are meeting at a time of immense challenges to sustainable
development. Billions of our citizens continue to live in poverty and
are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and
among countries. There are enormous disparities of opportunity, wealth
and power. Gender inequality remains a key challenge. Unemployment,
particularly youth unemployment, is a major concern. Global health
threats, more frequent and intense natural disasters, spiralling
conflict, violent extremism, terrorism and related humanitarian crises
and forced displacement of people threaten to reverse much of the
development progress made in recent decades. Natural resource depletion
and adverse impacts of environmental degradation, including
desertification, drought, land degradation, freshwater scarcity and loss
of biodiversity, add to and exacerbate the list of challenges which
humanity faces. Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our
time and its adverse impacts undermine the ability of all countries to
achieve sustainable development. Increases in global temperature, sea
level rise, ocean acidification and other climate change impacts are
seriously affecting coastal areas and low-lying coastal countries,
including many least developed countries and small island developing
States. The survival of many societies, and of the biological support
systems of the planet, is at risk.

15. It is also, however, a time of immense opportunity. Significant
progress has been made in meeting many development challenges. Within
the past generation, hundreds of millions of people have emerged from
extreme poverty. Access to education has greatly increased for both boys
and girls. The spread of information and communications technology and
global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human
progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge
societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas
as diverse as medicine and energy.

16. Almost fifteen years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were
agreed. These provided an important framework for development and
significant progress has been made in a number of areas. But the
progress has been uneven, particularly in Africa, least developed
countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing
States, and some of the MDGs remain off-track, in particular those
related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive
health. We recommit ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs,
including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focussed and
scaled-up assistance to least developed countries and other countries in
special situations, in line with relevant support programmes. The new
Agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals and seeks to complete
what these did not achieve, particularly in reaching the most
vulnerable.

17. In its scope, however, the framework we are announcing today goes
far beyond the MDGs. Alongside continuing development priorities such as
poverty eradication, health, education and food security and nutrition,
it sets out a wide range of economic, social and environmental
objectives. It also promises more peaceful and inclusive societies. It
also, crucially, defines means of implementation. Reflecting the
integrated approach that we have decided on, there are deep
interconnections and many cross-cutting elements across the new Goals
and targets.

The new Agenda

18. We are announcing today 17 Sustainable Development Goals with 169
associated targets which are integrated and indivisible. Never before
have world leaders pledged common action and endeavour across such a
broad and universal policy agenda. We are setting out together on the
path towards sustainable development, devoting ourselves collectively to
the pursuit of global development and of “win-win” cooperation which
can bring huge gains to all countries and all parts of the world. We
reaffirm that every State has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent
sovereignty over all its wealth, natural resources and economic
activity. We will implement the Agenda for the full benefit of all, for
today’s generation and for future generations. In doing so, we reaffirm
our commitment to international law and emphasize that the Agenda is to
be implemented in a manner that is consistent with the rights and
obligations of states under international law.

19. We reaffirm the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, as well as other international instruments relating to human
rights and international law. We emphasize the responsibilities of all
States, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to
respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms for
all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language,
religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth, disability or other status.

20. Realizing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls
will make a crucial contribution to progress across all the Goals and
targets. The achievement of full human potential and of sustainable
development is not possible if one half of humanity continues to be
denied its full human rights and opportunities. Women and girls must
enjoy equal access to quality education, economic resources and
political participation as well as equal opportunities with men and boys
for employment, leadership and decision-making at all levels. We will
work for a significant increase in investments to close the gender gap
and strengthen support for institutions in relation to gender equality
and the empowerment of women at the global, regional and national
levels. All forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls
will be eliminated, including through the engagement of men and boys.
The systematic mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the
implementation of the Agenda is crucial.

21. The new Goals and targets will come into effect on 1 January 2016
and will guide the decisions we take over the next fifteen years. All of
us will work to implement the Agenda within our own countries and at
the regional and global levels, taking into account different national
realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national
policies and priorities We will respect national policy space for
sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, in particular for
developing states, while remaining consistent with relevant
international rules and commitments. We acknowledge also the importance
of the regional and sub-regional dimensions, regional economic
integration and interconnectivity in sustainable development. Regional
and sub-regional frameworks can facilitate the effective translation of
sustainable development policies into concrete action at national level.

22. Each country faces specific challenges in its pursuit of sustainable
development. The most vulnerable countries and, in particular, African
countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries
and small island developing states deserve special attention, as do
countries in situations of conflict and post-conflict countries. There
are also serious challenges within many middle-income countries.

23. People who are vulnerable must be empowered. Those whose needs are
reflected in the Agenda include all children, youth, persons with
disabilities (of whom more than 80% live in poverty), people living with
HIV/AIDS, older persons, indigenous peoples, refugees and internally
displaced persons and migrants. We resolve to take further effective
measures and actions, in conformity with international law, to remove
obstacles and constraints, strengthen support and meet the special needs
of people living in areas affected by complex humanitarian emergencies
and in areas affected by terrorism.

24. We are committed to ending poverty in all its forms and dimensions,
including by eradicating extreme poverty by 2030. All people must enjoy a
basic standard of living, including through social protection systems.
We are also determined to end hunger and to achieve food security as a
matter of priority and to end all forms of malnutrition. In this regard,
we reaffirm the important role and inclusive nature of the Committee on
World Food Security and welcome the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and
Framework for Action. We will devote resources to developing rural areas
and sustainable agriculture and fisheries, supporting smallholder
farmers, especially women farmers, herders and fishers in developing
countries, particularly least developed countries.

25. We commit to providing inclusive and equitable quality education at
all levels – early childhood, primary, secondary, tertiary, technical
and vocational training. All people, irrespective of sex, age, race,
ethnicity, and persons with disabilities, migrants, indigenous peoples,
children and youth, especially those in vulnerable situations, should
have access to life-long learning opportunities that help them acquire
the knowledge and skills needed to exploit opportunities and to
participate fully in society. We will strive to provide children and
youth with a nurturing environment for the full realization of their
rights and capabilities, helping our countries to reap the demographic
dividend including through safe schools and cohesive communities and
families.

26. To promote physical and mental health and well-being, and to extend
life expectancy for all, we must achieve universal health coverage and
access to quality health care. No one must be left behind. We commit to
accelerating the progress made to date in reducing newborn, child and
maternal mortality by ending all such preventable deaths before 2030. We
are committed to ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive
health-care services, including for family planning, information and
education. We will equally accelerate the pace of progress made in
fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, Ebola and other
communicable diseases and epidemics, including by addressing growing
anti-microbial resistance and the problem of unattended diseases
affecting developing countries. We are committed to the prevention and
treatment of non-communicable diseases, including behavioural,
developmental and neurological disorders, which constitute a major
challenge for sustainable development.

27. We will seek to build strong economic foundations for all our
countries. Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth is
essential for prosperity. This will only be possible if wealth is shared
and income inequality is addressed. We will work to build dynamic,
sustainable, innovative and people-centred economies, promoting youth
employment and women’s economic empowerment, in particular, and decent
work for all. We will eradicate forced labour and human trafficking and
end child labour in all its forms. All countries stand to benefit from
having a healthy and well-educated workforce with the knowledge and
skills needed for productive and fulfilling work and full participation
in society. We will strengthen the productive capacities of
least-developed countries in all sectors, including through structural
transformation. We will adopt policies which increase productive
capacities, productivity and productive employment; financial inclusion;
sustainable agriculture, pastoralist and fisheries development;
sustainable industrial development; universal access to affordable,
reliable, sustainable and modern energy services; sustainable transport
systems; and quality and resilient infrastructure.

28. We commit to making fundamental changes in the way that our
societies produce and consume goods and services. Governments,
international organizations, the business sector and other non-state
actors and individuals must contribute to changing unsustainable
consumption and production patterns, including through the mobilization,
from all sources, of financial and technical assistance to strengthen
developing countries’ scientific, technological and innovative
capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and
production. We encourage the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of
Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production. All countries take
action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account
the development and capabilities of developing countries.

29. We recognize the positive contribution of migrants for inclusive
growth and sustainable development. We also recognize that international
migration is a multi-dimensional reality of major relevance for the
development of countries of origin, transit and destination, which
requires coherent and comprehensive responses. We will cooperate
internationally to ensure safe, orderly and regular migration involving
full respect for human rights and the humane treatment of migrants
regardless of migration status, of refugees and of displaced persons.
Such cooperation should also strengthen the resilience of communities
hosting refugees, particularly in developing countries. We underline the
right of migrants to return to their country of citizenship, and recall
that States must ensure that their returning nationals are duly
received.

30. States are strongly urged to refrain from promulgating and applying
any unilateral economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance
with international law and the Charter of the United Nations that impede
the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly
in developing countries.

31. We acknowledge that the UNFCCC is the primary international,
intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate
change. We are determined to address decisively the threat posed by
climate change and environmental degradation. The global nature of
climate change calls for the widest possible international cooperation
aimed at accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
and addressing adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change. We
note with grave concern the significant gap between the aggregate effect
of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of global annual emissions of
greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with
having a likely chance of holding the increase in global average
temperature below 2 °C or 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.

32. Looking ahead to the COP21 conference in Paris in December, we
underscore the commitment of all States to work for an ambitious and
universal climate agreement. We reaffirm that the protocol, another
legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention
applicable to all Parties shall address in a balanced manner, inter
alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and
transfer, and capacity-building, and transparency of action and support.

33. We recognise that social and economic development depends on the
sustainable management of our planet’s natural resources. We are
therefore determined to conserve and sustainably use oceans and seas,
freshwater resources, as well as forests, mountains and drylands and to
protect biodiversity, ecosystems and wildlife. We are also determined to
promote sustainable tourism, tackle water scarcity and water pollution,
to strengthen cooperation on desertification, dust storms, land
degradation and drought and to promote resilience and disaster risk
reduction. In this regard, we look forward to COP13 of the Convention on
Biological Diversity to be held in Mexico in 2016.

34. We recognize that sustainable urban development and management are
crucial to the quality of life of our people. We will work with local
authorities and communities to renew and plan our cities and human
settlements so as to foster community cohesion and personal security and
to stimulate innovation and employment. We will reduce the negative
impacts of urban activities and of chemicals which are hazardous for
human health and the environment, including through the environmentally
sound management and safe use of chemicals, the reduction and recycling
of waste and more efficient use of water and energy. And we will work to
minimize the impact of cities on the global climate system. We will
also take account of population trends and projections in our national,
rural and urban development strategies and policies. We look forward to
the upcoming United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban
Development in Quito, Ecuador.

35. Sustainable development cannot be realized without peace and
security; and peace and security will be at risk without sustainable
development. The new Agenda recognizes the need to build peaceful, just
and inclusive societies that provide equal access to justice and that
are based on respect for human rights (including the right to
development), on effective rule of law and good governance at all levels
and on transparent, effective and accountable institutions. Factors
which give rise to violence, insecurity and injustice, such as
inequality, corruption, poor governance and illicit financial and arms
flows, are addressed in the Agenda. We must redouble our efforts to
resolve or prevent conflict and to support post-conflict countries,
including through ensuring that women have a role in peace-building and
state-building. We call for further effective measures and actions to be
taken, in conformity with international law, to remove the obstacles to
the full realization of the right of self-determination of peoples
living under colonial and foreign occupation, which continue to
adversely affect their economic and social development as well as their
environment.

36. We pledge to foster inter-cultural understanding, tolerance, mutual
respect and an ethic of global citizenship and shared responsibility. We
acknowledge the natural and cultural diversity of the world and
recognize that all cultures and civilizations can contribute to, and are
crucial enablers of, sustainable development.

37. Sport is also an important enabler of sustainable development. We
recognize the growing contribution of sport to the realization of
development and peace in its promotion of tolerance and respect and the
contributions it makes to the empowerment of women and of young people,
individuals and communities as well as to health, education and social
inclusion objectives.

38. We reaffirm, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
the need to respect the territorial integrity and political independence
of States.

Means of Implementation

39. The scale and ambition of the new Agenda requires a revitalized
Global Partnership to ensure its implementation. We fully commit to
this. This Partnership will work in a spirit of global solidarity, in
particular solidarity with the poorest and with people in vulnerable
situations. It will facilitate an intensive global engagement in support
of implementation of all the Goals and targets, bringing together
Governments, the private sector, civil society, the United Nations
system and other actors and mobilizing all available resources.

40. The means of implementation targets under Goal 17 and under each SDG
are key to realising our Agenda and are of equal importance with the
other Goals and targets. The Agenda, including the SDGs, can be met
within the framework of a revitalized global partnership for sustainable
development, supported by the concrete policies and actions as outlined
in the outcome document of the Third International Conference on
Financing for Development, held in Addis Ababa from 13-16 July 2015. We
welcome the endorsement by the General Assembly of the Addis Ababa
Action Agenda, which is an integral part of the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development. We recognize that the full implementation of
the Addis Ababa Action Agenda is critical for the realization of the
Sustainable Development Goals and targets.

41. We recognize that each country has primary responsibility for its
own economic and social development. The new Agenda deals with the means
required for implementation of the Goals and targets. We recognize that
these will include the mobilization of financial resources as well as
capacity-building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies
to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional
and preferential terms, as mutually agreed. Public finance, both
domestic and international, will play a vital role in providing
essential services and public goods and in catalyzing other sources of
finance. We acknowledge the role of the diverse private sector, ranging
from micro-enterprises to cooperatives to multinationals, and that of
civil society organizations and philanthropic organizations in the
implementation of the new Agenda.

42. We support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes
of action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action,
the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway, the Vienna
Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade
2014-2024, and reaffirm the importance of supporting the African Union’s
Agenda 2063 and the programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD), all of which are integral to the new Agenda. We
recognize the major challenge to the achievement of durable peace and
sustainable development in countries in conflict and post-conflict
situations.

43. We emphasize that international public finance plays an important
role in complementing the efforts of countries to mobilize public
resources domestically, especially in the poorest and most vulnerable
countries with limited domestic resources. An important use of
international public finance, including ODA, is to catalyse additional
resource mobilization from other sources, public and private. ODA
providers reaffirm their respective commitments, including the
commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7% of
ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15% to 0.2% of ODA/GNI to least
developed countries.

44. We acknowledge the importance for international financial
institutions to support, in line with their mandates, the policy space
of each country, in particular developing countries. We recommit to
broadening and strengthening the voice and participation of developing
countries – including African countries, least developed countries,
land-locked developing countries, small-island developing States and
middle-income countries – in international economic decision-making,
norm-setting and global economic governance.

45. We acknowledge also the essential role of national parliaments
through their enactment of legislation and adoption of budgets and their
role in ensuring accountability for the effective implementation of our
commitments. Governments and public institutions will also work closely
on implementation with regional and local authorities, sub-regional
institutions, international institutions, academia, philanthropic
organisations, volunteer groups and others.

46. We underline the important role and comparative advantage of an
adequately resourced, relevant, coherent, efficient and effective UN
system in supporting the achievement of the SDGs and sustainable
development. While stressing the importance of strengthened national
ownership and leadership at country level, we express our support for
the ongoing ECOSOC Dialogue on the longer-term positioning of the United
Nations development system in the context of this Agenda.

Follow-up and review

47. Our Governments have the primary responsibility for follow-up and
review, at the national, regional and global levels, in relation to the
progress made in implementing the Goals and targets over the coming
fifteen years. To support accountability to our citizens, we will
provide for systematic follow-up and review at the various levels, as
set out in this Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. The High Level
Political Forum under the auspices of the General Assembly and the
Economic and Social Council will have the central role in overseeing
follow-up and review at the global level.

48. Indicators are being developed to assist this work. Quality,
accessible, timely and reliable disaggregated data will be needed to
help with the measurement of progress and to ensure that no one is left
behind. Such data is key to decision-making. Data and information from
existing reporting mechanisms should be used where possible. We agree to
intensify our efforts to strengthen statistical capacities in
developing countries, particularly African countries, least developed
countries, landlocked developing countries, small island developing
States and middle-income countries. We are committed to developing
broader measures of progress to complement gross domestic product (GDP).

A call for action to change our world

49. Seventy years ago, an earlier generation of world leaders came
together to create the United Nations. From the ashes of war and
division they fashioned this Organization and the values of peace,
dialogue and international cooperation which underpin it. The supreme
embodiment of those values is the Charter of the United Nations.

50. Today we are also taking a decision of great historic significance.
We resolve to build a better future for all people, including the
millions who have been denied the chance to lead decent, dignified and
rewarding lives and to achieve their full human potential. We can be the
first generation to succeed in ending poverty; just as we may be the
last to have a chance of saving the planet. The world will be a better
place in 2030 if we succeed in our objectives.

51. What we are announcing today – an Agenda for global action for the
next fifteen years – is a charter for people and planet in the
twenty-first century. Children and young women and men are critical
agents of change and will find in the new Goals a platform to channel
their infinite capacities for activism into the creation of a better
world.

52. “We the Peoples” are the celebrated opening words of the UN Charter.
It is “We the Peoples” who are embarking today on the road to 2030. Our
journey will involve Governments as well as Parliaments, the UN system
and other international institutions, local authorities, indigenous
peoples, civil society, business and the private sector, the scientific
and academic community – and all people. Millions have already engaged
with, and will own, this Agenda. It is an Agenda of the people, by the
people, and for the people – and this, we believe, will ensure its
success.

53. The future of humanity and of our planet lies in our hands. It lies
also in the hands of today’s younger generation who will pass the torch
to future generations. We have mapped the road to sustainable
development; it will be for all of us to ensure that the journey is
successful and its gains irreversible.

Sustainable Development Goals and targets

54. Following an inclusive process of intergovernmental negotiations,
and based on the Proposal of the Open Working Group on Sustainable
Development Goals , which includes a chapeau contextualising the latter,
the following are the Goals and targets which we have agreed.

55. The SDGs and targets are integrated and indivisible, global in
nature and universally applicable, taking into account different
national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting
national policies and priorities. Targets are defined as aspirational
and global, with each government setting its own national targets guided
by the global level of ambition but taking into account national
circumstances. Each government will also decide how these aspirational
and global targets should be incorporated in national planning
processes, policies and strategies. It is important to recognize the
link between sustainable development and other relevant ongoing
processes in the economic, social and environmental fields.

56. In deciding upon these Goals and targets, we recognise that each
country faces specific challenges to achieve sustainable development,
and we underscore the special challenges facing the most vulnerable
countries and, in particular, African countries, least developed
countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing
States, as well as the specific challenges facing the middle-income
countries. Countries in situations of conflict also need special
attention.

57. We recognize that baseline data for several of the targets remain
unavailable, and we call for increased support for strengthening data
collection and capacity building in Member States, to develop national
and global baselines where they do not yet exist. We commit to
addressing this gap in data collection so as to better inform the
measurement of progress, in particular for those targets below which do
not have clear numerical targets.

58. We encourage ongoing efforts by states in other fora to address key
issues which pose potential challenges to the implementation of our
Agenda; and we respect the independent mandates of those processes. We
intend that the Agenda and its implementation would support, and be
without prejudice to, those other processes and the decisions taken
therein.

59. We recognise that there are different approaches, visions, models
and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national
circumstances and priorities, to achieve sustainable development; and we
reaffirm that planet Earth and its ecosystems are our common home and
that ‘Mother Earth’ is a common expression in a number of countries and
regions.

Sustainable Development Goals

  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  • Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
  • Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
  • Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
  • Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
  • Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
  • Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
  • Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
  • Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
  • Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
  • Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
    ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and
    halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable
    development, provide access to justice for all and build effective,
    accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for
negotiating the global response to climate change.

Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day



1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women
and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions
according to national definitions

1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and
measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial
coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor
and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as
access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other
forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new
technology and financial services, including microfinance

1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in
vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to
climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and
environmental shocks and disasters

1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of
sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to
provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in
particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and
policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and
international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development
strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication
actions

Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular
the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to
safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by
2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in
children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of
adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons

2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of
small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples,
family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and
equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge,
financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and
non-farm employment

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and
implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity
and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity
for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and
other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated
plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild
species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and
plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and
promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional
knowledge, as internationally agreed

2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced international
cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and
extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene
banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing
countries, in particular least developed countries

2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world
agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all
forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with
equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha
Development Round

2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food
commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to
market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit
extreme food price volatility

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5
years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to
at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at
least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births

3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and
neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases
and other communicable diseases

3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from
non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote
mental health and well-being

3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol

3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive
health-care services, including for family planning, information and
education, and the integration of reproductive health into national
strategies and programmes

3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk
protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access
to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and
vaccines for all

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and
illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and
contamination

3.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate

3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines
for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect
developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines
and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS
Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing
countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding
flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide
access to medicines for all

3.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment,
development, training and retention of the health workforce in
developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small
island developing States

3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular
developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management
of national and global health risks

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable
and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and
effective learning outcomes

4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality
early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they
are ready for primary education

4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to
affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education,
including university

4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults
who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for
employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure
equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the
vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and
children in vulnerable situations

4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and
skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among
others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable
lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of
peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural
diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child,
disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive
and effective learning environments for all

4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of
scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least
developed countries, small island developing States and African
countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational
training and information and communications technology, technical,
engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other
developing countries

4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified
teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher
training in developing countries, especially least developed countries
and small island developing States

Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in
the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and
other types of exploitation

5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the
provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection
policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household
and the family as nationally appropriate

5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal
opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in
political, economic and public life

5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and
reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action
of the International Conference on Population and Development and the
Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review
conferences

5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic
resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and
other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural
resources, in accordance with national laws

5.b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular
information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of
women

5.c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation
for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women
and girls at all levels

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation
and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to
the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution,
eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and
materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and
substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all
sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to
address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people
suffering from water scarcity

6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all
levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building
support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related
activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination,
water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access
to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy,
energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and
promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology

7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for
supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing
countries, in particular least developed countries, small island
developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance
with their respective programmes of support

Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national
circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic
product growth per annum in the least developed countries

8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through
diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including
through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors

8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive
activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and
innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small-
and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial
services

8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency
in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth
from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year
framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with
developed countries taking the lead

8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work
for all women and men, including for young people and persons with
disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced
labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the
prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour,
including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child
labour in all its forms

8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working
environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular
women migrants, and those in precarious employment

8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable
tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to
encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services
for all

8.a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in
particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced
Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least
Developed Countries

8.b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth
employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International
Labour Organization

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient
infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to
support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on
affordable and equitable access for all

9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by
2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross
domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its
share in least developed countries

9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other
enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial
services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value
chains and markets

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make
them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater
adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial
processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their
respective capabilities

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological
capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular
developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and
substantially increasing the number of research and development workers
per 1 million people and public and private research and development
spending

9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development
in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and
technical support to African countries, least developed countries,
landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

9.b Support domestic technology development, research and
innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive
policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value
addition to commodities

9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications
technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the
Internet in least developed countries by 2020

Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the
bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national
average

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political
inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race,
ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome,
including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and
promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial
markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such
regulations

10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing
countries in decision-making in global international economic and
financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible,
accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and
mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and
well-managed migration policies

10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment
for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in
accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows,
including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is
greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries,
small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in
accordance with their national plans and programmes

10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs
of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs
higher than 5 per cent

Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and
sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by
expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of
those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with
disabilities and older persons

11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and
capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement
planning and management in all countries

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the
number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic
losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters,
including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor
and people in vulnerable situations

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of
cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and
municipal and other waste management

11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and
accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and
children, older persons and persons with disabilities

11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links
between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and
regional development planning

11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human
settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans
towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to
climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in
line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030,
holistic disaster risk management at all levels

11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial
and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient
buildings utilizing local materials

Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable
consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed
countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and
capabilities of developing countries

12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and
consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply
chains, including post-harvest losses

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of
chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with
agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release
to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on
human health and the environment

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational
companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate
sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant
information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in
harmony with nature

12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and
technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of
consumption and production

12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development
impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local
culture and products

12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage
wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with
national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing
out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their
environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and
conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse
impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the
affected communities

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and
institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact
reduction and early warning

13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country
parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a
goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all
sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of
meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and
fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization
as soon as possible

13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate
change-related planning and management in least developed countries and
small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and
local and marginalized communities

* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for
negotiating the global response to climate change.

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all
kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris
and nutrient pollution

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal
ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by
strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in
order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing,
illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing
practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to
restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels
that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their
biological characteristics

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine
areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the
best available scientific information

14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which
contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that
contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain
from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and
effective special and differential treatment for developing and least
developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade
Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation

14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island
developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use
of marine resources, including through sustainable management of
fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and
transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of
Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the
contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing
countries, in particular small island developing States and least
developed countries

14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and
their resources by implementing international law as reflected in
UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and
sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph
158 of The Future We Want

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt
and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use
of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in
particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with
obligations under international agreements

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management
of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests
and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and
soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods,
and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems,
including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to
provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of
natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect
and prevent the extinction of threatened species

15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from
the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to
such resources, as internationally agreed

15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected
species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of
illegal wildlife products

15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and
significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and
water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into
national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction
strategies and accounts

15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from
all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all
levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate
incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including
for conservation and reforestation

15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and
trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity
of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable
development, provide access to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows,
strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all
forms of organized crime

16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental
freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international
agreements

16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through
international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in
particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat
terrorism and crime

16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Finance

17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through
international support to developing countries, to improve domestic
capacity for tax and other revenue collection

17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official
development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many
developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to
developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least
developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a
target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed
countries

17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt
sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt
financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and
address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce
debt distress

17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Technology

17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and
international cooperation on and access to science, technology and
innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms,
including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in
particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology
facilitation mechanism

17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion
of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on
favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as
mutually agreed

17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science,
technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least
developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology,
in particular information and communications technology

Capacity-building

17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and
targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national
plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including
through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Trade

17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and
equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade
Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its
Doha Development Agenda

17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in
particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share
of global exports by 2020

17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free
market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries,
consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by
ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from
least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to
facilitating market access

Systemic issues

Policy and institutional coherence

17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to
establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable
development

Multi-stakeholder partnerships

17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development,
complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share
knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the
achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in
particular developing countries

17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and
civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing
strategies of partnerships

Data, monitoring and accountability

17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing
countries, including for least developed countries and small island
developing States, to increase significantly the availability of
high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender,
age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location
and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements
of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic
product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing
countries

Means of implementation and the Global Partnership

60. We reaffirm our strong commitment to the full implementation of this
new Agenda. We recognize that we will not be able to achieve our
ambitious Goals and targets without a revitalized and enhanced Global
Partnership and comparably ambitious means of implementation. The
revitalized Global Partnership will facilitate an intensive global
engagement in support of implementation of all the goals and targets,
bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the
United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available
resources.

61. The Agenda’s Goals and targets deal with the means required to
realise our collective ambitions. The means of implementation targets
under each SDG and Goal 17, which are referred to above, are key to
realising our Agenda and are of equal importance with the other Goals
and targets. We shall accord them equal priority in our implementation
efforts and in the global indicator framework for monitoring our
progress.

62. This Agenda, including the SDGs, can be met within the framework of a
revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, supported
by the concrete policies and actions outlined in the Addis Ababa Action
Agenda , which is an integral part of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable
development. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda supports, complements and
helps contextualize the 2030 Agenda’s means of implementation targets.
These relate to domestic public resources, domestic and international
private business and finance, international development cooperation,
international trade as an engine for development, debt and debt
sustainability, addressing systemic issues and science, technology,
innovation and capacity-building, and data, monitoring and follow-up.

63. Cohesive nationally owned sustainable development strategies,
supported by integrated national financing frameworks, will be at the
heart of our efforts. We reiterate that each country has primary
responsibility for its own economic and social development and that the
role of national policies and development strategies cannot be
overemphasized. We will respect each country’s policy space and
leadership to implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable
development, while remaining consistent with relevant international
rules and commitments. At the same time, national development efforts
need to be supported by an enabling international economic environment,
including coherent and mutually supporting world trade, monetary and
financial systems, and strengthened and enhanced global economic
governance. Processes to develop and facilitate the availability of
appropriate knowledge and technologies globally, as well as
capacity-building, are also critical. We commit to pursuing policy
coherence and an enabling environment for sustainable development at all
levels and by all actors, and to reinvigorating the global partnership
for sustainable development.

64. We support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes
of action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action,
the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway, the Vienna
Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade
2014-2024, and reaffirm the importance of supporting the African Union’s
Agenda 2063 and the programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD), all of which are integral to the new Agenda. We
recognize the major challenge to the achievement of durable peace and
sustainable development in countries in conflict and post-conflict
situations.

65. We recognize that middle-income countries still face significant
challenges to achieve sustainable development. In order to ensure that
achievements made to date are sustained, efforts to address ongoing
challenges should be strengthened through the exchange of experiences,
improved coordination, and better and focused support of the United
Nations Development System, the international financial institutions,
regional organizations and other stakeholders.

66. We underscore that, for all countries, public policies and the
mobilization and effective use of domestic resources, underscored by the
principle of national ownership, are central to our common pursuit of
sustainable development, including achieving the sustainable development
goals. We recognize that domestic resources are first and foremost
generated by economic growth, supported by an enabling environment at
all levels.

67. Private business activity, investment and innovation are major
drivers of productivity, inclusive economic growth and job creation. We
acknowledge the diversity of the private sector, ranging from
micro-enterprises to cooperatives to multinationals. We call on all
businesses to apply their creativity and innovation to solving
sustainable development challenges. We will foster a dynamic and
well-functioning business sector, while protecting labour rights and
environmental and health standards in accordance with relevant
international standards and agreements and other on-going initiatives in
this regard, such as the Guiding Principles on Business and Human
Rights and the labour standards of ILO, the Convention on the Rights of
the Child and key multilateral environmental agreements, for parties to
those agreements.

68. International trade is an engine for inclusive economic growth and
poverty reduction, and contributes to the promotion of sustainable
development. We will continue to promote a universal, rules-based, open,
transparent, predictable, inclusive, non-discriminatory and equitable
multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization (WTO), as
well as meaningful trade liberalization. We call on all WTO members to
redouble their efforts to promptly conclude the negotiations on the Doha
Development Agenda. We attach great importance to providing
trade-related capacity-building for developing countries, including
African countries, least-developed countries, landlocked developing
countries, small island developing states and middle-income countries,
including for the promotion of regional economic integration and
interconnectivity.

69. We recognize the need to assist developing countries in attaining
long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at
fostering debt financing, debt relief, debt restructuring and sound debt
management, as appropriate. Many countries remain vulnerable to debt
crises and some are in the midst of crises, including a number of least
developed countries, small-island developing States and some developed
countries. We reiterate that debtors and creditors must work together to
prevent and resolve unsustainable debt situations. Maintaining
sustainable debt levels is the responsibility of the borrowing
countries; however we acknowledge that lenders also have a
responsibility to lend in a way that does not undermine a country’s debt
sustainability. We will support the maintenance of debt sustainability
of those countries that have received debt relief and achieved
sustainable debt levels.

70. We hereby launch a Technology Facilitation Mechanism which was
established by the Addis Ababa Action Agenda in order to support the
sustainable development goals. The Technology Facilitation Mechanism
will be based on a multi-stakeholder collaboration between Member
States, civil society, private sector, scientific community, United
Nations entities and other stakeholders and will be composed of: a
United Nations Interagency Task Team on Science, Technology and
Innovation for the SDGs, a collaborative Multistakeholder Forum on
Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs and an on-line platform.

• The United Nations Interagency Task Team on Science, Technology and
Innovation for the SDGs will promote coordination, coherence, and
cooperation within the UN System on STI related matters, enhancing
synergy and efficiency, in particular to enhance capacity-building
initiatives. The Task Team will draw on existing resources and will work
with 10 representatives from the civil society, private sector, the
scientific community, to prepare the meetings of the Multistakeholder
Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs, as well as in
the development and operationalization of the on-line platform,
including preparing proposals for the modalities for the Forum and the
on-line platform. The 10 representatives will be appointed by the
Secretary General, for periods of two years. The Task Team will be open
to the participation of all UN agencies, funds and programmes, and
ECOSOC functional commissions and it will initially be composed by the
entities that currently integrate the informal working group on
technology facilitation, namely: UN Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, United Nations Environment Programme, UNIDO, United Nations
Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNCTAD, International
Telecommunication Union, WIPO and the World Bank.

• The on-line platform will be used to establish a comprehensive mapping
of, and serve as a gateway for, information on existing STI
initiatives, mechanisms and programmes, within and beyond the UN. The
on-line platform will facilitate access to information, knowledge and
experience, as well as best practices and lessons learned, on STI
facilitation initiatives and policies. The online platform will also
facilitate the dissemination of relevant open access scientific
publications generated worldwide. The on-line platform will be developed
on the basis of an independent technical assessment which will take
into account best practices and lessons learned from other initiatives,
within and beyond the United Nations, in order to ensure that it will
complement, facilitate access to and provide adequate information on
existing STI platforms, avoiding duplications and enhancing synergies.

• The Multi-stakeholder Forum on Science Technology and Innovation for
the SDGs will be convened once a year, for a period of two days, to
discuss STI cooperation around thematic areas for the implementation of
the SDGs, congregating all relevant stakeholders to actively contribute
in their area of expertise. The Forum will provide a venue for
facilitating interaction, matchmaking and the establishment of networks
between relevant stakeholders and multi- stakeholder partnerships in
order to identify and examine technology needs and gaps, including on
scientific cooperation, innovation and capacity building, and also in
order to help facilitate development, transfer and dissemination of
relevant technologies for the SDGs. The meetings of the Forum will be
convened by the President of the ECOSOC before the meeting of the High
Level Political Forum under the auspices of ECOSOC or, alternatively, in
conjunction with other fora or conferences, as appropriate, taking into
account the theme to be considered and on the basis of a collaboration
with the organizers of the other fora or conference. The meetings of the
Forum will be co-chaired by two Member States and will result in a
summary of discussions elaborated by the two co-chairs, as an input to
the meetings of the High Level Political Forum, in the context of the
follow-up and review of the implementation of the Post-2015 Development
Agenda.

• The meetings of the HLPF will be informed by the summary of the
Multistakeholder Forum. The themes for the subsequent Multistakeholder
Forum on Science Technology and Innovation for the SDGs will be
considered by the High Level Political Forum on sustainable development,
taking into account expert inputs from the Task Team.

71. We reiterate that this Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals
and targets, including the means of implementation are universal,
indivisible and interlinked.

Follow-up and review

72. We commit to engage in systematic follow-up and review of
implementation of this Agenda over the next fifteen years. A robust,
voluntary, effective, participatory, transparent and integrated
follow-up and review framework will make a vital contribution to
implementation and will help countries to maximize and track progress in
implementing this Agenda in order to ensure that no one is left behind.

73. Operating at the national, regional and global levels, it will
promote accountability to our citizens, support effective international
cooperation in achieving this Agenda and foster exchanges of best
practices and mutual learning. It will mobilize support to overcome
shared challenges and identify new and emerging issues. As this is a
universal Agenda, mutual trust and understanding among all nations will
be important.

74. Follow-up and review processes at all levels will be guided by the following principles:

a. They will be voluntary and country-led, will take into account
different national realities, capacities and levels of development and
will respect policy space and priorities. As national ownership is key
to achieving sustainable development, the outcome from national level
processes will be the foundation for reviews at regional and global
levels, given that the global review will be primarily based on national
official data sources.

b. They will track progress in implementing the universal Goals and
targets, including the means of implementation, in all countries in a
manner which respects their universal, integrated and interrelated
nature and the three dimensions of sustainable development.

c. They will maintain a longer-term orientation, identify
achievements, challenges, gaps and critical success factors and support
countries in making informed policy choices. They will help mobilize the
necessary means of implementation and partnerships, support the
identification of solutions and best practices and promote coordination
and effectiveness of the international development system.

d. They will be open, inclusive, participatory and transparent for
all people and will support the reporting by all relevant stakeholders.

e. They will be people-centred, gender-sensitive, respect human
rights and have a particular focus on the poorest, most vulnerable and
those furthest behind.

f. They will build on existing platforms and processes, where these
exist, avoid duplication and respond to national circumstances,
capacities, needs and priorities. They will evolve over time, taking
into account emerging issues and the development of new methodologies,
and will minimize the reporting burden on national administrations.

g. They will be rigorous and based on evidence, informed by
country-led evaluations and data which is high-quality, accessible,
timely, reliable and disaggregated by income, sex, age, race, ethnicity,
migration status, disability and geographic location and other
characteristics relevant in national contexts.

h. They will require enhanced capacity-building support for
developing countries, including the strengthening of national data
systems and evaluation programs, particularly in African countries,
LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs and middle-income countries.

i. They will benefit from the active support of the UN system and other multilateral institutions.

75. The Goals and targets will be followed-up and reviewed using a set
of global indicators. These will be complemented by indicators at the
regional and national levels which will be developed by member states,
in addition to the outcomes of work undertaken for the development of
the baselines for those targets where national and global baseline data
does not yet exist. The global indicator framework, to be developed by
the Inter Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators, will be agreed by
the UN Statistical Commission by March 2016 and adopted thereafter by
the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly, in line with
existing mandates. This framework will be simple yet robust, address all
SDGs and targets including for means of implementation, and preserve
the political balance, integration and ambition contained therein.

76. We will support developing countries, particularly African
countries, LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs, in strengthening the capacity of
national statistical offices and data systems to ensure access to
high-quality, timely, reliable and disaggregated data. We will promote
transparent and accountable scaling-up of appropriate public-private
cooperation to exploit the contribution to be made by a wide range of
data, including earth observation and geo-spatial information, while
ensuring national ownership in supporting and tracking progress.

77. We commit to fully engage in conducting regular and inclusive
reviews of progress at sub-national, national, regional and global
levels. We will draw as far as possible on the existing network of
follow-up and review institutions and mechanisms. National reports will
allow assessments of progress and identify challenges at the regional
and global level. Along with regional dialogues and global reviews, they
will inform recommendations for follow-up at various levels.

National level

78. We encourage all member states to develop as soon as practicable
ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this
Agenda. These can support the transition to the SDGs and build on
existing planning instruments, such as national development and
sustainable development strategies, as appropriate.

79. We also encourage member states to conduct regular and inclusive
reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels which are
country-led and country-driven. Such reviews should draw on
contributions from indigenous peoples, civil society, the private sector
and other stakeholders, in line with national circumstances, policies
and priorities. National parliaments as well as other institutions can
also support these processes.

Regional level

80. Follow-up and review at the regional and sub-regional levels can, as
appropriate, provide useful opportunities for peer learning, including
through voluntary reviews, sharing of best practices and discussion on
shared targets. We welcome in this respect the cooperation of regional
and sub-regional commissions and organizations. Inclusive regional
processes will draw on national-level reviews and contribute to
follow-up and review at the global level, including at the High Level
Political Forum on sustainable development (HLPF).

81. Recognizing the importance of building on existing follow-up and
review mechanisms at the regional level and allowing adequate policy
space, we encourage all member states to identify the most suitable
regional forum in which to engage. UN regional commissions are
encouraged to continue supporting member states in this regard.

Global level

82. The HLPF will have a central role in overseeing a network of
follow-up and review processes at the global level, working coherently
with the General Assembly, ECOSOC and other relevant organs and forums,
in accordance with existing mandates. It will facilitate sharing of
experiences, including successes, challenges and lessons learned, and
provide political leadership, guidance and recommendations for
follow-up. It will promote system-wide coherence and coordination of
sustainable development policies. It should ensure that the Agenda
remains relevant and ambitious and should focus on the assessment of
progress, achievements and challenges faced by developed and developing
countries as well as new and emerging issues. Effective linkages will be
made with the follow-up and review arrangements of all relevant UN
Conferences and processes, including on LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs.
83. Follow-up and review at the HLPF will be informed by an
annual SDG Progress Report to be prepared by the Secretary General in
cooperation with the UN System, based on the global indicator framework
and data produced by national statistical systems and information
collected at the regional level. The HLPF will also be informed by the
Global Sustainable Development Report, which shall strengthen the
science-policy interface and could provide a strong evidence-based
instrument to support policy-makers in promoting poverty eradication and
sustainable development. We invite the President of ECOSOC to conduct a
process of consultations on the scope, methodology and frequency of the
Report as well as its relation to the SDG Progress Report, the outcome
of which should be reflected in the Ministerial Declaration of the HLPF
session in 2016.

84. The HLPF, under the auspices of ECOSOC, shall carry out regular
reviews, in line with Resolution 67/290. Reviews will be voluntary,
while encouraging reporting, and include developed and developing
countries as well as relevant UN entities and other stakeholders,
including civil society and the private sector. They shall be state-led,
involving ministerial and other relevant high-level participants. They
shall provide a platform for partnerships, including through the
participation of major groups and other relevant stakeholders.

85. Thematic reviews of progress on the Sustainable Development Goals,
including cross-cutting issues, will also take place at the HLPF. These
will be supported by reviews by the ECOSOC functional commissions and
other inter-governmental bodies and forums which should reflect the
integrated nature of the goals as well as the interlinkages between
them. They will engage all relevant stakeholders and, where possible,
feed into, and be aligned with, the cycle of the HLPF.

86. We welcome, as outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the
dedicated follow-up and review for the Financing for Development
outcomes as well as all the means of implementation of the SDGs which is
integrated with the follow-up and review framework of this Agenda. The
intergovernmentally agreed conclusions and recommendations of the annual
ECOSOC Forum on Financing for Development will be fed into the overall
follow-up and review of the implementation of this Agenda in the HLPF.

87. Meeting every four years under the auspices of the General Assembly,
the HLPF will provide high-level political guidance on the Agenda and
its implementation, identify progress and emerging challenges and
mobilize further actions to accelerate implementation. The next HLPF,
under the auspices of the General Assembly, will take place in 2019,
with the cycle of meetings thus reset, in order to maximize coherence
with the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review process.

88. We also stress the importance of system-wide strategic planning,
implementation and reporting in order to ensure coherent and integrated
support to implementation of the new Agenda by the UN development
system. The relevant governing bodies should take action to review such
support to implementation and to report on progress and obstacles. We
welcome the ongoing ECOSOC Dialogues on the longer term positioning of
the UN development system and look forward to taking action on these
issues, as appropriate.

89. The HLPF will support participation in follow-up and review
processes by the major groups and other relevant stakeholders in line
with Resolution 67/290. We call on these actors to report on their
contribution to the implementation of the Agenda.

90. We request the Secretary General, in consultation with Member
States, to prepare a report, for consideration at the 70th session of
the General Assembly in preparation for the 2016 meeting of the HLPF,
which outlines critical milestones towards coherent efficient, and
inclusive follow-up and review at the global level. This report should
include a proposal on the organizational arrangements for state-led
reviews at the HLPF under the auspices of ECOSOC, including
recommendations on a voluntary common reporting guidelines. It should
clarify institutional responsibilities and provide guidance on annual
themes, on a sequence of thematic reviews, and on options for periodic
reviews for the HLPF.

91. We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to achieving this Agenda and
utilizing it to the full to transform our world for the better by 2030.










United Nations


https://www.bread.org/report/2019-hunger-report




BACK TO BASICS:
How to End Hunger by 2030





2019 Hunger Report

Introduction

A national effort to end hunger
could bring our country together and this goal has in fact, already
brought the world together. Ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition
by 2030 is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted in
2015 by the governments of 193 countries, including the United States,
with support from their civil society and business sectors.


And every year, more than 100 million people from all over the
world join the middle class. This is important because this allows them
to afford more and better food.


2030 sounds audacious. But decades of victory over hunger, despite
recent setbacks, reveal a different picture. It is rapid global
progress, not any one country’s achievement, which persuades us that
ending hunger and malnutrition is possible sooner rather than later.


Global progress against hunger means the entire world—its people,
governments, and private businesses—needs to play a pivotal role in the
process. Specifically, progress on nutrition, livelihoods, gender, fragility, and climate change is crucial to ensure that the hundreds of millions of people still living with hunger have a real chance at a better life.

These five challenges require more attention to achieve a world without hunger:

Nutrition: Link Nutritious Food with Health
The
foods we consume are among the most basic ingredients of human
development—as essential as clean air and safe drinking water. All
people should have access to food that provides sufficient calories and
nutrients to promote good health.

Livelihoods: Fair Opportunities to Earn a Living
The
only way to end hunger with dignity is to enable people to earn the
income they need to provide enough healthy food for themselves and their
children.

Gender: Empower Women and Girls
Women
in every society are treated as less valuable and/or less capable.
Women and girls are the largest group of marginalized people. Yet food
security is dependent on them.

Fragility: Cultivate Peace and Justice
When
marginalized groups or people living in extreme poverty turn to
violence, hunger is very often an underlying factor. Hunger is both a
cause and an effect of the violence associated with fragile
environments.

Climate Change: Resilience for an Unpredictable Future
Populations
that are most affected by the impact of climate change are those most
likely to be hungry. Climate change is the biggest barrier to ending
hunger once and for all.


Each of us is part of the solution. In the United States, problems
are solved when people share their experiences and perspectives, and
advocate for what they believe in.


The solutions must come principally from us—everyday people living
in communities. Good policies and strong leadership can ensure
solutions leave no one behind. Democracy is the cornerstone of our
government. It gives us a voice in determining our country’s future.
But, of course, no one will hear our voice if we don’t speak up.


Bread for the World has seen the power of advocacy and citizen
engagement time and time again. Some of our efforts have transcended
bitter partisanship and overcome powerful political interests. Whether
liberal or conservative, members of Congress pay attention to voters
back home and often take action on hunger issues when asked by their
constituents.


Since our founding in 1974, Bread has been a strong voice in
solidarity with those affected by hunger and marginalized by society in
the United States and abroad. More importantly, we bring the realities
of hunger to the attention of those who are elected to represent our
priorities for U.S. policy. We also bring hunger into elections by
urging candidates to support policies that will address inequities
around the world and lead to the end of hunger and poverty.

Global Hunger Rates by Year (%)


When even a few people urge candidates and members of Congress to
better understand the reasons for hunger and help do something, they
often will.



Mobilizing stakeholders such as government, civil society, and the
private sector is crucial to ending hunger. Each plays a distinct but
interconnected role. Civil society organizations work in marginalized
and vulnerable communities. They have a role to play in calling for
better policies and ensuring accountability. Government policy can
effect long-term change and business can offer creative solutions to
problems.



Government: Creating the Political Will for Change



Ending hunger requires political will. Public policy can create
opportunities for people to free themselves from poverty and realize
their full potential. Policies have been a key driver of progress in
countries that have succeeded in reducing hunger and poverty.



In the United States, improved policies lowered the poverty rates
among elderly people. In the 1950s, half of all U.S. seniors lived in
poverty—the highest poverty rate of all demographic groups. Today,
seniors have the lowest poverty and hunger rates. Improvements in Social
Security and the establishment of Medicare were responsible for the
senior poverty rate reductions.



The countries that have made rapid progress against hunger and
have accounted for the progress globally have several things in common:
commitment at the highest levels to inclusive economic development,
sound policies, and investments in agriculture and human capital
(education and health).



From 1990 to 2015, China accounted for two-thirds of all the progress made against hunger in the world.1
Within a generation, China went from having food deficits to producing
surpluses. The hunger rate during this period was cut from 1 in 4 to 1
in 10. In Vietnam in the early 1990s, two-thirds of the population was
still living in extreme poverty, and hunger was rampant.2
Today, Vietnam is a much different place. Peace and stability, coupled
with a transformed economy, have created the foundation for dramatic
progress against extreme poverty and hunger. The hunger rate is plunging
and projected to be as low as 2 percent within a decade.3



Brazil’s Fome Zero, or Zero Hunger program, a nationwide strategy
for ending hunger and improving nutrition, was launched in 2003 with the
goal that all people would be able to access enough of the right kinds
of food 4 to meet basic nutritional needs and support health.
Fome Zero took a comprehensive approach, which included social
protection and safety nets, education, food production, health services,
drinking water, and sanitation. Hunger rates fell from just over 11
percent in 2000-2002 to less than 5 percent in just six years and to
less than 2.5 percent by 2016.5 Stunting among Brazilian
children younger than 5—an indication that they were chronically
undernourished in early childhood—was cut in half,6 from 14 percent to 7 percent, between 1996 and 2007.



Ghana reduced hunger from 47 percent in 19907 to 6.1 percent in 2015-17.8
As with the previous examples, investments in agriculture, sound
policies, and social protection programs to reach vulnerable
communities, especially women, were all needed to make this progress
possible.


Countries that have the political will to end hunger, but few
resources, can benefit from support from the international community.
U.S. policies and programs have contributed to progress against hunger
in many countries. India and China, for example, worked with experts in
agricultural science who were primarily from the United States. Foreign
aid has brought thousands of scientists from Asia, Africa, and Latin
America to the United States to study agriculture and natural resources
management. U.S. expertise in agricultural science and technology has
its roots in 19th-century efforts to establish a system of land-grant
universities and colleges in every state.


U.S. development assistance also includes efforts to reduce
hunger. Food for Peace, an emergency food aid program, has provided
meals to more than 3 billion people since its inception in 1954.9
More recently, Feed the Future has targeted assistance to smallholder
farmers in some of the poorest countries. It was established a decade
ago in response to a devastating spike in the prices of staple foods
that caused malnutrition among tens of millions of people.



Policies and programs can also cause harm and make it much more
difficult to end hunger. Racism, including structural racism, has had a
particularly significant impact on inequity in the United States. It has
created and sustained higher levels of hunger among people of
color—keeping us from reaching our goal of ending hunger. Laws and
structures that perpetuate inequity must be repealed or dismantled.



Civil Society: On the Ground Advocates



In this report, civil society refers to not-for-profit
organizations that work directly with people affected by hunger and
poverty. Civil society groups come in many shapes and sizes, from
shoestring operations to foundations sustained by large endowments. They
include organizations of different political leanings, groups motivated
by secular or faith-based values, clusters of organizations under one
umbrella, and individuals not affiliated with groups but working toward
the same goals.



Governments and the private sector need partners in civil society
to end hunger. Academic researchers are an important part of civil
society—because without their research, we could miss the connections
among issues that are vital to understanding and solving them. For
example, research identified education for women and girls as the
largest single factor behind the significant progress against child
malnutrition in recent decades. The quantitative evidence showed that
access to education for women was far more important in reducing
malnutrition than having access to additional food. While advocates
value women’s education as a human right in itself, we could not have
guessed how much impact it would prove to have on childhood
malnutrition.


It is an open question whether we would have the SDGs without
civil societies pushing their respective governments to commit to them.
Nobody does more than civil society to point out the repugnance of
hunger in a world with enough for all. Civil society is generally much
quicker than government to call the private sector out for violations of
public trust.



Local civil society groups support communities in difficult and
complex environments. Aid workers and advocates have the insight and
practical information needed to navigate the chaos of armed conflict or a
cholera epidemic because in many cases they themselves grew up in the
affected community. For example, as conflict among armed Somali factions
continued for years, community women’s groups were often the only ones
able to get food to people trapped by the fighting.



Local people are experts on what works best in their own
communities. They have a pulse on how programs supported by
international donors are working and which issues are likely to be
controversial.





Private Sector: Ending Hunger Is Good Business



Ending hunger is good for business, and many business leaders
already recognize this. They can contribute by explaining this to their
customers, suppliers, and colleagues, and through leading by example.


Paul Pohlman, former CEO of Unilever and a member of the Business
and Sustainable Development Commission, encourages peer companies to
learn from Unilever’s experience. “At Unilever,” he explains, “we have
helped hundreds of thousands of smallholder farmers improve agricultural
practices, enabling them to double or even triple their yields.
Smallholder farmers improve their livelihoods; suppliers gain increased
security of supply with improved quality; and we reduce volatility and
uncertainty with a more secure and sustainable supply chain.”10


The Business and Sustainable Development Commission was launched
in early 2016, soon after the SDGs were adopted. Led by the chief
executives of some of the world’s largest companies, the commission
defines its mission as making the case “for why business leaders should
seize upon sustainable development as the greatest opportunity of a
lifetime.”11 A study sponsored by the commission showed that
using sustainable business models generates a seven-fold return on food
and agriculture sector investments.12



For example, in low-income countries, up to 40 percent of the
food produced spoils after harvest due to a lack of safe storage. Much
of this loss could be prevented with small metal storage facilities,
which a large business can purchase at economies of scale and sell to
farmers who need them at a price they can afford that also generates a
small profit for the business.



According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization,13
agricultural production must increase by 70 percent by 2050 to keep
pace with global population growth. The best opportunities for scaling
up production are in developing countries, including those in
sub-Saharan Africa. So far, there has been very little international
private investment in agricultural productivity in developing countries.
Currently, the largest share of on-farm investment comes from
smallholders themselves, who have few resources to spare for it.14



The SDGs would get a boost if Pohlman and likeminded business
leaders can persuade peers to join them, using their argument that
sustainability benefits everyone.



Public policies can both prevent abuses by the private sector and
create opportunities for private sector contributions. For example, in
the United States, the Enrichment Act of 1942 required all grain
products to be fortified with thiamin, riboflavin, and iron. The private
sector then stepped up, and fortification contributed significantly to
fighting micronutrient deficiency in the U.S. The private sector has
long been a partner in other initiatives aimed at preventing and
treating malnutrition. Ready-to-use therapeutic food, such as
Plumpy’Nut®, developed by the French company Nutriset in 1996,
revolutionized the treatment of severely malnourished children. It has
saved countless lives and continues to save lives today.



The private sector can contribute to ending hunger by paying
workers a living wage. When profits are rising while wages are not, it
is appropriate to ask whether businesses are reneging on their
responsibilities as members of society and partners in the social
contract. The social contract is truly broken if workers do not get a
fair deal.



Global Goals: A Roadmap to End Hunger



Every year, governments that signed onto the SDGs meet to assess
progress. The meetings also draw the world’s largest for-profit
businesses and many not-for-profit organizations. They come to exchange
experiences and ideas on how to achieve the goals, to make it clear that
they want to work with governments and intend to hold them accountable.



The SDGs serve as our impetus for collective action and offer a clear definition for ending hunger. Goal 2: Zero Hunger
calls for ensuring “access by all people, in particular the poor and
people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious,
and sufficient food all year round.” 1 The word “nutritious”
is important because hunger is more than a lack of calories. While
hundreds of millions of people do not consistently get enough calories,
the number of people who are malnourished because they lack essential
vitamins and minerals, a condition sometimes described as “hidden
hunger,” is estimated at 2 billion.2



As a package, the SDGs make it clear that ending hunger depends
on solving other problems such as poor health, gender inequity, and
climate change. Poor health affects people’s ability to earn a decent
living and support their families. Goal 3: Good Health and Well-Being seeks to ensure better health—for example, by preventing or curing diseases. Goal 5: Gender Equity
includes improving the social and legal environments that sustain
pervasive discrimination and violence based on gender. Climate change
affects agricultural production, threatening farmers’ ability to supply
food for everyone, so there is Goal 13: Climate Action.
Sustainable progress—progress that is intended to be, and is capable of
being, enduring—depends on addressing all of the issues in an
interconnected manner.


The level of ambition in the SDGs is the legacy of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs, which ended in 2015, focused on
developing countries. Targets were ambitious and included cutting the
hunger and extreme poverty rates in half. The world met the goal of
halving poverty but fell just short of the hunger target. Although it is
impossible to say exactly how much of the progress was due to the MDGs,
it is clear that they were a catalyst for cooperation to tackle some of
the most complex human problems. The SDGs, which end in 2030, are
playing the same role today.



Each chapter in the 2019 Hunger Report, Back to Basics, includes stories that illuminate the main message of this report: everyone from government leaders to millennials has a role to play in ending hunger.

Throughout
this report stories of individuals and groups daring to make a
difference are shared. Young evangelicals. A rape survivor in Nigeria. Low-income people in Asheville, North Carolina. Every individual voice is important and, collectively, unstoppable.



As cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead, who traveled all over
the world studying human societies, put it: “Never doubt that a small
group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it
is the only thing that ever has.”


Endnotes: Introduction


  1. World Food Program (June 30, 2016), “10 Facts About Nutrition in China.”
  2. Linh Hoang Vu (April 7, 2015), “How We Measure Poverty in Vietnam,” The World Bank.
  3. Brigit
    Meade and Karen Thome (June 2017), International Food Security
    Assessment, 2017-2027, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research
    Service.
  4. FAO, The Fome Zero (Zero Hunger Program).
  5. FAO, The State of Food Security in the World 2015, p. 29.
  6. ( … )

  7. View all report endnotes  

Chapter 1: Livelihoods
Fair Opportunities to Earn a Living


Livelihoods Around the World

Engaging young people and
giving them reason to believe that a more prosperous world is possible
depends on them earning a living. Making a decent income is key to
ending hunger and poverty and promoting dignity.


In developing countries, hunger and extreme poverty are
generally concentrated in rural areas, and most rural areas are home to
large numbers of adolescents and young adults who need jobs. Lack of
livelihoods often leads to migration to urban areas or across borders.


Not only is increasing agricultural productivity central to
producing more food and more nutritious food, but it has also proven to
be the fastest way of reducing poverty and increasing economic growth,
setting in motion more opportunities for workers in other sectors.


The world has made dramatic progress against hunger in recent
decades—a fact that is not always recognized. Sustained economic growth
has proven vital. But finishing the job of ending chronic hunger and
malnutrition will require more than sustaining economic growth and
continuing policies and initiatives that have been successful thus
far—vital as both these factors are. It means, in the words of the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), leaving no one behind.


People are left behind for a variety of reasons, but perhaps the
primary reason is that what they earn from their work cannot meet their
basic needs and those of their children. They don’t have sustainable
livelihoods.


People living with physical or mental disabilities are a good
example of a sizeable group with few options to make a living. In some
countries, the unemployment rate for people with disabilities is as high
as 80 to 90 percent,2 explaining why people with
disabilities have been referred to as the poorest of the poor. Social
protection systems in low- and middle-income countries are often not
extensive and cover far fewer people. The International Labor
Organization (ILO) reports that around the world, only about one
disabled person in four receives a disability benefit.


Excluding people with disabilities from education and the labor
market, under the assumption that they cannot contribute, is costly in
both human terms and financial terms; the ILO estimates this cost at
between 3 percent and 7 percent of GDP.


Most people around the world who endure chronic hunger are
smallholder farmers and landless agricultural workers who live mainly in
countries with fewer resources. They grow food for survival on small
plots of land and earn modest incomes by selling in local markets. They
eat mostly staple crops, such as rice, corn, and cassava, which means
that their diets often lack essential nutrients. This is one reason that
in most countries, there is a noticeable gap between rural and urban
areas when it comes to childhood stunting; stunting rates are usually 10
percent to 20 percent higher in rural areas.


South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa have the highest rates of
hunger. Farming in both regions is done largely without the benefit of
modern equipment or inputs. Women make up a sizeable share of the
agricultural workforce, producing most of the food crops their
communities consume. Men often migrate in search of paid work in urban
areas. In the poorest households, children, especially girls, are
frequently kept out of school to help support the family.


Countries succeed in reducing poverty by diversifying their
economies. An initial focus on agricultural development produces the
most rapid progress: growth in agriculture has been shown to be two to
four times more effective in reducing poverty than growth in other
sectors. This explains why historically industrialized countries began
by modernizing their agricultural sector. Doing so enables workers to
move out of low-productivity agriculture as new opportunities open in
manufacturing and services. In the United States, for example, more than
half the labor force was employed in agriculture in the late 19th
century, but less than 2 percent work as farmers today.


The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought a significant
improvement in agricultural productivity that ended famines in China and
India and dramatically increased crop yields and made more food
available at lower cost there and in other countries in Asia and Latin
America. The U.S. government and U.S. philanthropies such as the
Rockefeller Foundation were among the funders of the agricultural
research that produced the Green Revolution, helping save millions of
lives and enabling countries to feed millions of additional people.


Now, when African countries are among those hit hardest by
malnutrition and climate change, the need for investments in agriculture
is more critical than ever. Climate resilience and healthy diets are
essential to both current and future food systems, so the Green
Revolution’s emphasis on productivity must be combined with techniques
that promote nutrition and sustainable forms of productivity growth.
Most smallholder farmers in Africa continue to work with less productive
equipment and methods, such as plowing without the help of oxen or
machinery. All countries must now transition to a low-carbon economy, so
low-carbon strategies to improve agricultural productivity are
critically important.


As mentioned earlier, today’s global youth population is
enormous and continues to grow rapidly. Projections indicate that by
2050, Africa will have twice as many young people as today. The need for
jobs is already acute: between 10 million and 12 million Africans reach
working age every year, and countries are struggling to create jobs for
even a portion of them.


Improving agricultural productivity and enabling young people to
earn income are the key to reducing hunger and spurring economic
growth. So it makes sense to focus on employing young people in more
productive agricultural ventures. Many younger people have moved to
urban areas or have left to seek work abroad. But the cities do not
offer many opportunities for people with limited education and skills.
In low-income countries, as a group, only 40 percent  of those of
secondary-school age actually enroll in secondary school. A country that
wants to realize the potential of its large numbers of youth must make
long-term investments in human capital. Educated workers will drive
changes in the structure of the economy.


Nutrition must also be a top priority in these human capital
investments. As we explain elsewhere in this report, far too many
children and adults alive today are affected by stunting–a condition
caused by malnutrition in earliest childhood (before age 2). It causes
lifelong health problems and limits people’s educational attainment and
even their lifetime earnings. Put simply, stunted children do not
achieve their full potential, and that affects entire countries. As
former World Bank President Jim Yong Kim once warned, “You cannot walk
into the future with 20, 30, 40 percent stunting rates and expect to
succeed.”


World leaders are at a critical juncture, according to a recent report by the Chicago Council of Global Affairs, Youth for Growth: Transforming Economies through Agriculture.
“With proactive measures to meet food security and employment needs, a
booming youth population has the potential to transform entire regions,
making them more prosperous, stable, and secure. If they can be properly
equipped with the requisite skills and engaged in productive
employment, this growing cohort of young people can be a key asset for
social and economic transformation. However, if not managed properly,
this rising youth population could be a major contributor to social
disruption, political instability, and conflict.”10 Read more from Chapter 1: Livelihoods.


Livelihoods in the United States

Chapter 2: Nutrition
Link Nutritious Food with Health


Stunting, Wasting, and Global Health

Maternal and child nutrition is a critical factor
in healthy human development. Nutrition is a lifelong necessity for the
health and well-being of individuals, their communities, and ultimately
their countries. The right nutrients at the very beginning are
especially important, and national governments and international
development agencies now recognize this as a top concern.


The necessary investments in nutrition amount to a small fraction of
the cost of the lifelong consequences of early childhood malnutrition,
which include poor health, difficulty learning, and lower productivity.
These and other problems can be prevented with specific, cost-effective
nutrition actions and improvements in agriculture that enable all
households to have access to nutritious diets.


The costs of malnutrition are staggering. Everyone in society
loses when this condition—the prevention and treatment of which are well
understood—is allowed to persist. Because the costs include lower labor
productivity and additional healthcare expenses, countries with high
burdens of malnutrition sacrifice GDP growth. But no one pays more
dearly than malnourished mothers and their children—too often with their
lives. Malnutrition is associated with nearly half of all preventable
child deaths. Women with anemia, a form of malnutrition, are twice as
likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth.


It is not possible to treat hunger and malnutrition as separate
problems. They are inextricably linked. The estimated 2 billion people
with “hidden hunger” suffer from nutritional deficiencies because their
limited diets don’t have a wide enough variety of nutrient-dense foods.
When meals consist largely of a staple crop such as rice or maize,
people are simply not getting the vitamins and minerals needed for good
health. When researchers sought to identify the causes of the total
global burden of disease, they found that six of the top nine risk
factors are associated with poor-quality diets.


Undernutrition linked with hunger can come in multiple forms,
including short-term acute undernutrition, also called wasting, and
longer-term chronic undernutrition, known as stunting if it occurs in
early childhood. Stunting and wasting have several common risk factors,
but aid workers have traditionally viewed them as occurring under
different circumstances.


Wasting has been siloed as a humanitarian issue that is primarily a
problem during conflict or emergencies. But, in fact, the majority of
children suffering from wasting do not live in such environments, and
many countries that have been at peace and free of significant natural
disasters have nonetheless recorded high rates of childhood wasting,
year after year.


Stunting and wasting are both devastating, with significant
impacts on children’s health and cognitive development, hindering their
educational achievement, their economic productivity, and their odds of
freeing themselves from poverty. Together, stunting and wasting are
implicated in at least 2 million deaths. Read more from Chapter 2: Nutrition.


In the United States, Nutrition Makes an Enormous Difference


The number of people in the U.S. who are food insecure—whose
access to adequate food is limited by lack of money—has exceeded 40
million for the entire past decade.
USDA Economic Research Service


Federal nutrition programs help protect the health of tens of
millions of children and adults every year. This is because hunger is a
health issue in two ways: hunger and food insecurity lead to poor
health, and poor health increases the risk of hunger and food
insecurity. Through an array of nutrition programs and a vast network of
charitable organizations offering food assistance, healthcare providers
have resources to support patients whose conditions are exacerbated by
lack of access to healthy foods.


While this is far too large a number, it is a significant
improvement over the number at the turn of the 21st century. In 2000,
the global stunting rate was 32.6 percent, or 198 million children. In
2017, the global stunting rate had declined to 21.9 percent —or just
less than one in four children.


In 1967, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy toured the Mississippi Delta, one
of the most neglected regions of the country. He was asked to visit by
activist Marianne Wright Edelman, founder of the Children’s Defense
Fund, who told him during a Senate hearing, “If you really want to
understand hunger in America, you need to leave D.C. and come with me to
Mississippi.”32


The hunger Kennedy encountered disturbed him deeply. He wept as he
cradled an undernourished child in his arms, and the child’s lifeless
eyes made him ashamed to witness such hardship in his own country, the
wealthiest country in the world.33


Since then, the extreme hunger and malnutrition Kennedy witnessed
has been eliminated in the United States, including in the Delta and
other regions with deep poverty. The credit largely goes to the federal
nutrition programs that were established starting in the 1960s and
continue to evolve today. The programs serve as our population’s safety
net against hunger and malnutrition.


They help ease the stress of having to choose between health care
and food, or between paying the rent and shopping for groceries. These
programs have been operating for decades, and longitudinal research has
shown that their long-term impacts include a lower risk of poverty,
improved health and education, better jobs, and higher lifetime
earnings.34


Nutrition programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance
Program (SNAP), in combination with other economic security programs,
contribute to moving tens of millions of people over the poverty line
every year. They also boost the incomes of tens of millions of
additional people, bringing them closer to getting out of poverty. “In
2017… about 81 million people had incomes below the poverty line,”
explains Danilo Trisi of the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
“Counting [government] benefits and taxes lowers the number by 36
million (or 44 percent).”35


In a wealthy country, with a GDP of more than $19 trillion in
2017,36 the fact that 81 million people had incomes below the poverty
line is shocking, particularly because the poverty line is not an
indication of what is actually costs to meet one’s basic needs. For
2019, it is about $25,000 for a family of four. The stark inequalities
of our economy are tempered by federal nutrition programs and other
programs such as Medicaid. But these programs do not reach everyone who
is eligible—and in 2017, 45 million people participated in federal
programs but still lived below the poverty line.


The number of people in the United States who are food
insecure—whose access to adequate food is limited by lack of money—has
exceeded 40 million for the entire past decade.37 Poverty
puts people at higher risk of obesity as well as hunger, which may seem
paradoxical unless one understands that the conditions that are common
in food insecure ouseholds—episodic food shortages, reliance on high
energy-dense foods to stretch food dollars, stress, and depression—are
all also risk factors for weight gain.


SNAP is the first line of defense against food insecurity, with
nearly 20 million households receiving benefits in an average month.
Half of the beneficiaries are children.38 The average allotment is only about $1.40 per person per meal.39 However, few households can make the monthly benefit actually last the entire month.40


“I watered down the apple juice. I watered down my daughter’s
formula. We scraped the seeds out of a Halloween jack-o’-lantern so that
we could dry them to eat,” explained Renee Musser in an interview for
an earlier edition of the Hunger Report.41


People often turn to other sources of food assistance when SNAP
benefits run out. There is a vast infrastructure of emergency food
providers in communities across the country operating mostly with
private resources. Feeding America, the umbrella organization of the
nation’s largest food banks, estimates that its network provides 4.3
billion meals each year.42


The importance of the charitable food system goes well beyond the
food it provides. In a typical month, 2 million volunteers around the
nation dedicate more than 8.4 million hours of service.43
These are the faces of the anti-hunger infrastructure in their
communities, while government programs are virtually invisible. SNAP
benefits are accessed with the swipe of a debit card; the transaction
looks the same as any other involving a debit or credit card. Without
the visibility of the charitable volunteers, the rest of the U.S.
population could more easily underestimate the degree of food insecurity
in their communities. Read more from Chapter 2: Nutrition.

Endnotes for Chapter 2: Nutrition

  1. Jim
    Yong Kim (December 6, 2017), 27th Annual Martin J. Foreman Memorial
    Lecture, delivered at the International Food Policy Research Institute.
  2. Mark Tran (June 5, 2013), “Malnutrition identified as root cause of 3.1 million deaths among children,” The Guardian.
  3. Huizhong Wu (March 20, 2018), “Anemia doubles risk of deaths for pregnant women, study finds,” CNN.
  4. Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition (2017), Healthy diets for all: A key to meeting the SDGs.
  5. ( … )

  6. View all report endnotes  

Chapter 3: Gender
Empower Women and Girls


Leave No Woman Behind

Continued discrimination against women and girls
would make it impossible to end hunger and poverty. Women farmers
produce much of the food consumed in low-income countries, but gender
discrimination lowers their productivity. Women are expected to complete
most household chores, which are not only unpaid, but more difficult
and time-consuming in low-income households without amenities such as
running water and electricity. Increased investments in education would
make it possible for more girls to realize their full potential and end
cycles of intergenerational poverty.


A key factor in ending hunger is ending pervasive gender
inequities. In 2013, Bread for the World Institute’s 2013 Hunger Report,
Within Reach, featured Gilma, a 5-year-old girl living in the Dry
Corridor region of Guatemala—an area that suffers frequent droughts due
to climate change. During a severe drought in 2012, U.S. food aid
provided a buffer between families and hunger, but the aid delivered to
Gilma’s family was not enough for them all.


In many societies, women and girls are expected to eat last, eat
less, and in times of scarcity not eat at all. Gilma is the only girl
among the five children in her family. To put it bluntly, the boys got
to eat while she starved. By the time aid workers with Save the
Children—the organization distributing the food aid—learned of her
situation, Gilma had already reached a deadly stage of hunger: severe
acute malnutrition. Gilma nearly died. Not because she is a poor child
in a region where food is often scarce, but because she is a girl.


In more than half the countries in the world, women do not have
land ownership rights equal to those of men. In these countries, a
widow or daughter usually cannot inherit land upon the death of her
husband or father. Countries that have reformed their laws to grant
land-tenure rights to women have found that significant improvements in
health, nutrition, and education follow for both women and their
children. In Nepal, children are 33 percent less likely to be severely
underweight in households where women own land.


Inequities based on gender also include less access to other
resources such as seeds, fertilizer, and credit. The U.N. Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that if all women smallholder
farmers had equal access to productive resources, they could produce 20
to 30 percent more food, and between 100 million and 150 million fewer
people would be hungry.


Education is one of the most powerful drivers of progress against
hunger, and the education of girls has paid off in all regions of the
world. Improvements in education reduce child hunger. In an analysis of
63 developing countries, improvements in women’s education was credited
for 44 percent of the reduction in child hunger over 25 years—more than
the 26 percent decrease due to increases in food availability. Each
additional year of primary school boosts women’s wages in adulthood by
10 to 20 percent, and each additional year of secondary school by 15 to
25 percent.


Men also increase their earning potential with more education. But
in the effort to improve the health and standard of living of children
and families, women’s education is more important. Research from all
parts of the world shows that women are more likely to spend their
earnings on their children’s education, health care, and nutrition.
Their priorities are different from men’s, which is one reason
development programs that include cash assistance generally distribute
money directly to mothers.


In low-income countries, despite progress, girls are still less
likely to be in school than boys. This is particularly true of secondary
school. In some situations, girls risk their lives to get an education.
In October 2012, Pakistani schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai, now a
world-renowned advocate for girls’ education usually known as simply
“Malala,” was shot in the head by a Taliban gunman. Yousafzai’s family
is from Pakistan’s SWAT Valley, a conflict-affected region that is a
stronghold of the Pakistani Taliban. The Taliban are extremists who
oppose women’s education. The gunman stormed the school bus Malala
Yousafzai was on and threatened to kill every girl on board if no one
would identify the one who was “making trouble.”


Malala recovered from the shooting. In 2014, when she was 17, she
became the youngest-ever Nobel Peace Prize laureate for courageously
standing up to extremists and championing the rights of girls. The same
year, 276 school girls in northern Nigeria were abducted by members of
the terror group Boko Haram, who also oppose educating girls in the
belief that women should not think independently. These incidents
occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, respectively, which have
the largest gender gaps in education and, not coincidentally, the
highest hunger rates.


Gender inequities hurt everyone—men, women, and children. A 2015
report by the McKinsey Global Institute concluded that gender inequality
costs as much as $28 trillion annually in lost global GDP. That amount
is the size of the economies of the United States and China combined. A
world where so many people are hungry and poor clearly cannot afford
gender discrimination. Read more from Chapter 3: Gender.


In the United States, Gender Equity Requires More Political Power


Some of the most glaring instances of gender discrimination in the
United States occur in the workplace. U.S. policymakers have been slow
to respond, and when they do, their actions have generally fallen short
of what is actually needed. Because women are breadwinners or
co-breadwinners in most households, pay discrimination and other
workplace biases threaten the food security of many families. Improving
our economic system so that it works for everyone calls for a more
equitable distribution of political power between men and women.


Women earn less than men for doing the same work. This is true in all 20 of the most common occupations for women.27
In female-dominated fields, such as nursing assistants and preschool
and kindergarten teachers, men on average are paid a higher wage. Women
make up approximately 90 percent of the U.S. home healthcare workforce,
but men doing the same work doing the same work are paid more.
Nationwide, counting workers in all occupations, women are paid 22
percent less than male peers. The gender wage gap is even larger for
women of color.


The gender wage gap is not due to outside factors such as having
less education or living in areas with a lower cost of living—the 22
percent is after controlling for race and ethnicity, education, and
location.28 This means that women must work the equivalent of
an additional 13 weeks each year to have the same income as a male
counterpart.


The Equal Pay Act of 1963 was supposed to require equal pay for
equal work, but loopholes in the law make it easy to avoid compliance.
In 1963, when U.S. President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act,
women were paid 59 cents for every dollar that men were paid.29
There has been some progress, but if progress continues at its average
rate from 1963 until today, the gender pay gap will close in 2059.
Progress has been slower since 2000 than between 1963 and 1999, and if
we use this more recent rate of progress to see when gender pay equity
will arrive, we get … 2119.30 You read that right: at the present rate of progress, it will take a century to close the pay gap.


The Paycheck Fairness Act is a legislative proposal that would
update the Equal Pay Act, closing the loopholes that permit employers to
pay different wages to men and women who do the same job and have the
same level of experience. This bill was first introduced in 1997. It has
been reintroduced several times in the years since, but it has never
cleared both houses of Congress.


Equal pay for women would have a profound impact on poverty in our
country. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research reported in 2017 that
equal pay would reduce the poverty rate by more than half, from from 8
to 4 percent.31 Women of color would benefit, especially,
because the gender wage gap is substantially higher for communities of
color. White women who work full-time, year-round have an earnings ratio
with their white male counterparts of 77 percent. Black women who work
full-time, year-round are paid 61 percent of what white men are paid,
indigenous women 58 percent, and Latinas 53 percent.32


Education should be an equalizer of wage gaps. But obtaining more
education will not close the gender wage gap. Women already earn high
school diplomas, bachelor’s degrees, and graduate degrees at higher
rates than men, and this has been true for some time now. In fact, girls
are more likely to graduate from high school than boys in every state.33


Becoming a mother worsens the gender wage gap. Becoming a father, on
the other hand, increases a man’s earning power. Mothers with
full-time, year-round jobs are paid 71 cents for every dollar that
fathers are paid.34 Mothers are the sole or primary breadwinner in more
than 40 percent of all families, and a co-breadwinner in another 20
percent.35 All children who rely on their mother’s income to
pay the bills are at greater risk of food insecurity. In 2017, 5.6
million children with working mothers lived below the poverty line. If
the mothers had had equal pay, there would have been 3.1 million such
children—not a small number, but a lot less than 5.6 million. Nearly 26
million children, in poor, near-poor, and higher-income families
combined, would have benefited from equal pay.36


Single-parent households led by women have one of the highest poverty rates of all groups:


34 percent in 2017, compared to 16 percent for families headed by a
single father.37 The poverty rate for single-parent families headed by
African American women, Latinas, and Indigenous women (37 percent, 41
percent, and 42 percent, respectively) are higher than for white women
(29 percent).38 Equal pay would cut the poverty rate for single mothers
in half, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.39


Women are more likely to hold low-paying jobs than men, which
exacerbates the wage inequity between women and men. There has been
little progress on reducing the U.S. economy’s high levels of job
segregation by gender and race. This is especially true for women of
color, who are overrepresented in nearly all lower-paying jobs.


Nearly half of all home care workers are women of color. Home care
workers, who provide health care and personal assistance for seniors and
people with disabilities, are one of the fastest-growing U.S.
occupations. These workers have always been disproportionately women of
color. The median pay of home care workers is slightly more than $23,000
a year. That is not enough to move a family of four over the poverty
line. More than half of all home care workers receive some type of
federal benefit, and nearly one-third receive nutrition assistance.40


Seventy percent of restaurant servers are women. Servers are paid
what’s known as a “tipped wage,” a federally established floor that has
been set at $2.13 an hour since 1991. Servers are three times as likely
to be living in poverty as the rest of the U.S. workforce.41 Read more from Chapter 3: Gender.

Endnotes for Chapter 3: Gender

  1. Malala Yousafzai (July 12, 2013), address to United Nations Youth Assembly.
  2. Grow Africa (2016), Smallholder Working Group Briefing Paper—Women Smallholders.
  3. Landesa (February 22, 2016), “The Law of the Land: Women’s Rights to Land.”
  4. United
    States Agency for International Development: Land Links (December 1,
    2016), Fact Sheet: Land Tenure and Women’s Empowerment.
  5. ( … )

  6. View all report endnotes  

Chapter 4: Climate Change
Resilience for an Unpredictable Future


Climate Change Threatens the Goal of
Ending Global Hunger

Building resilience is paramount
as the effects of climate change become more severe and affect more
people. World hunger has been gradually declining over the past several
decades, but increased over the last several years. Climate change was a
prominent cause of this reversal. The world cannot end hunger without
slowing climate change and identifying affordable strategies to respond
to its impacts.


Low-income countries suffered from climate change before others,
have the fewest resources to invest in protecting their people and
economies, and did least to cause the problem. Climate change is a
leading cause of the rise in global hunger seen in the past three
years—countries cannot afford to identify and implement solutions to
this wide-scale and unprecedented threat to agriculture and health.


Climate change may prove to be the most enduring of all
challenges to ending hunger. Some of the hungriest areas of the world
are the most exposed. Droughts and storms of historic intensity have
become the norm. In 2017, extreme climate events—mainly
drought—triggered major hunger crises in 23 countries. Tens of millions
of people required urgent food assistance, two-thirds of them in Africa.


The world is running out of time to avert catastrophic impacts,
according to a 2018 report by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC). If carbon dioxide emissions are not reduced
substantially by 2030, people will be displaced at rapidly accelerating
rates—essentially creating hundreds of millions of climate refugees.


In both tropical and temperate regions, crop yields are on the
decline,  whether countries are affected by conflict or not. Evidence
shows that rising levels of carbon dioxide reduce the nutritional
content of staple grains, such as rice, wheat, and maize—the
cornerstones of diets around the world.  A team of public health
researchers estimates that climate change could increase child stunting
rates by 30 to 50 percent by 2050. This is primarily because people in
areas affected by climate change produce less and less food as
conditions deteriorate.


Unless the world takes effective action in time, the increasing
frequency and severity of climate-related disasters will destroy more
and more crops and livestock herds. Waves of rural people will be forced
to flee to crowded cities or other countries.


Climate change is a significant but underappreciated reason
people seek to cross the U.S. southern border from Mexico.  Droughts in
the Dry Corridor region of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras have
gotten longer and more intense. In 2015-2016, for example, 3.6 million
people received humanitarian assistance during a severe and prolonged
drought.


Researchers reported in 2018 that there are now twice as many
climate-related disasters each year as there were in the early 1990s. 
People who experience hunger the most tend to live in rural areas of
low- and middle-income countries where they must rely on their own crop
production to feed their families. Extreme conditions associated with
climate change, such as floods, drought, and crop damaging temperatures,
harm people not only by reducing the amount of food they are able to
harvest and eat, but also by reducing their incomes and driving up food
prices. In 2017, drought in Ethiopia caused the price of maize to
suddenly increase by 30 percent,  while Pakistan’s unprecedented
flooding in 2010 devastated the national wheat crop and drove prices up
by 50 percent.


Smallholder farmers are affected greatly by climate change. They
are vulnerable when natural disasters strike, such as floods, and
life-sustaining harvests fail. They have little to no savings that could
serve as a buffer. Nearly all of their cash income is spent on food. If
they own anything, it is often livestock, which are very vulnerable in
conditions where even plants cannot thrive.


The burden of climate change falls especially hard on women and
girls—the chief suppliers of water for their families. Women in Africa
and Asia walk an average of 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) daily to collect
it.  Climate change exacerbates water shortages—and already, according
to the World Bank, 1.6 billion people live in countries with water
scarcity. Climate change could cause this number to double in the next
couple of decades.


As a result of the water scarcity, women are forced to walk
farther to collect it for cooking and other chores. Water is a
necessity, and the task requires the help of everyone. This may include
young girls and elderly women alike. Pregnant women and even women
recovering from illness may be called upon to help. This unpaid labor
leaves women with less time to earn money, care for children, study, or
rest.


The effects of climate change can occur so gradually that people
may not realize what has happened until several years later.
Slow-motion change is as catastrophic as natural disasters for people
who depend on their own food production to meet most or all of their
needs. Rising sea levels in Bangladesh have destroyed coastal rice
growing areas because the increased concentration of salt poisons the
soil.  In the Sahel region of Africa, desertification has forced
pastoralists to abandon their usual grazing routes. The shortage of
resources caused by climate change sometimes leads to conflict, and in
the Sahel, pastoralist groups arriving in areas where farmers have
already settled has meant violent clashes over the depleted resources.


When governments either cannot or will not respond effectively
to problems caused by climate change, all too often the result is
conflict, hunger crises, or both. Syria’s disastrous civil war has more
to do with climate change than people might expect. The conflict broke
out against the backdrop of a devastating drought that lasted from 2006
until 2010. The drought destroyed the livelihoods of more than half of
the country’s farmers and herders—and by 2009, 80 percent of all the
cattle in the entire country had died. Waves of people fled Syria’s
rural areas to try to earn income in urban centers. The Syrian
government’s ineffectual response to the food security crisis caused by
the drought  fueled longstanding political grievances, as did
overcrowding in the cities. The government of Syria did not respond to
the suffering caused by the intersection of climate change and
hunger—setting in motion one of the worst humanitarian disasters since
World War II.
Read more from Chapter 4: Climate Change.


U.S. Jobs to Fight Climate Change and Hunger


Low-income communities are the most vulnerable to climate
change, especially communities of color. To minimize the effects of
climate change, the United States needs to invest in improving the
national infrastructure and in decarbonizing our energy supply by
replacing fossil fuels with clean-energy alternatives. The good news is
that it is possible to accomplish both these tasks while simultaneously
strengthening the economy by creating millions of new, fairly paid jobs.


In the decade leading up to Hurricane Katrina, the number of
major weather-related disasters in the United States increased by
twothirds.24 The devastating impacts of Katrina should have
changed the conversation about climate change and how to respond to it.
It may have done so for some U.S. officials and residents, but any sense
of urgency turned out to be fragmented and short-lived.


In 2012, Hurricane Sandy slammed into states along the Northeast
Coast, leaving 7.5 million households and businesses in the region
without power.25 New York City had a record storm surge of 13
feet that flooded the subway system in lower Manhattan. The
Metropolitan Transit Authority estimated that the storm caused nearly $5
billion in infrastructure damage.26


2017 was the country’s worst hurricane season yet—in terms of money,
but also in loss of life and the number of people who were displaced.
Hurricanes Irma and Maria were Category 5, the most powerful, and
Hurricane Harvey was Category 4. It was the first time on record that
three or more Category 4 storms occurred in a single year, but the
increasing frequency of such ferocious storms is leading climate
scientists to describe this as the new normal.27

In 2018, Hurricanes Florence and Michael caused historic levels of destruction in the Carolinas and the Florida Panhandle.

According to climate scientists, climate change meant that Hurricane
Florence brought 50 percent more rain than it otherwise would have.28
The evidence continues to mount, and it is difficult at this point for
anyone to make a logical argument that climate change is not real.

People of lower economic means suffer the most when major natural
disasters hit. They tend to live in neighborhoods with a high
concentration of poverty. The Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans, the
city’s poorest neighborhood, sustained the most severe damage from
Hurricane Katrina. Nearly everyone who lived in the Lower Ninth Ward was
African American,29 and racial discrimination was a primary
reason for the neglect of their community, including its infrastructure
and construction. In Houston, low-income African American communities
also lost far more than upper-income white neighborhoods. The reason is
clear: Houston is one of the most racially segregated cities in the
nation, and African American communities are concentrated in the most
flood-prone areas of the city.30

Hurricanes are an example of climate change’s sudden events.
Sea-level rise, on the other hand, is a slow-onset impact. Nearly 40
percent of the U.S. population lives in densely populated coastal
areas.31 Poverty is again a reliable predictor of how vulnerable
individuals and communities are. Some indigenous communities in Florida,
Louisiana, and the Pacific face complete destruction from rising sea
levels. Since 1955, Isle de Jean Charles in southeastern Louisiana, home
to the Biloxi-Chitimacha-Choctaw indigenous communities, has lost 98
percent of its land to sea-level rise.32

Another way to see how people of different socioeconomic classes
respond to natural disaster—or the risk of natural disaster—is to study
migration patterns. A study that looked at 80 years of data, from 1930
through 2010, found that affluent people are more likely to move away
from areas prone to natural disaster, while people with few resources
are often stuck living in these places.33 In Puerto Rico, people with more money led the exodus from the island following the devastation of Hurricane Maria.

According to the Center for Puerto Rican Studies at Hunter College, the population in Puerto Rico may
eventually be 14 percent lower than it was before the hurricane.34

Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens and have a legal right to relocate to
the U.S. mainland. But this is not a genuine option for people who
don’t have the resources needed to leave and resettle. Even before
Hurricane
Maria, nearly half of Puerto Rico’s residents lived below the poverty
line.35 This rate is now higher because so many people who had enough resources to leave have done so.

Just as in low-income countries, hunger is a concern after natural
disaster. Climate change will be a continual challenge to the
infrastructure and the budgets of federal nutrition programs. Disaster
SNAP (D-SNAP) enables families who would not normally be eligible for
SNAP benefits to qualify by deducting from their incomes expenses
related to evacuation, injury or death, clean-up, or repair, as well as
income lost because of the disaster.36 In the aftermath of
Hurricanes Harvey in Texas and Irma in Florida, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) issued temporary SNAP benefits to 2.1 million and 2.5
million people, respectively.37 D-SNAP is typically one of the fastest ways that help gets to disaster victims.
Read more from Chapter 4: Climate Change.

Endnotes for Chapter 4: Climate

  1. USAID (2012), Building Resilience to Recurrent Crises.
  2. Food Security Information Network (2018), Global Report on Food Crises 2018
  3. FAO,
    IFAD, UNICEF, WHO, and WFP (2018), The State of Food Security and
    Nutrition in the World 2018: Building Climate Resilience for Food
    Security and Nutrition.
  4. Matthew
    R. Smith and Samuel S. Myers (September 2018), “Impact of anthropogenic
    CO2 emissions on global human nutrition,” Nature Climate Change, Vol.
    8, 834-839.
  5. Simon
    J. Lloyd, R. Sari Kovats, and Zaid Chalabi (2011), “Climate, Crop
    Yields, and Undernutrition: Development of a Model to Quantify the
    Impact of Climate Scenarios on Child Undernutrition,” Environmental
    Health Perspectives 119(12).
  6. ( … )

  7. View all report endnotes  


Chapter 5: Fragility
Cultivate Peace and Justice


Wars Create Hunger, and Hunger Creates Wars

Countries at peace are making steady progress against hunger
while most of those that lag furthest behind are conflict-affected.
Conflict is the main cause of the past two years’ largest global refugee
crisis since World War II. The global community and national
governments around the world must assist noncombatants whose lives are
turned upside down, their health and safety put at grave risk. With
humanitarian and development assistance working in concert, it is
possible for countries to make rapid progress once peace is secured.


Peace and stability are the two most valuable assets we have to
end global hunger. Armed conflict is the exact opposite—it rapidly
reverses any progress a nation or community may have made. Today, most
people who are hungry live in conflict-affected countries,  and people
living in conflict-affected countries are three times as likely to be at
risk of hunger.


In turn, hunger can easily lead to conflict. For example, armed
factions such as the terror group Boko Haram in northern Nigeria, do not
necessarily need a compelling ideology to replenish their ranks because
joining the group is one of the few ways to earn income. Young men
desperate to escape hunger and deep poverty “volunteer” to fight.


Over the last decade, the number of armed conflicts has
increased. Most are civil wars within a country’s borders that pit
government forces against one or more rebel groups. In the last few
years, the increase in the number of people needing urgent food
assistance is a result of intensified conflict in a handful of
countries: Myanmar, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC),
South Sudan, and Yemen.


By the end of 2017, the number of forcibly displaced people had
reached 68.5 million. This is the highest number recorded since the end
of World War II.  The United Nations World Food Program (WFP), which
provides food relief during humanitarian emergencies, reported that
armed conflict is responsible for 80 percent of the world’s humanitarian
needs.  In 2018, WFP reported that 10 of the 13 largest hunger crises
it worked on were in conflict-affected nations.


Armed fighters, pitched battles, and other signs of conflict are
hallmarks of fragile states. Another characteristic is poor or weak
governance. When a national government is unable or unwilling to provide
services and protection to large swaths of its people, those citizens
are unlikely to believe in its legitimacy. As a result, citizens are far
more likely to take up arms with the goals of securing their basic
needs and establishing a government that they consider legitimate and
capable of protecting them. The potential for violent crime is another
consequence of weak governance—whether organized by criminal enterprises
or seemingly random.


Violent crime is a major reason that increasing numbers of
Central American refugees are trycing to cross the U.S.-Mexico border to
seek asylum in the United States. During the past couple of years, an
increasing share of migrants is either children arriving without adults
or family groups. The majority of migrants seeking refuge in the United
States come from the Northern Triangle countries of Honduras, El
Salvador, and Guatemala. In 2015 when women arriving from the Northern
Triangle and Mexico were screened, 82 percent were found to qualify for
entry to the United States as refugees based on the legal standard of a
“credible fear of persecution or torture” if forced to return to their
countries.


Hunger is another reason for migration. All three countries have
very high levels of hunger and malnutrition. More than half of Northern
Triangle residents live below their own national poverty lines. In
Honduras, nearly two-thirds of the population lives in poverty,  and
nearly half of Guatemala’s children are chronically malnourished. 
Malnutrition kills many young children and causes irreversible damage to
many who survive.


Climate change is another driver of fragility. Central America’s
geography makes it extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate
change: it is in the path of tropical storms from both the east and
west. Extreme weather events such as droughts, extreme heat, and
flooding have become increasingly frequent. Between 1994 and 2013,
Honduras was number one in the world among countries affected by extreme
weather events, with Nicaragua fourth, Guatemala ninth, and El Salvador
twelfth.  In 2011, flooding in El Salvador destroyed an estimated 60
percent of the entire national corn and bean crops.


During armed conflict, noncombatants forced to flee their homes
to survive are at tremendous risk of hunger and malnutrition. Many more
people die from hunger and disease during and after wars than die from
bombs, bullets, or other direct violence.  In interviews with aid
workers, South Sudanese refugees who found protection at a U.N. camp
described the ordeal of enduring days of hunger and thirst. As one aid
agency reported, “The only water they could get was from swamps, and
they neither boiled nor filtered it…They described eating the ‘gum,’ the
part of the tree exposed when one cuts a branch.”


Perhaps nothing speaks more to the moral indecency of hunger
than images of children suffering from wasting, a severe form of
malnutrition that leads to death if not treated in time. In the
Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh, currently the world’s largest
refugee camp with almost a million people, the World Food Program
reports that 21 percent of all children younger than 5 are acutely
malnourished, and 7.5 percent are severely malnourished.  The refugees
are from the Rohingya ethnic and religious minority community in Myanmar
(formerly Burma). They fled their homes when they came under attack by
government forces. Ethnic, religious, and racial minorities are too
often targets of persecution, and they make up a large share of the
world’s refugees.


Ensuring that people have access to food and can build
longer-term food security is vital to a peace that will last. History
shows that in post-conflict situations, which are delicate by nature,
hunger increases the risk that fighting will flare up again. Read more from Chapter 5: Fragility.

U.S. Communities Left Behind

Structural racism is a stark reality in the United States—and it
persists despite civil rights protections and progress against
institutional and interpersonal forms of racism. It is maintained by
public policies that are the antithesis of those needed to build a more
equitable society. Because these policies were put in place
deliberately, they will not just melt away—they must be dismantled. The
fact that steps needed to accomplish this have not been taken explains
why people of color remain far more likely to live with poverty and food
insecurity than whites.

Securing and protecting everyone’s right to a living wage, safe
and affordable housing, and a quality education should be at the top of
the national agenda for reversing structural racism and ending hunger.

Fragility looks different in the United States than in the
international context, where “fragile states” usually suffer from some
combination of high rates of hunger and malnutrition, conflict,
vulnerability to shocks such as natural disaster, and weak governance.
As a nation, the United States does not fit into this category.

Some communities in the United States are more vulnerable to
fragility. The reasons for this vary. Neighborhoods where many residents
are immigrants, particularly immigrants from Latin America, may suffer
due to the difficulty undocumented people have in finding work, the
constant threat of being detained and deported, and the difficulties
faced by family members who remain when a parent and/or breadwinner is
deported.

Other communities that could be described as fragile, are those disproportionately affected by the nationwide opioid epidemic.

While the epidemic is not confined to rural areas, the Rust Belt,
or low-income communities, poverty only exacerbates the impact of
opioid overdoses on a community. This is particularly true since those
affected tend to be younger and therefore likelier to be parents of
young children and breadwinners.

Percent
of householdsFigure 2CTrends in Food Insecurity by Race and
Ethnicity2001-2018Source: Calculated by USDA, Economic Research Service,
using Current Population Survey FoodSecurity Supplement data.Black,
non-HispanicHispanicAll householdsOther, non-Hispanic

Some communities in the United States are delineated as areas of
“persistent poverty,” meaning that they have had poverty rates of 20
percent or higher for the past 30 years. In 2015, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture identified 353 persistent poverty counties, the majority of
which are non-metro. Even worse, 708 counties had persistent child
poverty.32

Other U.S. communities have extremely high poverty rates, but do
not meet the definition of a “persistent” poverty area because they do
not have a 30-year history. “Concentrated” poverty is a term used by
researchers to refer to communities with poverty rates of 40 percent or
higher. People of color who live with poverty are far more likely to
live in areas of concentrated poverty than white people who live with
poverty. About half of U.S. residents with incomes below the poverty
line are white, but they make up less than 20 percent of the residents
of areas of concentrated poverty. Among people living in poverty,
Latinos are more than three times as likely to be living in communities
of concentrated poverty as whites, and African Americans are almost five
times as likely.33

Some communities are both areas of persistent poverty and areas
of concentrated poverty.34 Often, these are African American
neighborhoods with intergenerational poverty. African American
communities of concentrated poverty are a product of structural racism:
laws, policies, and systems of segregation. They have high poverty
rates, are excluded from the larger economic and social spheres, and
receive little attention and few resources from government. Even after
segregation was no longer legally allowed, policies such as redlining in
the real estate industry and racial discrimination in wages and
benefits kept communities largely segregated and marginalized.

This has contributed to residents having less power and fewer
resources. The consequences can be deadly. For example, hazardous waste
facilities are nearly twice as likely to be sited near communities of
color.35 More than 30 years ago, in 1987, the United Church of Christ
(UCC) Commission for Racial Justice published Toxic Waste and Race in
the United States, the seminal research study detailing the scope of
environmental racism in the United States. But little has changed since
its publication. More recently, climate change has opened new frontiers
of environmental racism.36

In Flint, Michigan, where the majority of residents are African
American, authorities refused for more than a year to investigate
reports of unsafe drinking water. Elected officials were under pressure
to cut costs because of the city’s dire economic situation, so they were
reluctant to acknowledge any problems with the new, less expensive
source for the city’s water they had adopted.

Flint’s water proved to be contaminated with high levels of lead.
Lead is particularly dangerous to children and to pregnant women
because it can cause learning disabilities and birth defects.37

Flint is not unique—similar water contamination situations have
been identified in many other U.S. communities of concentrated poverty.
Children of color nationwide, especially African Americans, are at
higher risk of lead contamination than white children.38

Communities of color in metro areas also have less access to
fresher, healthier foods because there are fewer supermarkets,
particularly in African American communities.39

Some children have very few opportunities to eat healthy food
apart from meals through the National School Lunch Program and School
Breakfast Program. Although eligible families can receive benefits to
buy food through federal nutrition programs such as WIC and SNAP, this
does not solve the problem shared by many people in concentrated poverty
areas: living far from a supermarket without access to reliable
transportation.

Living in a community of concentrated poverty also exposes people
to racism deeply ingrained in every level of the U.S. criminal justice
system. People of color, particularly those who live in low-income
communities, face much higher odds of being stopped, fined, arrested,
and incarcerated for minor offenses.40 More blacks than whites are
serving time for a felony, yet whites with felony convictions outnumber
blacks with felony convictions by 1 million people.41 Residents of
communities where many, if not, most people know someone who has been
the victim of an unjustified arrest or police violence are far less
likely to turn to police for security. Yet often the police are the only
recourse available—for example, to victims of domestic violence.

A 2018 research report estimated the cost of child poverty in the
United States to be about $1 trillion annually. More than a third of
this figure is attributed to crime and incarceration.42
Family members and larger communities of people who are incarcerated pay
the highest price. For example, two-thirds of families with an
incarcerated family member struggle to meet basic needs such as food and
housing,43 and children growing up in a family with an incarcerated parent are at greater risk of being homeless44 and of dropping out of school.45

As the size of the U.S. prison population has exploded in recent
decades, communities of color have suffered devastating losses of human
capital. There are significant costs in dollars when the incomes and
income-earning potential of large numbers of men and, increasingly,
women are taken from a community. The losses in parental time and
attention are incalculable. After serving time in prison or jail, people
often return to low-income communities and/or communities of color.
More than 620,000 people are released from state and federal prisons
annually,46 and nearly 11 million people cycle out of local jails each
year.47 Their job prospects are dismal. Even when the
national unemployment rate is low, the unemployment rate among people of
color is twice that of whites. The stigma of a criminal record—or even
just an arrest—and barriers associated with living in a low-income
neighborhood, such as poor access to transportation, can make finding a
job all but impossible.

A report by the Brookings Institution found that nearly half of
the formerly incarcerated men in the study had no reported earnings one
year after release.48 Racial and gender inequities follow people
post-incarceration, reducing their ability to earn enough to provide for
themselves and their families. Black women and men are nearly twice as
likely to be unemployed post-incarceration as their white counterparts.
Black women are the most disadvantaged, relegated to lower-paying fields
and overrepresentation in part-time work.49

Statistical evidence on food insecurity among formerly
incarcerated people is limited to studies of relatively small sample
sizes, but the data we do have is shocking. For example, a study by the
National Institutes of Health found a food insecurity rate of 91 percent
among people recently released from prison.50 Addressing inequities among returning citizens will have a significant impact on hunger in the United States. Read more from Chapter 5: Fragility.


Endnotes for Chapter 5: Fragility


  1. World Food Program (May 24, 2018). “We can’t end hunger if we don’t end conflict.”
  2. FAO,
    IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, and WHO (2017), The State of Food Security and
    Nutrition: Building resilience for peace and food security.
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations (2016), Peace and Food Security: Investing in resilience to
    sustain rural livelihoods amid conflict.
  4. Food Security Information Network (2018), Global Report on Food Crises 2018
  5. UNHCR: Refugee Statistics.
  6. ( … )

  7. View all report endnotes  


Print or Download Report Materials

2019 Hunger Report Executive Summary. Illustration by Doug Puller / Bread for the World Institute

2019 Hunger Report Executive Summary
Ending
hunger is within reach. 2030 sounds audacious. But decades of victory
over hunger, despite recent setbacks, reveal a different picture. It is
rapid global progress, not any one which persuades us that ending hunger
and malnutrition is possible sooner rather than later.

Christian Study Guide
The
study guide offers a biblically-based tool to explore God’s call to
protect vulnerable people in the 21st century. The guide summarizes the
report’s overall themes and provides discussion questions and group
activities on select topics in the report.

Introduction: Ending Hunger is Within Reach
A
national effort to end hunger could bring our country together and this
goal has in fact, already brought the world together. Ending hunger and
all forms of malnutrition by 2030 is one of the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs) adopted in 2015 by the governments of 193 countries,
including the United States, with support from their civil society and
business sectors.

Chapter 1: Livelihoods
The
only way to end hunger with dignity is to enable people to earn the
income they need to provide enough healthy food for themselves and their
children.

Chapter 2: Nutrition
Maternal
and child nutrition is a critical factor in healthy human development.
Nutrition is a lifelong necessity for the health and well-being of
individuals, their communities, and ultimately their countries.

Chapter 3: Gender
Women
in every society are treated as less valuable and/or less capable.
Women and girls are the largest group of marginalized people. Yet food
security is dependent on them.

Chapter 4: Climate Change
Populations
that are most affected by the impact of climate change are those most
likely to be hungry. Climate change is the biggest barrier to ending
hunger once and for all.

Chapter 5: Fragility
When
marginalized groups or people living in extreme poverty turn to
violence, hunger is very often an underlying factor. Hunger is both a
cause and an effect of the violence associated with fragile
environments.

Religious Leaders’ Statement
“As
followers of Christ, we believe it is possible to build the moral and
political will to end hunger by 2030. The world has made unprecedented
progress against hunger, poverty, and disease in recent decades. The
United States has made progress more slowly than many other countries,
but it is feasible to end hunger here, too.” — excerpt from religious leaders’ statement

Hunger Report Sponsors
Co-Publisher: Margaret Wallhagen and Bill Strawbridge; Partners:
American Baptist Churches USA World Relief, American Baptist Home
Mission Societies, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian
Methodist Episcopal Church, Christian Women Connection, Church of the
Brethren, Community of Christ, Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, Covenant
World Relief/Evangelical Covenant Church, Evangelical Covenant Church,
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Growing Hope Globally,
Independent Presbyterian Church Foundation, International Orthodox
Christian Charities, National Baptist Convention, USA, INC, Society of
African Missions, United Church of Christ, Women’s Missionary Society of
the African Methodist Episcopal Church



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