Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU)
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 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Punya Bhumi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -PRABUDDHA BHARAT
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06/24/20
LESSON 3364 Thu 25 Jun 2020 Current Situation Paves way for Free Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness from Free Online step by step creation of Virtual tour in 3D Circle-Vision 360° for Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda The Buddha on Just Government https://srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ Last updated: June 25, 2020, 04:19 GMT 7,793,670,082 Current World Population-39,281,692 Net population growth this year- 66,398 Net population growth today 67,706,505 Births this year-158,156 Births today-Recovered:5,178,999 from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic May all be Happy, Well and Secure! May all live Long! May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding that Everything is Changing!
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:53 am
LESSON 3364 Thu 25 Jun  2020


Current Situation Paves way for
Free

Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart





Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU)
For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

At

WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru

Magadhi Karnataka State

PRABUDDHA BHARAT


DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT

Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness
from
Free Online step by step creation of Virtual tour in 3D Circle-Vision 360° for Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda

The Buddha on Just Government


Last updated: June 25, 2020, 04:19 GMT




7,793,670,082
Current World Population-39,281,692
Net population growth this year- 66,398 Net population growth today 67,706,505 Births this year-158,156 Births today-Recovered:5,178,999
from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic

May all be Happy, Well and Secure!


May all live Long!


May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding that Everything is Changing!



COVID-19 conspiracy claims, but virus origins still a mystery.

There were still no conclusive answers as to where the disease started.

SARS-CoV-2,
now responsible for more than 200,000 deaths worldwide, was synthesised
by the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), based in the city where the
disease was first identified. 


Last updated: June 25, 2020, 04:19 GMT

Coronavirus Cases:


9,532,038





Deaths:



485,122





7,793,670,082
Current World Population-39,281,692 Net population growth this year- 66,398 Net population growth today 67,706,505 Births this year-158,156 Births today-Recovered:5,178,999
from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic




World Population
67,706,505 Births this year
158,156 Births today

28,424,813 Deaths this year

66,398 Deaths today

39,281,692 Net population growth this year

91,758 Net population growth today


Government & Economics

$ 6,221,004,210 Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 4,253,806,860 Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,933,428,687 Public Military expenditure today
38,084,072 Cars produced this year
72,871,971 Bicycles produced this year
120,888,402 Computers produced this year

Society & Media

1,295,519 New book titles published this year
196,169,563 Newspapers circulated today
275,160 TV sets sold worldwide today
2,683,248 Cellular phones sold today
$ 120,150,825 Money spent on videogames today
4,598,778,743 Internet users in the world today
108,206,186,812 Emails sent today
2,857,508B log posts written today
321,299,497 Tweets sent today
2,982,250,564 Google searches today

Environment

2,513,406 Forest loss this year (hectares)
3,383,725 Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
17,476,209,098 CO2 emissions this year (tons)
5,799,582 Desertification this year (hectares)
4,732,642 Toxic chemicals released in the environment this year (tons)

Food

843,992,388 Undernourished people in the world
1,695,140,791 Overweight people in the world
759,595,449 Obese people in the world
12,625 People who died of hunger today
$ 238,858,832Money spent for obesity related diseases in the USA today
$ 78,043,655Money spent on weight loss programs in the USA today

Water

2,108,180,508Water used this year (million L)
406,962Deaths caused by water related diseases this year
800,065,001People with no access to a safe drinking water source

Energy

192,688,074 Energy used today (MWh), of which:
164,026,969- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
29,017,143- from renewable sources (MWh)
1,207,393,049,648 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
39,520,281 Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,504,891,695,334 Oil left (barrels)
15,694 Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,095,152,809,093 Natural Gas left (boe)

57,640 Days to the end of natural gas

4,315,433,381,160 Coal left (boe)

148,808 Days to the end of coal


Health

6,273,609 Communicable disease deaths this year

235,534 Seasonal flu deaths this year
3,673,323 Deaths of children under 5 this year
20,552,349 Abortions this year
149,372 Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,893,314 HIV/AIDS infected people
812,399 Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
3,969,018 Deaths caused by cancer this year
474,026 Deaths caused by malaria this year
6,248,975,357 Cigarettes smoked today
2,415,858 Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,208,691Deaths caused by alcohol this year 518,228Suicides this year
$ 193,329,576,922 Money spent on illegal drugs this year 652,358Road traffic accident fatalities this year



7,793,670,082 Current World Population-39,281,692 Net population growth this year- 66,398 Net population growth today 67,706,505 Births this year-158,156 Births today-Recovered:5,178,999
from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic




Last updated: June 25, 2020, 04:19 GMT





BIRTH, OLD AGE, SICKNESS, ILLNESS, DEATH ARE CERTAININTIES


May all be Happy, Well and Secure!


May all have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that Everything is Changing!


May all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal and Rest in Peace
as they followed the following original words of the Buddha the Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :

Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19



1. Comoros,2. North Korea,3. Yemen,4.
The Federated States of Micronesia,5. Kiribati,6. Solomon Islands,7.
The Cook Islands,8. Micronesia,9. Tong,10. The Marshall Islands
Palau,11. American Samoa,12. South Georgia,13. South Sandwich
Islands,14.SaintHelena,Europe,
15. Aland Islands,16.Svalbard,17. Jan
Mayen Islands,18. Latin America,19.Africa,20.British Indian Ocean
Territory,21.French Southern
Territories,22.Lesotho,23.Ocea
nia,24.Christmas
Island,25. Cocos
(Keeling) Islands,26. Heard Island,27. McDonald Islands,28. Niue,29.
Norfolk Island,30. Pitcairn,31. Solomon Islands,32. Tokelau,33. United
States Minor Outlying Islands,34. Wallis and Futuna Islands,35.Tajikistan,
36. Turkmenistan,37. Tuvalu,38. Vanuatu

as they are following the original words of the Buddha Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness:




Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta


1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4.
priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata, 7. Samyutta
Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima Nikaya,10.
arya” or “ariy, 11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha
Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21. Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,27. Samsara,28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31. Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37. Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,40. dhammamahamatras, 41.
IV. Observation of Dhammas,42. Assamedha43.Sassamedha

Naramedha

Purisamedha

Sammapasa

Vajapeyya

Niraggala

Sila

Samadhi        

Panna

Samma-sankappa

Sigalovada Sutta

Brahmajala Sutta

40.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya,Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya


42. Assamedha

https://tenor.com/view/horse-jumprope-gif-5662123
south park beat a dead horse GIFhorse stepping GIF by Digghorse GIFhorse GIFhorse GIFhorse GIFhorse GIFhorse GIFhorse GIF

Horse Jumprope GIF - Horse Jumprope GIFsHorse Horse Smile GIF - Horse HorseSmile HorseTeeth GIFsHorse Horse Show GIF - Horse HorseShow Jumping GIFsYeap Horse GIF - Yeap Horse HorseHop GIFsHorse Laugh Happy Horse GIF - HorseLaugh HappyHorse Horse GIFshorse GIFhorse racing GIF


assamedha : (m.) horse-sacrifice.
Assamedha, Assa-medha: 2 definitions

wisdomlib.org

Assamedha, Assa-medha: 2 definitions

Assamedha
refers to: N. of a sacrifice: the horse-sacrifice (Vedic aśvamedha as
Np. ) S. I, 76 (v. l. sassa°); It. 21 (+ purisamedha); Sn. 303. Note:

Buddha Purnima 2019: 15 Lord Buddha quotes that will ...Religious Symbols: Golden Buddha - Stock Photo I2908561 at ...SVG /> person buddha woman floral - Free SVG Image & Icon …” class=”gmail-module–images__thumbnails__image” width=”138″ height=”109″><img src=Taare Zameen Par : Lyrics - Bheja KumWords of Wisdom: Life sayings Every Day Good Day ...Wise quotes and messages on imagesrathnamali gatha රත්නමාලී ගාථා - YouTube78 Encourage Quotes And Inspirational Words Of Wisdom ...Fader vår - WikipediaWords That Perfectly Describe Emotions Everyone Feels But ...Kalaye Weli Thalawa Manawa Samaranayake - YouTubeSee Malayalam love quotes Profile and Image Collections on ...Meghasandhesam E-Magazine

43.Sassamedha
Lord Buddha GIF - Lord Buddha Spin GIFs

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JAI Brim GIF - JAI Brim Buddha GIFs
Go Back To Sleep The Molotov GIF - GoBackToSleep TheMolotov Government GIFsUs Government GIF - Us Government Trash GIFsLawless GIF - Government Shutdown USA GIFsPolitics Fighting GIF - Politics Fighting Shooting GIFs


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Chapter 3 Buddhist Concept of Governance


CHATER III


Buddhist Concept of Governance



https://tenor.com/view/buddha-end-of-buddhist-lent-day-jariyatam-gif-10235515

พระพุทธเจ้า ออกพรรษา GIF - Buddha EndOfBuddhistLentDay Jariyatam GIFs


Friends

Based
on the spirit of Sobbe satta shuketa vabantu meaning all entities be
happy, Buddhist governance offers a total system perspective of
governance to steer human action, both individual and collective,
including everything within its functional purview.
With
Nibbana (Eternal Bliss / ultimate freedom as Final Goal ) as the
overall goal, Buddhist governance includes four noble truth, eightfold …

See more
Governance and Buddhism

link.springer.com

Governance and Buddhism

Buddhist
governance; Buddhist perspective of governance; Governance in Buddhism
Based on the spirit of Sobbe satta shuketa vabantumeaning all entities
be happy, Buddhist governance offers a total…

3.1 Introduction


Whereas Buddha has been considered to be mostly a philosopher
and an ethical teacher and not preoccupied with political or state-related
issues, in contrast to that, many recent scholars have analysed from, the
historical context of Buddha G
autama’s life that he was both a ‘social
reformerand political thinker. Among the scholars mentioned is Ilaiah
K. (2002).


The truth lies in the fact that Ancient Indian society had begun to
change when Buddha attained Awakenment
with Awareness (Pali: maha parinibbana).


Historically, that period was known as Vedanta . At that time, commerce with other states had begun and there
was a new merchant class in the territory who had expressed interest in
Buddha’s teachings. As reported in our earlier chapters, Buddha
challenged the divine origin concept from a very simple and acceptable
viewpoint: i.e., that the brahmins like the other varnas had a common
human birth. This would make the brahmins essentially equal to the
others. Jayasuriya is quick to point out that even in the Buddhist
literature, there was scant mention of political attitudes. Among
exceptional scholars on the subject are Jayatilleke (1967) and Omveldt
(2005).






Jayasuriya adds that the advent of political attitude was Emperor
Asoka.
Asoka’s predecessors maintained a treatment of political
prisoners, which must have shocked Asoka. The Samyutta Nikaya
described the physical condition of King P
asenadi’s prisoners. (Uma
Cakravarti, 1996; p.161-62) The Stone Edicts were an obvious testament
against barbarity (cruelty) towards prisoners, among other things. They
displayed a socio-political attitude based on and advocating non-violence
and compassion. In Chapter Two, we have mentioned some of A
sokas’
accomplishments.

Debate on Buddha’s preference of state has occurred. As we have
mentioned earlier, evidence exists that Buddha emphasises the
sangha or ‘tribal republic’ such as Vajja. In his fourth sermon to Ananda
bhikku and Vasakara the Chaplain of King Ajatasatru, Buddha mentioned
that tribal unity was a vital criterion for the survival of the state. Most
scholars of Asoka’s dharma accredit it as an ethical code. Beside the
foundation of hospitals, inns and rest homes, arboretums [parks
established for the planting and nurturing of plants and trees] and so on,
Asoka preached social equity and sectarian equality. He declared that he
was impartial to any sect of his time but his edict warned his subjects
against showing prejudice or hatred towards other sects. At the core of his
dhamma, like that of Buddha, was
sila or conduct. Even today, it is still
easy
“to fall into evil ways” and the highly-placedi.e., public and
private administrators, etc
especially cannot always behave properly.
(Mahesh Tiwari, 1989; p.159)

Throughout Chapter Three, which follows, the researcher intends
to elucidate the Buddhist concept of governance as fixed at the time of the
dhamma and enlightenment, which was certainly ahead of our time and
modern principles. In so far as the
sangha as a form of
governance displayed
“democratic principles” such as freedom of speech,
equal representation of the masses and the solidarity and civility
demanded by Buddha Gautama, it can stand as a precursor of modern
democracy and researcher shall emphasise it in this light. On the opposite
side of the spectrum is the enlightened monarchy of Emperor Asoka.

In the next units of this chapter, the researcher shall analyse the
available data regarding the Buddhist concept of monarch
especially
those of Kosala and Magadha, being the principle and most important
historical monarchies of the time. From that, we shall endeavour to draw
the proper conclusion(s).


3.2 Buddhist Concept of King

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မင်္ဂလာပါ သာဓုSadu GIF - မင်္ဂလာပါ သာဓုSadu Buddha GIFs


Buddha Gautama had been an advocate of the
or republican
system, as we mentioned earlier. However, among his many lay followers
were kings, especially of Magadha- e.g., Bimbisara and his heir
Ajatasatru. Monarchical states or kingdoms were conceivably numerous
in Chumpudveepa (Ancient India) and earned considerable reputations
historically. Buddha Gautama was frequently an honoured and invited
guest in their palaces.


Among Buddha’s ideals was that of the ‘ideal monarch’ or
“dhammar
aja” who reportedly ruled over his subjects justly and
equitably. (S. Tachibana, 1975; p.264)
Dhamma means
righteousness and
includes such traits as equity and impartiality. Buddha discredited the
theory of divine origin and knew the basic, common origin of all living
beings barring plants. Therefore, a true, righteous monarch should
understand the equality of his subjects. Seeing the equality of all of
his
subjects, a true monarch would rule them impartially. This concept shall
be discussed in the next unit.

Dhammaraja could have been a reaction to the despots who
exercised their control over people in Buddha’s time. Uma Cakravarti
(1996; p.158) speaks
of “absolute exercise of power unrestrained by any
institutional controls.”
However, the Pali literature of the period
acknowledged the social need for authority to maintain law and order,
referred to
as “legitimate basis of kingship.” It has been expounded in the
Agganna Sutta. As with power generally, use of it for legitimate or
arbitrary purposes largely depended on the king
i.e., as he saw fit to
exercise it.

Chakravarti mentions two principle threats to the social order,
which may be still evident today: One is offences against the property and
the other is offences against the family. The subjects expected their
monarch to act effectively against these offences. Evidence of public
demonstration (protest) in Kosala, the domain of King Pasenadi,
mentioned a protest against the ravages of the famed robber Angulimala
(who later met the Buddha and became a bhikku). (Majjima Nikaya 11;
p.346 quoted in Uma Chakravarti, 1996; p.159)

Furthermore, Buddhism holds no concept of aristocracy except in
terms of intellect and morality. (S. Tachibana, 1975; p.264). The
Buddhist “aristocrat” was called “arya” or “ariya.”



On the Buddhist concept of kingship, there exists much
information. Besides describing the king as a public refuge
(
patisaranam), Sidhi Budh-Indr reports that the king should possess both
virtue (
sila) and wisdom, or intellect (pañña) to understand and
discrtiminate between good and evil statements (Siddhi Butr-Indr, 1995;
p.147) . Whereas many actual monarchs can be compared with thieves,
the ideal monarch is a “lord of men” (manussindo) and can neither equal
nor count as a commoner. His subjects deem him the
“god of public
domain”
(sammutideva). This is not a real god, as that would demand that
the king should die and ascend to paradise, but rather it is a term of
respect among his subjects. Furthermore, the king is empowered by five
strengths, as follows:

1.Physical strength, or power-agility and muscular strength, as
applied in governance and warfare.

2.Material strength-wealth and material resources.

3.Strength of court officials, providing they are united behind him
and know and perform their respective duties.

4.strength of nobility
5.wisdom or intellect

Budh-Indra mentions the Ten Royal Virtues (rajadhamman), which
we shall explain in detail in a later unit of this chapter. He agrees in
principle with the social contract theory, as far as he reports
“Kingship is,
in a sense, founded upon and deter
mined by public opinion.” (Ibid.
p.153), which, in its turn, depends upon righteousness. To this point, he
adds “the nature of kingship is essentially based on the concept of
righteousness (
dhamma). The king is supposed to be the agent who
maintains the pr
inciple of righteousness in the worldly spheres.” (Ibid. p
155) The Digha Nikaya quotes Buddha Gautama himself as explaining
that a king (raja) ‘charms others by Dhamma or righteousness.(S.
Tachibana, 1975;p. 264) Oliver Abeynayake claims that Buddhism
prefers monarchy to republicanism, but the fact simply is that the
monarchies, despite possible despotism and abuses, were stronger than
the ganas. He continues to infer that
“Buddhism prescribes a centralized
administration. Buddhism introduced the system of governance under the
Cakravarti king to centralise North India, which was divided into various
small kingdoms.”(Oliver Abeynayake, p.2) He continues to list the
characteristics of an effective ruler, as follow:

1. Reputation.
2. Economic prosperity.
3. Military strength.
4. Competent advisors.
5. Diplomatic acclaim.
6. Personality.
7. Parents’ affection.
8. Patriotism and popularity.
9. Competency and discipline.
10. Education, intelligence and intuition. (Ibid.)

Reputation usually precedes the person and acts as a tool in
attracting others towards him/her; so, we may conceive that a good
reputation, usually created through good actions towards the subjects of
the state, will enable the leader of that state to maintain his rapport with
the subjects.
Economic prosperity is
the result of sustaining a prosperous
state, since the king receives payment in various forms from his
subjects,
such as foodstuff, gold, etc. As we have indicated in the unit on ten
virtues, a good ruler deems the prosperity of his subjects to be his
own.
Military strength is the requisite for protecting the country from
invasion.
A good king will need a strong and extensive army
(sena) to defend his
territory. Competent advisors and diplomatic acclaim is needed in
peaceful and cooperative measures between states. In fact, Abeynayake
has reiterated and emphasized the qualities we have mentioned in earlier
chapters of our thesis.


3.3 The Normative King (cakkavati dhammiko dhammaraja) and
Ideal Administrative Office

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Nld မင်္ဂလာပါ GIF - Nld မင်္ဂလာပါ Clown GIFs

Buddha vs King
Guide to the Buddhist Path
A story about the Buddha meeting a king. Who is happier? Worldly happiness versus unworldly happiness.
Written and animated by Aryajit.
Based on the discussion the Buddha had with some Jain ascetics which you can
Buddha vs King
A
story about the Buddha meeting a king. Who is happier? Worldly
happiness versus unworldly happiness. Written and animated by Aryajit.
Based on the discussi…
youtube.com


To begin, the Pali concept of normative kingship, which we shall
explain in this unit, consists of two distinct but not separate ideals. Both
are ideals of Buddhism and the objectives of a true monarch in the
Buddhist consciousness. The first ideal is
cakkavati. Cakkavati is derived
from the Sanksrit word
cakra, which means several things: 1) a circle, 2)
a wheel or disk, 3) a centre of energy or power (ayurvedic, tantric and
yogic) and 4) world.
“Cakkavati” or cakravartin is a universal monarch, a
world ruler who
“would put an end to the petty tyranny of the many and
establish instead a universe where not only a social order but also a moral
order would prevail.” (Uma Cakravarti, 1996; p.164)


Since tyranny would be abolished, the new social order would
likely to be either spontaneous or promoted by righteous leadership, or
both. Petty tyranny mentioned above referred mostly to the historical
monarchs of Buddha’s lifetime.



The second ideal is dhammiko dhammaraja. The dhammaraja is
firstly a protector of his subjects (
janapadatthaviriya patto: jana, people;
padattha, protection; viriya, effort) via righteousness and equity, rather
than by force, including military campaign. The dhammaraja or righteous
king is always expected to be just and impartial in the governance of his
people. The Cakavatti or universal monarch will rule his country justly
and impartially (
dhammena samena). (S. Tachibana,1975; p.264). Sama
and dhamma are deemed to be synonyms as far as the description of the
ideal monarch is concerned. The subjects of the dhammaraja (will) live in
comparative comfort. Researcher takes exception to the term comparative
comfort
because, whereas poverty should be eradicated, excess and
luxury should also be avoided.
Comparative comfort is a relative term,
referring to the degree of comfort compared with previous living. E.g.,
when someone has lived in abject poverty throughout his childhood,
comparably, when he has the means to uplift his standards of material
existence, it can be deemed comparative comfort. However, the fact is
that we compare our living with those around us.

Under the rule of the dhammaraja, the subjects should expect to
live comfortably within existing means and limits. Cakravarti supports
this hypothesis by adding “dhammiko dhammaraja thus provides for the
basic needs
of the people.” (Ibid, p. 165) Thus, in a general outlook, the
dhammaraja does not only protect the family and property of his subjects.
A fine example of such a king was Maha Sudassana. Maha Sudassana
gave to the needy whatever was
truly needed: food to the starved, water
to the thirsty and even a wife to the man who wished to wed. Grants of
money were not the only necessities.



The dhammarjhad the high duty of eradicating poverty. He also
taxes his subjects fairly, whereas his historical counterparts taxed their
subjects unfairly and acted like thieves. This appears to be a subject of
both literature and history. From the Pali canon of Buddhism to the
legend of Robin Hood in Britain, kings were lumped together with the
thieves in their kingdoms.

Another vital characteristic of the dhammaraja was charisma. His
relationship to the subjects was like that to his family: father to sons and
daughters. His charisma compels him to be popular and he is obeyed
without coercion. Since all his subjects like him, no one would overthrow
him. Finally, the dhammaraja supports only the worthy samanas and
brahmanas, and aids them in achieving their goals.

Buddhist tradition placed the Dvaravati kings as cakravartins,
(Rhys Davids, 1899). Rhys Davids quotes that the Universal Emperor
appeared and ruled righteously in the manner of the Buddha. Buddha was
perceived as the foremost Cakkavatti in his style of leadership and others
attempted to follow him. The Buddhist kings were also described as
embarking upon the path of bodhisattva and both saving themselves and
their subjects, which is the action of a bodhisattva, according to
Mahayana Buddhism. Ernst Benz describes it as follows:

The Buddhist kings were regarded as the central personages on the
stage, themselves striving to be Bodhisattvas and expected to lead their
subjects on the way to salvation. As Bodhisattvas, they were not only
examples to their subjects, but actually helpful to them. The salvation
chrism of the Bodhisattva consists in using his own salvation to further
the efforts of others to achieve salvation.
(Ernst Benz, Buddhism or Communism: Which Holds the Future of Asia?, trans; Richard and Clara
Winston, Great Britain, 1966; p.97)


3.4 Buddhism and Communism

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3.4.1 The approach of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

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Dr
Babasaheb Ambedkar’s speech on Buddha or Karl Marx at Fourth
Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhist, Kathmandu on 20th
November 1956.Dr B. R. Ambedkar on Buddha or Karl Marx

What Babasaheb said in Buddha or Karl Marx - Basic information and Interesting facts #Ambedkar
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Buddha or Karl Marx by Babasaheb Ambedkar - Basic information
A
comparison between Karl Marx and Buddha may be regarded as a joke.
There need be no surprise in this. Marx and Buddha are divided by 2381
years. Buddha was born in 563 BC and Karl
Marx in 1818 AD Karl Marx is supposed to be the architect of a new ideology-polity a new
Economic system. The Buddha on the other hand is believed to be no more than the founder of a
religion, which has no relation to politics or economics. The heading of this essay ” Buddha or Karl
Marx ” which suggests either a comparison or a contrast between two such personalities divided
by such a lengthy span of time and occupied with different fields of thought is sure to sound odd.
The Marxists may easily laugh at it and may ridicule the very idea of treating Marx and Buddha on
the same level. Marx so modern and Buddha so ancient! The Marxists may say that the Buddha as
compared to their master must be just primitive. What comparison can there be between two such
persons? What could a Marxist learn from the Buddha? What can Buddha teach a Marxist? None-
the-less a comparison between the two is a attractive and instructive Having read both and being
interested in the ideology of both a comparison between them just forces itself on me. If the
Marxists keep back their prejudices and study the Buddha and understand what he stood for I feel
sure that they will change their attitude. It is of course too much to expect that having been
determined to scoff at the Buddha they will remain to pray. But this much can he said that they will
realise that there is something in the Buddha’s teachings which is worth their while to take note of

The Buddha is generally associated with the doctrine of Ahimsa.
That is taken to be the be-all and end-all of his teachings. Hardly any one
knows that what the Buddha taught is something very vast: far beyond
Ahimsa. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in his The
Buddha and His Dhamma has
anal
yzed Buddha’s approach to Ahimsa. Here he makes a distinction
between principle and rule. According to him ahimsa in Buddhism is
accepted not as a rule, but as a principle. Rule binds you and takes away
your freedom. Principle does not take away your freedom; you can
choose your course of action in the light of the principle. Secondly the
Buddha did not emphasise
just the negative aspect of ahimsa (viz. ‘Don’t
kill’) but he also emphasis
ed the positive aspect in the form of love and
compassion ( Metta and
Karuna). But more importantly Buddha’s
primary concern was not himsa or ahimsa, but the problem of human
suffering, suffering which is natural and also the suffering which is
caused by human being. He tried to go the root cause of all sufferings and
find a solution to the problem of suffering. In the last two centuries social
philosopher who has been influential was Karl Marx, who was also
deeply concerned with the problem of suffering, mainly the problem of
poverty, exploitation and alienation.


The
Buddha as a social thinker can be regarded as a scientific
thinker rather than utopian thinker. He developed the causal model of
dependent origination (Paticca-samuppada) and applied it to the problem
of suffering.

Hence both Buddha and Mark were concerned with the problem of
suffering; they accepted the ultimate social goal as the society without
suffering and exploitation, where human beings live as equal members of
the society and as free beings. Both of them approached the problem by
applying scientific method rather than following any religious dogma or
utopian ideal. But the conclusions they arrived at were different. This is
because the ways they approached the problem were different. Marx did
not consider the inner roots of the problem of suffering, but only the
external roots. Hence according to him human beings suffer, they are
exploited, they enter into conflicts, because of the contradictions in the
socio-economic structure, that is, the capitalist structure. Hence changing
socio-economic structure through revolution, though it could be a blooly
revolution is the solution of the problem of suffering.

Though the Buddha dealt with the problem of unjust social
structure and establishment of an alternative social structure, when he
thought about the root cause of suffering, he emphasised the inner root of
suffering rather than the external causes or occasioning factors. He spelt
out the internal cause of suffering in two ways. Sometimes he emphased
tanha- craving as the root cause. Because of craving people suffer, they
exploit others and are exploited by others; they enter into conflicts and
wars with others. People can get rid of suffering and experience peace
only by getting rid of craving. He further went into the root of craving
and found that Avijja, ignorance / misconception is the root cause of
craving. We are ignorant about the impermanent, soul-less and
unsatisfactory nature of all phenomena and misconceive them as
permanent, soul-possessing and satisfactory. Because of these misconceptions we develop attachment and craving about those
phenomena. Hence the path towards cessation of suffering necessarily
involved threefold training (Trisika) viz.(sila), meditation (samadhi) and
wisdom (panna) through which one gets rid of craving and ignorance and
is finally liberated. The Buddha conceived of and executed an alternative
form of social structure
the order of bhikkus which gives institutional
support for developing the threefold training. The order of Bhikkhus had
no place for the caste-system, or exploitation, but followed egalitarian
democratic pattern. On the contrary, Karl Marx maintained that the way
to ideal social system went through revolution (which could be violent
revolution) and what he called dictatorship of proletariat. Sangha order on
the other hand was not imposed on the members but was willingly
accepted by them. Marx maintained that in ideal social structure the
private property will have been abolished. This idea of the absence of
private property was already practiced long back in the Buddhist order of
Bhikkhus.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in his article “Buddha or Karlmark” has
brought out clearly the contrast between the Marxian approach and the
Buddha’s approach as follows:

Karl
Marx is no doubt the father of modern socialism or
Communism but he was not interested merely in propounding the theory
of Socialism. That had been done long before him by others. Marx was
more interested in proving that his Socialism was scientific. His
crusade
was as much against the capitalists as it was against those whom he
called
the Utopian Socialists. He disliked them both. It is necessary to note
this
point because Marx attached the greatest importance to the scientific
character of his Socialism. All the doctrines which Marx propounded had
no other purpose than to establish his contention that his brand of
Socialism was scientific and not Utopian.

The means of bringing about Communism, which the Buddha
propounded, were quite definite. It can be devided into three parts. Part I
consisted in observing the Pancha Silas. The Enlightenment gave birth to
a new gospel, which contains the key to the solution of the problem,
which was haunting him.

The foundation of the New Gospel is the fact that the world was
full of misery and unhappiness. This was the fact that was not merely to
be noted but to be regarded as being the first and foremost in any scheme
of salvation. The recognition of this fact was made by the Buddha, the
starting point of his gospel. To remove this misery and unhappiness was
to him the aim and object of the gospel if it was to serve any useful
purpose. Asking what could be the causes of this misery the Buddha
found that there could be only two.

A part of the misery and unhappiness of man was the result of his
own misconduct. To remove this cause of misery he preached the
practice of Panch Sil

The Panch Sila comprised the following observations: (1) To
abstain from destroying or causing destruction of any living things (2) To
abstain from stealing i.e. acquiring or keeping by fraud or violence, the
property of another: (3) To Abstain from telling untruth: (4) To abstain
from lust: (5) To abstain from intoxicating drinks.

A
part of the misery and unhappiness in the world was according to
the Buddha the result of man’s inequity towards man. How was this
inequity to be removed? For the removal of man’s inequity towards man
the Buddha prescribed the Noble Eight-Fold Path. The elements of the
Noble Fight-Fold Path are:

(1) Right views i.e. freedom from superstition: (2) Right aims, high
and worthy of the intelligent and earnest men; (3) Right speech i.e.
kindly, open, truthful: (4) Right Conduct i.e. peaceful, honest and pure;
(5) Right livelihood i.e. causing hurt or injury to no living being; (6)
Right perseverance in all the other seven; (7) Right mindfulness i.e. with
a watchful and active mind; and (8) Right contemplation i.e. earnest
thought on the deep mysteries of life.

The aim of the Noble Eight-Fold Path is to establish on earth the
kingdom of righteousness, and thereby to banish sorrow and unhappiness
from the face of the world.

The third part of the Gospel is the doctrine of Nibbana. The
doctrine of Nibbana is an integral part of the doctrine of the Noble Eight-
Fold Path. Without Nibbana the realisation of the Eight-Fold Path cannot
be accomplished.

The doctrine of Nibbana tells what are the difficulties in the way of
the realisation of the Eight-Fold Path.

The chiefs of these difficulties are ten in number. The Buddha
called them the Ten Asavas, Fetters or Hindrances.

The first hindrance is the delusion of self. So long as a man is
wholly occupied with himself, chasing after every bauble that he vainly
thinks will satisfy the cravings of his heart, there is no noble path for him.
Only when his eyes have been opened to the fact that he is but a tiny part
of a measureless, whole, only when he begins to realise how impermanent
a thing is his temporary individuality can he even enter upon this narrow
path.

The
second is Doubt and Indecision. When a man’s eyes are opened
to the great mystery of existence, the impermanence of every
individuality, he is likely to be assailed by doubt and indecision as to
his
action. To do or not to do, after all my individuality is impermanent,
why
do anything are questions, which make him indecisive or inactive. But
that will not do in life. He must make up his mind to follow the
teacher,
to accept the truth and to enter on the struggle or he will get no
further.

The third is dependence on the efficacy of Rites and Ceremonies.
No good resolutions, however firm will lead to anything unless a man
gets rid of ritualism: of the belief that any outward acts. any priestly
powers, and holy ceremonies, can afford him an assistance of any kind. It
is only when he has overcome this hindrance, that men can be said to
have fairly entered upon the stream and has a chance sooner or later to
win a victory.

‘’ The fourth consists of the bodily passions… The fifth is ill will
towards other individuals. The sixth is the suppression of the desire for a
future life with a material body and the seventh is the desire for a future
life in an immaterial world.

The eighth hindrance is Pride and ninth is self-righteousness. These
are failings which it is most difficult for men to overcome, and to which
superior minds are peculiarly liable contempt for those who are less able
and less holy than themselves.

The tenth hindrance is ignorance. When all other difficulties are
conquered this will even remain, the thorn in the flesh of the wise and
good, the last enemy and the bitterest foe of man.

Nibbana consists in overcoming these hindrances to the pursuit of
the Noble Eight-Fold Path.

The
doctrine of the Noble Eight-Fold Path tells what disposition of
the mind which a person should sedulously cultivate. The doctrine of
Nibbana tells of the temptation or hindrance which a person should
earnestly overcome if he wishes to trade along with the Noble Eight-Fold
Path

The Fourth Part of the new Gospel is the doctrine of Paramitas.
The doctrine of Paraimitas inculcates the practice of ten virtues in one’s
daily life.

These are those ten virtuesd) Panna (2) Sila (3) Nekkhama (4)
Dana(5) Virya(6) Khanti(7) Succa(8) Aditthana(9) Mettaa-nd (10)
Upekkha.

Panna or wisdom is the light that removes the darkenss of Avijja,
Moha or Nescience. The Panna requires that one must get all his doubts
removed by questioning those wiser than him self, associate with the wise
and cultivate the different arts and sciences which help to develop the
mind.

Sila is moral temperament, the disposition not to do evil and the
disposition to do good; to be ashamed of doing wrong. To avoid doing
evil for fear of punishment is Sila. Sila means fear of doing wrong.
Nekkhama is renunciation of the pleasures of the world. Dana means the
giving of one’s possessions, blood and limbs and even one’s life for the
good of the others without expecting anything in return.

Virya is right endeavour. It is doing with all your might with
thought never turning back, whatever you have undertaken to do.

Khanti is forbearance. Not to meet hatred by harted is the essence
of it. For hatred is not appeased by hatred. It is appeased only by
forbearance.

Succa is truth. An aspirant for Buddha never speaks a lie. His
speech is truth and nothing but truth.

Aditthana is resolute determination to reach the goal. Metta is
fellow feeling extending to all beings, foe and friend, beast and man.








Upekka is detachment as distinguished from indifference. It is a
state of mind where there is neither like nor dislike. Remaining unmoved
by the result and yet engaged in the pursuit of it.


These virtues one must practice to his utmost capacity. That is why
they are called Paramitas (States of Perfection).


Such is the gospel the Buddha enunciated as a result of his
enlightenment to end the sorrow and misery in the world.


It is clear from Dr. Ambedkar’s article “Buddha or Karl Marx”
(W&S, vol.3) how, the means adopted by the Buddha were to convert a
man by changing his moral disposition to follow the path voluntarily. The
means adopted by the Communists are equally clear, short and swift.
They are (1) Violence and (2) Dictatorship of the Proletariat.


The Communists say that there are the only two means of
establishing communism. The first is violence. Nothing short of it will
suffice to break up the existing system. The other is dictatorship of the
proletariat. Nothing short of it will suffice to continue the new system.


It is now clear what are the similarities and differences between
Buddha and Karl Marx. The differences are about the means. The end is
common to both. (Buddha or Karl Marx”, (W&S vol. 3 p. 450)


3.4.2 Bhikku Buddhadasa’s approach

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Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu : « Buddhadasa Never Dies »
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“Buddhadasa Never Dies”
A poem written by Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu
Translation from the Thai into English by Santikaro r other works by Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu, please visit:
Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu : « Buddhadasa Never Dies »
“Buddhadasa
Never Dies” A poem written by Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu Translation from the
Thai into English by Santikaro For other works by Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu,
pleas…
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หอจดหมายเหตุพุทธทาส อินทปัญโญ -BIA-
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“Buddhadasa Never Dies”
A poem written by Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu
Translation from the Thai into English by Santikaro
For other works by Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu, please visit:
About Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu:
Buddhadasa
Bhikkhu (Servant of the Buddha) went forth as a bhikkhu (Buddhist monk)
in 1926, at the age of twenty. After a few years of study in Bangkok,
which convinced him “purity is not to be found in the big city,” he was
inspired to live close with nature in order to investigate the
Buddha-Dhamma. Thus, he established Suan Mokkhabalarama (The Grove of
the Power of Liberation) in 1932, near his hometown of Pum Riang (now in
Chaiya District). At that time, it was the only forest Dhamma Center
and one of the few places dedicated to vipassana meditation in Southern
Thailand. Word of Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, his work, and Suan Mokkh spread
over the years so that they are easily described as “one of the most
influential events of Buddhist history in Siam.” Here, we can only
mention some of the most interesting services he has rendered Buddhism.
Ajahn
Buddhadasa worked painstakingly to establish and explain the correct
and essential principles of what he called “pristine Buddhism,” that is,
the original realization of the Lord Buddha before it was buried under
commentaries, ritualism, clerical politics, and the like. His work was
based in extensive research of the Pali texts (Canon and commentary),
especially of the Buddha’s Discourses (Sutta Pitaka), followed by
personal experiment and practice with these teachings. Then he taught
whatever he could say truly quenches dukkha (dissatisfaction,
suffering). His goal was to produce a complete set of references for
present and future research and practice. His approach was always
scientific, straight-forward, and practical.
Although
his formal education only went as far as ninth grade and beginning Pali
studies, he was given five Honorary Doctorates by Thai universities.
His books, both written and transcribed from talks, fill a room at the
National Library and influence all serious Thai Buddhists in Siam.
Doctoral dissertations are still being written about him and his legacy.
His books can be found in bookstores around the country and are
favorites as gifts at cremations.
Progressive
elements in Thai society, especially the young, were inspired by his
teaching and selfless example. Since the 1960’s, activists and thinkers
in areas such as education, ecology, social welfare, and rural
development have drawn upon his teaching and advice. Most of the monks
involved in nature conservation and community development were inspired
by him. He provided the link between the scriptural tradition and
engaged buddhist practice today.
After
the founding of Suan Mokkh, he studied all schools of Buddhism, as well
as the other major religious traditions. This interest was practical
rather than scholarly. He sought to unite all genuinely religious people
in order to work together to help, as he put it, “drag humanity out
from under the power of materialism.” This broadmindedness won him
friends and students from around the world, including Christians,
Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs.
His
last project was to establish an International Dhamma Hermitage. This
addition to Suan Mokkh is intended to provide facilities for:
- Courses which introduce foreigners to the correct understanding of Buddhist principles and practice;
- Meetings among Buddhists from around the world to establish and agree upon the “heart of Buddhism”;
-
Meetings of leaders from all religions for the sake of making mutual
good understanding and cooperating to drag the world out from under the
tyranny of materialism.
-
He left instruction for the building of Dhamma-Mata, a residential
facility to support the dedicated study-practice of women. He called it
Dhamma-Mata (Dhamma Mothers, those who give birth to others through
Dhamma).
Ajahn
Buddhadasa died in 1993 after a series of heart attacks and strokes
that he kept bouncing back from in order to teach. The final stroke
occurred as he was preparing notes for a talk to be given on his
birthday in two days (27 May). Suan Mokkh carries on in the hearts and
actions of all those who have been inspired and guided by his example
and words. Suan Mokkh is not so much a physical place as it is the space
of liberation that we all must discover in this very life.
- - ❖ - -
License
Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)

Another Buddhist response to Marxism can be seem in Bhikkhu
Buddhadasa, a contemporary Thai Buddhist thinker, who proposed his
social theory of dhammic socialism out of an Asian way of thinking,
within an Asian context. Since Thailand has never been colonized by a
Western power, Buddhist socialism can be interpreted as a struggle for economic and cultural independence. Bhikkhu Buddhadasa, a
contemporary Thai Buddhist thinker, has interpreted Buddhism not only
from a religious point of view of his unique theory of Buddhist socialism
or “dhammic socialism” but also from a sociopolitical perspective. After
devoting most of his life to reforming Buddhism in Thailand, Buddhadasa
found it necessary to address sociopolitical issues from a Buddhist
perspective. In the 1960’s, he articulated his sociopolitical position in
terms of “dhammocracy” (
dhammathipatai): the social and political order
should follow the law of Dhamma the teachings of the Buddha. Later on,
in the atmosphere of the student led Revolution in Thailand from 1973 to
1976, Buddhadasa presented (
dhammika sangkhomniyom). Buddhadasa
bases his theory of dhammic socialism on nature. To him, nature
represents the state of balance for the survival and wellbeing of human
beings, animals, plants, and the ecology of the world. In the state of
nature, every being produces according to its capacity and consumes
according to its needs; no being, whatever form, hoards “surplus” for its
own sake. Buddhadasa calls this balanced state of nature socialistic.
Problems arise, however, when human beings begin to hoard a “surplus”
for the sake of their own profit; this leaves others facing scarcity and
poverty. According to Buddhadasa, human beings can and should
produce a “surplus,” but the “surplus” should be distributed for the
wellbeing of everyone, and Buddhism provides the ethical tools for this
fair distribution. Philosophically, dhammic socialism is based on this
principle: none of us should take more than we really need. We should
share whatever extra we have with those who have less. Social problems
are fundamentally a result of greed. In other words, greed is at the heart
of scarcity and poverty (Buddhadasa,
Dhammic Socialism, 107).
Buddhadasa’s individualistic approach to social and economic problems
is implemented via the personal practices of generosity (dana) and self-restraint, which consists of keeping precepts (sila) and being self
disciplined the global market economy.

In a later unit in this chapter, we shall explain more on that
concept. According to Buddhist tradition, a good ruler has ten virtues,
enumerated in the next unit.

3.5 Dasa Rajadhamman or Ten Royal Virtues

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The Ten Perfections: Determination
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Eighth
in the series of Dhamma talks on Ten Perfections, the outstanding
virtues that were cultivated by the Buddha before his enlightenment.
Discover a multitude of practical ways to nourish and sustain these
virtues in daily life.
The Ten Perfections: Determination

Buddhism is more than a religion or a life philosophy; it is a way of
life. It is broad in scope and perceptive of the lives of others. Henceforth,
Buddha Gautama taught the eradication of poverty and internal security
of a kingdom as well as other social virtues. Towards the eradication of
crime in a country, a leader should eliminate poverty. Although there
were perhaps not the same strata of employment then that we have today,
Buddha urged employers and national leaders to improve relations with
employees through the means of wage and incentives, and occasional
gifts. Furthermore, kings and governments should consider the happiness
of their people seriously. In respect of good monarchy, there is the dasa
raja dhamma, which follow:

According to Buddhadhamma, or Buddhasatsana, a true, good
monarch is or should be endowed with the following ten virtues.

1.
As it is incumbent of the monarch to ensure the welfare and
prosperity of his people, the first of these virtues is dana or charity.
Dana
comes from the Sanskrit root dan, to give, which also founded the Latin
word don- as in donor (giver) and donation. In Buddhism, dana includes
generosity and reward. It is incumbent for a good leader to give freely
from his resources to anyone who needs anything. Maha Sudassana gave
whatever the needy person demanded at the time. This entails an accurate
assessment of the p
erson’s condiition: ‘This man is hungry’ etc. and the
suitable response.

2. The second virtue, very typically, was sila or morality. The raja
is himself a lay follower and lay followers were expected to follow only
five principles of moral conduct, whereas the bhikkus had many more.
The five principles, unlike their counterparts in other world religions,
were not rigidly enforced. This may have been due to Buddha’s
understanding of human weakness. These principles included the aversion
to kill meaninglessly, barring a war in the cause of national defence.
(Buddha taught
ahimsa, or non-violence, but understood that war in self-
defense was hard to avoid for any nation.) The other precepts included
aversion to adultery (as it provokes rage and jealousy, and disharmony
among subjects), aversion to the use of harmful and improper speech such
as lies, slander, rumours and gossiping and aversion to intoxicating things
etc.

Buddha continued to advise the following eight virtues:

3. pariccaga (self-sacrifice for common good): Sidhhi Butr-Indr
(1995; p.150) claims that this included the sacrifice of life and limbs on
behalf of the people, which is a very grand and noble gesture for anyone
and therefore very scarce. It arises from the belief that the happiness of
others causes oneself to feel happy, which is true.



4. ajjava (honesty): this virtue encompasses sincerity and freedom
from fear (bhayamokka) while discharging royal duties. It is very
conceivable that any honest man or woman, regardless of birthright,
should have no cause to fear so long as his/her activity is honest and
sincere. Thus, a king who lives honestly and sincerely need not fear any
loss to himself; or his family. Additionally, a king is recommended to be
straightforward and avoid deceptive
or ‘crooked’ recourse towards his
ends. To highlight this, the Sigalovada Sutta, Digha Nikaya, adds:
Canda dosa bhaya mohayo dhammam nativattati. Apurati tassa
yaso
Sukkha pakheva candima. (If a person maintains justice without
being subjected to favouritism, hatred, fear or ignorance, his popularity
grows like the waxing moon.)

5. maddava (gentleness) includes politeness and friendliness.
Buddha apparently intended this as a tool in addressing the subjects. As
he must have known well that common men prefer to listen to kind,
sincere speeches.

6. tapa (austerity) is generally a quality of ascetics and therefore
uncommon in men of high birth and status in society. It requires the
monarch to simplify his ways of life, which seemed rare in those days as
well as in the present. The scriptures had mentioned reports of kings who
abused wealth and power and were ‘lumped together’ with the thieves
from whom they were expected to protect their subjects.

7. akkodha is good will. It is also translated as ‘non-hatred.’ Thus,
a ruler should not bear any grudge against anyone. Furthermore, he
should act with love and forbearance.



8. ahimsa (non-violence): Buddha taught non-violence even in the
case of war, although he was well aware that war was difficult to avoid.
As we have mentioned, he sanctioned war only when it was fought for the
preservation of the state and could avoid killing. He included the
promotion of peace through non-violent action, which is truly the only
way to peace. This virtue was best epitomised in Emperor Asoka.

9. khanti, or patience. The ruler is herein urged to bear all
hardships without losing his temper and should avoid yielding to his
emotions. In fact, Buddhists are generally advised to be thoughtful rather
than giving way to emotions, but a king or ruler should avoid this as well.

10. avirodha (non-opposition to the public demand) This includes a
commitment to public welfare and is a good twin to pariccaga. As a good
monarch will first deem the welfare and happiness of the people as his
own and then undertake to promote it. (Rahula,
What the Buddha Taught
84-85)

Butr-Intr (Ibid. p.151) discusses the nature of a good king along
these lines, and historically there were god examples such as Maha
Sudassana and Asoka. Maha Sudassana practiced
dana in the manner
described; Asoka practiced
dana, sila and ahimsa and originated many
institutions in his kingdom to promote the public welfare. He stands as
one of the best examples of a monarch in early history. However, while
the leader who possesses all of thee virtues is loved well, he is very rare.
Some kings or leaders have possessed only a few virtues and others have
abused wealth and power for self-interest.



In modern day, with many countries assuming a democratic stance,
a few of them maintain monarchical influences. In Asia, these are
principally Nepal, Bhutan and Thailand. Nepal has deposed its monarchs
for criminal offences concerning ascension. Bhutan has remained a model
monarchical state, as Robert Thurman averred recently.

Thurman refers to the interesting paradox that Nagarjuna points
out, that it’s very likely that a good and strong executive is an essential
thing to maintain the interest of individuals in a society. So there is an
interesting paradox that you need a strong central leader to guarantee the
rights of the people and therefore the idea of a constitutional monarchy is
pretty close to a Buddhist ideal. (Retrieved from http://www.kuensel
online.com/ on 22 March 2009. Date of Citation: 27 November 2007)

Speaking more precisely on the duty and nature of the dhammaraja,
Thurman pointed that a true Buddhist king should attain to the state of
bodhisattva and serve his people. Asoka tried in his lifetime to attain that
end a
nd we shall discuss him in the next unit. Below are Thurman’s
words on the king:

Buddhism has a very interesting paradox and that is, yes, it’s very
important to be a bodhisattva and serve the people, but you can’t really
serve people well until you have wisdom, compassion and certain
qualities of an enlightened person. That’s the first thing of a Buddhist
King, the first duty is to himself, to develop full potential as a human
being. That’s the first principle.

The
second principle is Non-Violence. This is very difficult for a
ruler or a King, because there are some criminals and they have to be
punished or there are some threats to the nation and it has to be taken
care
of, so it may seem a little tough.

But Nagarjuna ruled out capital punishment. Even criminals should
not be killed, but you might kill someone if they try to harm your family,
but generally you try to correct criminals and educate them. The analysis
of self-
defense is kind of tricky in Buddhism, you can’t necessarily be
perfect but you tend towards the principle of non-violence.

The third principle is difficult to explain in English because there is
no real word for it but I call it Educationalism. What this means is that the
primary industry of a Buddhist society is education of its citizens
because, for any human being, the most important thing they can do is to
learn. Buddhism is very different from any other religions because
Buddhism does not teach that you can achieve nirvana just by faith, faith
is not sufficient to be free from suffering. (Ibid.)

3.6 Buddhism and the Social Life

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Buddhism
has been an integral part of the life of Buddhists for it is
the root of culture and way of life of the people. In order to
appreciate the
importance, role and influence of Buddhism on the way of life of the
Buddhist populace, it is necessary to understand other structures or
fabrics, which are integral parts of Buddhism. Important components are
the Buddha (Somdej Phra Nyanasamvara 2000, pp.6-7), the Dhamma,
the Sangha and the Wat (monastery) and lay disciples. The Dhamma or
the teachings of the Buddha has been most influential on the way of life
of Buddhists. The teachings are found not only in the Pali Canon and
Suttapitaka but also in such religious literatures as the Jataka,
Buddhist
chronicles and myths. The Dhamma component is an abstract aspect and
serves as the heart of Buddhism. The Sangha or the community of monks
and the Wat are in close relation and proximity with the laymen and
interact with society in its daily life.

The close association and continuous relationship between
Buddhism and society is based on the concept that a society is a
conglomeration of tangible compositions and such abstract elements as
virtue, value, goodness, morality and ethics. There are continuous
interactions between the tangible and intangible components. In order to
maintain the society functionally and structurally, there must be an
interdependent and supportive relationship of different compositions of
Buddhism. Lacking any of them would cause imbalance in society. In a
village community, for example, not having a monastery and monks to
edify and guide the people would result in the low morality and spirit of
the inhabitants. Similarly, if the monks in the community do not strictly
adhere to the Dhamma and keep to their duties according to the code of
discipline (Vinaya), the people’s morality and spirit would become lax,
the community’s social relationships would also be weakened, unstable
and not in peace. Social relationships are not always in harmony.
Conflicts may arise from time to time. Resolution to such conflicts may
be achieved by means of adjustment and adaptation of the existing social
structure and function in order to maintain the society. Alternatively,
there might be a replacement of the structure and function of the old
society by a new one.

Interaction and the independent relationship of the Sangha and lay
society is another aspect of the relationship between society and religion.



The Sangha is the most important and traditional Buddhist institution,
which is in close association with the people. It plays an essential role,
both religious and secular, in the life of the people. It provides spiritual
sanctuary and serves as a field of merit for the people when they need
spiritual comfort. In the secular sphere, the monks render services to rural
and remote communities. The monks help in teaching the children,
healing the sick by traditional methods, and leading the villagers in
various development efforts. Reciprocally, the lay community provides
the monks with necessities for their living so that they need not worry
about earning their living. Such an interdependent and reciprocal
relationship contributes to a situation in which each party has to be
flexible and adaptable to changes. An accommodating and adaptive
ability is an indispensable quality of the structure within a society, which
make possible the maintenance of the society. The maintenance of the
structure and the regulation of social order are structurally and
functionally defined. It is a situation in which every component of the
society is interdependent, interacting and contributing to the system
maintenance. Generally speaking, there are a variety of components in a
society. The important ones are an economic structure, a political
structure and a belief system meaningful to people’s lives and thoughts.
The major element in this belief system is a religious structure.

3.7 Buddhist dhamma and Society

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The
teachings of the Buddha are voluminous and classified into
groups. Each group serves a specific purpose. It explains an existing
phenomenon, its cause of arising and the effects thereof. There are also
prescriptions to overcome individual problems. The level of depth and
sophistication of the teachings are also purposely prescribed to suit
individual needs. Due to the differences in context and level of
sophistication of the teachings, there arise differences in
interpretation of
the teachings. This concerns one’s perception and experiences,
occupation and education. Some political scientists may understand the
Buddhist concept
Santosa (satisfaction with whatever is one’s own) as
not conducive to development. In contrast, conservationalists and
environmentalists would see the meaning of
Santosa as contentment with
the maintenance of the existing status and conditions, which is supportive
to environmental conservation. Students of Buddhist Studies would view
such interpretations as not comprehensive. This signifies different levels
of understanding of the teachings of the Buddha by the Buddhists.
According to Robert Redfield’s concept of ‘Great and Little Tradition’,
people’s appreciation of Buddhism can be divided into two broad
categories, doctrinal and popular Buddhism. (Robert Redfield 1965,
pp.41-43)

Firstly, doctrinal Buddhism refers to the teachings of the Buddha
and practices contained in the Canon Sutta and related literatures.
Doctrinal Buddhism is thus believed to be original. Its followers will
refuse principles, teachings and practices, which are not contained in the
Canon and Suttapitaka. They view belief in spirits, deities, and other
forms of Animism including beliefs and practices adopted from other
faiths, as heresy. The followers of doctrinal Buddhism are few in number
but are well educated.

Secondly,
popular Buddhism refers to a Buddhism which is
permeated by other religions and belief systems. It includes Animism,
Brahmanism, and beliefs in spirits and ghosts. The teachings and
practices of Buddhism and other belief systems are so interwoven that
only the well educated among the faithful can distinguish Buddhism from
the others.

Religious rites, an important structure and function of a religion
can differentiate between the intricacy of doctrinal and popular
Buddhism. The followers of popular Buddhism tend to rank ritual very
high. Their rituals are a combination of Buddhistic, Animistic and
Brahmanical elements. A wedding ceremony, for example, begins with
Buddhist merit making such as giving alms to the monks in the morning.
Late morning ritual involves the offering of sacrifices to the spirit house
and to the ancestors. In the evening Brahmanism is invoked to bless the
bride and the groom. The holiest part of the evening ritual is the pouring
of lustral water on the hands of the couple with blessings from the senior
guests. On the contrary, the followers of doctrinal Buddhism are more
concerned with Buddhist ritual and play down the non-Buddhistic ones.

The
great majority of Buddhists in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia
follow popular Buddhism. This phenomenon can be explained in the
context of the belief system at every level of society. Amongst the most
primitive, there exists a belief system that human beings can hold on
to.
Such a belief system may be Animism in various forms, including beliefs
regarding natural happenings. Certain communities have embraced an
established religion such as Brahmanism, which was well rooted in India
and propagated all over the world, and Taoism or Confucianism, which
spread from China. By the time that Buddhism was introduced to
Southeast Asia, there already existed belief systems and religious among
the people. When they accepted Buddhism they also kept their old
beliefs.
Due to its flexible and liberalism, Buddhism easily absorbed certain
elements of existing belief systems into its mainstream. What developed
from this process is popular Buddhism.

The teachings of the Buddha display variety in its levels of
sophistication, purposes, content, and specialties. For example, the Four
Noble Truths explain natural phenomena, which will be with everyone
from birth to death. It describes the nature of suffering represented by
birth, old age, disease and death, including sorrow and frustration of
every kind; the origin of problems and suffering by way of causality; the
extinction of suffering; and the path leading to the extinction of suffering.
There are teachings that guide the people to live comfortably without
economic hardship. This teaching is called
Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma (virtues conducive to benenfits
in the present).

It teaches the laymen to have energy; industry and watchfulness
concerning their properties; to associate with good people; and to live
economically. The Buddha also encouraged people to follow the path to
success. This appears in a particular teaching called Iddhipada (basis for
success). However, the over all purpose of the teachings of the Buddha
can be summarized in the following:

Firstly, it enlightens the laymen about the nature of life from birth
and existence to death. This includes an explanation of the origin of life,
existence after birth and survival until death. The teachings also deal with
ways to lead one’s life happily, in harmony with nature and how to
minimize and cope with suffering arising from sickness, death,
disappointment, separation and other misfortunes.



Secondly, it explains and prescribes ways for people to live
together mutually on a one to one level, as well as on national and global
levels. The teachings, to achieve this purpose
, deals with the prescriptions
for social relationships between individuals, social relations within the
family, social relationships between family and family, between teacher
and students, between employer and employees, between religious
personnel and laymen, between government and subjects and between
state and state.

Thirdly, it gives guidance on the application of the teachings of the
Buddha to improve the daily life. The prescriptions are designed to be
workable according to the nature of problems and the level of
appreciation of the individual needs. Therefore, there are levels in the
teachings of the Buddha, i.e., basic truth, middle and sophisticated truth,
both in mundane and supramundane states (Lokiyadhamma and
Lokuttaradhamma).

The
dissemination of the teachings of the Buddha to people at
different levels of appreciation requires specialized methods to suit
each
group. So as to preach Dhamma to intellectuals and educated people who
are keen on Buddhism and who want to apply Dhamma to improve their
lives, sophisticated Dhamma must be selected. The Dhamma for the
followers of popular Buddhism, on the contrary, has to be simplified and
easy to understand. Simplified Laws8 of Kamma and stories from the
Jataka and Sutta are an effective means to edify them. However, Phra
Rajavoramuni points out that whatever the teaching methods are, all
teachings are related, for the essence of the teachings derives from the
same truth and the ultimate purpose is identical. In fact, these
teachings are identical in purpose but given different labels. The truth
is
disseminated selectively and in different forms.

3.8 Buddhism: The Socio-political Changes and the Social Order

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The principle of ever-changing nature or the impermanent
condition of the society is a very important to consider when one studies
the relationship between Buddhism and society. It is argued that at the
time when the Gotama was seeking enlightenment there had been rapid
socio-political changes in the homeland of Buddhism, i.e., present
Northern India (Phra Rajavoramuni 1983, pp.11-12). The Buddha
considered that the ever-changing or impermanent conditions were causes
of suffering and societal problems. He therefore devoted himself to the
search for truth to remedy human suffering. The suffering and problems,
which the Buddha perceived, were: (1) natural changes in human beings
and (2) changes caused by man.

Firstly, natural changes in human beings, these were the causes of
suffering inherent in human beings, for example, birth, sickness, death,
happiness, suffering, satisfaction, disappointment, etc. Though they are
the natural phenomena, yet they can cause suffering to people. The
Buddha believed that there must be a remedy to end or at least to
minimize those causes of suffering. Thus, he set forth in search of the
truth. Secondly, changes caused by man, includes: (1) political changes
and (2) socio-economic changes.

Firstly,
political changes during the lifetime of the Buddha and the
political environment could be characterized as pertaining to two major
forms of government. The first one was absolute monarchy. The other was a
system based on co-operation between the ruling elites of small
principalities within the states. This form of government is said to be
equivalent to a loosely structured republican system and the mode of
government was democratic. The absolute monarchy form of government
had been adopted by the four northern states of India and they proved to
be very politically strong and stable. Among these states, two of them
had
adopted democratic procedures in their government. Legislation, policy
making, and judicial processes were based on consultation in the
assembly of the assigned ruling elite. Majority opinion was adopted to
arrive at final decisions and resolutions. However, the democratic form
of
government was gradually weakened by the stronger authoritarian
governments and finally became absorbed by the absolute monarchical
system.

Secondly, it is the socio-economic changes. The expansion of the
absolute monarchical states contributed to the expansion of trade. The
growth of trade generated the bourgeois and capitalist classes. Those who
were economically strong became politically influential and dominated
the government (Phra Rajavoramuni 1982 pp.21-22).

The characteristics and nature of socio-political and economic
changes became integral parts of the teachings of the Buddha. Since the
Buddha gave heavy importance to the forces of socio-political and
economic change, this contributed to Buddhist ability to adjust to changes
without losing its essence.

In the context of socio-political changes, Buddhism has played a
very important role in regulating and organizing society for the survival
and continuity of the society. These functions can be summarized as
followings

A. Socialization function. In Buddhist societies, culture, values and
customs are deeply rooted in Buddhism. Although there are normative
and substantive socializing agents, the monks and monasteries are another
important socializing institution. They have served as ethical and moral
socializing agents. They persuade the people to follow social rules and
regulations and to lead their lives according to the Buddhist way of life.
Such virtues as loving and kindness (Metta-Karuna), kind-heartedness,
being helpful to each other, courtesy and social relationships between
persons of different status constitute this way of life.

B. Social control function. Social control is indispensable for
human society. In order to keep society in order and its members
behaving correctly, so as to maintain peace and order, there must be laws
and regulations governing the society. It is necessary to have an
authoritative body, i.e., a government to enact and enforce such secular
laws and regulations. In addition there are also traditions and customary
laws that enhance the social control of any society.

However, those secular social control mechanisms are aimed at
regulating men’s activities and overt behavior. They will be effective only
when men
feel morally obligated to follow the laws and regulations.
Religion can play a very important role in instilling in the people a
sense
of morality and edifying them. The monks and monasteries are essential
religious socializing agents that train Buddhists to be good citizens.
Buddhist principles, which function as a social control mechanism, are,
for example, the Five Precepts, Brahmavihàra (sublime states of mind),
Sangahavatthu (virtues making for group integration and leadership and
principle of services), Nathakaranadhamma (virtues which make for
protection), Saraniyadhamma (virtues for fraternal living), Adhipateyya
(dominant influence, supremacy, Dithadhammikattha (sources of
happiness in the present life), etc. People, who are trained, edified,
and
keep to the teachings of the Buddha will have shared norms and follow a
common way of life. Such a society will face minimal conflicts, people
will live together with reason and social problems are minimized.

C. Buddhism serves as a unifying force for the society. The fact
that the faithful follow the teaching of the Buddha, and adopt Dhamma as
guidance in their life, reinforces national integration and solidarity. Good
racial integration and a healthy religion enhance national security. In
addition to the teachings of the Buddha, religious rituals and calendar
festivals foster the unity of the people.

3.9 The Characteristics of the Rulers

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Plato’s definition of philosopher king refer to one who is going to
seek the truth; And truth can only be won by knowledge and wisdom. The
best government for him is the one, which has a philosopher king in
power. The other virtue, which is stressed by Plato, is justice. He says that
justice is the whole duty of man. He further explains that it is justice went
each class does its own proper work. In each of us also, if our inward
faculties do severally their roper work, we will live in the virtue of
justice; we will do just men, and doers of proper work.



Aristotle (born 884 B.C.) wrote how the powers of government
should be expressed. According to him, the government would be good if
it worked in the interest of the community as a whole. And on the
contrary it would be bad if it worked for the governing body and for
selfish purposes. Aristotle focused on the practitioner of government who,
by his power, would make the common good, good of life for all.

He mentions that political justice exists among people who are
associated in a common life with a view to self-sufficiency and who
enjoy freedom and equality. Justice must be administered not merely for a
private group but for the whole world. Aristotle explains that government
will be best if it serves the common good for the people. The political
thinkers emphasize the moral virtues of the ruler who should do justice to
all and bring good to all, a government working for the public good.
(Macilwain, 1932, pp.83-85)

The basis of religion is morality and faith, while that for politics is
power. Religion was used to justify wars and conquest, persecutions,
atrocities, rebellions, destruction of works of art and culture. When
religion is used to pander to political whims, it has to forego its high
moral ideals and become debased by worldly political demands.

The thrust of the Buddha Dhamma is not directed to the creation of
new political institutions and establishing political arrangements.
Basically, it seeks to approach the problems of society by reforming the
individuals constituting that society and suggesting some general
principles, through which the society can be guided towards greater
humanism, improved welfare of its members, and more equitable sharing
of resources.

There is a limit to the extent to which a political system can
safeguard the happiness and prosperity of its people. No political system,
no matter how ideal it may appear to be, can bring about peace and
happiness as long as the no matter what political system is adopted, there
are certain universal factors which the members of that society will have
to experience: the effects of good and bad
kamma, the lack of real
satisfaction or everlasting happiness in the world characterized by
dukkha
(unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness). To
the Buddhist, nowhere in
Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the
heavens or the world of Brahmas.

Although a good and just political system which guarantees basic
human rights and contains checks and balances to the use of power is an
important condition for a happy life in society, people should mot fritter
away their time by endlessly searching for the ultimate political system
where men can be completely free, because complete freedom cannot be
found in any system but only in minds which are free.

To be free, people will have to look within their own minds and
work towards freeing themselves from the chains of ignorance and
craving. Freedom in the truest sense is only possible when a person use
Dhamma to develop his character through good speech and action and to
train his mind so as to expand his mental potential and achieve his
ultimate aim of enlightenment.

While recognizing the use fullness of separating religion from
politics and the limitations of political systems in bringing about peace
and
happiness, there are several aspects of the Buddha’s teaching, which
have close correspondence to the political arrangements of the present
day.

1) Firstly, the Buddha spoke about the equality of all human beings
long before Abraham Lincoln, and the classes and castes are artificial
barriers erected by society. According to the Buddha, the only
classification of human beings is based on the quality of their moral
conduct.

2) Secondly, the Buddha encouraged the spirit of social co-
operation and active participation in society. This spirit is actively
promoted in the political in the political process of modern societies.

3) Thirdly, since no one was appointed as the Buddha’s successor,
the members of the Order were to be guided by the Dhamma and Vinaya,
or in short, the Rule of Law. Until today every member of the
Sangha is
to abide by the Rule of Law, which governs and guides their conduct.

4) Fourthly, the Buddha encouraged the spirit of consultation and
the democratic process. This is shown within the community of the Order
in which all members have the right to decide on matters of general
concern. When a serious question arose demanding attention, the issues
were put before the monks and discussed in a manner similar to the
democratic parliamentary system used today.

This self-governing procedure may come as a surprise to many to
learn that in the assemblies of Buddhists in India 2,500 years ago and
more are to be found the rudiments of the parliamentary practice of the
present day. A speci
al officer similar to “Mr. Speaker” was appointed to
preserve the dignity of the assembly.

A second officer, who played a role similar to the Parliamentary
Chief Whip, was also appointed to see if the quorum was secured.
Matters were put forward in the form of a motion, which was open to
discussion. In some cases it was done once, in others three times, thus
anticipating the practice of Parliament in requiring that a bill should be
read a third time before it becomes law. If the discussion shows a
difference of opinion, it was to be settled by the vote of the majority
through balloting.

The Buddhist approach to political power is the moralization and
the responsible use of public power. The Buddha preached non-violence
and peace as a universal message. He did not approve of violence or the
destruction of life, and declared that there is no such thing as a “just” war.
He taught: ‘The victor breeds hatred, the defeated lives in misery. He who
renounces both victory and defeat is happy and peaceful. Not only did the
Buddha teach non-violence and peace, but also he was perhaps the first
and only religious teacher who went to the battlefield personally to
prevent the outbreak of a war. He diffused tension between the Sakyas
and Koliyas who were about to wage war over the waters of Rohine. He
also dissuaded king
Ajātaśatru from attacking the Kingfom of the vajjis.

The Buddha discussed the importance and the prerequisites of a
good government. He showed how the country could become corrupt,
degenerate and unhappy when the head of the government becomes
corrupt and unjust. He spoke against corruption and how a government
should act on humanitarian principles. The Buddha once said, “When the
ruler of a
country is just and good, the ministers become just and good;
when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just
and
good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file
become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the
people become just and good.”

In the Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta, the Buddha said that
immorality and crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty,
could arise from poverty. Kings and government may try to suppress
crime through punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through
force.

In the Kutadanta Sutta, the Buddha suggested economic
development instead of force to reduce crime. The government should use
the country’s resources to improve the economic conditions of the
country. It could embark on agricultural and rural development, provide
financial support to entrepreneurs and business, and provide adequate
wages for workers to maintain a decent life with human dignity.

In the Milinda Panha, it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit,
incompetent, immoral, improper, unable and unable and unworthy of
kingship, has enthroned himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he
is subject to be tortured…to be subject to a variety of punishment by the
people, because, being unfit and unworthy, he has placed himself
unrighteously in the seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate
and transgress moral codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind,
is equally subject to punishment; and moreover, to be censure is the ruler
who conducts himself as a robber of the public.’

In
Jantaka story, it is mentioned that a ruler who punishes innocent
people and does not punish the culprit is not suitable to rule a
country.
The king always improves himself and carefully examines his own conduct
in deed, words and thoughts, trying to discover and listen to
public opinion as to whether or been guilty of any faults and mistakes
in
ruling the that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust
treatment,
punishment, taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any
kind, and they will react against him un one way or another. On the
contrary, if he rules righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His
Majesty.’

The Buddha’s emphasis is on the moral duty of a ruler to use
public power to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor
Asoka, a sparkling example of this principle, resolved to live and preach
the Dhamma and to serve his subjects and all humanity accordingly. He
declared his non-aggressive intentions to his neighbours, assuring them of
his goodwill and sending envoys to distant kings bearing his message of
peace and non-aggression.

He promoted the energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of
honesty, truthfulness, compassion, benevolence, non-violence,
considerate behaviour towards all, non-extravagance, non-
acquisitiveness, and non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious
freedom and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on to
periodic tours preaching the
Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook
works of public utility, such as founding of hospitals for man beings and
animals, supplying of medicine, plantation of the roadside trees and
groves, digging of wells, and construction of watering sheds and rest
houses. He expressly forbade cruelty to animals.

Sometimes
the Buddha is said to be a social reformer. Among other
things, he condemned the caste system, recognized the equality of
people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic conditions,
recognized the
importance of n more equitable distribution of wealth among the rich and
the poor, raised the status of women, recommended the incorporation of
humanism in government and administration, and taught that a society
should not be run by greed but with consideration and compassion for the
people. despite all of these, his contribution to mankind is much
greater
because he took off at a point which no other social reformer before or
ever since had done, that is, by going to the deepest roots of human ill
which are found in human mind.

It is only in the human mind that true reform can be affected.
Reforms imposed by force upon the external world have a very short life
because they have no roots. Not those reforms, which spring as a result of
the transformation of man’s inner consciousness, remain rooted. While
their braches spread outwards, they draw their nourishment from and
unfailing source the subconscious imperatives of the life- stream itself. So
reforms come about when men’s minds have prepared the way for them,
and they live as long as men revitalize them out of their own love of truth,
justice and their fellow men. (K.Shi Dhammananda, 1993, pp.231-236)

Kingship
is generally regarded as a result of meritorious actions
performed in the past births. The pali texts generally insist that a
king be
khattiya and belong to a family with a hoary lineage. This is in keeping
with the early Buddhist view that the Khattiyas are the highest among
classes and castes. Nor is a woman favoured as a ruler. Of course this
can
be taken as the observation of the Buddhists of the contemporary
situation. This cannot be regarded as the general rule or even the main
emphasis of Buddhism. What is more important for Buddhism, is that a
good king is expected to have ten qualities such as charity, morality,
and spirit of sacrifice, justice, humility, penitence, absence of wrath,
absence
of violence, patience and harmlessness. A good king, however, should do
more than merely possess certain qualities. He should sub-serve two
traditions namely those of attha and Dhamma. The terms attha and
Dhamma may be rendered, in our present context, as actions conducive to
prosperity and righteousness.

Owing to the fact that a leader is the most important and powerful
person. He, therefore, should know the price of leadership: emulation and
envy. A leader is envied. High and powerful positions are fervently
sought out for all the promise they hold. And what can be more alluring
than the highest post in the land?

To be good leader should be undaunted to emulation and envy
which are around us. In this case, the researcher agrees with S. Leelavathi
the famous columnist who in the
column “The Speaking Tree” (Times of
India, Monday, May 31, 2004), mentioned the price of leadership by
saying,
“Now that the “crown of thorns” has been placed on a leader’s
head, it is instructive to look at what leadership means, both for the leader
and the led. True, the lead of any huge corporation or country will have
almost boundless resourced at his word shall be law. And sycophants
there will be aplenty. However, it is also true that no leader can be free of
the baggage of leadership.”

In
every field of human endeavour; first he must perpetually live in
the white light of publicity. Whether the leadership should be vested in
a
man or in a manufactured product, emulation and envy are ever at work
in the art, in literature, in music, in industry, the reward and the
punishment are always the same. The reward is widespread recognition;
the punishment, fierce denial and detraction.

When a man’s work becomes a standard for the whole world, it
also becomes a target for the shafts of the envious few. Should his work
be merely mediocre, he will be left severely alone; if he achieves a
masterpiece, it will set a million tongues wagging. Jealousy does not
protrude its forked tongue at the artist who produced a commonplace
painting.

Whatsoever you write, paint, play, sing or build, no one will strive
to surpass, or to slander you. Unless your work be stamped with the seal
of genius. Long, long after a great work or a good work has been done;
those who are disappointed or envious continue to cry out that it cannot
be done.

It is as old as the world and as old as human passions namely;
envy, fear, greed, ambition and the desire to surpass. And it all avails
nothing. If the leader truly leads, he remains the leader.

In conclusion we may say that the ruler is considered as the center
of the society. Everybody has to follow him as the leader. He is the model
for common people and the virtues to be developed by the ruler and his
subordinates to be the good model of people. The staff and all officials of
the ruler should be men of wisdom and virtue. The economic glory and
prosperity and spiritual peace of the people and the state should be taken
care of strictly by the ruler. It is supposed to be the symbol of the well-
being of the people.

The qualities of life both of body and mind, both of the ruler and
the ruled, should be developed simultaneously. Happiness, peace security,
and confidence of the people will thus be widely spread. A good ruler is
beloved and popular among the domestic as well as the monastic
inhabitants: just as a father is near and dear to his children, even so is the
ruler beloved and regarded by the ruled; and just as the children are near
and dare to their father, even so are the ruled to a ruler. He instructs the
public in the threefold practice of well-doing in thought, word and deed
and encourages them to perform charitable deeds, to observe morality, to
engage themselves energetically in their occupation to educate
themselves, to gain wealth, to fulfill their respective duties.

A good ruler sets his whole heart upon promoting the welfare of his
people and makes righteousness the sole purpose of his actions. Being
devoted to the happiness and well-being of his subjects, he appears like
righteousness personified. As the embodiment of righteousness and the
promoter of what is good for his subjects, he realizes their welfare to be
the fruit of righteousness and knows no other purpose than this. A ruler,
therefore, must have righteousness to lead his country and his people to
peace and happiness. ( Khongchinda Chanya,1993 pp.96-7)

3.10 Social Justice in Buddhism

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After Mindfulness - Panel #4: “Social Justice & Engaged Buddhism”
After Mindfulness
131 subscribers
Moderator: Hozan Alan Senauke
Ambedkar Association of North America: Pankaj Meshram
Cambodian Refugee: Marlai Ouch
Psychotherapist: Sarwang Parikh


A virtue needed by all beings, both human and animal, justice is the
result of men’s treatment to their fellow human beings, other beings or
even
their natural surroundings in the way believed to be fair in
accordance with the religious as well as the legal principles. However,
it
is an abstract element, unable to be touched but able to be felt by
heart.
The society, where there exists the justice, is assured to enjoy peace,
tranquillity and equality as well. In such society, the law can be
enforced
in the full scale, and the religious teachings can be applied
effectively.
But how justice arises and how justice can be achieved and implanted in
the global community are the ‘everlasting’ questions pending solution by
the religions, legal instruments, education systems as well as by human
beings themselves. This chapter is going to deal with the Buddhist
concept concerning justice, the Buddhist approaches to create justice and
the Buddhist contributions to social justice in the society.

3.10.1 What is Justice?

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What Is Justice?: Crash Course Philosophy #40
CrashCourse
11M subscribers
In
today’s episode, Hank asks you to consider all the ways people talk
about justice and what we really mean when we use that word. We’ll
explain various theories of justice, just distribution, and different
approaches to punishment
What Is Justice?: Crash Course Philosophy #40

Although “justice” is sometimes used synonym for “law” or
“lawfulness,” it has a broader closer to “fairness.”

As it has been explained in the Encyclopedia of philosophy edited
by Paul Edward, Justice presupposes people pressing claims and
justifying them by rules or standards. This distinguishes it from charity,
benevolence, or generosity. No one can claim alms or gifts as a right.
However, although this account is appropriate to questions of distributive
justice, where the problem is to allocate benefits, it is not so obviously
true of corrective (or retributive) justice. It is farfetched to describe a
criminal trial as a conflict between an accused man’s interest in being let
alone and the community’s interest (if it has one) in punishing him.
Nevertheless, sentencing criminals and giving judgment in favor of one
party to a dispute rather than another have this in common with
distribution- that they all may involve overriding a claim and treating one
person more harshly that another. All presuppose general principles by
which such distinctions are regulated and justified.



Aristotle’s analysis of justice is the key to its meaning at the level
of the particular act or decision. Justice, he said, consists in treating
equals equally and unequals unequally, but in proportion their relevant
differences. This involves the idea like impartiality and right to equal
consideration.

Mill sought to reconcile retaliataive justice with utilitarianism,
arguing that the natural impulse to retaliate is moralized as a sentiment of
justice by confining it to those cases where the injury is to society at large
and where retaliative justice has a useful deterrent function. However,
although the duty of reciprocity may spring from our recognition of other
men, just as much as ourselves, as persons with interests and claims
deserving of respect, we cannot infer from that a duty to attack their
interests whenever they attack either our own or even those of society at
large.

Alf Ross, for instance, has declared that to use the word “just” as a
description of a rule or general order, rather than of a particular decision
in accordance with the
rule is merely to express emotion, like “banging
on the table.”

Hobbes is often said to have been a positivist because he
maintained that “just” and “unjust” presuppose a coercive power capable
of enforcing obligations and that no complaint of injustice could be made
against the sovereign legislator. But since he admitted that the sovereign
may act inequitably, that is, contrary to natural law, canons of legal
criticism beyond positive law do exist; it is only that the subject is not
entitled to use them.



The strength of the conventionalist position is illustrated by
Rawls’s view of a just order as that body of principles that anyone might
recognize as in his interest to maintain, given that others on whose
acquiescence he depends, have interests that conflict with his own.
Although the rules might appear to discriminate against him on some
given occasion, he would be able to see the point, nevertheless, of having
those rules. This was, broadly, Hume’s opinion. Justice, he geld, was
conventional in the sense of being necessary to society. Though there
were discrepancies in detai
l, men’s ideas on justice corresponded in
essentials because they arose from needs common to all social
saturations. These rules were binding by custom and convention but were
justified by their public utility.

Rawls has challenged the view that a practice is just if it answer
most fully to wants and interests. Justice is not the outcome but is
presupposed by such a calculation. Any interest not compatible with
justice ought not to be counted. Classical utilitarianism is at fault,
according to the Rawls, because it permits one to give as a reason why
slavery is unjust that the advantage to the slave holder does not outweigh
the disadvantages to the slave and to society at large. Justice, understood
as fairness, would not admit to the calculation the advantages of the
slaveholder as such because hid role could not be mutually acknowledge
as part of an acceptable practice by all parties involved. It would not be
thought relevant for one person, engaged with another in a common
practice and accused by him of injustice, to answer that nevertheless it
allowed of the greatest satisfaction of desire
.



Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, one of greatest political and intellectual
personalities of India, elucidated the concept of social justice as follows:
“Social justice as a guiding and evaluative principle is always dynamic
because it takes stock of the changing situation and suggests the abolition
or modification of unjust custom, tradition and social structures to
promote the welfare of the people and the preservation of rights of the
poor and weaker section of society” (Gokhale, Ed. 2008, p.87)

3.10.2 Buddhist concept of Justice

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Buddhist Ethics, Justice & Compassion in Modern Times : Buddhism Explained with Robert A.F. Thurman
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The term “Justice” is possibly equivalent to a Pali word of
“Yuttidhamma”or “Yuktidharma” in Sanskrit, which means ‘
the principle
of impartiality
’ or ‘the righteous principle on which the treatment of
either man-to-man or man to his fellow beings even his surroundings is
based and kept in balance
’. Justice is abstract and difficult to understand.
To make clear what justice is requires the explanation in the opposite
term, i.e., to talk about ‘prejudice’ or ‘partiality’. According to Buddhism,
there are four kinds of prejudice, consisting of the prejudice caused by
‘Love’(Chandagati), ‘Hatred’(Dosagati), ‘Delusion’(Mohagati) and
‘Fear’(Bhayagati). This sounds quite different from the concept in
general which holds that there are just 2 kinds of prejudice, namely,
‘Love-based prejudice’ and ‘Hatred-based prejudice’. There is no need to
elaborate the first two kinds of prejudice as they have already been well
acquainted to all. It is worth to explain the last two kinds: the prejudice
caused by delusion and that caused by fear.

It is admitted that in the context of decision-making, the all-
embracing knowledge, experiences, perfect information and thorough
consideration (
Yoniso manasikara) are needed, not to mention the
‘SWOT’ (Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, which cannot be
absolutely overlooked. In spite of this, some failures
sometimes still arise. Specifically, should discrete appraisal or Yoniso
manasikara is to be accepted, what will happen is very horrible to
imagine
of. The delusion (
Moha) or, in another word, lack of knowledge,
experiences and information that are sufficient and supportive, leads to
the rise of prejudice, either intentionally or unintentionally. Another
element that significantly influences the decision-making procedure is
‘fear’ (Bhaya), or the decision made under the pressure staged by an
influential person or group like political as well as interest groups that
exercise their power to the extent that the decision made is distorted.
These two kinds of prejudice, it can be said, may bring about, to the
society, negative effects which are more aggravated than those caused by
love and hatred.

As a matter of fact, Buddhism is the religion of ‘wisdom’. Thus, in
all the practical processes ranging from the beginning to the highest level,
wisdom is an inevitable agent, lack of which the result will be otherwise.
Moreover, ‘Bhaya’ or fear is, of course, nothing but an external power
that threatens the decision-making or Dhamma-practicing process. It can
be compared to an ‘ill-wisher’ or ‘Mara’ in Pali term, who is always
attempting to find chance to either tease or tempt the practitioners to go
astray and, at last, fail to achieve their goal.

Then it can be defined here that the treatment process that is
deprived of the above-mentioned four kinds of prejudice is called
‘Justice’.

As
an atheistic religion, Buddhism denies the existence of God or
any external power that is believed to determine the fate of man as he
wishes, whilst guaranteeing human competency in respect of self-
development, self-reliance and future-
shaping through man’s own action,
i.e., the ‘Law of Kamma’ or, in other word, the ‘Law of Cause and
Effect’. A Buddhist proverb says, ‘As a farmer reaps whatever crop he
grows, so man is due to receive whatever result of his own action, either
wholesome or unwholesome. If he does good action, he is due to receive
good result, and vice versa
’. There are more of the Buddha’s sayings in
the Pali Text confirming the principle, for example,

-‘It is your duty to make your own effort. I am merely the pointer of
the way.’

-‘Have yourself as your own refuge, O Bhikkhus, and do not have
others as such. Have the Dhamma as theirown refuge, and do not have
others as such.’

In the Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya (the Pali Text of Middle-
Length Discourses) dealing with two young Brahmans named Vasettha
and Bharadavaja who had a controversial attitude in respect of ‘pure
birth
’ according to the caste system in Hiduism, and decided to take the
case to the Lord Buddha for judgment, the Lord Buddha said (in Pali),

‘Na jacca vasalo hoti na jacca hoti brahmano.
Kammuna vasalo hoti
kammuna hoti brahmano.’
(Not by his birth man is an outcaste or a Brahman;
Only by his own Kamma man becomes an outcaste

or a Brahman.)

Moreover, it is unbelievable that even in the community of those
who believe in a theistic religion, there still exists a proverb saying like
God helps those who help themselves.’



3.10.3 Buddhist Approach to Justice

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Race, Violence, and A Buddhist Approach to Social Change
Tallahassee Chan Center
Race, Violence, and A Buddhist Approach to Social Change
#Buddhism #Zen #Chan #GeorgeFloyd #Protests
Short Dharma talk by Guo Gu.
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Race,
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#GeorgeFloyd #Protests Short Dharma talk by Guo Gu. Join the
Tallahassee Chan C…
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Race, Violence, and A Buddhist Approach to Social Change
Tallahassee Chan Center
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Race, Violence, and A Buddhist Approach to Social Change
Short Dharma talk by Guo Gu.
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The introduction of the law of Kamma instead of the external power
exercised by god or gods, which was, at the inception of Buddhism, the
major powerful faith occupying the entire society emphasized the role of
the Lord Buddha in a courageous attempt to create the justice-based
society in the subcontinent. The first evidence can be detected from the
principle of belief laid down for the new-comers to Buddhism that starts
with (1) belief in
Kamma or one’s own action, (2) belief in effect of
Kamma, (3) belief that one is due to reap the effect of Kamma he has
already done, and (4) belief in the Exalted One’s enlightenment. There
may be some argument that the last of the four beliefs is distinctively an
element of faith in external power, the answer to which is that Buddhists
are not taught to believe in the Lord Buddha as Almighty God who solely
possesses the power to determine man’s fate, but, on the contrary, taught
to believe in what had been enlightened by the Lord Buddha through His
insight-wisdom like the Four Noble Truth, the Noble Eight-fold Path and
so on.

Another example lies in the revolutionary teaching in aspect of the
caste system to be substituted by the virtue-oriented system as the Lord
Buddha once said in the
Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya (the Pali Text
of Lengthy Discourses) that ‘To those who are troubled with birth and
caste, the caste of monarchy is considered supreme. However, he who is
perfect in the principle of knowledge and the code of conduct is supreme
among celestial and human beings.

Not
only does Buddhism expect the availability of justice among the
human community, but even the animal world as well as natural
surroundings should also enjoy the virtue. Take for example the re-
interpretation of the five Brahmanical sacrifices in light of Buddhism.

1. Assamedha that means the horse sacrifice was changed to
Sassamedha, the meaning of which is the knowledge in the development
of rice or agricultural products.

2. Naramedha that means human sacrifice was reinterpreted as
Purisamedha meaning to render help to the people instead of killing them.

3. Sammapasa that formerly implied a series of sacrificial rites
in connection with a hoop or noose was re-interpretted as a philanthropic
movement implemented by the government or head of a community in
the form of a moral hoop or noose to fasten the minds of the people with.

4. Vajapeyya that means the immolation of seventeen kinds of
animal in the sacrifice, the meaning of which was cha
nged to ‘drinking
the water of wholesome speech.

5. Niraggala formerly implying the wholesale slaughter of both
human beings and animals was newly defined as the abolition of all
obstacles or crimes to the extent that people are so peacefully content and
happy.

Above all, the justice in the Buddhist concept that transcends all
kinds of the justice as earlier mentioned is
the justice toward one’s own
self, viz. the perfect liberation of one’s mind off the influence of
defilements or Kilesas, which is the ultimate goal of Buddhism. It is considered an absolute prejudice toward his own self so far as man lets
himself fall under the yoke of defilements, the cruellest master, and
become their faithful servants. Once the Lord Buddha said, ‘Be hurry, O
Bhikkhus, to paddle your boat till it shall reach the other side of the river
bank
.’

3.10.4 Buddhist Contributions to Social Justice

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Social Justice Approach: Dr. B R Ambedkar
MOOCs EMRC Osmania University
6.71K subscribers
Ambedkar
writings on constitutionalism and democracy are of great contemporary
relevance. His warning on democracy to retain its form and give place to
dictatorship deserves serious concern.
Social Justice Approach: Dr. B R Ambedkar

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Social Justice Approach: Dr. B R Ambedkar
Ambedkar
writings on constitutionalism and democracy are of great contemporary
relevance. His warning on democracy to retain its form and give place to
dicta…

Through its long history of over 2550 years, Buddhism has
contributed so much to the social justice, beginning with the destruction
of the caste system which resulted in the equilibrium of human beings in
consistence with the proverb that says, ‘All men are born equal’, and
introduction of the virtue-oriented system in its place, followed by the
challenging admission of ladies to get ordained as Bhikkhuni, which
means nothing but upgrading the status of females to be equal to that of
males, despite the fact that the problem of equal rights between men and
women still remains unanswerable so far in the age of globalization.

There exist more evidences in the issue, to mention just few as
follows:

-The establishment of the ‘Law of Cause and Effect’ implies the
denial of the existence of God, the source of the external power, that may
effect the prejudice because of love, hatred, delusion and fear as earlier
mentioned.

-The
seniority system applied in the ecclesiastical circle, regardless
of whatever category of birth they belong to, guarantees the fundamental
nature of Buddhism that places a significant emphasis on the
accumulated
virtues by means of doing good or wholesome actions.

-The self-development steps that begins with the control of physical
and verbal behaviors or
Sila (Precept), followed by the control of mind or
Samadhi (Meditation) and culminating with Panna (Insight-wisdom)
ensures the self-
purification process that must be performed by one’s own
self, not by others nor any external power, as says a Buddhist verse,
Suddhi asuddhi paccattam nanno nannam visodhaye’ (purity and
impurity is the matter of an individual; one can, by no means, purify
another).

3.10.5 Buddhism and Human Rights

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Cambodian Human Rights Committee

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Buddhism and Human Rights


Notions of rights derive from ethical principles. There is a clear
convergence between Buddhist ethics and modern discussions on human
rights, particularly in the common focus on responsibility and
indivisibility/interdependence. The non-dual understanding of Buddhism
gives rise to an ethics of inter-responsibility, or Bodhicitta - what His
Holiness the Dalai Lama calls Universal Responsibility. In the Theravada
we speak of Samma-sankappa or Right Thought, which leads to Bodhi,
the Awakened Mind. This principle is expressed in everyday terms by the
teaching of loving-kindness, non-violence, compassion, and particular
responsibilities. For monks and nuns these are set down in the rule or
Vinaya; for lay people in the Sigalovada Sutta and for rulers in the
Dasarajadhamma.

All
human beings, according to Buddhism, are equal, and each has
the potential to realize the truth by his or her own will and endeavour,
and can help others to realize it. Buddhist concepts recognize the
inherent
dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all human beings. The
teaching of the Buddha holds that all human beings are endowed with
reason and conscience. It recommends a Universal spirit of brotherhood
and sisterhood. Buddhist theory holds that the “three poisons” of
hatred,
greed and delusion are at the root of violence in the world, and that
the
solution is for us to see so deeply into these factors that we are no
longer
dominated by them.

In the early, organic, societies the Buddha was addressing, these
specific responsibilities were assumed to be adequate guidelines for
human behaviour, with no need to identify the corresponding rights. In
modern, fragmented societies, however, where the fulfillment of
responsibilities cannot be guaranteed by the immediate community, these
guidelines or skillful means (upaya) have been supplemented by
corresponding rights. These are specified and protected by States and
International Organisations. In large part these bodies derive their
legitimacy from their promotion and protection of human rights. A State
which does not guarantee the enjoyment of human rights by its people
loses its claim to legitimacy.

Buddhism is widely regarded as the most tolerant of all religious
traditions. However, Buddhist countries like Sri Lanka, Burma, and
Cambodia have seen some of the highest levels of religious and ethnic
intolerance in the world, with Buddhists among the main perpetrators. In
other places it is Buddhists who are persecuted by the State, which fears
the influence of Buddhism on the people. In Burma, Tibet and Viet Nam,
for instance, thousands of Buddhists (especially monks and nuns) have
been persecuted, with well-documented instances of torture and executions. In Tibet most of the country’s monasteries have been
demolished.

The depiction of rights as simply a Western invention fails to
understand the relationship of rights to responsibilities and ethical norms.
The central values of all societies are very much the same. All ethical
systems encourage people to respect each other, and discourage killing,
violence and so on. Rights are skilful means designed to assist the
implementation of these ethics.

Human Rights discourse has moved on during the past 50 years
and has expanded and enriched the somewhat individualistic principles
set out in the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ which was adopted
and proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10
December 1948. The dialectic of universalism and cultural relativism, for
instance, is an immensely creative process as well as a cause for countless
conflicts. The work since 1982 on the rights of indigenous peoples -
group rights - is another important development. The cultural, social and
political development of a nation is a dynamic process. The orientation of
the process should not only be based in our own roots and traditions, but
must also be shaped by innovative new ideas. Cultural diversity is a factor
that enriches the modern approach to human rights, rather than hindering
the universal respect for and observance of human rights.
(http://www.buddhanetz.org/projekte/rights.htmRetrieved on 21/03/09)



3.10.6 Buddhism and political justice

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lgbt justice GIF


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Buddhism and Racial Justice
Bodhicitta Foundation
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This
is a much needed conversation in light of the violence and pain taking
place in many parts of the world. Should Buddhists be silent and
maintain peace? Is peace an effective way to meet oppressed people’s
suffering and oppression?

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Buddhism and Racial Justice
This is a much needed conversation in light of the violence and pain t

The basis of political justice is that politically or economically
strongerpeoplemustnotbeempoweredtoviolatelegalsystem. Verilyin
Buddhism there is no explicit body of social and political theory
comparable to its psychology or metaphysics. Nevertheless, a Buddhist
political theory can be deduced primarily from basic Buddhism i.e. from
Dharma. Buddhism is of the view that political power is essential to
fashion and sustain a society whose citizens are free to live in dignity,
harmony and mutual respect, free of the degradation of poverty and war.
In such a society of good heart, all men and women find encouragement
and support in making the best use of their human condition in the
practice of wisdom and compassion
.

Political action, thus, involves the Buddhist ideal of approaching
each situation without prejudice, but with deserved circumspection in
questions of power and conflict, social oppression and justice. These
social and political conflicts are the great public
samsaric driving
energies of our life to which an individual responds with both aggression
and self-repression. The
Buddha Dharma offers the possibility of
transmuting the energies of the individual into wisdom and compassion.

This may indicate that Buddhist movement was mainly concerned
with ethical advancement and psychic illumination and not with political
affairs. Nevertheless, political repercussions did ensue from Buddhism. In
the
Brahmajala Sutta, Gautama Buddha emphatically states that he is
vitally interested in social cohesion and co-operation and in the act of
reconciling those people who are divided. Early Buddhism did have
significant political consequences. From the evidence of the Buddha’s discourses, or
suttas in the Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta), it is
clear that early Buddhists were very much concerned with the creation of
political conditions favorable to the individual cultivation of Buddhist
values. An outstanding example of this, in later times, is the remarkable
“welfare state” created by the Buddhist emperor, Asoka (B.C. 274-236).
The Buddhist political justice enjoins special responsibility to the king.
As the head of state he must adhere to specific code of conduct, as he is at
the helm of affairs of the state. Buddha felt that the personal moral
conduct of the king, along with his officials, would be expressed in the
political affairs of the state. Thus, the righteous character of the state
would help in prevailing universal righteousness on earth. Hence,
deliverance through peaceful coexistence would become easily attainable
for all. In some passages of the Pali Texts a parallel has been drawn
between a Buddha and a monarch, as both held the same esteemed place
in the eyes of the people. The two have the same objective, i.e. the well-
being of people. Both are also an integral part of the ordinary empirical
existence, and the political good and well-being is assured through them.
The
Kutadana sutta of the Digha-Nikāya explains that the safety of the
people and their economic, as well as material prosperity should be of
special concern for the state and the government. Political power may
manifest and sustain social and economic structures, which breed both
material deprivation and spiritual degradation for millions of people.

Buddhists are, thus, concerned with political action, first, in the direct
relief of non-volitionally caused suffering now and in the future, and,
secondly, with the creation of social
karmic conditions favourable to the
following of the way that leads to the cessation of volitionally-caused
suffering, the creation of a society which tends to the ripening of wisdom
and compassion rather than the withering of them.

It is not an exaggeration to say that Buddhism is a single religion
that does recognize the competency of human beings to solve all the
problems confronting the world, no exception even to the problem of
prejudice or lack of justice. Justice can be developed through the
principle of the Buddhist Teachings. However, the propagation of
Buddhism is not effective enough in lack of active cooperation of all
Buddhist traditions and Sects. The Second World Buddhist Forum hosted
by the Chinese Buddhist Association with a strong support from the
Chinese Government, it can be said, will be accounted as a spring board
for the active and energetic spreading of
Buddhist Teachings as ‘Message
of Social Justice
’ to all corners of the world, with the joint attempt of all
Buddhists and Buddhist organizations, regardless of whatever tradition or
sect they are attached to. This is for the sake of peacefulness, happiness
and well-being of the world. (http://www.urbandharma.org retrieved on
20/01/09)

3.11 The Righteous Rulers (of Buddhism)

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religion buddha GIF by Timeline

Did Buddha give advice to Kings or Rulers of his time? Buddhism Explained - Bob Thurman
Tibet House US Menla Online
9.66K subscribers
In this #ForceForGood
teaching Robert A.F. Thurman leads a close translation of The Jewel
Rosary (Ratnāvalī aka Precious Garland) and in his trademark style makes
the 3rd Century B.C.E. advice to the Indian King Udayibhadra come alive
for today’s interconnected, global village.
Opening
with stories about Tibet’s Geshe Ben Gungyal, Professor Thurman gives
short introductions to the ethics of Buddhism, the history of
mindfulness skills training and the sources of bias found in the
understanding and presentation of Mahayana Buddhist teachings.
Includes
definition of the five mental aggregates or body mind processes during a
guided meditation and leads an exploration of non-dualism and it’s
relationship to the Buddha’s teachings on ethics, emptiness, compassion
and his discovery of the blissful nature of reality.
Concludes
with a discussion of the transcendent virtues, especially upāya
(Skillful Means or Liberative Art), the seventh, as presented in the
Mahayana sūtras and in the writings of Nāgārjuna.
This
talk was recorded during the 2017 Force For Good Class “Buddhist Ethics
+ the World Crisis : Counsel for Kings (Ratnavali)” at Tibet House US
in New York City.
‘A
Force For Good’ is a Tibet House US course to further the Dalai Lama’s
contemporary world initiatives, from His Holiness’ American Institute of
Buddhist Studies and Mind & Life Institute science dialogues
(Universe in a Single Atom) and His creation of Abhidharma 2.0 through
the “Science for Monks” programs, his “secular ethics” (Ethics for the
New Millennium and Beyond Religion), His nonviolent approach to conflict
resolution, including His Nobel Peace Laureate activities to seek
dialogue and a win-win reconciliation with China in the face of the
ongoing ethnicidal policies in Tibet (Freedom in Exile and Man of Peace:
The Illustrated Life Story of Tibet’s Dalai Lama) & along with his
emphasis on positive activism (A New Reality: Charter of Universal
Responsibility).
This
video is a apart of the Tibet House US Digital Archives & is
brought to you by the generosity of it’s membership community.
To watch more videos please visit: https://tibethouse.us/
Full Access begins at $2 a month. Connect with Tibet House US + Menla Online:
🗽 Tibet House US | New York City
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License
Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)


To start, Buddha and Buddhism declared that righteousness
(
dhamma) and morality (sila) were the best choices for rulers, as they would ensure a long, successful and popular reign. Whereas many
monarchs of Buddha’s time exercised extreme and often arbitrary power
over their subjects, there were a few who followed his teachings. The
best-known examples were Bimbisara, and Asoka. Data on Asoka are
numerous and detailed, so the researcher shall concentrate on him.
Furthermore, Buddhism was proselytised by Asoka.

One of the greatest emperors of all times, Emperor Asoka was a
Mauryan ruler whose empire spread across the Indian subcontinent and
the present day Pakistan and Afghanistan thus covering a vast area. Born
in 265 B.C, the great king Ashoka was the grandson of the famous ruler
Chandragupta Maurya. He is known as Asoka the Great since he was one
of the most able rulers who ruled India. Under his rule, the whole of India
was united as one single entity with smooth administration.

After his father died, he was crowned as the king of Magadha
around 268 B.C. After being crowned as the king, he proved himself by
smoothly administrating his territory and performing all his duties as an
able and courageous king. After a period of eight years of being a king,
Ashoka planned to seize the territory of Kalinga, the present day Orissa.
He led a huge army and fought a gruesome battle with the army of
Kalinga. The battle of Kalinga made him pledge to never wage a war
again. The battle took place on the Dhauli hills that are located on the
banks of River Daya. Though Ashoka emerged victorious at the end, the
sight of the battlefield made his heart break with shame, guilt and disgust.
It is said that the battle was so furious that the waters of River Daya
turned red with the blood of the slain soldiers and civilians.

The
sight of numerous corpses lying strewn across the battlefield made his
heart wrench. He felt sick inside. The battle ground looked like
a graveyard with bodies of not just soldiers but men, women and
children.
He saw young children crying over the bodies of their dead parents,
women crying over the bodies of their dead husbands, mothers crying
over the loss of a child. This made him heartbroken and he made a pledge
to never ever fight a battle again. To seek solace, he converted to
Buddhism. He was so inspired by the teachings of the Buddhist monks
and Buddhist philosophies that he used his status to impart this
knowledge all over the world. He is credited to be the first Emperor to
make a serious attempt at developing Buddhist policies.

Ashoka’s endeavour to proselytise Buddhism is seen through his
fourteen stone edicts, which were erected throughout Northern India, and
the great stone statues of Buddha in Bhamiyan, Afghanistan. From the
start, as evident in Edict I, Asoka (who called himself Piyadasi, or
“beloved of the gods”) established a policy of love and compassion:

One must not, here below, kill any living animal by
immolating it, not for the purpose of feasts. The King Piyadasi sees
much that is sinful in such feasts. Formerly, such feasts were
allowed; and in the
cuisine of King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods,
and for the table of King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, hundreds of
thousands of living beings were killed every day. At the time when
this Edict id engraved, three animals only are killed for the table, two
pea-fowls and a gazelle, and the gazelle not regularly. Even these
animals will not be killed in the future. (Edict I, trans. by James
Prinsep. Romesh C. Dutt, 2004, p.92)

Edict II mentioned medicine within the empire and on the
frontiers
thereof, “the Cholas, the Pandyas,” etc. and in the kingdom of
Antiochus, king of the Greeks.” (Ibid. p.93) Edict IV refers again
to the “slaughter of living beings.” Asoka also shows his gratitude
and respect to Buddhism “the religion spread
by the King Piyadasi,
beloved of the gods:”

“Thanks to the instruction of the religion spread by King
Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, there exists today a respect for living
creatures, a tenderness towards them, a regard for relations and for
Brahmans and Sramans, a dutiful obedience to father and mother,
and obeisance to aged men, such as have not existed for centuries”.
(Edict IV, trans. by James Prinsep. Ibid.)

Edict V speaks of the difficulty in performing virtuous acts. It is
worthy to note that conv
ersely Asoka acknowledged “to do evil is easy.”
Therefore, he established ministers of the religion or dharmamahamatras.
The dharmamahamatras were told to contact every sect in the empire and
with every race or tribe:

“They mix with all sects for the establishment and progress of the
religion, and for the well-being of the faithful. They mix with the
Yavanas, the Kambojas, the Gandharas, the Saurashtras, and the
Petenikas, and with other frontier (Aparanta) nations. They mix with
warriors and with Brahmans, with the rich and the poor and the aged, for
their well-being and happiness, and in order to remove all the obstacles in
the path of the followers of the true religion”. (Ibid. p.94) Edict VII
testifies to Asoka’s religious tolerance and pluralism. In t
his edict, he
declares sectarian freedom by granting protection; and in Edict VIII he
declares that his new livelihood is the visitation of aged and learned men,
as opposed to hunting, etc.:



“The King Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, ardently desires that all
sects may live (unmolested) in all places. All of them equally propose the
subjection of the senses and the purification of the soul; but man is fickle
in his attachments.” (Edict VII, Ibid. p.95)

“In past times, kings went out for pastimes. Hunting and other
amusements of the kind were their pastimes. Here below, I, King
Piyadasi, beloved of the gods, obtained true intelligence ten years after
my appointment. These then are my pastimes:-visits and gifts to
Brahmans and Sramans, visits to aged men, the distribution of money,
visited to the people of the empire, their religious instruction, and
consultation on religious subjects. It is thus that King Piyadasi, beloved of
the gods, enjoys the pleasure derived from his virtuous acts.” (Edict VIII,
Ibid.)

The Asokan model of governance was informed by what Sen
(2005) terms a ‘foundational agnosticism and commitment to public
communication and discussion’ (Sen 2005: p.182).
Unlike, Emperor
Constantine who made Christianity the official creed of the Roman
Empire, Asoka never made Buddhism a state religion. Furthermore, by
his willingness to accept dissent and commitment to tolerance of other
faiths, Asoka looked upon sectarianism with strong disfavor (Ling 1973).
Following the precedents set by the Buddha, Asoka strove to ensure
‘religious freedom by supporting not just the Buddhist monks but ascetics
of other religious sects’ (Harvey 2000; p. 116); and also by striving to
negotiate
differences through participation and consensus building
(Laksiri Jayasuriya, 2008, p.25) Jayasuriya concludes that Buddha
faboured democracy over monarchy because of equity and freedom
incumbent in it. The Buddha favoured democracy not just as a question of
the constitutional or legal right of equality and ‘the absolute worth
of
theindividual’ but more as an affirmation of the moral obligation cast on
the individual to act within a code of conduct based on such values was
the ideal of human dignity, equality of respect and worth of the
individual. (Ibid.)

At this juncture, researcher will explore the Buddhist viewpoint
and approach to democracy.

3.12 Buddhist Approach to Democracy

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Beto Voting GIF - Beto Voting Rights GIFs

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DEMOCRACY, NATION & BUDDHISM || Maitriveer Nagarjuna
Triratna India
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Buddha Festival 2019 A Festival of Art, Culture & Heritage Ratnavali Lecture Series On DEMOCRACY, NATION & BUDDHISM
sub. Buddhisum Speaker Dhammachari Maitriveer Nagarjuna at Dikshabhumi , Nagpur
DEMOCRACY, NATION & BUDDHISM || Maitriveer Nagarjuna

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DEMOCRACY, NATION & BUDDHISM || Maitriveer Nagarjuna



Democracy understood as a way of thinking and acting implies a
rational commitment to
freedom, equality and tolerance in a pluralistic
society, profoundly open minded, if not agnostic. The Buddha saw that
life’s very purpose is happiness. He also saw that while ignorance binds
beings in endless frustration and suffering, wisdom is liberating. Modern
democracy is based on the principle that all human beings are essentially
equal, that each of us has an equal right to life, liberty, and happiness.
Buddhism too recognises that human beings are entitled to dignity, that
all members of the human family have an equal and inalienable right to
liberty, not just in terms of political freedom, but also at the fundamental
level of freedom from fear and want. Irrespective of whether we are rich
or poor, educated or uneducated, belonging to one nation or another, to
one religion or another, adhering to this ideology or that, each of us is just
a human being like everyone else. Not only do we all desire happiness
and seek to avoid suffering, but each of us has an equal right to pursue
these goals.
Buddhism
is essentially a practical doctrine. In addressing
the fundamental problem of human suffering, it does not insist on a
single solution. Recognising that human beings differ widely in their
needs,
dispositions and abilities, it acknowledges that the paths to peace and
happiness are many. As a spiritual community its cohesion has sprung
from a unifying sense of brotherhood and sisterhood. Without any
apparent centralized authority Buddhism has endured for more than two
thousand five hundred years. It has flourished in a diversity of forms,
while repeatedly renewing, through study and practice, its roots in the
teachings of the Buddha. This kind of pluralistic approach, in which
individuals themselves are responsible, is very much in accord with a
democratic outlook”.(Statement of H.H. the Dalai Lama, from
http//www.dalailama.com /news.350.html April 1993)

As we have mentioned in Chapter Two, earlier, Buddha may have
based the structure of his Sangha on the
principle which was
available. Data say that the republics attracted and interested him, so they
could have influenced him to form the Sangha. Recent information
supports this as democratic government was getting underway in Athens,
the First Buddhist Council convened in India. The Council, which met
about 480 BCE, give or take, was an exercise in democracy. (Retrieved
from http://www.about.com/ on 17 March 2009. Date of Citation: 28 -10-
2008)

Robert Thurman, working in Bhutan, a Buddhist nation like
Thailand and Sri Lanka, affirms the similarities between Buddhism and
democracy as follows:

Buddhism
has many principles that fit with democracy such as
individualism, allowing people to develop their own mind to the fullest
than having to serve whatever their duty is, parents, cast etc. This is
very
much in consonance with democracy. Buddhism teaches each person to
have the opportunity to develop their own being towards enlightenment,
to the fullest extent in life. That is the highest thing in the society.
(Retrieved from http://www.kuensel online.com/ on 17 March 2009. Date
of Citation: 21-11-2006).

3.13 Modern Democracies influenced by Buddhism

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election 2016 obama GIF by GIPHY Studios Originalsvoting barack obama GIF by ObamaAmerican GIF by Hallmark Gold CrownVoting Election 2016 GIF by GIPHY Studios Originals

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The Point: How does Asian Buddhism stay relevant?
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Buddhism is one of the world’s oldest religions, with a history that
spans nearly 2,500 years. Yet it remains influential today, with some
half-a-billion followers – in China, across Asia, and around
The Point: How does Asian Buddhism stay relevant?
Buddhism
is one of the world’s oldest religions, with a history that spans
nearly 2,500 years. Yet it remains influential today, with some
half-a-billion fol…
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The Point: How does Asian Buddhism stay relevant?
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Buddhism
is one of the world’s oldest religions, with a history that spans
nearly 2,500 years. Yet it remains influential today, with some
half-a-billion followers – in China, across Asia, and around the world.
How does this ancient religion remain relevant in the modern world?
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There is a consensus that Buddhism resembles democracy in
miniature. The Sangha, as we reported in Chapter 2, was based on the
republic system, which favoured Buddha Gautama and which he
taught a specific dharma. On this note, we shall look at Buddhist
approach to democracy. The principle countries we shall investigate are
Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. Buddhism in these
countries appears to be more dynamic. Concerning
Republic of Korea,
history shows that it had established a Republic several times and
Buddhism was interrelated. Korea was originally one state until it was
liberated from the Japanese after World War II. Buddhism was non-
evident in the North due to the government practice of Soviet Socialism.
In the 1950s, Buddhism in the South Korea, called Republic of Korea,
prospered. It became more political as it aligned with various political
parties in the country. By the decade of the 1980s, ROK established its
first Buddhist TV station. During the Third Republic, Korean Buddhism
echoed the national ideology of Japan. In the Fifth Republic, headed by
Christian leader Chun Doohwan, it was downplayed and even criticized
as unprogressive. The Sixth Republic, under No Taewoo, revived it and
Buddhism continued to prosper. Until the present, Buddhism has been
existing side by side with Christianity. To attest to this information
there
is the Korean analyst
Jae-ryong Shim, who has commented firstly about
the North-South divide and claims of demo racy in both states:

Thus far the governments or power holders in both North and
South claim that they run the countries in accordance with democratic
principles. But nobody believes the claims. Instead they are of the opinion
that the North is run by a dictatorship of the late Kim Ilsung and his heir
even after his demise, while the South is struggling to keep the balance
between the proclaimed democracy imposed upon it from the West and
the embedded tradition of paternalistic authoritarianism, perhaps the only
ideological contender to modern Western democracy. (Francis Fukuyama,
“Confucianism and democracy,” Journal of Democracy, April 1995, p.
20-33.)

Democracy was introduced only after the 1945 liberation from the
Japanese imperial-military rule by the occupying forces of the United
States of America, which happened to occupy and “democratize” the area
south of the 38th parallel in the Korean peninsula. Shin continues to
analyse/criticise the situation in a thesis, as follows:

The
Buddhist political institution originally promulgated by the
Buddha Sakyamuni for the resident monks in the Sangha, the Buddhist
community of religious practitioners, had some seminal ideas and
practices similar to democracy. But the ideally democratic position with
which Buddhism began underwent many transformations in the course of
history. It is my task to summarize some major transformations in the
history of Buddhism, and to assess the relationship between Buddhism and
democracy in modern Korea. The reason why we have to confine our
talk to modern Korea is evident
.

Sri Lankan Buddhism is very pro-active. Sri Lanka is traditionally
the home of the last Sanghas of Gautama Buddha. The island was known
as Serendipity and Ceylon respectively before being called Sri Lanka. Its
activity there resembles the Israeli Zionist movement, which emphasized
homeland. The Sri Lankan Buddhists claimed similar right in the island
and even the monks, who took vows of non-violence, resort to fighting
and violence in the conflict.

The two remaining entries, Thailand and Japan, are the most
significant countries where Buddhism has been active.

In Thailand, Buddhism endeavours to propagate an ideal
government through the analysis of Venerable Buddhadasa Bhikku.
Buddhadasa was a respected and honored bhikku in Thailand. He
analyzed politics into equality and unity, through interdependence.
Buddhadasa actually coined the phrase “spiritual socialism” wherein the
individual loses self-centeredness and becomes socially aware. Some
scholars thought that Nirvana was actually a selflessness of this type and
that it was an original state of being. Buddhadasa agreed with this. Herein
he is quoted as defining politics
in the true sense: “spiritual or dharmic
socialism, namely a state where individuals act not out of self-interest but
out of regard for the common good.” (Donald K Swearer, p. 217-18)

In Japan,
in contradiction to the state religion of Shintö, which was
a type of polytheism, Buddhism had established several socio-political
organisations. Shinto was a way of countering possible military
invasions but Buddhism asserted itself as the national religion and, in
the
modern age, it sought reforms. Buddhism began to re-emerge after the
defeat of Japan, post World War II. However, the bhikkus practiced only
traditional measures. By the 1960s, new organisations developed. Among
them was the Nichiren Sokka Gakai.

Nichiren was a Buddhist saint who lived in Japan of the 13th
Century. Nichiren believed that national security depended upon
dhamma. He exemplified this in the Lotus Sutra. More recently, a modern
follower, Tanaka Chigaku, established that the Imperial Constitution
personified Nichiren’s teaching. In 1923, Seno Giro, another follower,
established the Buddhist Youth League based upon equality and
compassion. However, he disbelieved that Nichiren preached nationalism.
Nichiren’s Buddhism founded other new socio-religious organisations.
As mentioned above, one such organisation was the
Sokka Gakai. The
protest against the US-Japan Treaty in the1960s heightened the
organisation’s political action. The president of the Sokka Gakai was
Ikeda Daisaku. Under Daisaku, the organisations started its political
wing, which emphasised Buddhist democratic ideals-e.g., equality, fair
elections, parliamentary democracy. By 1964, it merged and formed the
Komeito or Clean Government Party. This party earned 24 seats in the
House of Councillors, which was the Upper House of Japanese
Parliament.



Conclusion

Chapter Three can be summarised as follows: Predominantly,
Buddha Gautama was not directly a, political reformer because his most
important concern was social ethics. Buddha spent his life after
asceticism recommending proper social interaction towards the goal of
social cohesion, unity and peace, to both monarchies and republics.
However, scholars have highlighted his interest in and attraction for the
latter. Among these latter republics, the Vajjians were well documented.

Towards the above-mentioned goals, he warned that solidarity and
unity as well as adherence to his dharma would guarantee their survival.
In contrast, his monarchical supporters included King Bimbisara. We
have recorded earlier that Ajatasatru had referred to him, but he used
Buddha’s counsel to his won advantage against the Vajjians. However,
data do not mention whether Ajatasatru conducted a siege of the republic
or not. [Some data mention that he colluded with Devadatta against
Buddha]. King Pasenadi might have listened to him as well.

From the basic introduction, the researcher has discussed the
concept of Kingship and the ten royal virtues prescribed by Buddha, or
Das Raja Dhamma(m). Buddha prescribed them against the
licenciousness of monarchs probably, such as Ajatasatru or Pasenadi. In
this unit, researcher has added data recorded in Bhutan. Asoka was
discussed in the following unit.

Concerning righteous monarchs, Emperor Asoka stands out as the
most historical and most admirable. A f
ull account of Asoka’s reign
including some important stone edicts is given in this unit. We highlighted his compassion towards all living beings and his
magnanimity towards secular society under his rule. Asoka converted to
Buddhism due to his wartime experiences, which also induced him to act
more compassionately and to revile war and violence. However, due to
his fame, other monarchs had no data.

The researcher continued to examine Buddhist approach to
democracy
, although the democracy of Buddha’s lifetime did not
outwardly resemble the “Republic” of Plato. As mentioned earlier, data
from other scholars indicated that Buddha both was interested in the

or tribal republics and was welcomed among them as a teacher.
Their success at democracy inspired him to structure and regulate the
Sangha. Like these republics, the Buddhist Sangha was autonomous and
the bhikkus had rights and freedom similar to the denizens of the
republics. Vijayvardhan rermarks that “in its original form the Sangha
was an organized brotherhood of earnest minded men–and later women
also-who had dedicated their lives to the service of mankind. The
Vinaya Pitaka recommends solutions for disputes as well as monastic
disciplines but does not impose them strictly. This suggests B
uddha’s
humanism and pragmatism in contrast with the authoritarian regime of
other religions. Due to this similarity, the Asian democracies such as
Republic of Korea, Thailand, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, as well as Tibet,
have been investigated in this chapter. Bhutan and Thailand stand forth as
the closest in resemblance to Buddha’s concept of a republic governed at
the centre by a powerful but compassionate monarch, like Emperor
Asoka, or ‘dhamamraja.”



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LESSON 3363 Wed 24 Jun 2020 Current Situation Paves way for Free Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness —in Classical Tamil, English and pali
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
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LESSON 3363 Wed 24 Jun  2020


Current Situation Paves way for
Free

Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart





Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU)
For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through

At

WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru

Magadhi Karnataka State

PRABUDDHA BHARAT


DO GOOD PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

— Attendance on awareness —in Classical Tamil, English and pali


Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness
from
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Last updated: June 24, 2020, 01:58 GMT
7,792,958,373
Current World Population - COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:
4,921,380

May all be Happy, Well and Secure!


May all live Long!


May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding that Everything is Changing!




COVID-19 conspiracy claims, but virus origins still a mystery.


There were still no conclusive answers as to where the disease started.


SARS-CoV-2,
now responsible for more than 200,000 deaths worldwide, was synthesised
by the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), based in the city where the
disease was first identified. 

Coronavirus Cases:


9,353,735





Deaths:


479,805





7,793,423,868
Current World Population-39,035,483 Net population growth this year-68,219
Net population growth today 67,282,136Births this year-117,584 Births today-Recovered:5,041,711
from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic

World Population

67,282,136 Births this year
117,584 Births today
28,246,653 Deaths this year
49,365 Deaths today

39,035,483 Net population growth this year
68,219 Net population growth today

Government & Economics

$ 4,624,691,785 Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 3,162,347,175 Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,437,429,312 Public Military expenditure today
37,842,429 Cars produced this year
72,412,610 Bicycles produced this year
120,137,677
Computers produced this year

Society & Media


1,287,350 New book titles published this year
145,850,223 Newspapers circulated today
204,572 TV sets sold worldwide today
1,994,665 Cellular phones sold today
$ 89,320,569 Money spent on videogames today
4,597,726,261 Internet users in the world today
80,438,589,993 Emails sent today
2,123,743 Blog posts written today
238,837,106 Tweets sent today
2,216,506,310 Google searches today

Environment

2,497,653 Forest loss this year (hectares)
3,362,516 Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
17,366,492,113 CO2 emissions this year (tons)
5,763,232 Desertification this year (hectares)
4,702,979 Toxic chemicals released  in the environment this year (tons)

Food

843,965,845 Undernourished people in the world
1,695,089,345 Overweight people in the world
759,516,202 Obese people in the world
9,386 People who died of hunger today
$ 177,564,763 Money spent for obesity related diseases in the USA today
$ 58,023,134 Money spent on weight loss programs in the USA today

Water

2,094,866,557Water used this year (million L)
404,411Deaths caused by water related diseases this year
800,093,871People with no access to a safe drinking water source

Energy

143,257,848Energy used today (MWh), of which:
121,949,170- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
21,573,383- from renewable sources (MWh)
897,660,796,709 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
29,382,153 Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,504,997,739,937 Oil left (barrels)
15,695 Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,095,173,826,943 Natural Gas left (boe)
57,641 Days to the end of natural gas

4,315,465,481,149 Coal left (boe)
148,809 Days to the end of coal

Health


6,234,287 Communicable disease deaths this year

234,050 Seasonal flu deaths this year
3,650,299 Deaths of children under 5 this year
20,423,385 Abortions this year
148,435 Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,890,525 HIV/AIDS infected people
807,307 Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
3,944,141 Deaths caused by cancer this year
471,055  Deaths caused by malaria this year
4,645,927,190 Cigarettes smoked today
2,400,716 Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,201,115 Deaths caused by alcohol this year
514,980 Suicides this year
$ 192,117,830,655 Money spent on illegal drugs this year
648,269 Road traffic accident fatalities this year

7,793,423,868
Current World Population-39,035,483 Net population growth this year-68,219Net population growth today 67,282,136Births this year-117,584 Births today-Recovered:5,041,711
from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic




Last updated: June 24, 2020, 01:58 GMT





BIRTH, OLD AGE, SICKNESS, ILLNESS, DEATH ARE CERTAININTIES


May all be Happy, Well and Secure!


May all have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that Everything is Changing!


May all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal and Rest in Peace
as they followed the following original words of the Buddha the Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :

Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19



1. Comoros,2. North Korea,3. Yemen,4.
The Federated States of Micronesia,5. Kiribati,6. Solomon Islands,7.
The Cook Islands,8. Micronesia,9. Tong,10. The Marshall Islands
Palau,11. American Samoa,12. South Georgia,13. South Sandwich
Islands,14.SaintHelena,Europe,
15. Aland Islands,16.Svalbard,17. Jan
Mayen Islands,18. Latin America,19.Africa,20.British Indian Ocean
Territory,21.French Southern
Territories,22.Lesotho,23.Ocea
nia,24.Christmas
Island,25. Cocos
(Keeling) Islands,26. Heard Island,27. McDonald Islands,28. Niue,29.
Norfolk Island,30. Pitcairn,31. Solomon Islands,32. Tokelau,33. United
States Minor Outlying Islands,34. Wallis and Futuna Islands,35.Tajikistan,
36. Turkmenistan,37. Tuvalu,38. Vanuatu

as they are following the original words of the Buddha Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness:




Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta


1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4.
priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata, 7. Samyutta
Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima Nikaya,10.
arya” or “ariy, 11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha
Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21. Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,27. Samsara,28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31. Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37. Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,




40.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya,41. dhammamahamatras,


Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta)




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Ajahn
Brahmali discusses the 16th sutta of the Digha Nikaya about the final
days of the Lord Buddha - the Mahaparinibbana Sutta - the Discourse on
the Great Emancipation.This is the first part dealing with the long and
moving sutta. You can read this sutta here
https://suttacentral.net/en/dn16
Please support the BSWA in making teachings available for free online via Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/BuddhistSocie…

Copyright Buddhist Society of Western Australia
www.bswa.org


DN16: Mahaparinibbana Sutta (part 1) | Ajahn Brahmali | 22 January 2017
Buddhist Society of Western Australia
Ajahn Brahmali discusses the 16th sutta of the Digha Nikaya about the final days of the Lord Buddha - the Mahaparinibbana Sutta
DN16: Mahaparinibbana Sutta (part 1) | Ajahn Brahmali | 22 January…
Ajahn
Brahmali discusses the 16th sutta of the Digha Nikaya about the final
days of the Lord Buddha - the Mahaparinibbana Sutta - the Discourse on
the Great …
youtube.com


இந்த  நூட்கள் வெளியீடு
காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக 
முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.






This
outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script
edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of
the volumes are displayed
in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial
literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.


Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.


No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka 

(மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர  மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]


திபிடக  முக்கூடைகள்

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

ஸுத்த பியுயக

( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)


The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
dwelling).


நெறி
முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர் கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு
நிரம்பியது.  அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை, ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை,
வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு, பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு
கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு, கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என
அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

Dīgha Nikāya

[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.


நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.


Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

 மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


புத்தரால்
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


குவியல்
நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


இறங்குதல்
காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு


Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha:
short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as
been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta
Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while
other books are late additions and their authenticity is more
questionable.

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


சுருக்கமான,
சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால், மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)


Sutta Piμaka


(Five nik±yas, or collections)


1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i
(10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i
(11 suttas)


2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5
vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]


(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10
suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)


4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)


5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i
(the ‘middle’ fifty)


6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)


10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i
(means ‘more than fifty’)


11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)


3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]


(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)


4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each
nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each
vagga; 6 books]


(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)


(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)


5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes
suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]


(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i


1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26
vaggas)


3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with


some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)


(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular
suttas of the Buddha


(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279
g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)


(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II


10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into
nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.


(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i


11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th
vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and


the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i


12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three
vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])


(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)


(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i


14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)


(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i


16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)


(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i


18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)



Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the
dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i

2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of
dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42

3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.

(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42

5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)

(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42

6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)

(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III

7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V











(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik±
(expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30

(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy±
(ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7

(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______Bhikkhuni












2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the


Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the
uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha


3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the
vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick
bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism


(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as
saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)


2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a
bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of
bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the
p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li


3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]


(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.



Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.

Note: plain texts

ஸஞ்யா நு
கொ பந்தெ பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி, பச்சா ஞானங்? உதாஹு ஞானங் பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி,
பச்சா ஸஞ்யா? உதாஹு ஸஞ்யா ச ஞானங்ச அபுபங் ஆசரிமங் உப்பஜ்ஜந்தி?’ தி.


Saññā
nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ acarimaṃ
uppajjantī?’ ti.


இப்பொழுது, பந்த்தே, எது முதலாவது எழும்புவது
புலனுணர்வா,ஞானங் அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஞானங் முதலாவது மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஒரே நேரத்தில் புலனுணர்வும் ஞானமும் எழும்புகிறதா?


Now,
lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously? 



ஸஞ்யா கொ பொத்தபாதப தமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா
ஞானங். ஸன்யுப்பாதா ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி. ஸொ ஏவங் பஜானாதி: இதப்பச்சாயா
கிர மெ ஞானங் உதபாதிதி. இமினா கொ ஏதங் பொத்தபாத பரியாயென வேதிதப்பங், யதா
ஸஞ்யா பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங், ஸன்யுப்பாதொ  ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ
ஹோதி’தி.


Saññā
kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti. 


பொத்தபாத,
முதலாவது புலனுணர்வும் பின்னால் ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது.மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
எழும்புகிறபோது ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. ஒரு பிரித்தறியும் நிலை சார்ந்துள்ள
என்னுடைய இந்த ஞானம் எழும்பியது. இவ்வழியான வரம்பின் காரண ஆய்வால் ஒருவர்
எப்படி முதலாவது புலனுணர்வு எழும்புகிறது மற்றும் ஞானம் அடுத்து என்று உணர
முடியும் மற்றும் எவ்வாறு புலனுணர்வு எழும்பியதால், ஞானம் எழும்பிமயது
என்றும்.

















Potthapada, perception
arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes
from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on
this that my knowledgehas arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one
can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how
the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception
.

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]


This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.


Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi


Uddesa


I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba


II. Vedanānupassanā

English


Introduction


I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction


Thus have I heard:
Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at
Kammāsadhamma,a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the
bhikkhus:

– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 


– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 



Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 




This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas
.

Katame cattāro? Idha,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī
viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Which
four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā


A. Ānāpāna Pabba


Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma (கம்மாசதம்மா)
வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி இருந்தார்.

 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா


- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா) சொற்றார்:


-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து, 
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.


எந்த நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு
kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல் கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī
sampajāno satimā,வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன்
இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell
observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the
forest or having gone at the root of a tree or having gone to an empty
room, sits down folding the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and
setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Seyyathāpi,bhikkhave,
dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ
añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s
apprentice, making a long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’;
making a short turn, he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the
same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am
breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing
out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’;
breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: 
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati.





Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



B. Iriyāpatha Pabba


Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhitovā
‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno vā
‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 



B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while
walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or while standing he understands:
‘I am standing’, or while sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or
while lying down he understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in
whichever position his kāya is disposed, he understands it accordingly. 



Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā  hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 



மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

C. Sampajāna Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while
approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña, while looking
ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña, while bending
and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while wearing the robes
and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña,
while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts
with sampajañña, while attending to the business of defecating and
urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while standing, while
sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while
being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya o phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena\ in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho
kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ
nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this
very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head
down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of
impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the
body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with
its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears,
grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ
sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā
puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā,
ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva
kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ
nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā
nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ
kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ
semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


Just
as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with
various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas,
sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having
unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this
is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame
seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the
hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of
various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the
head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone
marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines,
mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood,
sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati.





Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம்,
பற்கள்,மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு,
சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல்,
குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ்,
இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி,
உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில்
உள்ளது என அறீவார்.


ஒருவேளை
பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள் உடையதாயிருப்பின்,
பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல் பயிர்,
பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன் நல்ல
பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய
விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having
killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the
same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is
placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth
element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.”

 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.



E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த
போதும்,எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் 
பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர்
மெய்ம்மூலம், நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு  கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில்
பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து, ஒரு குறுக்கு வீதி
உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே, பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும், எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை
அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த
:”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம், நெருப்பு
மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லதுகாயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



F. Navasivathika Pabba


(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just
as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, one day
dead, or two days dead or three days dead, swollen, bluish and
festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā
pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya
paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati.





Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!”\ sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டுஇருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள் இறந்த, அல்லது
மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும் புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட
நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā
pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya
paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு  இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற  நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(3)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,
ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும் இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய்
பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(4)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
acharnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāyekāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு  இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்
பூசப்பட்டு, நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற  நிலைமை
இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(5)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassīviharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ
viharati;‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti,
yāvadevañāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca
kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு  இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் 
இல்லாமல், நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற  நிலைமை
இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு  இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான, இங்கே ஒரு கை
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால் எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு இடுப்பு எலும்பு,
இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு,
அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.




(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel
ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this very kāya:
“This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this,
and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

(8)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(8)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.





Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் ஒரு ஆண்டுக்கு மேலே பழையதாகி குவியல் போல் 
இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(9)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ\
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel
ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya:
“This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this,
and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.





Thus he dwells observing kāya in
kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passingaway of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,சீரழிந்த எலும்புகள் பொடியாகி  இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa


Evaṃ me sutaṃ:

Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction

Which
four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

எந்த நான்கு?இங்கு
பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல் கண்காணிப்புடன்)
கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு வழியில்லாமல்  
பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க 
Vedanāsu vedanānupassī உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக
Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி
ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார். மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான
வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

Thus he dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing vedanā in
vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā;
or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to
the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does
not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā.

தமிழ்


III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார்?

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga  ஆர்வ வேட்கையை ” Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ
வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga
ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது

Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையை Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ
வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது”
என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha  மருட்சி 
ஆர்வ வேட்கையை “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ
வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது”
என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது ஒரு சேர்த்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு சேர்த்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு சிதறலான  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு
சிதறலான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
விரிவாக்கம் செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு விரிவாக்கம்
செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்யாத Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு  மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு
மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை  “ஒரு திண்மையற்ற  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
“ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், 
ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத 
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்.

இவ்வாறுஅவர்  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது அதனுடைய அகநிலையை
in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து 
வாசமசெய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார், samudaya and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
தோற்றம் மற்றும் கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார், இல்லாவிடில் “இது  citta  அகநிலை” என உணர்ந்து,  sati விழிப்பு
நில அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa  ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும
ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில
சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citt
mமனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து
கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


IV. தம்மங்களை அவதானித்தல்

A. நவராசஸ் பற்றிய பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்கள், தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனிக்கும் ஒரு பிக்கு எப்படி
வாழ்கிறார்? இங்கே, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு ஐந்து நவராக்களைக் குறிக்கும்
வகையில் தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார். மேலும், பிக்குகளே,
ஐந்து நவராக்களைக் குறிக்கும் விதமாக ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக்
கவனிப்பது எப்படி?

இங்கே, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, அங்கே கமாச்சந்தா
இருப்பது, புரிந்துகொள்கிறது: “எனக்குள் கமாச்சந்தா உள்ளது”; அங்கு
கமாச்சந்தா இல்லை, அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் கமாச்சந்தா இல்லை”;
unarisen kmacchanda எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்;
எழுந்த கோமச்சந்தா எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறார் என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; கைவிடப்பட்ட காமச்சந்தா எதிர்காலத்தில் எவ்வாறு எழாது
என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

இங்கே, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு,
அங்கே பைபாடா இருப்பது, புரிந்துகொள்கிறது: “எனக்குள் பைபாடா உள்ளது”;
பைபாடா உள்ளே இல்லை, அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் பைபாடா இல்லை”;
தெரியாத பைபாடா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த
பைபாடா எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்பட்டது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; கைவிடப்பட்ட
பைபாடா எதிர்காலத்தில் எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

இங்கே,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, அங்கே தமனித்தி இருப்பது புரிந்துகொள்கிறது:
“எனக்குள் தமனித்தி உள்ளது”; அங்கு தமனித்தி இல்லாததால், அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் தமனித்தி இல்லை”; தெரியாத தமனித்தி எவ்வாறு
எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த தமனித்தா எவ்வாறு
கைவிடப்பட்டார் என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; கைவிடப்பட்ட தமனித்தா
எதிர்காலத்தில் எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

இங்கே,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, அங்கே உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா இருப்பது
புரிந்துகொள்கிறது: “எனக்குள் உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா உள்ளது”; அங்கு
உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா இல்லை, அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள்
உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா இல்லை”; தெரியாத உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா எவ்வாறு
எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா
எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறார் என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; கைவிடப்பட்ட
உத்தாக்கா-குக்குக்கா எதிர்காலத்தில் எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்

இங்கே, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, அங்கே விக்கிக்கி
இருப்பது, புரிந்துகொள்கிறது: “எனக்குள் விசிக்கிச்சா உள்ளது”; அங்கு
விக்கிக்கி இல்லாததால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் விசிக்கிச்சே
இல்லை”; unarisen vicikicchā எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த விசிக்கிச்சை எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறார் என்பதை
அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; கைவிடப்பட்ட விசிக்கி எதிர்காலத்தில் எவ்வாறு
எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் உள்நாட்டில்
தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில் வெளிப்புறமாக
தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில் உள்ள தம்மங்களை
உள்நாட்டிலும் வெளிப்புறத்திலும் கவனிப்பார்; அவர் தம்மங்களில்
நிகழ்வுகளின் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகள்
காலமானதைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனித்து தம்மங்களில்
நிகழ்வுகளை கடந்து செல்கிறார்; இல்லையெனில், [உணர்ந்து:] “இவை தம்மங்கள்!”
சதி அவனுக்குள் இருக்கிறான், வெறும் ñāṇa மற்றும் வெறும் paatiissati என்ற
அளவிற்கு, அவன் பிரிக்கப்பட்டவனாக வாழ்கிறான், உலகில் எதையும்
ஒட்டிக்கொள்வதில்லை. இவ்வாறு, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, ஐந்து நவராக்களைக்
குறிக்கும் வகையில், தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார்.

பி. காந்தாக்கள் பற்றிய பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு ஐந்து கந்தாக்களைக் குறிக்கும் வகையில் தம்மங்களில்
தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார். மேலும், பிக்குக்கள், ஐந்து கந்தாக்களைக்
குறிக்கும் விதமாக ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பது எப்படி?

இங்கே,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு [புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்]: “இது ரபா, இது ராபாவின்
சமுதாயா, இது ரபாவின் காலமானது; இது வேதனா, இது வேதனின் சமுதயா, இது
வேதனின் கடந்து செல்வது; saññā, இது saññā இன் சமுதாயா, இது saññā இன்
காலமானதாகும்; viññāṇa இன் கடந்து செல்லும் “.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
உள்நாட்டில் தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில்
வெளிப்புறமாக தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில் உள்ள
தம்மங்களை உள்நாட்டிலும் வெளிப்புறத்திலும் கவனிப்பார்; அவர் தம்மங்களில்
நிகழ்வுகளின் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகள்
காலமானதைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனித்து தம்மங்களில்
நிகழ்வுகளை கடந்து செல்கிறார்; இல்லையெனில், [உணர்ந்து:] “இவை தம்மங்கள்!”
சதி அவனுக்குள் இருக்கிறான், வெறும் ñāṇa மற்றும் வெறும் paatiissati என்ற
அளவிற்கு, அவன் பிரிக்கப்பட்டவனாக வாழ்கிறான், உலகில் எதையும்
ஒட்டிக்கொள்வதில்லை. இவ்வாறு, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, ஐந்து கந்தாக்களைக்
குறிக்கும் வகையில், தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார்.

சி. சென்ஸ் கோளங்களில் பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து ஆறு உள் மற்றும்
வெளிப்புற சியானாக்களைக் குறிப்பிடுகிறார். மேலும், பிக்குக்கள், ஆறு உள்
மற்றும் வெளிப்புற சயான்களைக் குறிக்கும் விதமாக ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில்
தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பது எப்படி?

இங்கே, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு
கக்கூவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறான், அவன் ரபாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறான், இந்த
இரண்டின் காரணமாக எழும் சயோஜனத்தை அவன் புரிந்துகொள்கிறான், அவிழாத சயோஜனா
எப்படி எழுகிறது என்பதை அவன் புரிந்துகொள்கிறான், எழுந்த சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு
கைவிடப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவன் புரிந்துகொள்கிறான், கைவிடப்பட்ட சாயோஜாவை
அவன் புரிந்துகொள்கிறான் எதிர்காலத்தில் எழுவதில்லை.

அவர்
சோட்டாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அவர் சதாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், இந்த
இரண்டின் காரணமாக எழும் சயோஜனத்தை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அரிசிக்கப்படாத
சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், எழுந்த சயோஜனா
எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், கைவிடப்பட்ட
சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார் எதிர்காலத்தில்.

அவர்
கானாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அவர் காந்தாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், இந்த
இரண்டின் காரணமாக எழும் சயோஜனத்தை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அரிசிக்காத
சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், எழுந்த சயோஜனா
எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், மேலும்
கைவிடப்பட்ட சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்
எதிர்காலத்தில்.

அவர் ஜீவாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அவர் ராசாவைப்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், இந்த இரண்டின் காரணமாக எழும் சயோஜனத்தை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அரிசிக்கப்படாத சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், எழுந்த சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், கைவிடப்பட்ட சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழவில்லை என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார் எதிர்காலத்தில்.

அவர் கயாவைப்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அவர் ஃபோஹாபாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், இந்த இரண்டின்
காரணமாக எழும் சயோஜனத்தை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அரிசிக்காத சயோஜனா
எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், எழுந்த சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு
கைவிடப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், கைவிடப்பட்ட சயோஜனா
எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார் எதிர்காலத்தில்.

அவர்
மனாவைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அவர் தம்மங்களைப் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், இந்த
இரண்டின் காரணமாக எழும் சயோஜனத்தை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், அரிசிக்கப்படாத
சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், எழுந்த சயோஜனா
எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார், கைவிடப்பட்ட
சயோஜனா எவ்வாறு எழாது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார் எதிர்காலத்தில்.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் உள்நாட்டில் தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர்
தம்மங்களில் வெளிப்புறமாக தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில்
உள்ள தம்மங்களை உள்நாட்டிலும் வெளிப்புறத்திலும் கவனிப்பார்; அவர்
தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகளின் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது தம்மங்களில்
நிகழ்வுகள் காலமானதைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனித்து
தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகளை கடந்து செல்கிறார்; இல்லையெனில், [உணர்ந்து:] “இவை
தம்மங்கள்!” சதி அவனுக்குள் இருக்கிறான், வெறும் ñāṇa மற்றும் வெறும்
paatiissati என்ற அளவிற்கு, அவன் பிரிக்கப்பட்டவனாக வாழ்கிறான், உலகில்
எதையும் ஒட்டிக்கொள்வதில்லை. இவ்வாறு, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில்
தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து, ஆறு உள் மற்றும் வெளிப்புற சயான்களைக்
குறிப்பிடுகிறார்.

D. போஜ்ஜாகஸில் பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குஸ்,
ஒரு பிக்கு ஏழு போஜ்ஜாகாக்களைக் குறிக்கும் வகையில் தம்மங்களில்
தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார். மேலும், பிக்குக்கள், ஏழு போஜ்ஜாகாக்களைக்
குறிக்கும் விதமாக ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பது எப்படி?

இங்கே,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு, அங்கே சதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இருப்பது புரிந்துகொள்கிறது:
“எனக்குள் சதி சம்போஜ்ஹாகா உள்ளது”; அங்கு சதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லாததால்,
அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் சதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லை”; தெரியாத சதி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த சதி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமையடைகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

தம்மவிகாய
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளே இருப்பதால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள்
தம்மவிகாய சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளது”; அங்கே தம்மவிகாய சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லாததால்,
அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் தம்மவிகாய சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லை”;
unarisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த தம்மவிகாய சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமையாய்
உருவாகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

உள்ளே வரிய சம்போஜ்ஜாகா
இருப்பதால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் வரியா சம்போஜ்ஜாகா
உள்ளது”; அங்கு வரியா சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லாததால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்:
“எனக்குள் எந்த வரியா சம்போஜ்ஜாகாவும் இல்லை”; unarisen vīriya
sambojjhaṅga எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; அவர்
எழுந்த வரியா சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமைக்கு உருவாக்கப்பட்டது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

பேட்டி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளே இருப்பதால், அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் பேட்டி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளது”; அங்கு பேட்டி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லாததால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் பேட்டி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லை”; unarisen pti sambojjhaṅga எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை
அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த பேட்டி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமையாய்
உருவாகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

பாசாதி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளே இருப்பதால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் பாசாதி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளது”; அங்கு பசாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லாததால், அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் பாசாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லை”; அப்பட்டமான
பாசாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்;
எழுந்த பாசாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமையாக்கப்படுகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

அங்கே சமாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இருப்பதால், அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் சமாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளது”; அங்கு சமாதி
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லை, அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் சமாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா
இல்லை”; unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த சமாதி சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமையடைகிறது
என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

உபெக்கா சம்போஜ்ஜாகா உள்ளே
இருப்பதால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்: “எனக்குள் உபெக்கோ சம்போஜ்ஜாகா
உள்ளது”; அங்கு உபெக்கோ சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லாததால், அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்:
“எனக்குள் உபெக்கோ சம்போஜ்ஜாகா இல்லை”; unarisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga
எவ்வாறு எழுகிறது என்பதை அவர் புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்; எழுந்த உபெக்கோ
சம்போஜ்ஜாகா எவ்வாறு முழுமையாய் உருவாகிறது என்பதை அவர்
புரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் உள்நாட்டில் தம்மங்களில்
தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில் வெளிப்புறமாக தம்மங்களைக்
கவனிப்பார், அல்லது அவர் தம்மங்களில் உள்ள தம்மங்களை உள்நாட்டிலும்
வெளிப்புறத்திலும் கவனிப்பார்; அவர் தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகளின் சமுதாயத்தைக்
கவனிப்பார், அல்லது தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகள் காலமானதைக் கவனிப்பார், அல்லது
அவர் சமுதாயத்தைக் கவனித்து தம்மங்களில் நிகழ்வுகளை கடந்து செல்கிறார்;
இல்லையெனில், [உணர்ந்து:] “இவை தம்மங்கள்!” சதி அவனுக்குள் இருக்கிறான்,
வெறும் ñāṇa மற்றும் வெறும் paatiissati என்ற அளவிற்கு, அவன்
பிரிக்கப்பட்டவனாக வாழ்கிறான், உலகில் எதையும் ஒட்டிக்கொள்வதில்லை.
இவ்வாறு, பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு ஏழு போஜ்ஜாகாக்களைக் குறிக்கும் வகையில்,
தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார்.

E. சத்தியங்கள் பற்றிய பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குஸ், ஒரு பிக்கு நான்கு அரியா · சக்காக்களைக் குறிக்கும் வகையில்
தம்மங்களில் தம்மங்களைக் கவனித்து வருகிறார். மேலும், பிக்குக்கள், நான்கு
அரியா · சக்காக்களைக் குறிக்கும் விதமாக ஒரு பிக்கு தம்மங்களில்
தம்மங்களைக் கவனிப்பது எப்படி?

இ 1. துக்கசாக்காவின் வெளிப்பாடு

என்ன,
பிக்குஸ், துக்க அரியசாக்கா? ஜாதி துக்கா, வயதானவர் துக்கா (நோய் என்பது
துக்கா) மராசா என்பது துக்கா, துக்கம், புலம்பல், துக்கா, டொமனாஸா மற்றும்
துன்பம் என்பது துக்கா, விரும்பாதவற்றோடு தொடர்பு கொள்வது துக்கா,
விரும்பியவற்றிலிருந்து விலகல் என்பது துக்கா, ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப்
பெறவில்லை என்பது துக்கா; சுருக்கமாக, ஐந்து உபாதனகந்தங்கள் துக்கா.

என்ன,
பிக்குஸ், ஜாதி? ஜாதி, பிறப்பு, வம்சாவளி [கருப்பையில்], எழும் [உலகில்],
தோற்றம், காந்தாக்களின் தோற்றம், சியானாக்களைப் பெறுதல். இது, பிக்குஸ்,
ஜாதி என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன, பிக்குஸ், ஜாரா? பல்வேறு வகை
உயிரினங்களில் உள்ள பல்வேறு மனிதர்களுக்கு, ஜாரா, சிதைந்த நிலை, [பற்கள்]
உடைந்திருத்தல், நரை முடி கொண்டிருத்தல், சுருக்கமாக இருப்பது,
உயிர்ச்சத்து குறைதல், இந்திரியர்களின் சிதைவு: இது, பிக்குக்கள், jarā
என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன, பிக்குஸ், மராசா? பல்வேறு வகை
உயிரினங்களில் உள்ள பல்வேறு மனிதர்களுக்கு, ஏமாற்றுதல், [இருப்புக்கு
வெளியே] மாறுதல், உடைத்தல், காணாமல் போதல், மரணம், மராசா, கடந்து செல்வது,
காந்தங்களை உடைப்பது, படுக்க வைப்பது சடலத்தின்: இது, பிக்குஸ், மராசா
என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

பிக்குஸ், துக்கம் என்றால் என்ன? ஒன்றில்,
பல்வேறு வகையான துரதிர்ஷ்டங்களுடன் தொடர்புடைய பிக்குக்கள், பல்வேறு வகையான
துக்க தம்மங்கள், சோரோ, துக்கம், துக்கத்தின் நிலை, உள் துக்கம், உள்
பெரும் துக்கம்: இது, பிக்குக்கள், துக்கம் என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

பிக்குஸ்,
புலம்பல் என்றால் என்ன? ஒன்றில், பல்வேறு வகையான துரதிர்ஷ்டங்களுடன்
தொடர்புடைய பிக்குக்கள், பல்வேறு வகையான துக்க தம்மங்களால் தொட்டது,
அழுகைகள், புலம்பல்கள், அழுகை, அழுகை, அழுகை நிலை, புலம்பல் நிலை: இது,
பிக்குக்கள் புலம்பல் என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன, பிக்குஸ்,
துக்கா? எதுவாக இருந்தாலும், பிக்குக்கள், உடல் துக்கா, உடல் விரும்பத்தகாத
தன்மை, உடல் தொடர்பு மூலம் உருவான துக்கா, விரும்பத்தகாத வேதாயிதங்கள்:
இது, பிக்குக்கள், துக்கா என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன, பிக்குஸ்,
டொமனாஸா? எதுவாக இருந்தாலும், பிக்குக்கள், மன துக்கங்கள், மன
விரும்பத்தகாத தன்மை, மன தொடர்பு மூலம் உருவான துக்கா, விரும்பத்தகாத
வேதாயிதங்கள்: இது, பிக்குக்கள், டோமானாசா என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன,
பிக்குஸ், விரக்தி? ஒன்றில், பல்வேறு வகையான துரதிர்ஷ்டங்களுடன்
தொடர்புடைய பிக்குக்கள், பல்வேறு வகையான துக்க தம்மங்களால் தொட்டது,
தொல்லை, விரக்தி, சிக்கலில் இருக்கும் நிலை, விரக்தியில் இருக்கும் நிலை:
இது, பிக்குக்கள், விரக்தி என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன,
பிக்குஸ், உடன்படாதவற்றுடன் தொடர்புபடுவதற்கான துக்கா என்ன? இங்கே,
வடிவங்கள், ஒலிகள், சுவைகள், நாற்றங்கள், உடல் நிகழ்வுகள் மற்றும் மன
நிகழ்வுகள் போன்றவை விரும்பத்தகாதவை, சுவாரஸ்யமாக இல்லை, விரும்பத்தகாதவை,
இல்லையெனில் ஒருவரின் தீமையை விரும்புவோர், ஒருவரின் இழப்பை விரும்புவோர்,
ஒருவரின் அச om கரியத்தை விரும்புவோர், இணைப்பு, சந்திப்பு,
இணைந்திருத்தல், ஒன்றாக இருப்பது, அவர்களைச் சந்திப்பதில் இருந்து ஒருவரின்
விடுதலையை விரும்பாதவர்கள்: இது, பிக்குக்கள், உடன்படாதவற்றுடன்
தொடர்புபடுவதற்கான துக்கா என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

என்ன, பிக்குஸ், ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளக்கூடியவற்றிலிருந்து
பிரிக்கப்படுவதற்கான துக்கா என்ன? இங்கே, வடிவங்கள், ஒலிகள், சுவைகள்,
நாற்றங்கள், உடல் நிகழ்வுகள் மற்றும் மன நிகழ்வுகள் போன்றவை
மகிழ்ச்சிகரமானவை, சுவாரஸ்யமானவை, இனிமையானவை, இல்லையெனில் ஒருவரின்
நன்மையை விரும்புவோர், ஒருவரின் நன்மையை விரும்புவோர், ஒருவரின் ஆறுதலை
விரும்புவோர், இணைப்பிலிருந்து ஒருவரின் விடுதலையை விரும்புவது,
சந்திக்காதது, இணைந்திருக்காதது, ஒன்றாக இல்லாதது, அவர்களை எதிர்கொள்ளாதது:
இது, பிக்குக்கள், ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளக்கூடியவற்றிலிருந்து பிரிக்கப்பட்டிருப்பதன் துக்கா என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

மேலும்,
பிக்குஸ், ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப் பெறாத துக்கா என்ன? மனிதர்களில்,
பிக்குக்கள், பிறக்கும் தன்மையைக் கொண்டுள்ளனர், அத்தகைய விருப்பம்
எழுகிறது: “ஓ, உண்மையில், எங்களுக்கு ஜாதி இருக்கக்கூடாது, உண்மையில்,
நாங்கள் ஜாதிக்கு வரக்கூடாது.” ஆனால் இதை ஆசைப்படுவதன் மூலம் அடைய
முடியாது. ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப் பெறாத துக்க இது.

மனிதர்களில்,
பிக்குக்கள், வயதாகிவிடும் தன்மையைக் கொண்டிருப்பதால், அத்தகைய விருப்பம்
எழுகிறது: “ஓ, உண்மையில், எங்களுக்கு ஜரி இருக்கக்கூடாது, உண்மையில்,
நாங்கள் ஜாரிக்கு வரக்கூடாது.” ஆனால் இதை ஆசைப்படுவதன் மூலம் அடைய
முடியாது. ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப் பெறாத துக்க இது.

மனிதர்களில்,
பிக்குக்கள், நோய்வாய்ப்படும் தன்மையைக் கொண்டிருப்பதால், அத்தகைய
விருப்பம் எழுகிறது: “ஓ, உண்மையில், எங்களுக்கு நோய் இருக்கக்கூடாது,
உண்மையில், நாங்கள் நோய்க்கு வரக்கூடாது.” ஆனால் இதை ஆசைப்படுவதன் மூலம்
அடைய முடியாது. ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப் பெறாத துக்க இது.

மனிதர்களில்,
பிக்குக்கள், வயதாகிவிடும் தன்மையைக் கொண்டுள்ளதால், அத்தகைய விருப்பம்
எழுகிறது: “ஓ, உண்மையில், எங்களுக்கு மராநா இருக்கக்கூடாது, உண்மையில்,
நாங்கள் மராசாவுக்கு வரக்கூடாது.” ஆனால் இதை ஆசைப்படுவதன் மூலம் அடைய
முடியாது. ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப் பெறாத துக்க இது.

மனிதர்களில்,
பிக்குக்கள், துக்கம், புலம்பல், துக்கா, டொமனாசா மற்றும் துன்பம் போன்ற
குணாதிசயங்களைக் கொண்டுள்ளதால், அத்தகைய ஆசை எழுகிறது: “ஓ, உண்மையில்,
துக்கம், புலம்பல், துக்கா, டொமனாசா மற்றும் துன்பம் இருக்கக்கூடாது,
உண்மையில், நாம் செய்யக்கூடாது துக்கம், புலம்பல், துக்கா, டோமானாசா
மற்றும் துயரத்திற்கு வாருங்கள். ” ஆனால் இதை ஆசைப்படுவதன் மூலம் அடைய
முடியாது. ஒருவர் விரும்புவதைப் பெறாத துக்க இது.

பிக்குக்கள்,
சுருக்கமாக ஐந்து உபநாகந்தங்கள் என்ன? அவையாவன: ரப உபதனகந்தா, வேதனா
உபாதனகந்தா, சா உபதேனகந்தா, ச ā க்ரா உபதேனகந்தா, வியாத உபநாகந்தா. இவை
சுருக்கமாக, பிக்குக்கள், ஐந்து உபநாகந்தங்கள் என்று அழைக்கப்படுகின்றன.

இது பிக்குஸ், துக்க அரியசாக்கா என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது

இ 2. சமுதாயசாக்காவின் வெளிப்பாடு

மேலும்,
பிக்குஸ், துக்க-சாமுதய அரியசாக்கா என்றால் என்ன? இந்த தஹே தான்
மறுபிறப்புக்கு வழிவகுக்கிறது, ஆசை மற்றும் இன்பத்துடன்
இணைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது, இங்கே அல்லது அங்கே மகிழ்ச்சியைக் காண்கிறது, அதாவது:
காமா-தாஹா, பாவா-தாஹா மற்றும் விபாவா-த ṇ ஹா. ஆனால் இந்த தஹா, பிக்குக்கள்,
எழும்போது, அது எங்கு எழுகிறது, [தன்னை] நிலைநிறுத்தும்போது, அது எங்கே
குடியேறுகிறது? உலகில் இனிமையானதாகவும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கதாகவும்
தோன்றும், அதுதான் தஹே, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, எங்கு குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில் எது இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது? உலகில் கண் இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் காது இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது
நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் மூக்கு இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் உள்ள நாக்கு இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் கயா இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் மனா இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில் காணக்கூடிய வடிவங்கள்
இனிமையானவை மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கவை, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழும், அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் ஒலிகள் இனிமையானவை,
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளக்கூடியவை, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழும், அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் வாசனை இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது.
உலகில் சுவைகள் இனிமையானவை, ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கவை, அங்கே, எழும் போது,
எழும், அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் உடல் நிகழ்வுகள்
இனிமையானவை, ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கவை, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழும்போது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் உள்ள தம்மங்கள் இனிமையானவை,
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளக்கூடியவை, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழும், அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில்
கண்-வினா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
காது-வினா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
மூக்கு-வினா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
உள்ள நாக்கு-வினா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
Kāya-viññāṇa இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
மனா-வினா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில்
கண்-சம்பாசா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
காது-சம்பாசா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
மூக்கு-சம்பாசா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
உள்ள நாக்கு-சம்பாசா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே
taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.
உலகில் கயா-சம்பாசா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
மன-சம்பாசா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில்
கண்-சம்பாசாவில் பிறந்த வேதனா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் காது-சம்பாசாவில் பிறந்த வேதனா இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் மூக்கு-சம்பாசாவில் பிறந்த
வேதனா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில்
நாக்கு-சம்பாசாவில் பிறந்த வேதனா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் கயா-சம்பாசாவில் பிறந்த வேதனா இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் மன-சம்பாசாவிலிருந்து பிறந்த
வேதனா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில்
காணக்கூடிய வடிவங்களின் சாஸ் இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் உள்ள ஒலிகளின் சாஸ் இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் துர்நாற்றம் வீசுவது இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் சுவைகளின் சாஸ் இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் உடல் நிகழ்வுகளின் சாஸ்
இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது,
அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் தம்மங்களின் சாஸ்
இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில்
காணக்கூடிய வடிவங்களுடன் [தொடர்புடைய] நோக்கம் இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் ஒலிகளுடன் தொடர்புடையது இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது,
அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் நாற்றங்களுடன் தொடர்புடையது இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் சுவைகளுடன் தொடர்புடையது
இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது,
அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் உள்ள உடல் நிகழ்வுகளின்
நோக்கம் இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் உள்ள தம்மங்கள்
தொடர்பான நோக்கம் இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā,
எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது.

உலகில்
காணக்கூடிய வடிவங்களுக்கான தஹா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் ஒலிகளுக்கான தஹா இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் நாற்றங்களுக்கான தஹா இனிமையானது
மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் சுவைகளுக்கான தஹா இனிமையானது
மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் உடல் நிகழ்வுகளுக்கான தஹா
இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் தம்மங்களுக்கான
தஹா இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே தாஹா, எழும்போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது.

உலகில்
காணக்கூடிய வடிவங்களின் பார்வை இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது,
அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கு குடியேறும்போது, அது
குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் ஒலிகளின் தன்மை இனிமையானது மற்றும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் துர்நாற்றம் வீசுவது இனிமையானது
மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் சுவைகளின் பார்வை இனிமையானது
மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே, எழும் போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே
குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. உலகில் உடல் நிகழ்வுகளின் விசித்திரம்
இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே taṇhā, எழும்போது,
எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது நிலைபெறுகிறது. உலகில் உள்ள
தம்மங்களின் விசித்திரம் இனிமையானது மற்றும் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்கது, அங்கே
taṇhā, எழும்போது, எழுகிறது, அங்கே குடியேறும்போது, அது குடியேறுகிறது. இது
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