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06/18/20
The Original Language of the Buddha and His Teachings- The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit.
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https://www.quora.com/What-language-did-Gautama-Buddha-speak-according-to-Indian-mythology-and-why-is-it-significant

The Original Language of the Buddha and His Teachings

The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit.

Magadhi Prakrit is the spoken language of
the ancient Magadha kingdom, one of the 16 city-state kingdoms  at the
time, located in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region around
modern-day
Bihār,
and spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. The
first Magadha king is Bimbisara (558 BC –491 BC), during whose reign the
Buddha attained enlightenment. Both king Bimbisara and his successor
son Ajatashatru, were mentioned in several Buddhist Sutras, being lay disciplines, great friends and protectors of the Buddha


Magadha empire, ~500 BCE

The Magadha kingdom later became part of the Mauryan Empire, one of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent.

Inline image 1

Mauryan Empire, 265 BCE

Magadhi Prakrit is the official language of the Mauryan court. Its emperor “Ashoka
the Great” (ruled 273- 232 BCE) united continental India. During the
war to conquer Kalinga, the last Southern part of India not subject to
his rule, he personally witnessed the devastation that caused hundred of
thousands of deaths, and began feeling remorse. Although the annexation
of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhism, and renounced war and violence. He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia - his son Mahinda  and daughter Sanghamitra,  who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) - and spread  Buddhism to other countries.

Stone lion of Ashoka, later became symbol of modern India

Magadhi Prakrit is predominantly the language by which Emperor Ashoka’s edicts  were composed in. These edicts were carved on stone pillars placed throughout the empire.

Inline image 2


Inline image 4


The inscriptions on the pillars described edicts about morality based on Buddhist tenets.

Inline image 3

Ashoka Pillar at Feroze Shah Kotla, Delhi, written in Magadhi, Brami and Urdu


Geographically,
the Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his
life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several
closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree
of mutual intelligibility.


Brāhmī Alphabet   
Brāhmī lipi

The Brāhmī alphabet is the ancestor of most of the 40 or so
modern alphabets, and of a number of other
alphabets, such as Khmer and Tibetan.
It is thought to have been modelled on the Aramaic
or Phoenician alphabets, and appeared in Jambudvipa sometime before 500 BC.


The earliest known inscriptions in the Brāhmī alphabet are those of
King Asoka (c.270-232 BC), third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty.



Brāhmī was used to write a variety of languages, including  Prakrit.

Notable features


  • Type of writing system: abugida - each letter represents a consonant with an
    inherent vowel. Other vowels were indicated using a variety of diacritics
    and separate letters.
  • Letters are grouped according to the way they are pronounced.
  • Many letters have more than one form.
  • Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines


Vowels and vowel diacritics


Brāhmī vowel diacritics



Consonants


Brāhmī consonants



Sample text


Sample text in Brāhmī

Asokan Edict - Delhi Inscription



Transliteration


devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā ye atikaṁtaṁ
aṁtalaṁ lājāne husa hevaṁ ichisu kathaṁ jane
dhaṁmavaḍhiyā vāḍheya nocujane anulupāyā dhaṁmavaḍhiyā
vaḍhithā etaṁ devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā esame
huthā atākaṁtaṁ ca aṁtalaṁ hevaṁ ichisu lājāne katha jane



Translation


Thus spoke king Devanampiya Piyadasi: “Kings of the olden time have gone to heaven under
these very desires. How then among mankind may religion (or growth in grace) be increased?
Yea, through the conversion of the humbly-born shall religion increase”


Source: http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva/144-asokan-edict-delhi


Some modern descendants of Brāhmī


Bengali,
Devanāgarī,
Gujarāti,
Gurmukhi,
Kannada,
Khmer,
Malayalam,
Odia,
Sinhala,
Tamil,
Telugu,
Tibetan



Links


Information about Brāhmī

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Br%C4%81hm%C4%AB_script

http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva

http://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html

http://www.nibbanam.com/Brahmi/brahmi.htm


Brāhmī fonts

https://sites.google.com/site/brahmiscript/


The Edicts of King Asoka

http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html



ALPHABETUM - a Unicode font
specifically designed for ancient scripts, including classical
& medieval Latin, ancient Greek, Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian,
Faliscan, Messapic, Picene, Iberian, Celtiberian, Gothic, Runic,
Old & Middle English, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Old Nordic, Ogham,
Kharosthi, Glagolitic, Old Cyrillic, Phoenician, Avestan, Ugaritic,
Linear B, Anatolian scripts, Coptic, Cypriot, Brahmi, Old Persian cuneiform:
http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/alphabet.html

Some of the writing systems used to write Sanskrit



Syllabic alphabets / abugidas

http://www.indicstudies.us/Archives/Linguistics/Brahmi.html


The Brahmi script was the
ancestor of all

South Asian writing
systems
. In
addition, many East and Southeast Asian scripts,
such as Burmese, Thai,

Tibetan
, and even
Japanese to a very small extent (vowel order),
were also ultimately derived from the Brahmi
script. Thus the Brahmi script was the Indian
equivalent of the Greek script that gave arise
to a host of different systems. You can take a
look at



the evolution of Indian scripts
,
or

the evolution of Southeast Asian scripts
.
Both of these pages are located at the very
impressive site

Languages and Scripts of India
.
You can also take a look at

Asoka’s edict at Girnar
,
inscribed in the Brahmi script.





Related links:




Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?

It should be Magadhi.


The Original Language of the Buddha and His Teachings


The languages used in Hela Diva in Buddha’s period


Magahi language

in 1) Classical Magahi Magadhi, 2) Classical Chandaso
language,
3)Magadhi Prakrit,
4) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

5) Classical Pali, 6) Classical Deva Nagari



https://dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=10635

Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?

Dear All,


There were two Bhikkhus complained to the Buddha, that some of the
Bhikkhus were reciting the Buddha’s word by not using the Chandaso
language but their own dialects , thus they requested Buddha to unify
the recitation of Buddha’s word by using Chandaso language but refused
by the Buddha, then Buddha has spoke this:
Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanaṃ pariyāpuṇitu’’nti.

Translated by Prof.Rhys Davids & Oldenberg:
“I allow you, oh Bhikkhus, to learn the words of the Buddha, each in his own dialect”
But in the other hand, the Pali Tipitaka commentator, Ven. Bhadanta Achariya Buddhagosha in his commentary:
Sakāya niruttiyāti ettha sakā nirutti nāma sammāsambuddhena vuttappakāro māgadhiko vohāro.
“I ordain the words of the Buddha to be learnt in his own language (in Māgadhī, the language used by the Buddha himself)”.

The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit
Magadhi Prakrit is the spoken language of the ancient Magadha kingdom,
one of the 16 city-state kingdoms  at the time, located in the eastern
Indian subcontinent, in a region around modern-day
Bihār,
and spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. The
first Magadha king is Bimbisara (558 BC –491 BC), during whose reign the
Buddha attained enlightenment. Both king Bimbisara and his successor
son Ajatashatru, were mentioned in several Buddhist Sutras, being lay disciplines, great friends and protectors of the Buddha.


Magadha empire, ~500 BCE

The Magadha kingdom later became part of the Mauryan Empire, one of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent.

Mauryan Empire, 265 BCE

Magadhi Prakrit is the official language of the Mauryan court. Its emperor “Ashoka
the Great” (ruled 273- 232 BCE) united continental India. During the
war to conquer Kalinga, the last Southern part of India not subject to
his rule, he personally witnessed the devastation that caused hundred of
thousands of deaths, and began feeling remorse. Although the annexation
of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhism, and renounced war and violence. He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia - his son Mahinda  and daughter Sanghamitra,  who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) - and spread  Buddhism to other countries.

Stone lion of Ashoka, later became symbol of modern India

Magadhi Prakrit is predominantly the language by which Emperor Ashoka’s edicts  were composed in. These edicts were carved on stone pillars placed throughout the empire.
The inscriptions on the pillars described edicts about morality based on Buddhist tenets.

Geographically,
the Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his
life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several
closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree
of mutual intelligibility.
 
Magadhi Prakrit shares a genealogy with Sanskrit – an Indo-Aryan language, with commonalities to ancient German and Persian. The sacred Hindu
Vedas and Upanishads
text are written in this language. Since Buddha was a prince, he would
have spoken Sanskrit, the language  of Brahmins and aristocrats, and
used in formal religious texts. But many of his followers were common
people who would not have been educated in Sanskrit. The Sutra record
stated that the Buddha was opposed to the use of Sanskrit for his
preaching. He preferred the vernacular Magadhi for his preaching and
sermon.
 
Although the Buddha’s teaching was in Magadhi, there is
no written record of his teaching in this language. Immediately after
his death, under the sponsorship of king Ajatashatru, his elder student
Mahakassapa organized the “First Buddhist council
during which Ananda, the Buddha’s cousin and long time aide, with
prodigious memory, was asked to recite his teachings, which were
carefully memorized.
 
When the Buddhist teachings started to
spread during Ashoka’s time, they  were continually translated into the
local dialects and languages. 
 
When the teachings started to be
written down, around three or four hundred years after the death of the
Buddha, there already existed several  different, carefully memorized,
versions - one of which is the Pali version. Only one complete version of the set of Vinaya (inventories of rules to be observed by monks/nuns), Sutra (record of the discourse of the Buddha) and Abhidharma (Commentaries) has survived in the Pali language, preserved by the Theravadin
School. Consequently this copy has been regarded as the authoritative
account of the Buddha’s teachings in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos
and Cambodia, the home of the Theravadin School.

Magahi folk singers


https://www.quora.com/Did-Gautama-Buddha-preach-in-Pali-or-…

It should be Magadhi.

Because, Pali (पालि / பாளி) was not a vernacular language spoken during
the period of Shakyamuni, Siddhartha Gautama. As Magadhi Bhasha is
believed to be Siddhartha’s mother tongue, it is highly likely that he
delivered his teachings in that language.

Some linguists argue that Pali must simply be a text version of
Magadhi. In fact, the word “pali” simply means “line” or “mark” in
ancient Indo-Aryan languages (Prakrits and Sanskrit). It can be roughly
understood as “text” as the language Pali was used only after writing
system was introduced in ancient India.

Some other linguists
believe that Pali must be a mix of several Prakrit languages in order to
make majority of the ancient Indians to understand Buddha’s teachings.
However, it is very obvious that Buddha would not have used Pali during
his lifetime. It should be Magadhi.



පරම පවිත්‍ර සිරි සද්ධර්මය

නිවන් අවබෝධ කර ගැනීමට උපකාරී වන්නේ පරම පවිත්‍ර සිරි සද්ධර්මයයි !


The languages used in Hela Diva in Buddha’s period



Posted on January 6, 2014


All the rulers in Hela Diva (Deva Hela) mainly used two languages.

  1. Magadhi Prakruth language
  2. Hela Basa (Hela Language)

As a whole, the language of the ordinary citizens in the entire Hela Diva was Hela Basa. Hela Basa had been used as a spoken language and also as a written language. Hela Basa was used everywhere by ordinary citizens, in the day today life and also in their trading activities.

Prakruth Magadhi language was a language of the great scholars. Magadhi language was used for technology, science & craftsmanship and administration of the country. Magadhi
language was used commonly in the county of Magadha of which the city
of Rajagaha was the capital city. The scholars, rulers of the country,
clergy, Brahmans and some Counts learnt and used the Magadhi language. Everyone who used Maghadi language knew Hela Basa as well. The gap between Magadhi language and Hela language was not that much great. Maghadi language
was used to learn any particular skill & knowledge or any science.
 It can be seen that the mass in the general public did not use the
profound Maghadi language.

Buddha used Maghadi language to teach Dhamma in all the sixteen states in Janbudveepa Hela Diva. The Dhamma preached in Maghadi language was easily understood by the common people who used Hela Basa as well. In the ancient times there lived scholars in Hela Diva who knew Hela Basa as well and they present Artha, Dharma, Nirukthi and Patibhana for the intellectual Buddha Dhamma which was taught in Maghadi language. Because of this, Buddha Dhamma preached in Magadhi language by Gautama Buddha was analyzed during that period itself and Hela Commentaries were written for them. Hela Basa was a written language, but not the Maghadi language. Because of this, within the same period of time, Commentary writing (Attha katha)[2] in Hela Basa was done for the Buddha Dhamma preached by Gautama Buddha. In order to analyze and present explanations for the teachings of Buddha, in the ancient times in Hela Bima, five Artha kathas written in Hela Basa had been used and they are Hela Atuwa, Kurundi Atuwa, Budukali Atuwa, Seehala Attha Katha and Mahaatta Katha. All these Attha Kathas were written on Buddha Dhamma preached by Gautama Buddha in Maghadi language. These original Hela Atuwa could be seen even in the Anuradhapura period. The alphabet used for Magadhi language and Hela Language was the same. There were no two different alphabets. Both these languages used a methodology of Prakrit letters.
But by this time, what used in India were the Brahmi letters and the
Sanskrit language. The ordinary citizens in India never used Maghadi language or Hela Basa. Because of this, one can notice that there are certain differences between the letters used in Lanka in the very old age in Helabima,
which is the Buddha’s period even before Anuradhapura period, and the
letters used in Anurahapura after Ashoka’s period. The consequence of
this were that the inscriptions reader of the Anuradhapura period
experienced difficulties in reading inscriptions written in Buddha’s
period in Hela Diva. But the pattern of the letters in
Anuradapura period and Ashoka period was very similar. This is because
of the influence from India. In the ancient Hela Diva, rulers and some scholars from Yakkha Hela where Yakkha & Naaga tribes lived knew both languages, Maghadi and Hela Basa. Rulers of Yakkha tribe such as Saathaagira and Hemawatha could understand the Dhamma preached by Gautama Buddha in Maghadi language. Even King Samana could understand Dhamma. And also the great King Wessawana introduced the enactment of Aataanaataa to Gautama Buddha in Magadhi language. Gautama Buddha preached the same to his disciples again in Magadhi language.

In the ancient times Arahant Mahinda Thero came to Hela Diva (Lanka), went to the capital city of Rajagaha (Ampara) in the kingdom of Magada, learnt both Magadhi language & Hela Basa for few years, took the Budu Kali Commentaries written in Hela Basa to Anuradhapura and preached Buddha Dhamma to King Dewana Paathis in both Magadhi language & Hela Basa. This means that most of the people lived in the kingdom of Anuradhapura too knew Hela Basa and Magadhi language very well. Gradually, Helabasa became the language of the common man and Magadhi language became the language of the intellectuals.

This Magadhi language used by the intellectuals in all the sixteen states in Hela Diva and also in Yakkha Hela & Naaga Hela
had never ever been a language to be used by any region or any kingdom
in India. All the languages prevailed in India that day were based on
Sanskrit, but not Prakrit.

 After preaching Dhamma by Gautama Buddha in Hela Diva, Dhamma spread out gradually to South India and the regions like east Kerala. When Buddha Dhamma was spread out in this manner, Maghadi language was used in the kingdoms in South and East India. As a result of this, books written in Hela Diva in Magadhi and Hela languages were translated in to Indian languages. Indian universities too started teaching Maghadi language and that is only after the spreading of Buddha Dhamma. Pela[3] is not a language. Pela Dhamma is nothing but the texts or passages of Buddha Dhamma in Magadhi language which are in the form of lines or arranged into lines. Buddha Dhamma
was presented in this manner, in the form of lines, as it helps in easy
reading by heart and registers in mind thoroughly. After 7 centuries,
in the latter part of Anuradhapura period, Pela Dhamma was transformed in to a language called Pali and later modified it as a language with grammar. Pali language which is used and learnt at present is a created, modified language and not the same Magadhi language used by Buddha to preach Dhamma. There are many differences between these two. Artha, Dharma and Nirukthi can be presented for the Magadhi terms which were used by the Buddha. Pali language has only customary meanings.




[2] Atta Katha or Attha Katha or Artha Katha
– the commentaries were written with the aim of explaining something in
a simple manner, to make easy the reader to understand certain
difficult words.



Dharmadhatu Center



H.H. Dorje Chang Buddha III


The Original Language of the Buddha and His Teachings

Extracted from the book “Buddhist Sutras: Origin Development” by Kogen Mizuno.
“The
original language of the sutras seems to have been Magadhi, which
Shakyamuni used in preaching. Of all the Indic language versions of
sutras used as Buddhist texts today, those written in Pali are the most
numerous and are widely used in the Southern Buddhist countries Sri
Lanka, Burma, and Thailand. According to Southern Buddhist tradition,
Pali is regarded as the language that Shakyamuni spoke, and therefore is
called Magadhi or the fundamental language. However, recent studies
show that although a little of the Magadhi influence is still evident in
the Pali language, the basic characteristics of the two languages are
different.


“The
two important language families of India are Indic and Dravidian. All
Buddhist sutras were originally compiled in Indic languages, which
developed in various parts of India over a period of three or four
thousand years. In present day India more than ten major languages-
including Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Bihari, Marathi, and Punjabi- belong to
this family, and together they number several hundred dialects. Sanskrit
and fourteen modern languages are now officially sanctioned by the
Indian constitution, and in a large house it is possible for several of
the recognized languages to be in use, since servants from different
areas and family members would all speak in their own languages or
dialects.

“This
rich linguistic heritage was noted in earlier times, when, for example,
in plays one could identify a character’s occupation and social status
through the prescribed language he or she spoke. Kings, ministers, and
Brahmans spoke Sanskrit, the most highly esteemed and inflected
language; queens, princesses, nuns and courtesans spoke a graceful
language called Shauraseni; the general populace, such as merchants and
artisans, spoke Magadhi; and the lower classes spoke Paishachi. Even
lyrics had their own pleasant to the ear language, Maharashtri.

“The
five languages just mentioned originated in the dialects of different
areas, but the languages in Shakyamuni’s time belonged to a period
earlier than that of these five languages. However, even in Shakyamuni’s
time, regional languages already differed, and each language had its
own unique characteristics, as we can see from the edicts of Ashoka,
issued about two centuries after the death of Shakyamuni. Ashoka had his
edicts carved on large rocks and stone pillars, and one particular
edict was written in a different language in each of the eight areas
where it has been found. The languages of the edicts in India, which can
be divided into four or five regional groups, correspond to the five
languages used in drama of later periods. In time they became regional
languages of the Apabhramsha family, and still later they developed into
the modern Indic languages.

“The
language Shakyamuni spoke was the one in general use around the middle
reaches of the Ganges, where he was active. Since the area was later
called Magadha, its language was called Magadi (or Old Magadhi), and
because many of Emperor Ashoka’s edicts have been found in this area, we
have an idea of what the Magadhi Shakyamuni spoke was like.

“In
the time of Shakyamuni, the Vedas, the holy scriptures of Brahmanism,
were transmitted in Vedic Sanskrit, which was the forerunner of
classical Sanskrit. Both Vedic Sanskrit and classical Sanskrit are
elegant, highly inflected, complex languages. The Vedic scriptures were
transmitted only to the educated upper classes, never to the lower
classes. Shakyamuni, who wanted his teachings to reach all classes of
society equally, thought that the lower classes would be the focus of
his ministry and therefore preached his teaching in Magadhi, the
everyday language of the common people, so that even the lower classes
could understand him.”

An
excerpt from “Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on
the Archaeology, Epigraphy, and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India” by
Gregory Schopen

“We
know, and have known for some time, that the Pali canon as we have it-
and it is generally conceded to be our oldest source- cannot be taken
back further than the last quarter of the first century BCE, the date of
the Alu-vihara redaction, the earliest redaction that we can have some
knowledge of, and that-for a critical history- it can serve, at the very
most only as a source for the Buddhism of this period. But we also know
that even this is problematic since as Malalasekera has pointed out
‘…how far the Tipitaka and its commentary reduced to writing at
Alu-vihara resembled them as they have come down to us now, no one can
say.’ In fact, it is not until the time of the commentaries of
Buddhaghosa, Dhammapala, and others- that is to say the fifth to sixth
centuries C.E.- that we can know anything definite about the actual
contents of this canon.

“We
also know that there is no evidence to indicate that a canon existed
prior to the Alu-vihara redaction. Although Ashoka in his Dhabra Edict
specifically enjoined both monks and laymen to recite certain texts,
which he named, he nowhere in his records gives any indication that he
knew of a canon, or the classification of texts into nikayas.”

I
personally have great faith in the memory-power of the monks who
memorized the Buddhist Sutras from the time of the Buddha and
transmitted them verbally from generation to generation for about 400
years before they were actually written down. And in terms of dating the
earliest recorded Sutras, it is my understanding that parts of the
Sutta Nipata in Pali and parts of the Mahavastu in Buddhist Hybrid
Sanskrit (from the Shravastivadin tradition) are the oldest known
recorded Sutras- both dating back to about 350 years after the Buddha.
Again, I didn’t mean to be too long-winded in this explanation, but I
thought people might be interested in knowing a little more, if they
didn’t know already, about these questions of language and the Buddhist
Sutras.

A
little footnote: according to our tradition and the historical records
of Ancient China the earliest Sutra translated from the Indic languages
into Chinese was the Sutra in 42 Sections in 69 C.E. 

Sincerely, in Dharma, Heng Shun



Magahi language

The Magahi language, also known as Magadhi, is a language spoken in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of eastern India. Magadhi Prakrit was the ancestor of Magadh, from which the latter’s name derives.[5] Magadhi has approximately 18 million speakers.

It has a very rich and old tradition of folk songs and stories. It is spoken in ten districts of Bihar (Gaya, Patna, Jehanabad, Aurangabad, Nalanda, Nawada, Arwal, Lakhisarai, Sheikhpura, Jamui) and eight districts of Jharkhand (Palamu, Chatra, Hazaribag, Koderma, Deoghar, Jamtara, west singhbhum, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Giridih). In West Bengal, it is spoken in Malda district.[6]In Odisha, it is spoken in kendujhar district.

Magahi or Magadhia language derived from the ancient Magadhi Prakrit, which was created in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, the core of which was the area south of the Ganges and east of Son River. It is believed to be the language spoken by Gautama Buddha. It was the official language of the Mauryan court, in which the edicts of Ashoka were composed.

The name Magahi is directly derived from the name Magadhi
Prakrit, and educated speakers of Magahi prefer to call it “Magadhi”
rather than “Magahi”.

Though the number of speakers in Magahi is large, it has not been
constitutionally recognised in India. In Bihar Hindi is the language
used for educational and official matters.[7] Magadhi was legally absorbed under Hindi in the 1961 Census.[8]


History

The ancestor of Magadhi, Magadhi Prakrit,
formed in the Indian subcontinent in a region spanning what is now
India and Nepal. These regions were part of the ancient kingdom of Magadha, the core of which was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges.

The name Magahi is directly derived from the word Magadhi, and educated speakers of Magahi prefer to call it Magadhi rather than Magahi.[9]

Grammarian Kachchayano wrote of the importance of Magadhi, “There is a
language which is the root (of all languages); men and Brahmans spoke
it at the commencement of the kalpa, who never before uttered a human
accent, and even the supreme Buddhas spoke it: it is Magadhi.”[10]

The development of the Magadhi language into its current form is
unknown. However, language scholars have come to a conclusion that
Magahi, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bengali, Assamese and Oriya
originated from the Mithila Prakrit or might be Bengali Prakrit during
the 8th to 11th centuries. These different dialects differentiated
themselves and took their own course of growth and development. But it
is not certain when exactly it took place. It was probably such an
unidentified period during which modern Indian languages begin to take
modern shape. By the end of the 12th century, the development of Apabhramsa reached its climax. Gujarati,
Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Maithili and other modern languages
took definite shape in their literary writings in the beginning of the
14th century. The distinct shape of Magadhi can be seen in the Dohakosha written by Sarahapa and Kauhapa. Magahi had a setback due to the transition period of Magadha administration.[11]
Traditionally, strolling bards recite long epic poems in this dialect,
and it was because of this that the word “Magahi” came to mean “a bard”.
Kaithi is the script generally used for it. The pronunciation in Magahi
is not as broad as in Maithili and there are a number of verbal forms
for each person.[12]
Historically, Magahi had no famous written literature. There are many
popular songs throughout the area in which the language is spoken, and
strolling bards recite various long epic poems
which are known more or less over the whole of Northern India. In
Magahi spoken area folk singers sing a good number of ballads.
Introduction of Urdu meant a setback to local languages as its Persian
script was alien to local people.

The first success for spreading Hindi occurred in Bihar in 1881, when Hindi displaced Urdu
as the official language of the province. After independence, Hindi was
given the sole official status through the Bihar Official Language Act,
1950.[13]


Weekdays

English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मागधि Hindi Urdu
Sunday Eitwaar एतवार Ravivwaar Eitwaar
Monday Somaar सोमIर Somwaar Peer
Tuesday Mangal मंगल Mangalwaar Mangal
Wednesday Budhh बुध Buddhwaar Budhh
Thursday Barashpat/Bife बृहस्पत Guruwaar/Brihaspatiwar Jumeraat
Friday Sookkar/Sookra शुक्कर Shukrawaar Jumma
Saturday Sanichchar शनिच्चर Shaniwaar Hafta

Fruits and vegetables

English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मगधी English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मगधी
Mango Aam आम Apple Seo सेव
Orange Narangi/Santola /Kewla नारंगी/संतोला/केवला Lemon Lemu लेमू
Grapefruit; pomelo Mausmi/ मौसमी Papaya Papita पपीता
Guava Amrud अमरुद Melon Jaamun/phnela जामुन/फ्नेला
Sweet Potato Shataalu शतालु Pomegranate Anāra/Bidānā अनार/बिदाना
Grape Angoor अंगूर Custard apple Shareefā शरीफा
Banana Kairaa/Kēlā कैरा/केला Lychee Litchi लीच्ची
Tomato Tamaatar टमाटर Jackfruit Katahar/kathal कटहर/कटहल
Jack Fruit Bhuikatahar भुईकटहर Watermelon Tarabūjā तरबूजा
Muskmelon kharabūjā/Lālmi खरबूजा/लालमी

Family relations

English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मगधी
Father Baabuji / PitaJee बाबूजी / पिताजी
Mother Maiya / Maay मईया / माय
Sister Bahin / Didi दीदी / बहिन
Brother Bhaai / Bhaiya भाई / भईया
Grandfather Baaba / Daada बाबा / दादा
Grandmother Mama / Daadi मामा / दादी
Sister-in-law Bhaujai / Bhauji भौजाइ / भौजी

Spoken trends

Addition of “Waa” or “eeya” to nouns and sometimes verbs

For male nouns:
In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “सलमनवा के पास एगो मोटरसाइकिल है”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “सलमनवा भिजुन एगो मोटरसाइकिल हई”
English translation – Salman has a motorcycle.

For female nouns:
In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “रिमिया रिया सेनवा के बहन है”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “रिमिया रिया सेनवा के बहीन हई”
English translation – Rimi is the sister of Riya Sen

In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “लठीया चला के तोर कपरवे फोर देंगे”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “लठीया चला के तोहर कपरवे/कपरवा फोर देम ”
English translation – (I’ll) throw the baton and crack your skull

In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “जानते हो, मोहना का बाप मर गया है”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “जानअ ह, मोहना के बाप / बाबूजी / बाबा /बावा मर् गेलथिन”
English translation – You know, Mohan’s dad has died

Apart from these all other females names and other nouns get “waa” in their ends.

Addition of “eeye” or “ey” in adverbs, adjectives and pronouns

In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – हम बहुत नजदिके से आ रहें है
In true Magahi/Magadhi language – हम/हमनी बहुत नजदिके (बहुते नज़दीक)/भीरी से आवईत हिवअ/ आ रहली हे
English translation – We are coming from a very near place

Within Magahi, one can find lot of variation while moving from one
area to other, mainly end of the sentence is with a typical tone like
Hiva, thau, hein etc. It is a rich language with lot of difference one
can see while saying something with respect to elder or one with peer or
younger. For example, there are two counterparts of Hindi “aap” in
existence described in following sentences -

In Hindi—आप आज बाजार गये थे क्या?

In Magahi (To an elder) — तूँ आज बजार गेलहु हल का?

In Magahi (To highly respected persons or teachers) — अपने आज बजार गेलथिन हल का?

In Magahi (To an younger) — तूँ आज बजार गेलहीं हल का?

Magahi is a language of the common people in area in and around
Patna. It has few indigenous written literature, though a number of
folk-tales and popular songs have been handed down for centuries from
mouth to mouth and this remain main form of knowledge transfer in
literature. Strolling bards also known by name “Bhad” recite long epic
poems in this dialect, and sing verses in honor of the heroic
achievements of legendary princes and brave men of ancient time like
“Alha aur udal”. But no manuscriptic text has been seen except that
nowadays people have given it a book form.



Magadhi is spoken in the area which formed the core of the ancient kingdom of Magadha - the modern districts of Patna, Nalanda, Gaya, Jehanabad, Arwal, Aurangabad, Lakhisarai, Sheikhpura and Nawada. Magahi is bounded on the north by the various forms of Maithili spoken in Mithila across the Ganga. On the west it is bounded by the Bhojpuri, On the northeast it is bounded by Maithili and Angika. A blend of Magahi and known as Kharostha (Khortha) is spoken by non-tribal populace in North Chotanagpur division of Jharkhand which comprises districts of Bokaro, Chatra, Dhanbad, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Koderma and Ramgarh.
The number of Magadhi speakers is difficult to indicate because of
unreliable sources. For most of the magahi-speakers, Hindi is the
generic name for their language. People of Southern Bihar and Northern
Jharkhand are mostly speakers of Magadhi language.[14] Current estimates indicate approximately 18 million Magadhi speakers.

Scripts and literary tradition

Magadhi is generally written using Devanagari script. A later-developed script of Magadhi is Kaithi.[12]
There have been effort by scholars in the Magahi area to explore and
identify a literary tradition for Magadhi. Magadhi has a rich tradition
of folk literature, and in modern times there have been various
activities in the publication of literary writing. Magahi Parishad was
established in Patna in 1952, which was renamed Bihar Magahi Mandal. Magadhi, a journal, was started at the same time, which was renamed Bihan,
meaning “tomorrow” or the coming dawn. Later Akhil Bhartiya Magahi
Sahitya Sammelan was established by Dr Ram Prasad Singh in 1977 and
published a well known magazine ” Magahi Lok”. Another very famous
monthly journal was started by Magahi Academy, Gaya edited by Dr. Ram
Prasad Singh. Another magazine “Magadhi” is published by Akhil Bhartiya
Magahi Bhasa Sammelan. It is headed by Kavi Yogesh.[15] Nalanda Open University offers various courses on Magahi.[16].
Maghi language has a lot of poets who with their writings has
influenced the common mass a lot. Among those poets the name of Maghi
Kokil JAIRAM SINGH is indelible. He is one of the scintillating gems of
Maghi Sahitya. His song “बदरिया गाव है कजरिया” created an unforgettable
imprint on the minds of Maghi lovers. His recently published book
“चिजोर” contains a variety of poems.

Weekdays

English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मागधि Hindi Urdu
Sunday Eitwaar एतवार Ravivwaar Eitwaar
Monday Somaar सोमIर Somwaar Peer
Tuesday Mangal मंगल Mangalwaar Mangal
Wednesday Budhh बुध Buddhwaar Budhh
Thursday Barashpat/Bife बृहस्पत Guruwaar/Brihaspatiwar Jumeraat
Friday Sookkar/Sookra शुक्कर Shukrawaar Jumma
Saturday Sanichchar शनिच्चर Shaniwaar Hafta

Fruits and vegetables

English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मगधी English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मगधी
Mango Aam आम Apple Seo सेव
Orange Narangi/Santola /Kewla नारंगी/संतोला/केवला Lemon Lemu लेमू
Grapefruit; pomelo Mausmi/ मौसमी Papaya Papita पपीता
Guava Amrud अमरुद Melon Jaamun/phnela जामुन/फ्नेला
Sweet Potato Shataalu शतालु Pomegranate Anāra/Bidānā अनार/बिदाना
Grape Angoor अंगूर Custard apple Shareefā शरीफा
Banana Kairaa/Kēlā कैरा/केला Lychee Litchi लीच्ची
Tomato Tamaatar टमाटर Jackfruit Katahar/kathal कटहर/कटहल
Jack Fruit Bhuikatahar भुईकटहर Watermelon Tarabūjā तरबूजा
Muskmelon kharabūjā/Lālmi खरबूजा/लालमी

Family relations

English Magahi/Magadhi मगही/मगधी
Father Baabuji / PitaJee बाबूजी / पिताजी
Mother Maiya / Maay मईया / माय
Sister Bahin / Didi दीदी / बहिन
Brother Bhaai / Bhaiya भाई / भईया
Grandfather Baaba / Daada बाबा / दादा
Grandmother Mama / Daadi मामा / दादी
Sister-in-law Bhaujai / Bhauji भौजाइ / भौजी

Spoken trends

Addition of “Waa” or “eeya” to nouns and sometimes verbs

For male nouns:
In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “सलमनवा के पास एगो मोटरसाइकिल है”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “सलमनवा भिजुन एगो मोटरसाइकिल हई”
English translation – Salman has a motorcycle.

For female nouns:
In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “रिमिया रिया सेनवा के बहन है”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “रिमिया रिया सेनवा के बहीन हई”
English translation – Rimi is the sister of Riya Sen

In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “लठीया चला के तोर कपरवे फोर देंगे”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “लठीया चला के तोहर कपरवे/कपरवा फोर देम ”
English translation – (I’ll) throw the baton and crack your skull

In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – “जानते हो, मोहना का बाप मर गया है”
In true Magahi/Magadhi language - “जानअ ह, मोहना के बाप / बाबूजी / बाबा /बावा मर् गेलथिन”
English translation – You know, Mohan’s dad has died

Apart from these all other females names and other nouns get “waa” in their ends.

Addition of “eeye” or “ey” in adverbs, adjectives and pronouns

In Hindi with Magahi/Magadhi style – हम बहुत नजदिके से आ रहें है
In true Magahi/Magadhi language – हम/हमनी बहुत नजदिके (बहुते नज़दीक)/भीरी से आवईत हिवअ/ आ रहली हे
English translation – We are coming from a very near place

Within Magahi, one can find lot of variation while moving from one
area to other, mainly end of the sentence is with a typical tone like
Hiva, thau, hein etc. It is a rich language with lot of difference one
can see while saying something with respect to elder or one with peer or
younger. For example, there are two counterparts of Hindi “aap” in
existence described in following sentences -

In Hindi—आप आज बाजार गये थे क्या?

In Magahi (To an elder) — तूँ आज बजार गेलहु हल का?

In Magahi (To highly respected persons or teachers) — अपने आज बजार गेलथिन हल का?

In Magahi (To an younger) — तूँ आज बजार गेलहीं हल का?

Magahi is a language of the common people in area in and around
Patna. It has few indigenous written literature, though a number of
folk-tales and popular songs have been handed down for centuries from
mouth to mouth and this remain main form of knowledge transfer in
literature. Strolling bards also known by name “Bhad” recite long epic
poems in this dialect, and sing verses in honor of the heroic
achievements of legendary princes and brave men of ancient time like
“Alha aur udal”. But no manuscriptic text has been seen except that
nowadays people have given it a book form.

Phonology

Research work done in this field:

Morphology

Research
work done in this field: Dr A.C. Sinha (1966) - “Phonology and
Morphology of Magahi Dialect”, Ph.D. thesis submitted to University of
Poona.

See also

References


  1. [2] Archived July 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.

External links



https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=lmLS8JkRwNY

 2) Clasical Prakriti


https://www.google.co.in/…/prakritis-yearning-for-an…/m-lite

Prakritis Yearning for Ananda


By: Meera Panigrahi
Sep 07, 2013 07:17pm


Tagore’s play Chandalika brings out the marginalization of women—as
outcaste and the subordination she is condemned to for just being
woman. The regressive and yet accepted norms of society are obstructions
in the path of liberation and dignity for the female. Tagore has
explored all the dimensions of female subjugation and her craving for
release from a dominant social structure that inhibits personal growth
and spiritual attainments.

The play is based on a Buddhist legend associated with one of the Buddha’s disciples named Ananda.


Chandalika as her name suggests, is an outcaste. This name is given to
her by the society, her own name being Prakriti. She possesses a
rebellious nature due to the social stigma she is cursed with. Even
peddlers refuse to sell her wares. No one from a higher caste would
receive water from her hands. She was also not allowed to draw water
from a common well.

The change comes in her life when Ananda the
Buddhist monk passes by and requests her to give him some water to
quench his thirst. After some hesitation she complies . She learns to
see herself in a new light. It is Ananda who opens her eyes by his
divine preaching of equality , and makes her aware of her true self.
Prakriti sees herself as a living, breathing human being and not as an
untouchable Chandlini . His magical words “Give me water” addressed to
the frightened girl negates her sense of being an outcaste. A holy man
asking for water from a chandilini was completely unheard of . She
thenceforth emerges as a new human being , full of vitality and
exuberance in her new found freedom.

She falls in love with him
and wants to possess him, but later realizes that in doing so, she would
be deflecting Anaanda from his chosen Path and hence lets him go.

Here are some fine extracts from the play:

MOTHER. Did you tell him that you are a Chandalini?
PRAKRITI. I told him, yes. He said it wasn’t true. If the black clouds
of Sravana are dubbed Chandal, he said, what of it? It doesn’t change
their nature, or destroy the virtue of their water. Don’t humiliate
yourself, he said; self-humiliation is a sin, worse than self-murder. ‘


PRAKRITI. He said that Janaki bathed in such water as this, at the
beginning of her forest exile, and the Guhak, the Chandal, drew it for
her. My heart has been dancing ever since, and night and day I hear
those solemn tones- ‘Give me water, give me water.’

PRAKRITI. I
want him. All unlooked for- he came, and taught me this marvelous truth,
that even my service will count with the God who guides the world. O
words of great wonder! That I may serve, I, a flower sprung from a
poison-plant! Let him raise that truth, that flower from the dust, and
take it to his bosom.

In the end Prakriti follows Ananda the ascetic, into a world of spiritual calmness chanting Buddham saranam gacchami .


जो नित्य एवं स्थाई प्रतीत होता है, वह भी विनाशी है। जो महान प्रतीत होता है, उसका भी पतन है। जहाँ संयोग है वहाँ विनाश भ…

https://books.google.co.in/books…’s+words+in+Prakruthi&source=bl&ots=dXV1BwLCy1&sig=YrGvivrIgIlEYJfZfuc2kNFDKrc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiXgqL8xufbAhUMLo8KHYUMAycQ6AEwGnoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=Buddha’s%20words%20in%20Prakruthi&f=false

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prakṛti

Prakṛti, also Prakṛiti or Prakṛuti (from Sanskrit language प्रकृति,
prakṛti), means “nature”.[1][2] It is a key concept in Hinduism,
formulated by its Samkhya school, and refers to the primal matter with
three different innate qualities (Guṇas)
whose equilibrium is the basis of all observed empirical reality.[1][3]
Prakriti, in this school, contrasts with Purusha which is pure
awareness and metaphysical consciousness.[1] The term is also found in
the texts of other Indian religions such as Jainism,[4] and Buddhism.[5]

In Indian languages derived from Indo-European Sanskrit roots, Prakriti
refers to the feminine aspect of all life forms, and more specifically a
woman is seen as a symbol of Prakriti.[6]

Prakriti (Sanskrit:
प्रकृति) is a Vedic era concept, which means “making or placing before
or at first, the original or natural form or condition of anything,
original or primary substance.”[7] The term is discussed by Yāska (~600
BCE) in Nirukta, and found in numerous Hindu texts.[7] It connotes
“nature, body, matter, phenomenal universe” in Hindu texts.[6][8]

Yāska was an early Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pāṇini (fl. 6-5th
century BCE[1]), assumed to have lived in the 7th century BCE. Nothing
is known about him other than that he is traditionally identified as the
author of Nirukta, the discipline of “etymology” (explanation of words)
within Sanskrit grammatical tradition.


It
has been said that a psychiatrist’s mind is like a doctor’s
handwriting. In my first English book, Parivarthana (the change), I have
made a mention about “Shrink”. I am of the opinion that a psychiatrist
would remain shrunk unless he does not come out from the western ideas
and….

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html

Tree


Sutta Piṭaka

— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]

The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas.


Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest
discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of
them are late additions to the original corpus and of questionable
authenticity.
Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas
according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It
contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but
generally relatively short.
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara
Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them
gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one additional factor
versus those of the precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas
which are generally short.
Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts
and is considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna,
Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the
ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their
authenticity is more questionable.

Bodhi leaf


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html


Dīgha Nikāya


— The long discourses —
[ dīgha: long ]


The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses supposedly given by the Buddha.



Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) {excerpts} - word by word
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the
sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very
important set of instructions for us nowadays.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) - word by word
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.


——————oooOooo——————


Bodhi leaf

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha/dn09.html



DN 9 -

Poṭṭhapāda Sutta

{excerpt}


— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.



Note: info·bubbles on “underdotted” English words


Pāḷi



English



Saññā nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ
paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ
acarimaṃ uppajjantī?’ ti.


Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception & knowledge arise simultaneously?


Saññā kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti.


Potthapada, perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception.


Bodhi leaf



Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.


Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems” Atchaya Pathiram Nomination for Classical Tamil Tholkappiyar Award


மணிமேகலை , “நகைகள் கொண்ட பெல்ட், கற்கள் இடுப்பு” அட்சயா பதிராம் கிளாசிக்கல் தமிழ் தோல்கப்பியர் விருதுக்கான பரிந்துரை


To,
The Director
The Central Institute of Classical Tamil (CICT)
Ministry of Human Resources Development,
Government of India.

CHARACTER & ANTECEDENT CERTIFICATE

From
Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (FOAINDMAOAU)   

For   
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.   
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA  in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES   
Through
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    do hereby confirm that Thiru J. CHANDRASEKHARAN  S/o, of LATE Thiru.  M.Jagatheesan resident of
WHITE HOME   
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Bengaluru
Karnataka State    
INDIA

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems” Atchaya Pathiram Nomination for Classical Tamil Tholkappiyar Award
is
known to me for the last 13 YEARS (2007-2020) years and that he bears a
good moral character. He has no case pending against him  in any Court
of Law and that he has never been prosecuted in the past.

Place:BENGALURU
Date:18-6-2020 
 
J
Chandrasekharan, Retd. Senior Manager (Aircraft Research and Design
Centre) Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. designed full 100 seat aircraft using
the latest Integrate Product Design and Development concept. After
retirement fully engaged in Free Online Analytical Insight Net for
Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe
(FOAINDMAOAU)   
For   
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.   
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA  in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES   
Through
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
including in Classical English, Roman translated in  Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி using https://translate.google.com
with a request to correction by Tamil pundits.

1.
The title Manimekalai is also the name of the daughter of Kovalan and
Madhavi, who was born with bravery and virtues, who followed in her
mother’s footsteps as a dancer and a Buddhist nun (bhikuni).

2.
She, a nun of Buddhism persuasion, feels a commitment to free herself
from human ties. She hides, prays and seeks the help of her mother, her
Buddhist teacher Aravana Adikal and angels. They teach her Buddhist
teachings in to free herself from fears. One angel helps her magically
disappear to an island while the prince tries to chase her, grants her
powers to change forms and appear as someone else. On the island, she
receives a magic begging bowl, which always gets filled.

3.Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that

 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.” 

4.
Manimekalai converts the prison into a hospice to help the needy,
teaches the king the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of
the epic, Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and
other ideas to her.

5. In Vanci (Chera kingdom), prays, listens
to different religious scholars, and practices severe self-denial to
attain Nibbana (Eternal Bliss as Final Goal).

6. The Manimekalai is
one of the Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature, and one of three that
have survived into the modern age. Along with its twin-epic
Silappadikaram, the Manimekalai is widely considered as an important
text that provides insights into the life, culture and society of the
Tamil regions (Prabuddha Bharat and Sri Lanka) in the early centuries of
the common era.

7. The last cantos of the epic – particularly
Canto 27 – are also a window into then extant ideas of Buddhism, as well
as the history of interreligious rivalries and cooperation as practiced
and understood by the Tamil population in a period of Dravidian-Aryan
synthesis and as the Prabuddha Bhartian religions were evolving.

8. Then Manimekalai sees Buddha’s footprint pedestal, shining with jewels.

9. She sees some people fighting near it.

10.
Buddha appears, orders them to cease fighting, to remember that the
pedestal is for him alone and should be worshipped by sages and the
powerful.

11. Manimekalai’s fear and worries vanished near the
Buddha’s footprints. Tears of joy rolled down her cheeks. She suddenly
and miraculously remembers all her past lives along with the
circumstances, and saddened by her numerous rebirths, her fathers and
husbands. The epic mentions she meeting a sage named Brahma Dharma,
being a Buddhist in the last birth, of Gandhara, Naganadu, the north
city of Avanti, and other locations significant to Buddhism.

12.
A goddess appears and says that Buddha appeared when “goodness was no
longer found among living beings, people have become deaf to wisdom and
true knowledge”. She circumambulates around the jeweled Buddha’s
pedestal clockwise three times. The goddess then meets Manimekalai and
gives her more information about her cycles of previous rebirths,
including that prince Udayakumar in this life was the king and her
husband in the last birth who was rude to a Buddhist monk, but you
begged his forgiveness, donated food and obeyed the monk’s orders. In
this life, therefore, he is a frustrated prince while your merits have
made you into a Buddhist nun. She informs her that Madhavi and Sudhamati
were her sisters in previous lives, and are now her mother and friend
in this life. She then guides her on how to be free of suffering and
fears. The goddess asks Manimekalai to study the “deceitful theories of
various religions”, and teaches her magical mantras (Dharani) to
overcome sufferings of ascetic life and hunger. One of the mantras, says
goddess, will let her change her appearance into another person and
instantaneously travel through air.

13.
A Buddhist protectress goddess Tiva-tilakai meets Manimekalai. The
goddess says, only those who have amassed great  merit in past lives and
remained Buddhist over their many births are able to see and worship
Buddha’s footprints in their present life.

14. Tivatilakai
mentions that Buddha was born in the month of Vaishaka on the longest
day, and every year on Buddha’s birthday near a lake a magic bowl
appears, called Amrita Surabhi (lit “cow of abundance”). It just happens
that Manimekalai is near the lake on that very day, so she can go and
get the magic bowl she is destined to receive. With that bowl, she will
never run out of food to eat everyday, says Tivatilakai.

15.
Manimekalai visits the magical lake and gets the magic bowl. She chants
the glory of the Buddha, prostrates before goddess Tivatilakai and the
Buddha’s footprints. The goddess tells her to meet Aravana Adigal to
learn more about the magic bowl and the Buddha dhamma.

16. Manimekalai learns the story of Aputra – the first possessor of the magic bowl.

17.
Manimekalai learns more about the Aputra story from ascetic Aravana
Adigal. Aputra lives in Madurai for many years, begging in the Lakshmi
temple. In a particular year, there was famine in the Tamil region when
god Indra became angry. During this period of suffering, one day goddess
Sarasvati appears and gave him the magic bowl. The epic refers to
Sarasvati as the goddess of all things related to mind, and goddess of
language, knowledge and arts. The magic begging bowl always fills up
every day with mountains of food, which Aputra shares with the needy.
The famine continues for 12 years in the Pandya kingdom, yet the bowl
always fills up. Aputra, like a boy, mocks Indra because he has the
magic bowl to help the needy. Indra takes revenge by making rains
plentiful and showering everyone with so much prosperity that no needy
were left. No one was poor, and Aputra felt frustrated that he had no
one to donate food from his abundant magic bowl to. Then, one day,
people of Java (Indonesia) met him. Indra was not generous to them, and
many were dying of hunger in Java. Aputra left for Java in a ship. A
storm hits the ship, and Aputra lands on Manipallavam island. Aputra
died on that island. That is how the magic bowl came to be on that
island, and why
Manimekalai found the same bowl there.

18. The
Buddhist ascetic tells the nun the story of a generous cow who helped
the people of Java in the memory of Aputra. He presents the Buddhist
theory of rebirth dependent on the merits earned in previous lives
(kamma). He recommends that Manimekalai and Sudhamati use the magic bowl
in their possession to help the hungry and needy, just like the gods
tried to help the cause of good with the amrita they obtained by
churning the cosmic ocean [samudra manthan]. The nuns, so convinced,
began roaming the streets of Puhar to beg. They then shared the food
they collected in the magic bowl with the needy. The epic mentions
kingdoms in the Himalayas, Kausambi and Ujjain.

19. Ascetic
Adikal teaches the nuns about supernatural genies and the tale of trader
Shaduvan and his wife Atirai. Shaduvan is reported dead in a sea storm.
Atirai tries to kill herself by jumping into a pit with burning wood,
but the fire did not harm her. She sees a goddess who tells her that she
is unharmed by her fire because her husband is alive on the island of
the Naga kingdom. The Nagas welcome him and give him a girl for
pleasure. He refuses the girl, and teaches them the Buddha dhamma about
rebirths and merits. They prostrate before him and invite to take all
the gold, diamonds and rubies in shipwrecks near their islands.

20.
Shaduvan collects a massive fortune from the wrecks and brings it back
to Atirai. The monk teacher explains to Manimekalai that this was all
because of merits earned and virtue in the past lives.

21.
Manimekhalai, with monk Adikal’s wisdom, uses magic bowl to help people.
She starts a hospice. The epic mentions Rama and Vishnu story from the
Ramayana, states that they built a link to Sri Lanka, but a curse of an
ascetic dissolved the bridge link. It also mentions stories of people
fed from the magic bowl suddenly realizing their past lives. The hospice
of Manimekalai is near a Temple of Heaven (Buddhist mounds, gathering
place for monks).

22. Manimekalai in her new appearance continues to beg with her bowl and help others.

23.
She reaches the prison and meets the guards and then king, persuading
him to convert the prison into a Buddhist monastery. The king releases
all the prisoners, and converts the prison into a monastery.

24. The prison-turned-monastery adds a temple for the worship of Buddha.

7,792,082,452 Current World Population - COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered: 4,414,672



Last updated: June 18, 2020, 01:06 GMT

May all be Happy, Well and Secure!
May all live Long!
May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding that Everything is Changing!

UN News

25. Over 820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge

26. Economic Development

After
nearly a decade of progress, the number of people who suffer from
hunger has slowly increased over the past three years, with about one in
every nine people globally suffering from hunger today, the United
Nations said in a new report released on Monday.

27. This fact
underscores “the immense challenge” to achieving the Zero Hunger target
of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, according to the
State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019.

28. The
report, launched on the margins of the High-level Political Forum (HLPF)
– the main UN platform monitoring follow-up on States’ actions on the
SDGs – currently under way in New York, breaks down statistics by
region, and shows that hunger has risen almost 20 per cent in Africa’s
subregions, areas which also have the greatest prevalence of
undernourishment.

29. Although the pervasiveness of hunger in
Latin America and the Caribbean is still below seven per cent, it is
slowly increasing. And in Asia, undernourishment affects 11 per cent of
the population.

30. Although southern Asia saw great progress
over the last five years, at almost 15 per cent, it is still the
subregion with the highest prevalence of undernourishment.

31.
“Our actions to tackle these troubling trends will have to be bolder,
not only in scale but also in terms of multisectoral collaboration,” the
heads of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the UN
Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World
Health Organization (WHO) urged in their joint foreword to the report.

32.
Hunger is increasing in many countries where economic growth is
lagging, particularly in middle-income countries and those that rely
heavily on international primary commodity trade.

33. The annual
UN report also found that income inequality is rising in many of the
countries where hunger is on the rise, making it even more difficult for
the poor, vulnerable or marginalized to cope with economic slowdowns
and downturns.

34. “We must foster pro-poor and inclusive
structural transformation focusing on people and placing communities at
the centre to reduce economic vulnerabilities and set ourselves on track
to ending hunger, food insecurity and all forms of malnutrition,” the
UN leaders said.

35.  Food insecurity

This year’s edition of the report takes a broader look at the impact of food insecurity – beyond hunger.

36.
It introduces, for the first time, a second indicator for monitoring
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 2.1 on the Prevalence of
Moderate or Severe Food Insecurity that shows that 17.2 per cent of the
world’s population, or 1.3 billion people, lacked regular access to
“nutritious and sufficient food”.

37.  “Even if they were not
necessarily suffering from hunger, they are at greater risk of various
forms of malnutrition and poor health”, according to the report.The
combination of moderate and severe levels of food insecurity brings the
estimate to about two billion people, where in every continent, women
are slightly more food insecure than men.

38. Low birthweight still a major challenge

Turning to children, the report disclosed that since 2012, no progress has been made in reducing low birthweight.

39.
Additionally, while the number of under-age-five children affected by
stunting has decreased over the past six years by 10 per cent globally,
the pace of progress is too slow to meet the 2030 target of halving the
number of stunted children.

40. Furthermore, overweight and
obesity continue to increase throughout all regions, particularly among
school-age children and adults. Income inequality increases the
likelihood of severe food insecurity – UN report

41. To
safeguard food security and nutrition, the 2019 report stresses the
importance to economic and social policies to counteract the effects of
adverse economic cycles when they arrive, while avoiding cuts in
essential services.

42. It maintains that the uneven pace of
economic recovery “is undermining efforts to end hunger and
malnutrition, with hunger increasing in many countries where the economy
has slowed down or contracted”, mostly in middle-income nations.

43.
Moreover, economic slowdowns or downturns disproportionally undermine
food security and nutrition where inequalities are greater.


44.
The report concludes with guidance on what short- and long-term
policies must be undertaken to safeguard food security and nutrition
during episodes of economic turmoil or in preparation for them, such as
integrating food security and nutrition concerns into poverty reduction
efforts using pro-poor and inclusive structural transformations.

45. Solving India’s hunger problem

The
Supreme Court has agreed to examine a plea that starvation deaths
continue to eat into the right to life and dignity of social fabric and a
“radical” new measure like community kitchens need to be set up across
the country to feed the poor and the hungry.

46. A Bench led by
Justice N.V. Ramana issued notice on Monday to the government on the
petition filed jointly by activists Anun Dhawan, Ishann Dhawan and
Kunjana Singh, represented by advocates Ashima Mandla and Fuzail Ahmad
Ayyubi.

47. State-funded community
Asskhaya Patra kitchens must be the  novel concept in all countries. For combating
starvation and malnutrition crisis every locality must have Akshaya Patra kitchens along with the existing hotels and bakeries.

48. Where Word’s Hunger Struggle Is Headed


The journey
so far and what the future holds in the mission to end hunger for
children and adults in the world. Technology must be  used in mass production for the
fantastic results. Other initiatives of
the Akshaya Patra must help children and adults from underprivileged
backgrounds achieve their dreams.

49. Volunteers must become full-time members to fullfill the vision &
aspiration of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya Pathram. Must be committed to the cause
currently and involve in strategy, growth, and
governance of Akshaya Patra.

50.
All the Governments all over the world allot funds for the governance
of Akshaya Patra and order all the vans used by postal department,
police vans to supply provisions, vegetables and food in edible food
packs till all the curfews are removed. 
The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership
with the Governments all over the world India and various State
Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates,
individual donors, and well-wishers have to helped Manimekali Akshya
Pathram to serve millions of under previlaged children and adults.


https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Buddha%27s+Birthday

51 Best Buddha Quotes With Pictures about Spirituality & Peace



Best-Buddha-quotes


1. “In the end, only three things matter: How much you loved,
how gently you lived, and how gracefully you let go of things not meant
for you.”

Buddha Quotes



2. “Buddha was asked,”what have you gaines from mediation?”

He replied “NOTHING”! However let me tell you what i have lost:
anger, anxiety, depression, insecurity, fear of old age and death.”

buddha quotes on love



3. “When the student is ready, the teacher will appear.”

buddha quotes on happiness



4. “The less you respond to negative people, the more peaceful your life will become.”

buddha quotes on karma



5. “Health is the greatest gift, contentment is the greatest
wealth, A trusted friend is the best relative, liberated mind is the
greatest bliss.”

buddha quotes on death



6. “The thought manifests as the word: the word manifests as the
deed: the deed develops into character. So watch the thought and its
ways with care, and let it spring from love born out of concern for all
beings.”

buddha quotes on change



7. “Do not learn how to react learn how to respond.”

buddha quotes images



8. “If your compassion does not include yourself, It is incomplete.”

lord buddha quotes about love



9. “Everything that has a begining has an ending.

Make your peace with that and all will be well.”

buddha quotes on love and marriage



10. “If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart.”

Buddha quotes about life



11. “Your worst enemy cannot harm you as much as your own unguarded thoughts.”

Buddha quotes about change



12. “The root of suffering is attachment.”

Buddha quotes about death



13. “Holding onto anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.”

Buddha quotes about change



14. “All that we are is the result of what we have thought.”

Buddha quotes about calm



15. “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”

Buddha quotes death loved one



16. “What you think you become, what you feel, you attract. what you imagine, you create.”

Buddha quotes about ego



17. “Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.”

Buddha quotes about family



18. “Relax nothing is in control.”- Buddhist Meditation quotes by Lord Buddha.

Buddha quotes about flower




20. “The trouble is you think you have time.”

Buddha quotes about giving



21. “Your work is to discover your world and then with all your heart give yourself to it.”

Buddha quotes about happiness



22. “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it or who has
said it, not even if i have said it. Unless it agrees with your own
reason and your own common sense.”

Buddha quotes about healing



23. “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”

Buddha quotes about judgement



24. “On the long journey of human life… Faith is the best of companions.”

Buddha Quotes



25. “To understand everything is to forgive everything.”

buddha quotes on love



26. “Holding onto anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.”

Buddha quotes about judgement



27. “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the past.”

Buddha quotes about healing



28. “There is no path to happiness: Happiness is the path.”

Buddha quotes about happiness



29. “No matter how hard the past, you can always begin again.”

Buddha quotes about giving



30. “If you want to fly, give upeverything yhat weighs you down.”

Buddha quotes about flower



31. Short life quotes of Buddha- “you only lose what you cling to.”

Buddha quotes about family



32. “when we meet real tragedy in life, we can react in two
ways- Either by losing hope and falling into self-destructive habits or
by using the challenge to find our inner strength.”

Buddha quotes about ego



33. Buddha meditation quotes – “Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.”

Buddha quotes death loved one



34. “Don’t rush anything. When the time is right, it’ll happen..”

Buddha quotes about calm



35. “The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”

Buddha quotes about change



36. Real life quotes from Gautama Buddha – “Be kind to all creatures; this is the true religion.”

Buddha quotes about death



37. “Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.”

Buddha quotes about change

38. “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.”

Buddha quotes about life



39. “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it or who has said it, not even if i have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.”

buddha quotes on love and marriage



40. “It is during our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light”

lord buddha quotes about love



41. “Quiet the mind, and the soul will speak.”

buddha quotes images



42. Inspirational quotes on karma by Buddha – “Be patient everything comes to you in the right moment.”

buddha quotes on change



43. “if your compassion does not include yourself, it is incomplete.”

buddha quotes on death



44. “Each morning we are born again. What we do today is what matters most.”

buddha quotes on karma



45. “A man who conquers himself is greater than one who conquers a thousand men in a battle.”

buddha quotes on happiness



46. “All human unhappiness comes from not facing reality squarely, exactly as it is.”

buddha quotes on love



47. “It is better to be hated for what you are than to be loved for what you are not.”

Buddha Quotes



48. “He who does not understand your silence will probably not understand your words.”

Buddha quotes about spirituality



49. “You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.”

Buddha Quotes about peace



50. “Happiness does not depend on what you haveor who you are it solely relies on what you think.”

Buddha Quotes for enemy



51. “Happiness or sorrow – “whatever befalls you, walk on untouched, unattached.”

Buddha Quotes



https://i.pinimg.com/736x/58/1d/b7/581db7e0188a4b1dd3877792f50773d1–krishna-painting-buddha-painting.jpg
https://i.pinimg.com/736x/58/1d/b7/581db7e0188a4b1dd3877792f50773d1--krishna-painting-buddha-painting.jpg






“Freedom and happiness are found in the flexibility and ease with which we move through change.” 

“There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom.  ”



meditation centre sri buddhist sambodhi



“He who causes suffering shall suffer. There is no escape.”


“We are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are shaped by selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act.”
https://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/bloggif_51c1bf428699c.gif
“I
knew that most people never see this reality because they attach to the
material aspect of the world. Illusions of self and other fill their
vision. I also realized there are those with little dust limiting their
vision.”

https://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/vegan.gif?w=540



 ”Every experience, no matter how bad it seems, holds within a blessing of some kind. The goal is to find it.”


“Your mind is a powerful thing. When you filter it with positive thoughts, your life will start to change.”



 ”Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little.”

 ”
The way to happiness is: keep your heart free from hate, your mind from
worry. Live simply, give much. Fill your life with love. Do as you
would be done by.”
http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/0069.gif




“Sometimes
it’s better to be kind than to be right. We do not need an intelligent
mind that speaks, but a patient heart that listens. You will not be
punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger”

 
” Pain is certain, suffering is optional.”

” Happiness will never come to those who fail to appreciate what they already have.”

http://www.tipitaka.org/search

http://www.tipitaka.org/cst4

 
“You can search throughout the entire universe for someone who is more
deserving of your love and affection than you are yourself, and that
person is not to be found anywhere. You yourself, as much as anybody in
the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.”

 ”Do not judge yourself harshly. Without mercy for ourselves we cannot love the world.”

 ” Change is never painful, only the resistance to change is painful”

 ”One moment can change a day, One day can change a life and One life can change the world”

  “Do not learn how to react. Learn how to respond.”

Harm no other beings. They are just your brothers and sisters.”
 
 ”Forgive and be free. Forget that you have forgiven and be freer.”

 ”It is your mind that creates the world.”

 ”When
you move your focus from competition to contribution life becomes a
celebration. Never try to defeat people, just win their hearts.”

 
“If you cannot find a good companion to walk with, walk alone, like an
elephant roaming the jungle. It is better to be alone than to be with
those who will hinder your progress.”

 ”Do not speak - unless it improves on silence.”

 ”The
world is a looking glass. It gives back to every man a true reflection
of his own thoughts. Rule your mind or it will rule you.”

   ”Serenity comes when you trade expectations for acceptance.”

 - Gautama Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness

Ashoka

“No society can prosper if it aims at making things easier-instead it should aim at making people stronger.”

“Let all listen, and be willing to listen to the doctrines professed by others.”

 ”It is forbidden to decry other sects; the true believer gives honour to whatever in them is worthy of honour.”

 ”When
an unconquered country is conquered, people are killed… . That the
beloved of the Gods finds very pitiful and grievous. … If anyone does
him wrong, it will be forgiven as far as it can be forgiven… . The
beloved of the Gods considers that the greatest of all victories is the
victory of righteousness.”

“May the partisans of all doctrines in
all countries unite and live in a common fellowship. For all alike
profess mastery to be attained over oneself and purity of the heart.”

“He
who does reverence to his own sect, while disparaging the sects of
others with intent to enhance the glory of his own sect, by such conduct
inflicts the severest injury on his own sect.”

- Ashoka

Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?

It should be Magadhi.


The Original Language of the Buddha and His Teachings


The languages used in Hela Diva in Buddha’s period


Magahi language

Buddha’s Birthday is occasionally designated as a public holiday in North Korea and is known as Chopail (Korean: 초파일).[25] Designation of traditional Korean holidays as public holidays in North Korea are determined by the Cabinet a few days before the traditional holiday begins.[25] Buddha’s Birthday is a traditional festival in Korean culture and was celebrated in Korea long before the division of the country as a result the festival is also celebrated in North Korea by the country’s Buddhist population.[26]

Philippines

Around 2% of the population in the Philippines is Buddhist. Buddha’s Birthday celebrated as Vesak (Tagalog: Araw ng Bisyak) is not a public holiday but is celebrated by the small community of Buddhists in the country.[27] The bathing of the Buddha statue is a significant part of the celebrations in the country.[28]

Singapore

In Singapore, Buddha’s birthday is celebrated as Vesak or Vesak Day and is a public holiday in the country. Buddhist temples hold celebrations and are decorated with Buddhist flags and flowers. Devotees also bring offerings to the temples.[29]

South Korea


Buddha lantern parade in Daegu, Korea

In South Korea, the birthday of Buddha is celebrated according to the Korean lunar calendar and is a public holiday. This day is called 석가탄신일 (Seokga tansinil), meaning “Buddha’s birthday” or 부처님 오신 날
(Bucheonim osin nal) meaning “the day when the Buddha came”. Lotus
lanterns hang in temples throughout the month and lanterns are hung in
homes and in the streets.[30] On the day of Buddha’s birth,
many temples provide free meals and tea to all visitors. The breakfast
and lunch provided are often sanchae bibimbap.
Buddha’s Birthday is a popular holiday and folk celebration in Korea
and is often celebrated by people of all religious beliefs.[30]

Sri Lanka


Vesak Thorana in Piliyandala, Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as Vesak and is a public holiday celebrated on the first full moon day of the month of May. Its date is determined by the Buddhist lunar calendar.
People engage in religious observances and decorate houses and streets
with candles and paper lanterns as well as bamboo-framed lanterns.
Dansalas is practised and refers to the free offering of food and drink
to people. Bakthi Gee – devotional songs are sung and pandols
which are decorative gateways are erected throughout the country.
Temples around the country also hold celebrations and devotees bring
offerings and burn incense.
[31] Electric light displays
that depict stories from the Buddha’s life are also a notable part of
Vesak celebrations in the country.[32]

Taiwan

In
Taiwan, Buddha’s birthday is a national anniversary. Devotees pour
fragrant water over Buddha statues to symbolise the beginning of a fresh
start in life.
[33]

Thailand

In Thailand, Buddha’s birthday is celebrated as Visakha Puja and is a public holiday. People gather at temples to hear sermons, give donations and chant prayers.[34]

Vietnam

Buddha’s
birthday is celebrated throughout Vietnam. Many Buddhist temples hold
celebrations that attract people from around the country and pagodas
around the country are decorated.
[35] From 1958 to 1975, Lễ Phật Đản,
the birthday of Buddha (on the 8th day of the 4th month in the Chinese
lunar calendar) was recognized as a national public holiday in South Vietnam,[36] enjoyed with float and lantern parade on the streets.

Festivities outside AsiaAustralia

In Sydney,
Buddha’s birthday is celebrated at the Nan Tien Temple in Wollongong
Australia and another celebration also organised by Nan Tien Temple is
held at Darling Harbour
which features Buddha’s birthday ceremony, a variety of vegetarian food
and culture stalls and multicultural performances from China, Japan,
Vietnam, Korea, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Australia and other
cultures.
[37][38] Other temples in the Fo
Guang Shan Nan Tien Temple group in Australia on the eighth day of the
fourth month of the China lunar calendar also hold celebrations.[39] In Brisbane, Buddha Birth Day Festival is held annually and features a variety of pan-Asian food and performances from multicultural acts.[40] It is a weekend-long festival which draws over 200 000 visitors.[41] In Melbourne, the weekend-long festival called Buddha’s Day and Multicultural Festival is held at Federation Square around April/May.[42] In Perth, a two-day celebration also known as Buddha’s Day and Multicultural Festival is held at Langley Park.[43] Local Buddhist temples and smaller towns around the country such as Bendigo, Victoria also hold celebrations.[44]

On the Australian external territory of Christmas Island,
Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as “Vesak Day” and is celebrated
alongside many other celebrations common in Australia and Malaysia as
well as local celebrations of the island.
[45][46]

Brazil

Vesak (Hanamatsuri) is widely known and celebrated in Brazil due to the country’s large Japanese community.
Hanamatsuri has grown in popularity and also attracts interest from the
wider non-Japanese Brazilian population. As a result, Hanamatsuri has
become a consumerist culture phenomenon in the country and is sometimes locally known as Festa das Flores.
[47][48] Hanamatsuri is celebrated in the São Paulo neighbourhood of Liberdade which is home to the largest Japanese community outside of Japan.[49]
Hanamatsuri celebrations in Liberdade began in 1966 and includes a
parade on Galvão Bueno street and celebrations at the suburb’s major
shopping centre, Liberdade Plaza, among other things.[48][49]

Canada

In Toronto,
three Buddhist temples representing the three main branches of Buddhism
organize an annual event known as Vesak: Buddha’s Birthday.
[50] It is held at Mississauga
Celebration Square and features a number of Buddhist themed events and
activities as well as cultural acts from Asia, including China, Sri
Lanka and Vietnam.[51][52][53]

United States of America

Celebration
of Buddha’s Birthday in the United States differ from community to
community, depending on ethnicity and nationality.

The Japanese celebration on 8 April has been significant in the Bay Area for some decades. In 1968 the first circumambulation
of Mt. Tamalpais to celebrate Buddha’s Birthday was conducted. Starting
in 1969 at Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, Hana-Matsuri was celebrated
each spring. Dressed in formal black robes, the roughly 70 monks and
students formed a formal procession to the Horse Pasture with the leader
periodically ringing a small, clear bell. A temporary stone altar was
built under a huge oak tree in a gorgeous field of green grass and
abundant wildflowers; a small statue of a baby Buddha was placed upon it
in a metal basin. Then each person would in turn approach the altar,
ladle one thin-lipped bamboo dipperful of sweet green tea over the
statue, bow, and walk to one side.
[54]

In New York, the International Lotus Lantern Parade has been a notable and successful annual event held at Union Square Park.
The event celebrates the Buddha’s birthday and Yeon Deung Hoe (연등회), a
Korean lantern celebration that is held during Vesak. The festival
features a number of Buddhist themed events and is started off by
numerous Buddhist centres of Japanese, Korean and Sri Lankan origins for
example.
[55][56]

See also
References
  1. Official Site of Korea Tourism Org. National Holidays
  2. UNESCO, Lumbini in Nepal is the birthplace of the Lord Buddha, Gethin Foundations, p. 19, which states that in the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor Ashoka
    determined that Lumbini was Gautama’s birthplace and thus installed a
    pillar there with the inscription: “… this is where the Buddha, sage
    of the Śākyas (Śākyamuni), was born.”
  3. For
    instance, Gethin Foundations, p. 14, states: “The earliest Buddhist
    sources state that the future Buddha was born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali
    Siddhattha Gotama), the son of a local chieftain—a rājan—in Kapilavastu
    (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now the Indian–Nepalese border.” However,
    Professor Gombrich (Theravāda Buddhism, p. 1) and the old but
    specialized study by Edward Thomas, The Life of the Buddha, ascribe the
    name Siattha/fitta to later sources.
  4. https://www.diamondway-buddhism.org/buddhism/buddha/
  5. https://www.officeholidays.com/religious/buddhist/buddhas_birthday.php
  6. Camaron Kao (14 May 2012), “Thousands of believers mark Buddha’s birthday”, China Post, archived from the original on 16 June 2013
  7. Ko Shu-Ling (May 9, 2011), “Sakyamuni Buddha birthday celebrated”, Taipei Times, The
    legislature approved a proposal in 1999 to designate the birthday of
    Sakyamuni Buddha — which falls on the eighth day of the fourth month of
    the lunar calendar — a national holiday and to celebrate the special
    occasion concurrently with International Mother’s Day, which is
    celebrated on the second Sunday of May.
  8. “বুদ্ধ পূর্ণিমা”, সিলেবাসে নেই, দৈনিক কালের কণ্ঠ; ১১ মে ২০১১ খ্রিস্টাব্দ। পৃ. ৪। পরিদর্শনের তারিখ: ১৭ মে ২০১১ খ্রিস্টাব্দ।
  9. http://m.ntvbd.com/religion-and-life/129443/আজ-শুভ-বুদ্ধ-পূর্ণিমা
  10. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  11. http://buddhism.about.com/od/buddhistholidays/ig/Images-of-Vesak/Buddhas-BDay-China.htm#step-heading
  12. http://www.hong-kong-traveller.com/buddha-birthday.html#.VuJye_l94dU
  13. https://publicholidays.asia/macau/buddhas-birthday/
  14. https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fa-hien/f15l/chapter20.html
  15. http://www.aboutbuddha.org/english/life-of-buddha-4.htm/
  16. http://www.officeholidays.com/countries/india/
  17. https://books.google.ca/books?id=Us9wbjmvXfgC&pg=PT32&dq=sujata++bakraur&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=sujata%20%20bakraur&f=false
  18. https://www.justlanded.com/english/Indonesia/Indonesia-Guide/Culture/Vesak-festival-in-Indonesia
  19. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/indonesia-vesak-day-buddhas-birthday-borobudur-worlds-biggest-buddhist-temple-photos-1504198
  20. https://www.meetup.com/pl-PL/buddhism-613/events/59639372/?_cookie-check=q6MkUIbiHx5eZP04
  21. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=PcvA373XEJwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
  22. https://www.eternal-landscapes.co.uk/buddhas-birthday-celebrations-ulaanbaatar/
  23. http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=25,1239,0,0,1,0
  24. Dunipace, Sujal Jane (May 2003). “Nepal’s Buddha Jayanti Celebration”. ECS Nepal. Archived from the original on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  25. Understanding
    North Korea: Totalitarian dictatorship, Highly centralized economies,
    Grand Socialist Family. 길잡이미디어. 2015. p. 385.
  26. Encyclopedia of Korean Seasonal Customs: Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture Vol. 1. 길잡이미디어. 2014. p. 147. ISBN 8992128924.
  27. http://www.undv2014vietnam.com/en/thong-diep/messages-by-heads-of-states-embassy-and-foreign-diplomatic-organisations-in-vietnam/dai-su-cong-hoa-philippines/
  28. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
  29. http://publicholidays.sg/vesak-day/
  30. Encyclopedia of Korean Seasonal Customs: Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture Vol. 1. 길잡이미디어. 2014. p. 150. ISBN 8992128924.
  31. https://www.lanka.com/events/vesak-festival/
  32. http://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/news/2014_05_14/Buddhas-birthday-Buddhists-worldwide-celebrate-peace-and-harmony-on-Vesak-day-6360/
  33. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/05/vesak-how-buddhas-birthda_n_1478896.html
  34. http://buddhism.about.com/od/buddhistholidays/ig/Images-of-Vesak/Visak-Puja-Thailand.htm
  35. http://goseasia.about.com/od/eventsfes6/tp/vn_festivals.01.htm
  36. Niên biểu lịch sử Phật giáo Việt Nam Archived 15 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. http://www.nantien.org.au/en/events/buddhas-birthday-festival
  38. http://blog.apc.edu.au/2013/05/buddhas-birthday-celebration.html
  39. “Buddha’s Birthday Education Project”. International Buddhist Progress Society. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  40. http://www.buddhabirthdayfestival.com.au/
  41. “Buddha Birthday Festival”. Buddha’s Light International Association, Chung Tian Temple. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  42. “Buddha’s Birthday and Multicultural Festival”. Buddha’s Light International Association Victoria. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  43. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
  44. http://www.bendigotourism.com/whats-on/whats-on-this-month/event/3258-vesak-festival-of-light
  45. https://www.christmas.net.au/visitor-guide/files/inc/Christmas-Island-Visitors-Guide.pdf
  46. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  47. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=pCqTDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
  48. Negawa, Sachio (11 October 2007). “Chapter 8: The Formation and Development of Bairro Oriental (3) - The Emergence of a New “Tradition. Discover Nikkei. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  49. “Hanamatsuri”. CulturaJaponesa.com.br. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  50. http://www.vesakcelebration.com/
  51. http://www.sumeru-books.com/tag/mississauga/
  52. http://www.mississauga.com/news-story/4518929-buddhists-to-mark-buddha-s-birthday-at-celebration-square/
  53. https://culture.mississauga.ca/event/celebration-square/vesak-buddha%E2%80%99s-birthday-celebration
  54. http://www.japanese-city.com/calendar/events/index.php?eID=32066
  55. http://nycviewsandnews.blog.com/2012/05/07/lotus-lantern-parade/
  56. http://interfaithcenter.org/archives/5318

Best Happy Birthday Meme Collection Birthday Greetings for friends

Further reading
  • The Folkloric Study of Chopail (Buddha’s Birthday), written by Prof. M.Y.Pyeon. Produced by Minsokwon in Seoul Korea 2002.
External links

The exact date of Buddha’s Birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars.
The date for the celebration of Buddha’s Birthday varies from year to
year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but usually falls in April or
May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June.

Date

The exact date of Buddha’s Birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars and is primarily celebrated in Baisakh month of the Buddhist calendar and the Bikram Sambat Hindu calendar, and hence it is also called Vesak. In modern-day India and Nepal, where the Historical Buddha lived, it is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha
month of the Buddhist calendar. In Theravada countries following the
Buddhist calendar, it falls on a full moon Uposatha day, typically in
the 5th or 6th lunar month. In China and Korea, it is celebrated on the
eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. The date
varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but usually
falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June. In
Tibet, it falls on the 7th day of the fourth month of the Tibetan
calendar (in May).

South and Southeast Asia and Mongolia

In South Asian and Southeast Asian countries as well as Mongolia, Buddha’s birthday is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar and the Hindu calendar,
which usually falls in April or May month of the Western Gregorian
calendar. The festival is known as Buddha Purnima, as Purnima means full
moon day in Sanskrit. It is also called is Buddha Jayanti, with Jayanti
meaning birthday in Sanskrit Language.

The corresponding Western Gregorian calendar dates varies from year to year:


  • 2017: May 10
  • 2018:
    April 29 (Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bangladesh), April 30 (Nepal,
    India), May 29 (Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia)
    [5]
  • 2019: May 19
East Asia

In many East Asian countries Buddha’s Birth is celebrated on the 8th day of the 4th month in the Chinese lunar calendar (in Japan since 1873 on April 8 of the Gregorian calendar), and the day is an official holiday in Hong Kong, Macau and South Korea. The date falls from the end of April to the end of May in the Gregorian calendar.

The primarily solar Gregorian calendar date varies from year to year:


  • 2017: May 3
  • 2018: May 22
  • 2019: May 12
  • 2020: April 30
Taiwan

In 1999 the Taiwanese government set Buddha’s birthday as the second Sunday of May, the same date as Mother’s Day.[6][7]

Japan

As a result of the Meiji Restoration,
Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar in lieu of the Chinese lunar
calendar in 1873. However, it took approximately until 1945, the end of World War II,
for religious festivities to adopt the new calendar. In most Japanese
temples, Buddha’s birth is now celebrated on the Gregorian calendar date
April 8; only a few (mainly in Okinawa) celebrate it on the orthodox
Chinese calendar date of the eighth day of the fourth lunar month.

Celebrations in each country Asia


Lotus Lantern Festival celebrating Buddha’s Birthday, in South Korea



Floating lanterns on a lake for Buddha’s Birthday in Jaffna, Sri Lanka
Bangladesh

In
Bangladesh the event is called বুদ্ধ পূর্ণিমা or Buddho Purnima. On the
day of proceeding Purnima Buddhist monks and priests decorate temple in
colourful decorations and candles. On the day of the festival the
President and Prime Minister deliver speeches about the history and
importance of Buddhism and religious harmony in the country. From noon
onwards large fairs are held in and around temples and viharas
selling bangles, food (largely vegetarian), clothes, toys and
conducting performances of Buddha’s life, Buddhist music teaching about
the Dharma and the 5 precepts. Later on Buddhists attend a congression
inside the monastery where the chief monk would deliver a speech
discussing the Buddha and the 3 jewels and about living the ideal life
after which a prayer to the buddha would be conducted and people would
then light candles and recite the three jewels and 5 precepts.
[8][9]

Cambodia

In Cambodia, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as Visak Bochea and is a public holiday
where monks around the country carry flags, lotus flowers, incense and
candles to acknowledge Vesak. People also take part in alms giving to
the monks.
[10]

China

In China, celebrations often occur in Buddhist temples where people light incense and bring food offerings for the monks.[11] In Hong Kong, Buddha’s birthday is a public holiday.
Lanterns are lit to symbolise the Buddha’s enlightenment and many
people visit the temple to pay their respects. The bathing of the Buddha
is a major feature of Buddha’s birthday celebrations in the city.[12] The festival is also a public holiday in Macau.[13]

India

India
is the land where the Buddha attained enlightenment (nirvana) at
Bodhgaya and established Buddhism. Buddha spent majority of his life in
what is now modern day India. Some of the holiest sites associated with
Buddha’s life include Bodhgaya (place of enlightenment), Sarnath (site of first sermon), Sravasti and Rajgir (site where Buddha spent the greater part of his monastic life and delivered majority of his discourses), and Kushinagar (site where Buddha attained Parinirvana and passed away)
[14][15] Under Emperor Ashoka, Buddhism spread from India to other nations.[4] Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanthi in South India or Tathagata is a public holiday in India.The public holiday for Buddha purnima in India was initiated by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar when he was the minister of social justice [16] It is celebrated especially in Sikkim, Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bodh Gaya, various parts of North Bengal such as Kalimpong, Darjeeling, and Kurseong, and Maharashtra (where 73% of total Indian Buddhists live) and other parts of India as per Indian calendar. Buddhists go to common Viharas to observe a rather longer-than-usual, full-length Buddhist sutra, akin to a service. The dress code is pure white. Non-vegetarian food is normally avoided. Kheer,
a sweet rice porridge is commonly served to recall the story of Sujata,
a maiden who, in Gautama Buddha’s life, offered the Buddha a bowl of
milk porridge.
Informally called “Buddha’s Birthday”, it actually commemorates the
birth, enlightenment (nirvāna), and death (Parinirvāna) of Gautama
Buddha in the Theravada tradition. Tibetans in exile remember Buddha’s
birthday on the 7th day of the Saga Dawa month (fourth month of the
Tibetan calendar), which culminates with Buddha’s parinirvana
celebrations on the full moon day.

It is said that the Buddha originally followed the way of asceticism
to attain enlightenment sooner, as was thought by many at that time. He
sat for a prolonged time with inadequate food and water, which caused
his body to shrivel so as to be indistinguishable from the bark of the
tree that he was sitting under. Seeing the weak Siddhartha Gautama, a
woman named Sujata placed a bowl of “Kheer” in front of him as an
offering.
[17] Realizing that without food one can do
nothing, the Buddha refrained from harming his own body. Thereafter, he
would go on to attain nirvana.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as Waisak and is a public holiday. A large procession beginning in Mendut in Java ends at Borobudur – the largest Buddhist temple in the world.[18][19]

Japan


Hanamatsuri in Japan

In Japan, Buddha’s Birthday is known as Kanbutsu-e (Japanese: 灌仏会) or Hanamatsuri (Flower Festival) (Japanese: 花祭り)
and is held on April 8. Buddha’s birth is also celebrated according to
the Buddhist calendar but is not a national holiday. On this day, all
temples hold 降誕会 (Gōtan-e), 仏生会 (Busshō-e), 浴仏会 (Yokubutsu-e), 龍華会
(Ryūge-e) and 花会式 (Hana-eshiki). Japanese people pour ama-cha (a beverage prepared from a variety of hydrangea)
on small Buddha statues decorated with flowers, as if bathing a newborn
baby. The tradition of bathing the Buddha originated in China and was
introduced to Japan where it was first held in Nara in 606.[20] Lion dancing is also a major tradition practiced during Buddha’s Birthday and has become associated with the festival in Japan.[21]

Malaysia

In Malaysia, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as Wesak Day and is a public holiday celebrated by the sizeable minority Buddhist population
in the country. Temples across the country are decorated and caged
animals are set free. People engage in prayers, chanting and giving
across the country.
[10]

Mongolia

In Mongolia, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as Ikh Duichen and its date is determined by the Mongolian lunar calendar.[22]
As a result, the date falls in line with celebrations of Buddha’s
Birthday/Vesak in South and Southeast Asian countries as opposed to
neighbouring East Asian countries. While not a public holiday the
festival is popularly celebrated by many Mongolian Buddhists.[23]

Myanmar

In Myanmar, Buddha’s Birthday is celebrated as Full Moon of Kason and is a public holiday. It is celebrated by watering the Bodhi tree and chanting. In large pagodas music and dance is also performed as part of the celebrations.[10]

Nepal


Buddha statues at Swayambhu in Nepal

In
Nepal, the birthplace of Buddha, his birthday is celebrated on the full
moon day of May. The festival is known by various names, Buddha
Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, Vaishakh Purnima, Saga Dawa, and Vesak. Purnima means full moon day in Sanskrit. Among the Newars
of Nepal, especially from the Shakya clan of Newars, it is of great
importance because they consider it as a continuation of the sage of the
Śākyas- the clan that Lord Buddha’s family belonged to. Thus, they
celebrate the festival which is in their language known as Swānyā Punhi
(स्वांया पुन्हि), the full moon day of flowers.
[24] The day marks not just the birth of Shakyamuni Gautam Buddha but also the day of his Enlightenment and Mahaparinirvana.

The
event is celebrated by gentle and serene fervour, keeping in mind the
very nature of Buddhism. People, especially women, go to common Viharas to observe a rather longer-than-usual, full-length Buddhist sutra, as something like a service. The usual dress is pure white. Non-vegetarian food is normally avoided. Kheer, a sweet rice porridge is commonly served to recall the story of Sujata.

North Korea
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The Buddha Triumphs Over the Demon Mara
Asian Art Museum
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The
Bhante Seelawimala of the American Buddhist Seminary, tells the story
of how the Buddha attained enlightenment with the use of artworks from
the Asian Art Museum’s collection.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kFPm2vuw00I
BUDDHIST STORIES: THE EIGHT VEGAN WAYS OF BUDDHIST LIFE - Aug 5, 2015
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International Gathering with Supreme Master Ching Hai - Europe, Aug 5, 2015
3) Classical Prakruti,



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HBmkj1-IPsc
Story of Gautama Buddha with Prakruti
Subrata SINGHA
Published on Apr 29, 2017
जो नित्य एवं स्थाई प्रतीत होता है, वह भी विनाशी है। जो महान प्रतीत होता
है, उसका भी पतन है। जहाँ संयोग है वहाँ विनाश भी है। जहाँ जन्म है वहाँ
मरण भी है। ऐसे सारस्वत सच विचारों को आत्मसात करते हुए महात्मा बुद्ध ने
बौद्ध धर्म की स्थापना की जो विश्व के प्रमुख धर्मों में से एक है।

Category
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जो नित्य एवं स्थाई प्रतीत होता है, वह भी विनाशी है। जो महान प्रतीत होता है, उसका भी पतन है। जहाँ संयोग है वहाँ विनाश भ…



4)Clasical Pali

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7GYzxOYixo
Dhammapada Pali, Hindi and English text
Bodhimaggo Vihara
Published on Mar 31, 2016
Chant by : Ven Seelavansa Thero
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Chant by : Ven Seelavansa Thero
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The Buddha Triumphs Over the Demon Mara
Asian Art Museum
42.6K subscribers
The
Bhante Seelawimala of the American Buddhist Seminary, tells the story
of how the Buddha attained enlightenment with the use of artworks from
the Asian Art Museum’s collection.



The Demon Mara


Mara and his temptations, detail from a mural in Wat Dusidaram, a temple in Bangkok, Thailand.

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List of Buddhist temples
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List of Buddhist temples



Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, India was the place of Buddha’s Enlightenment.


Ancient Buddhist monasteries near Dhamekh Stupa Monument Site at Sarnath, India where Buddha delivered his first teaching.


The Parinirvana Temple with the Parinirvana Stupa at Kushinagar, India where Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death

This is a list of Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas for which there are Wikipedia articles, sorted by location.

AustraliaAustralian Capital Territory
New South Wales
Queensland
South Australia
Victoria
Western Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan


Paro Taktsang (Tiger’s Nest)
Bumthang
  • Kurjey Lhakhang - one of Bhutan’s most sacred temples - image of Guru Rinopche enshrined in rock.
Paro
  • Rinpung Dzong
  • Paro Taktsang (Tiger’s Nest) - perched on a 1,200 meter cliff, this is one of Bhutan’s most spectacular monasteries.
Punakha
Phobjika
Thimphu
Cambodia


Prasat Angkor Wat


Wat Preah Keo Morokot


Wat Phnom.
Angkor
Kampong Thom
Phnom Penh
Pursat
CanadaBritish Columbia


Monastère Bouddhiste de Tam Bao Son, Canton d’Harrington, Laurentides, Québec
Nova Scotia
Ontario
QuebecPeople’s Republic of China


The Tianning Pagoda in Beijing, built around 1120.


The Putuo Zongcheng Temple in Hebei, represents a fusion of Chinese and Tibetan architectural style.


Tianning Temple (Changzhou) in Jiangsu - the tallest pagoda and the tallest wooden structure in the world.[1]


Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi’an, Shaanxi province.


Golden Temple (Chinese Buddhist) at the summit of Emei Shan, in Sichuan. Emei Shan is one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism.


The Three Pagodas of Chong Sheng Temple, Dali City, Yunnan.
Anhui
Beijing
Fujian
Guangdong
Hainan
Hebei
Henan
Hohhot
Hubei
Hong Kong
Jiangsu
Jiangxi
Ningxia
Quanzhou
Shaanxi
Shandong
Shanghai
Shanxi
Sichuan
Tibet Autonomous Region


The Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, Tibet.
Yunnan
Zhejiang
Europe


The Pagode de Vincennes, originally the Cameroon Pavilion of the 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition.


Das Buddhistische Haus in Berlin - the oldest Buddhist temple in Europe.


The main stupa at Samyé Ling monastery in Scotland
Denmark
England
France
Germany
Hungary
Italy
The Netherlands Poland
Scotland
Slovakia
  • Buddhist Temple of Dzogchen Community Wangdenling
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
IndiaAndhra Pradesh


Buddhist Monastery Remnants, Ramatheertham, Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Goa

Buddhist caves exist in following places in Goa:

Buddha
idols have been found in several places, and some temples, some are
still in worship and are considered now as Hindu gods. Monasteries used
to exist in many places, and it can be seen from the names of the modern
villages. For example, Viharas have been found in modern Divachali or ancient Dipakavishaya, Lamgaon or ancient Lamagrama and many other places.

Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra


Deekshabhoomi, Buddhism revival place in India
Orissa


Dhauli, Orissa
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Indonesia


Candi Banyunibo located in a paddy field southeast of Ratu Boko
Sumatra
West Java
Central Java
East Java
Bali
Israel
Japan Fukui
Fukuoka
Gifu
Hiroshima
Hyōgo
Iwate
Kagawa


Zentsū-ji (Kūkai’s birthplace)
Kanagawa
Kyoto


Kinkaku-ji (Rinzai-Shōkoku-ji sect), the Temple of the Golden Pavilion, located in Kyoto. It was built in Muromachi period.
Miyagi
Nagano
Nagasaki
Nara


Tōdai-ji’s Daibutsu in Nara, Nara
Osaka
  • Shitennō-ji (the first Buddhist and oldest officially administered temple in Japan)
Saitama
Shiga


Konpon Chū-dō of Enryakuji in Ōtsu, Shiga
Shizuoka
Tochigi
Tokyo


Danjogaran of Mount Kōya

Sensō-ji (Temple complex)

Toyama
Wakayama


Danjogaran of Mount Kōya
Yamagata
Yamaguchi
Yamanashi
Laos


Pha That Luang
Vientiane
Luang Phrabang
Malaysia


Kek Lok Si Temple, Penang.


Sri Lanka Buddhist Temple (from Lorong Timur), Sentul, Kuala Lumpur


Puu Jih Shih Temple, Sandakan, Sabah.
Kuala Lumpur
Malacca
Penang
Kelantan
Perak
Pahang
Sabah
Mongolia


Golden Temple at Gandan Monastery in Ulan Bator.
Ulaanbaatar
Övörkhangai
Selenge
Myanmar


Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon - the most revered pagoda in Myanmar.


Ancient pagodas are built in the Mon style, Bagan.


Dhammayangyi Temple - a pyramid-shaped Buddhist temple.
Yangon Region
Yangon (Rangoon)
Mandalay Region
Bagan (Pagan)
Mandalay
Rakhine State
Bago Region
Bago
Pyay
Mon State
Shan State
Nepal


The Great Drigung Kagyud Lotus Stupa in Lumbini, Nepal
Kapilbastu District
Kathmandu District
Mustang District
Rupandehi District
  • Lumbini, birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha
New Zealand
PhilippinesDavao
Metro Manila
Russia
Singapore


Modern architecture of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum in Singapore.
South Africa
South Korea Seoul
Gyeonggi
Gangwon
North Chungcheong
South Chungcheong
North Gyeongsang
South Gyeongsang
North Jeolla
North Pyeongan
South Jeolla
Daejeon
Sri Lanka


Dambulla Golden Cave Temple


Mahiyangana Dagoba
Ampara
Anuradhapura
Badulla
Balapitiya
Colombo
Dambulla
Hambantota
Jaffna
Kandy
Kalutara
Kelaniya
Kurunegala
Madampe
Mahiyanganaya
Matale
Polgahawela
Polonnaruwa
Trincomalee
Taiwan


Fo Guang Shan Buddha Memorial Center, Taiwan.
Tanzania
Thailand


Wat Traimit contains Golden Buddha - the world’s largest solid gold statue.
Ayutthaya
Bangkok
Chiang Mai
Chiang Rai

Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Pagoda


Pagoda



Bird’s eye view of the Patan Durbar Square’s pagoda temple of Nepal. It has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.


Great Wild Goose Pagoda of Xi’an in China, built in the 7th century, made of brick.


Seokgatap of Bulguksa
in South Korea, built in the 8th century, made of granite. In 1966, the
Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra, the oldest extant woodblock print
and several other treasures were found in the second story of this
pagoda.

A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia[1][2] and further developed in East Asia or with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist, and were often located in or near viharas. In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures. In Vietnam and Cambodia, due to French translation, the English term pagoda is a more generic term referring to a place of worship,
although pagoda is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist vihara.
The modern pagoda is an evolution of the stupa which originated in ancient India.[3][4][1] Stupas are a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept safe and venerated.[5]
The architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking
on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are
incorporated into the overall design.

Etymology

One proposed etymology is from a South Chinese pronunciation of the term for an eight-cornered tower, Chinese: 八角塔, and reinforced by the name of a famous pagoda encountered by many early European visitors to China, the “Pázhōu tǎ” (Chinese: 琶洲塔), standing just south of Guangzhou at Whampoa Anchorage.[6] Another proposed etymology is Persian butkada, from but, “idol” and kada, “temple, dwelling.”[7]

Another etymology, found in many English language dictionaries, is modern English pagoda from Portuguese (via Dravidian), from Sanskrit bhagavati, feminine of bhagavat, “blessed”, from bhag, “good fortune”.

Yet
another etymology of pagoda is from the Sinhala word dāgaba which is
derived from Sanskrit dhātugarbha or Pali dhātugabbha: “relic
womb/chamber” or “reliquary shrine”, i.e. a stupa, by way of Portuguese.
[8]

History


Kek Lok Si pagoda tiers labelled with their architectural styles

The origin of the pagoda can be traced to the stupa (3rd century BCE).[9] The stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.[9] In East Asia, the architecture of Chinese towers and Chinese pavilions
blended into pagoda architecture, eventually also spreading to
Southeast Asia. The pagoda’s original purpose was to house relics and
sacred writings.[10] This purpose was popularized due to the efforts of Buddhist missionaries, pilgrims, rulers, and ordinary devotees to seek out, distribute, and extol Buddhist relics.[11]

On the other side, the stupa emerged as a distinctive style of Newa architecture of Nepal and was adopted in Southeast and East Asia. Nepali architect Araniko visited China and shared his skills to build stupa buildings in China.[12][13]

These buildings (pagoda, stupa) became prominent as Buddhist monuments used for enshrining sacred relics.[9]

Symbolism

Chinese iconography is noticeable in Chinese pagoda as well as other East Asian pagoda architectures. The image of Gautama Buddha in the abhaya mudrā is also noticeable in some Pagodas. Buddhist iconography can be observed throughout the pagoda symbolism.[14]

In an article on Buddhist elements in Han dynasty art, Wu Hung suggests that in these tombs, Buddhist symbolism was so well-incorporated into native Chinese traditions that a unique system of symbolism had been developed.[15]

Architecture

Pagodas attract lightning strikes because of their height. Many pagodas have a decorated finial
at the top of the structure, and when made of metal, this finial,
sometimes referred to as a “demon-arrester”, can function as a lightning
rod. Also Pagodas come in many different sizes, as some may be small
and others may be large.
[16]

Pagodas traditionally have an odd number of levels, a notable exception being the eighteenth century pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.

The pagodas in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia are very different from Chinese and Japanese pagodas. Pagodas in those countries are derived from Dravidian architecture.[17]

Some notable pagodas

Tiered towers with multiple eaves:

Stupas called “pagodas”:

Places called “pagoda” but which are not tiered structures with multiple eaves:

Structures that evoke pagoda architecture:

Structures not generally thought of as pagodas, but which have some pagoda-like characteristics:

See also
Notes
  1. “The Origin of Pagodas”. China.org.cn. 2002-09-19. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  2. “Pagoda”. Webpages.uidaho.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  3. “DEVELOPMENT OF STUPA ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA” (PDF). Shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  4. “The stupa (article)”. Khan Academy. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  5. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press
  6. Chinese
    Origin of the Term Pagoda: Liang Sicheng’s Proposed Etymology Authors:
    David Robbins Tien, Gerald Leonard Cohen Publication: Arts, Languages
    and Philosophy Faculty Research & Creative Works DownloadTien, D.
    R., & Cohen, G. L. (2017) http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/artlan_phil_facwork. David Robbins Tien. Comments on Etymology, October 2014, Vol.44, no. 1, pp. 2–6.
  7. Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Second Edition. Random House, New York, 1993.
  8. Hobson-Jobson:
    The Anglo-Indian Dictionary by Henry Yule & Arthur Coke Burnell,
    first printed 1896, reprinted by Wordsworth Editions, 1996, p. 291.
    Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper, s.v. pagoda, at http://www.etymonline.com/ (Accessed 29 April 2016)
  9. Editors, The (2012-01-26). “pagoda | architecture”. Britannica.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  10. A World History of Architecture. Michael W. Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse. Published 2003. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141751-6.
  11. The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
  12. “Nepal, China commemorate 57-year-long friendship - China News”. SINA English. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  13. The Evolution of Indian Stupa Architecture in East Asia. Eric Stratton. New Delhi, Vedams, 2002, viii, ISBN 81-7936-006-7
  14. The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7. page 83
  15. The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7. page 84
  16. Terry, T. Philip (1914). Terry’s Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin. p. 257.
  17. Chihara, Daigorō (1996). Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia. BRILL. p. 28. ISBN 90-04-10512-3.
  18. [1]
References
  • The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
  • A World History of Architecture. Michael W. Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse. Published 2003. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141751-6.
  • Psycho-cosmic symbolism of the Buddhist stupa. A. B. Govinda. 1976, Emeryville, California. Dharma Publications.
External links

Buddha
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=China+Pavilion+at+Epcot

China Pavilion at Epcot

The China Pavilion is a Chinese-themed pavilion that is part of the World Showcase within Epcot at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida, United States. Its location is between the Norwegian and German pavilions.[1]

Layout

Visitors enter the China Pavilion through a large Chinese gate. The courtyard is dominated by a replica of the Temple of Heaven, which contains the entrance to “Reflections of China“,
a Circle-Vision 360° movie exploring China’s history and scenery, as
well as a museum containing several ancient Chinese artifacts. The
courtyard is bordered by shops selling Chinese merchandise, and two
Chinese restaurants.[2] The pavilion is decorated with ponds, crossed by bridges. Chinese acrobats also perform frequently in the pavilion.[3]

The pavilion served as the backdrop for the music video of the song “Reflection“, performed by a then-unknown Christina Aguilera, from the 1998 Disney film Mulan.[4]

Attractions and servicesAttractions

Shopping

  • Good Fortune Gifts, sells a variety of items including parasols, puppets, and toys.
  • House of Good Fortune, sells items such as housewares, tea sets, wall prints, silk robes, and porcelain goods.

Dining

  • Nine Dragons Restaurant, a full-service gourmet Chinese restaurant featuring traditional Chinese cuisine with a twist.
  • Lotus Blossom Cafe, a counter-service restaurant that serves well-known American-Chinese dishes.

Live entertainment

  • Dragon Legend Acrobats, a team of young acrobats who perform feats in the outdoor courtyard.

Character Meet & Greets

Gallery

References

  1. China in Epcot. All Ears. Accessed March 31, 2012.
  2. “360 Degrees of China”. Today at Disney. May 22, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  • China - Epcot World Showcase. WDW Info. Accessed March 31, 2012.
  • B, Erin (July 16, 2013). “Epcot World Showcase Best Kept Secrets – China”. Chip & Company. Retrieved December 29, 2017.








  •  

    revolving globe

    http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/globe08_e0.gif



    Animated stereoview of old Japan  --Animated stereoview of old Japan  --


     

    http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/daisy991.gifhttp://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/lotus1.gif





    1) BUDDHIST MEDITATION


    Zen Meditation (Zazen)




    Bodhi leaf

    Vipassana Meditation

    Mindfulness Meditationhttps://67.media.tumblr.com/ba13c508cf5b31cc4e81e1336d3a5698/tumblr_inline_o3y6y7pdwS1r1aqjj_540.gif


    of meditation.

    Loving Kindness Meditation (Metta Meditation)



    Ambedkar Periyar Study  Circle

    visual-content-statistics.jpeg

    http://www.engadget.com/2016/03/15/giphy-wants-to-be-the-netflix-of-gifs/



    https://45.media.tumblr.com/947ce94ffe7923653d5d5ac9f60c544e/tumblr_o0zjq4XKIE1ss46elo1_500.gif
    Fish

    Dancing Spider-Man
    Dancing Spider-Man
    Dancing Spider-Man
    Dancing Spider-Man
    Dancing Spider-Man












    iOS Web App

    This
    is a work in progress. The Tipiṭaka (Mūla) is available for all the
    scripts, and the Aṭṭhakathā is available for the Roman script.

    To install the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka web app on your iPhone, iPod Touch, or iPad go to tipitaka.org/ios, and then follow the steps below for iPhone & iPod Touch and iPad.

    iPad
    Click on the icon at the top of the screen as shown below.

    Click on the “Add to Home Screen” button.

    Click on the “Add” button.

    The Pāḷi Tipiṭaka icon will now appear on your iPad’s home screen. 


    iPhone & iPod Touch
    Click on the icon at the bottom center of the screen as shown below.

    Click on the “Add to Home Screen” button.

    Click on the “Add” button.

    The Pāḷi Tipiṭaka icon will now appear on your iPhone’s or iPod Touch’s home screen. 


    Tipiṭaka Scripts 
    Cyrillic Web
    Devanagari Web | PDF
    Gujarati Web
    Kannada Web
    Malayalam Web
    Roman Web | PDF
    Tamil Web
    Telugu Web
    Other Scripts 
    (Bengali, Gurmukhi, Khmer, Myanmar, Sinhala, Thai, Tibetan) 


  • Magadhi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)

  • [1]

  • https://www.prabhatkhabar.com/news/ranchi/jharkhand-raghubar-das-cabinet-decision-maithili-bhojpuri-angika-magahi-second-language/1135878.html

  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). “Magahi”. Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

  • “How a Bihari lost his mother tongue to Hindi”.

  • Frawley, William (2003-05). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: 4-Volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780195139778. Check date values in: |date= (help)

  • “History of Indian Languages”. Diehardindian.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2012-02-29.

  • Verma, Mahandra K. “Language Endangerment and Indian languages : An exploration and a critique”. Linguistic Structure and Language Dynamics in South Asia.

  • Jain Dhanesh, Cardona George, The Indo-Aryan Languages, pp449

  • P. 23 The legends and theories of the Buddhists compared with history and science … By Robert Spence Hardy

  • Maitra Asim, Magahi Culture, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi (1983), pp. 64

  • “Maithili and Magahi”. Retrieved 2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

  • Brass Paul R., The Politics of India Since Independence, Cambridge University Press, pp. 183

  • Jain Dhanesh, Cardona George, The Indo-Aryan Languages, pp500

  • मृत्युंजय कुमार. “मागधी”. Magadhee.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-02-29.

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