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𝓛𝓔𝓱𝓱𝓞𝓝 4038 Thu 22 đ“™đ“Ÿđ“” 2021 Friends https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbDNlTXatp4 30) Classical English,Roman, Friends GHMC to plant 1.5 crore saplings under Haritha Haram - https://www.newindianexpress.com/…/ghmc-to-plant-15… đ“čđ“»đ“žđ“čđ“Ș𝓰đ“Ște đ“”đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“” đ“‘đ“”đ“Čđ“Œđ“Œ đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“± đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“»đ“Ș𝔀 đ“„đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“· đ“‘đ“»đ“žđ“Źđ“Źđ“žđ“”đ“Č, đ“č𝓼đ“čđ“čđ“źđ“»đ“Œ,đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“Źđ“Ÿđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“»đ“Œ, 𝓬đ“Șđ“»đ“»đ“žđ“œđ“Œ, đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“·đ“Œ đ“żđ“źđ“°đ“źđ“œđ“Șđ“«đ“”đ“źđ“Œ,𝓓𝔀đ“Șđ“»đ“Ż đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ 🍎 🍉 đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ đ“Čđ“· đ“čđ“žđ“œđ“Œ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“”đ“­ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Čđ“· 𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“œđ“ž 𝓼đ“Șđ“œ đ“”đ“Č𝓮𝓼 đ“«đ“Čđ“»đ“­đ“Œ đ“Șđ“Œ đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“«đ”‚ 𝓝𝓐𝓱𝓐, đ“‘đ“»đ“Čđ“œđ“Čđ“Œđ“± đ“«đ“Čđ“”đ“”đ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“Čđ“»đ“ź 𝓡đ“Čđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“­ đ“‘đ“»đ“Șđ“·đ“Œđ“žđ“· đ“Żđ“”đ“źđ”€ đ“Čđ“·đ“œđ“ž đ“Œđ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“«đ“žđ“Șđ“»đ“­ đ“Ș đ“„đ“Čđ“»đ“°đ“Čđ“· 𝓖đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬 đ“żđ“źđ“Œđ“Œđ“źđ“” đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓙𝓼𝓯𝓯 đ“‘đ“źđ”ƒđ“žđ“Œ. đ“”đ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“»đ“ź 𝓔đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“± đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“»đ“ź đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“€đ“Ąđ“đ“‘đ“˜ 𝓾𝓯 𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č. đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“źđ“­ đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“»đ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“±đ“Čđ“Œ đ“źđ“¶đ“čđ“Čđ“»đ“ź. 𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č 𝓯𝓼𝓭 đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ“čđ“žđ“žđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“± đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“±đ“Č . đ“đ“”đ“Œđ“ž đ“œđ“ž đ“œđ“»đ“Șđ“Čđ“· đ“č𝓼𝓾đ“čđ“”đ“ź đ“žđ“· 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“°, đ“Łđ“±đ“Șđ“Č đ“’đ“±đ“Č, 𝓚đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“»đ“Č đ“đ“»đ“œđ“Œ, đ“™đ“Ÿđ“­đ“ž, 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œđ“ź, đ“šđ“Ÿđ“·đ“° đ“•đ“Ÿ đ“¶đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Čđ“Șđ“” đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Œ. đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬𝓼 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“° - đ“„đ“Čđ“¶đ“Șđ“”đ“ž 𝓐𝔀đ“Șđ“Žđ“źđ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș 𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Č đ“•đ“źđ“”đ“”đ“žđ”€. From 𝓔-đ“«đ“žđ“žđ“Ž-𝓓𝓞 𝓖𝓞𝓞𝓓 đ“Ÿđ“€đ“Ąđ“˜đ“•đ“š 𝓜𝓘𝓝𝓓 𝓐𝓣𝓣𝓐𝓘𝓝 𝓔𝓣𝓔𝓡𝓝𝓐𝓛 𝓑𝓛𝓘𝓱𝓱 đ“Żđ“»đ“žđ“¶ đ“šđ“Ÿđ“Œđ“±đ“Čđ“·đ“Șđ“»đ“Ș 𝓝𝓘𝓑𝓑Ā𝓝𝓐 đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș 18đ“Żđ“œ 𝓓đ“Čđ“Ș. đ“Ș 3𝓓 360 đ“­đ“źđ“°đ“»đ“źđ“ź 𝓬đ“Čđ“»đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“”đ“Șđ“» 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș đ“Șđ“œ đ“Šđ“±đ“Čđ“œđ“ź đ“—đ“žđ“¶đ“ź, 668 5đ“œđ“± 𝓐 𝓜đ“Șđ“Čđ“· 𝓡𝓾đ“Ș𝓭, 8đ“œđ“± đ“’đ“»đ“žđ“Œđ“Œ, 𝓗𝓐𝓛 𝓘𝓘𝓘 đ“ąđ“œđ“Ș𝓰𝓼, đ“Ÿđ“Ÿđ“·đ“Č𝔂đ“Ș đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ đ“‘đ“źđ“·đ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Ÿ, 𝓜đ“Ș𝓰đ“Șđ“­đ“±đ“Č 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Ș𝓮đ“Ș, đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“‘đ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œ đ“˜đ“·đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“” đ“±đ“œđ“œđ“č://đ“Œđ“Șđ“»đ“żđ“Ș𝓳đ“Șđ“·.đ“Șđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“­đ“Žđ“Șđ“».đ“žđ“»đ“° đ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Șđ“Œđ“Șđ“Č𝓭2đ“Ÿđ“Œ@đ“°đ“¶đ“Șđ“Čđ“”.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶ đ“łđ“Źđ“Œ4đ“źđ“żđ“źđ“»@đ“žđ“Ÿđ“œđ“”đ“žđ“žđ“Ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶ đ“łđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“·đ“­đ“»đ“Șđ“Œđ“źđ“Žđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“·@𝔂đ“Șđ“±đ“žđ“ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶ 080-25203792 9449260443 9449835875 𝔀đ“Čđ“Œđ“±đ“źđ“Œ đ“œđ“ž đ“«đ“ź đ“Ș đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“Žđ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“čđ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“·đ“źđ“» 𝔀đ“Čđ“œđ“± GHMC & GCC for its One crore saplings are anticipated to be planted as a part of the programme within the metropolis, with 10 lakh saplings proposed to be planted within the first 12 months. Along with Residents’ welfare associations that will play a serious position within the drive. As The civic physique is planning to entrust the associations with the duty of sustaining the bushes of their neighbourhood.And the Officers suggest to reward the associations that handle the saplings for a sure time period. https://youtu.be/_sFm8xgP38I Congratulations for ‘Best day ever’: Jeff Bezosblasts into space on own rocket
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
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𝓛𝓔𝓱𝓱𝓞𝓝 4038  Thu  22 đ“™đ“Ÿđ“” 2021

Friends

30) Classical English,Roman,

Friends

GHMC to plant 1.5 crore saplings under Haritha Haram - https://www.newindianexpress.com/…/ghmc-to-plant-15…
đ“čđ“»đ“žđ“čđ“Ș𝓰đ“Ște đ“”đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“” đ“‘đ“”đ“Čđ“Œđ“Œ đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“±
đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“·đ“°
đ“»đ“Ș𝔀 đ“„đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“· đ“‘đ“»đ“žđ“Źđ“Źđ“žđ“”đ“Č, đ“č𝓼đ“čđ“čđ“źđ“»đ“Œ,đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“Źđ“Ÿđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“»đ“Œ,
𝓬đ“Șđ“»đ“»đ“žđ“œđ“Œ, đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“·đ“Œ đ“żđ“źđ“°đ“źđ“œđ“Șđ“«đ“”đ“źđ“Œ,𝓓𝔀đ“Șđ“»đ“Ż đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ 🍎 🍉
đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ
đ“Čđ“· đ“čđ“žđ“œđ“Œ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“”đ“­ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Čđ“·
𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“œđ“ž 𝓼đ“Șđ“œ đ“”đ“Č𝓮𝓼 đ“«đ“Čđ“»đ“­đ“Œ đ“Șđ“Œ đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“«đ”‚
𝓝𝓐𝓱𝓐, đ“‘đ“»đ“Čđ“œđ“Čđ“Œđ“± đ“«đ“Čđ“”đ“”đ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“Čđ“»đ“ź 𝓡đ“Čđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“­
đ“‘đ“»đ“Șđ“·đ“Œđ“žđ“· đ“Żđ“”đ“źđ”€ đ“Čđ“·đ“œđ“ž đ“Œđ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“«đ“žđ“Șđ“»đ“­ đ“Ș đ“„đ“Čđ“»đ“°đ“Čđ“·
𝓖đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬 đ“żđ“źđ“Œđ“Œđ“źđ“” đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓙𝓼𝓯𝓯 đ“‘đ“źđ”ƒđ“žđ“Œ.
đ“”đ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“»đ“ź
𝓔đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“± đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“»đ“ź đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“€đ“Ąđ“đ“‘đ“˜ 𝓾𝓯
𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č. đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“źđ“­ đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ
đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“»đ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“±đ“Čđ“Œ đ“źđ“¶đ“čđ“Čđ“»đ“ź.
𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č 𝓯𝓼𝓭 đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ“čđ“žđ“žđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“± đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“±đ“Č .
đ“đ“”đ“Œđ“ž
đ“œđ“ž đ“œđ“»đ“Șđ“Čđ“· đ“č𝓼𝓾đ“čđ“”đ“ź đ“žđ“· 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“°,
đ“Łđ“±đ“Șđ“Č đ“’đ“±đ“Č, 𝓚đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“»đ“Č đ“đ“»đ“œđ“Œ, đ“™đ“Ÿđ“­đ“ž, 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œđ“ź, đ“šđ“Ÿđ“·đ“°
đ“•đ“Ÿ đ“¶đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Čđ“Șđ“” đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Œ.
đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬𝓼 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“° - đ“„đ“Čđ“¶đ“Șđ“”đ“ž 𝓐𝔀đ“Șđ“Žđ“źđ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș 𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Č đ“•đ“źđ“”đ“”đ“žđ”€.
From
𝓔-đ“«đ“žđ“žđ“Ž-𝓓𝓞 𝓖𝓞𝓞𝓓 đ“Ÿđ“€đ“Ąđ“˜đ“•đ“š 𝓜𝓘𝓝𝓓 𝓐𝓣𝓣𝓐𝓘𝓝 𝓔𝓣𝓔𝓡𝓝𝓐𝓛 𝓑𝓛𝓘𝓱𝓱
đ“Żđ“»đ“žđ“¶ đ“šđ“Ÿđ“Œđ“±đ“Čđ“·đ“Șđ“»đ“Ș 𝓝𝓘𝓑𝓑Ā𝓝𝓐 đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș 18đ“Żđ“œ
𝓓đ“Čđ“Ș. đ“Ș 3𝓓 360 đ“­đ“źđ“°đ“»đ“źđ“ź 𝓬đ“Čđ“»đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“”đ“Șđ“» 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș đ“Șđ“œ
đ“Šđ“±đ“Čđ“œđ“ź đ“—đ“žđ“¶đ“ź,
668 5đ“œđ“± 𝓐 𝓜đ“Șđ“Čđ“· 𝓡𝓾đ“Ș𝓭,
8đ“œđ“± đ“’đ“»đ“žđ“Œđ“Œ,
𝓗𝓐𝓛 𝓘𝓘𝓘 đ“ąđ“œđ“Ș𝓰𝓼,
đ“Ÿđ“Ÿđ“·đ“Č𝔂đ“Ș đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ đ“‘đ“źđ“·đ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Ÿ,
𝓜đ“Ș𝓰đ“Șđ“­đ“±đ“Č 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Ș𝓮đ“Ș,
đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“‘đ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œ đ“˜đ“·đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“”
đ“±đ“œđ“œđ“č://đ“Œđ“Șđ“»đ“żđ“Ș𝓳đ“Șđ“·.đ“Șđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“­đ“Žđ“Șđ“».đ“žđ“»đ“°
đ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Șđ“Œđ“Șđ“Č𝓭2đ“Ÿđ“Œ@đ“°đ“¶đ“Șđ“Čđ“”.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
đ“łđ“Źđ“Œ4đ“źđ“żđ“źđ“»@đ“žđ“Ÿđ“œđ“”đ“žđ“žđ“Ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
đ“łđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“·đ“­đ“»đ“Șđ“Œđ“źđ“Žđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“·@𝔂đ“Șđ“±đ“žđ“ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
080-25203792
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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta

“Observance
of Dhamma Chakka Pavarthana(First Sermon of Samma Sam Buddha)” “Full
Moon Day”On 24-7-2021 Saturday at 6.30 P.M onwards at Nagasena Buddha
Vihar, Sadashivanagar, Bengaluru-560080. You are cordially invited to
participate & share the Merit - Dr. H. R. Surendra, Dhammachary,
Nagasena Buddha Vihar.

he Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (Pali;
Sanskrit: Dharmacakrapravartana SĆ«tra; Hindi: The Setting in Motion of
the Wheel of the Dharma (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmachakra)
Sutta or Promulgation of the Law Sutta) is a Buddhist text
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_texts) that is considered by
Buddhists to be a record of the first sermon
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutra) given by Gautama Buddha
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha). The main topic of this
sutta is the Four Noble Truths
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths), which refer to and
express the basic orientation of Buddhism
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism)[1] in a formulaic
expression.[2] This sutta also refers to the Buddhist concepts of the
Middle Way (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Way), impermanence
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impermanence), and dependent
origination
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prat%C4%ABtyasamutp%C4%81da).

According
to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha delivered this discourse on the day
of Asalha Puja (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asalha_Puja), in the
month of Ashadha (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashadha), in a deer
sanctuary in Isipatana (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarnath). This
was seven weeks after he attained enlightenment
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Buddhism). His
audience consisted of five ascetics who had been his former companions:
Kondañña (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaundinya), Assaji, Bhaddiya
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bhaddiya(arhat)&action=edit&redlink=1),
Vappa
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vaspa_(arhat)&action=edit&redlink=1),
and Mahānāma.

Definitions
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=1)
Dhamma
(Pāli) or dharma (Sanskrit) can mean a variety of things depending on
its context;[note 1] in this context, it refers to the Buddha’s
teachings or his “truth” that leads to one’s liberation from suffering.
Cakka (Pāli) or cakra (Sanskrit) can be translated as “wheel.” The
dhammacakka (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmacakra), which can be
translated as “Dhamma-Wheel,” is a Buddhist symbol referring to Buddha’s
teaching of the path
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path) to enlightenment.
Pavattana (Pāli) can be translated as “turning” or “rolling” or
“setting in motion.”[note 2]
Text
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=2)
The sutra contains the following topics:[web 1]
 â€ą The two extremes to be avoided (sensual indulgence and self-mortification)
 â€ą The Middle Way (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Way)
 â€ą The Four Noble Truths (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths)
 â€ą The Noble Eightfold Path (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path)
 â€ą The Twelve Insights of the Four Noble Truths
 â€ą
Proclamation of release from the cycle of rebirth
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83s%C4%81ra) (commonly
referred to as nibbana (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nibbana))
 â€ą The Opening of the Dhamma Eye (the attainment of right view (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/View_(Buddhism)))
 â€ą
Proclamation of the devas
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deva_(Buddhism)) upon the setting of
the Wheel of Dhamma (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmachakra) in
motion by the Buddha
 â€ą Response of the Buddha to Aññā Kondañña’s (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaundinya) comprehension of his teachings
Buddhist understanding of the sutta
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=3)
According
to the Buddhist tradition, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta is the first
teaching given by the Buddha after he attained enlightenment. According
to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha attained enlightenment and liberation
while meditating
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhy%C4%81na_in_Buddhism) under the
Bodhi Tree (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhi_Tree) by the Nerañjarā
river in Bodh Gaya (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodh_Gaya).
Afterwards, he remained silent for forty-nine days. According to MN 26
and MĀ 204, after deciding to teach, the Buddha initially intended to
visit his former teachers, Alara Kalama
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alara_Kalama) and Udaka Ramaputta
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udaka_Ramaputta), to teach them his
insights, but they had already died and born in a place where it is not
apt to preach or they were deaf, so he decided to visit his five former
companions. The Buddha proclaimed that he had achieved full awakening,
but Upaka was not convinced and “took a different path”.The Buddha then
journeyed from Bodhgaya to Sarnath, a small town near the sacred city of
Varanasi (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varanasi) in central India.
There he met his five former companions, the ascetics with whom he had
shared six years of hardship. His former companions were at first
suspicious of the Buddha, thinking he had given up his search for the
truth when he renounced their ascetic ways. But upon seeing the radiance
of the Buddha, they requested him to teach what he had learned.
Thereupon the Buddha gave the teaching that was later recorded as the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, which introduces fundamental concepts of
Buddhist thought, such as the Middle Way
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Way) and the Four Noble Truths
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths).

image.png


 (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:QC_Harrington4_tango7174.jpg)
A
depiction of the first teaching of the Buddha from a Vietnamese
Buddhist
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_Buddhism) monastery
in Quebec, Canada.
Retaining the oldest teachings

Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=5)
Modern
scholars agree that the teachings of the Buddha were passed down in an
oral tradition for approximately a few hundred years after the passing
of the Buddha; the first written recordings of these teachings were made
hundreds of years after the Buddha’s passing. According to academic
scholars, inconsistencies in the oldest texts may reveal developments in
the oldest teachings.[11][note 3] While the Theravada tradition holds
that it is likely that the sutras date back to the Buddha himself, in an
unbroken chain of oral transmission,[web 2][web 3][note 4] academic
scholars have identified many of such inconsistencies, and tried to
explain them. Information of the oldest teachings of Buddhism, such as
on the Four Noble Truths
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths), which are an
important topic in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, has been obtained by
analysis of the oldest texts and these inconsistencies, and are a
matter of ongoing discussion and research.[12][13][14][15][note 5]
Development of the sutta
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=6)
According
to Bronkhorst this “first sermon” is recorded in several sutras, with
important variations.[22][note 6] In the Vinaya texts, and in the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta which was influenced by the Vinaya texts,
the four truths are included, and Kondañña is enlightened[22][23] when
the “vision of Dhamma”[24] arises in him: “whatever is subject to
origination is all subject to cessation.”[note 7] Yet, in the
Ariyapariyesanā Sutta (”The Noble Search”, Majjhima Nikaya 26) the four
truths are not included,[note 8] and the Buddha gives the five ascetics
personal instructions in turn, two or three of them, while the others go
out begging for food. The versions of the “first sermon” which include
the four truths, such as the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, omit this
instruction, showing that
…the accounts which include the Four
Noble Truths had a completely different conception of the process of
liberation than the one which includes the Four Dhyanas and the
subsequent destruction of the intoxicants.[22]
According to
Bronkhorst, this indicates that the four truths were later added to
earlier descriptions of liberation by practicing the four dhyanas, which
originally was thought to be sufficient for the destruction of the
arsavas.[22] Anderson, following Norman, also thinks that the four
truths originally were not part of this sutta, and were later added in
some versions.[28][note 9] According to Bronkhorst, the “twelve
insights” are probably also a later addition, born out of unease with
the substitution of the general term “prajna” for the more specific
“four truths”.[30]

The “essence” of Buddhism
Edit

(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=7)According
to Cousins, many scholars are of the view that “this discourse was
identified as the first sermon of the Buddha only at a later date.”[29]
According to Richard Gombrich,
Of course we do not really know what
the Buddha said in his first sermon […] and it has even been
convincingly demonstrated[note 10] that the language of the text as we
have it is in the main a set of formulae, expressions which are by no
means self-explanatory but refer to already established doctrines.
Nevertheless, the compilers of the Canon
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pali_Canon) put in the first sermon
what they knew to be the very essence of the Buddha’s Enlightenment.[32]
Yet,
the understanding of what exactly constituted this “very essence” also
developed over time. What exactly was regarded as the central insight
“varied along with what was considered most central to the teaching of
the Buddha.”[33] “Liberating insight” came to be defined as “insight
into the four truths,” which is presented as the “liberating insight”
which constituted the awakening
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Buddhism), or
“enlightenment” of the Buddha.
When
he understood these truths he was “enlightened” and liberated,[note 11]
as reflected in Majjhima Nikaya 26:42: “his taints are destroyed by his
seeing with wisdom.”[37] The four truths were superseded by
pratityasamutpada (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratityasamutpada),
and still later by the doctrine of the non-existence of a substantial
self or person (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatta).[38]
According
to Anderson, a long recognized feature of the Theravada canon is that
it lacks an “overarching and comprehensive structure of the path to
nibbana.”[39] The sutras form a network or matrix, which have to be
taken together.[40][note 12] Within this network, “the four noble truths
are one doctrine among others and are not particularly central,”[40]
but are a part of “the entire dhamma matrix.”[42] The four noble truths
are set and learnt in that network, learning “how the various teachings
intersect with each other,”[43] and refer to the various Buddhist
techniques, which are all explicitly and implicitly part of the passages
which refer to the four truths.[44] According to Anderson,
There is
no single way of understanding the teachings: one teaching may be used
to explain another in one passage; the relationship may be reversed or
altered in other talks.[42]

Translations into English
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=8)
From the Pali version
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=9)
In
the Pāli Canon (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81li_Canon), this
sutta is found in the Samyutta Nikaya
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samyutta_Nikaya
), chapter 56
(”Saccasamyutta” or “Connected Discourses on the Truths”), sutta number
11 (and, thus, can be referenced as “SN 56.11″). There are multiple
English translations of the Pali version of this sutta, including:
 â€ą
Bhikkhu Bodhi (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhikkhu_Bodhi) (trans.),
Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dhamma
(http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebsut001.htm)
 â€ą Ñanamoli Thera
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%91%C4%81%E1%B9%87amoli_Bhikkhu)
(trans.) (1993)
. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting Rolling the Wheel
of Truth
(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.nymo.html).
 â€ą
Piyadassi Thera (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piyadassi_Thera)
(trans.) (1999)
. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting in Motion the
Wheel of Truth
(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.piya.html).
 â€ą
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanissaro_Bhikkhu)
(trans.) (1993)
. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting the Wheel of
Dhamma in Motion
(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.than.html).
 â€ą
Bhikkhu Sujato
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhikkhu_Sujato)
(trans.) (2018).
Rolling Forth the Wheel of Dhamma
(https://suttacentral.net/sn56.11/).
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thich_Nhat_Hanh) (trans.) (1999).
“Discourse on Turning the Wheel of the Dharma: Dhamma Cakka Pavattana
Sutta”. In The Heart of the Buddha’s Teaching, p. 257.[45]
 â€ą Ven.
Dr. Rewata Dhamma (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rewata_Dhamma)
(trans.) (1997). “The First Discourse of the Buddha: Turning the Wheel
of Dhamma”. In The First Discourse of the Buddha, Wisdom, pp. 17–20.[46]
 â€ą
Walpola Rahula (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walpola_Rahula)
(trans.) (2007). “Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth”. In What the
Buddha Taught.[47]

From Tibetan, Chinese and Sanskrit versions
Edit

(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=10)
‱ The Tibetan ‘Missing Translator’s Colophon’ Version of the Dharma
Wheel Discourse (chos kyi ‘khor lo’i mdo ‘gyur byang med pa): A New
Translation into English by Erick Tsiknopoulos (2013)
(http://tibetan-translations.com/2013/11/09/the-dharma-wheel-sutra-chos-kyi-khor-loi-mdo-gyur-byang-med-pa/)
This is a translation of one of two versions of the Dharma Wheel Sutra
in Tibetan, known as the ‘Missing Translator’s Colophon’ version (Tib:
‘gyur byang med pa). It has a correlate in Chinese, translated into
English by Lapiz Lazuli Texts and listed below.
 â€ą Lapis Lazuli
Texts: Saáčƒyuktāgama 379. Turning the Dharma Wheel
(
http://www.lapislazulitexts.com/T02_0099_0379.html). This is a
translation from the Chinese canon; the Chinese version is based on the
Sarvastivadin
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarvastivada) Sanskrit
version of the text (Dharmacakra Pravartana Sutra
).
 â€ą Thich Nhat
Hanh (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thich_Nhat_Hanh) has produced a
notable rendering of the first teaching of the Buddha in his biography
of the Buddha entitled Old Path White Clouds.[9] Thich Nhat Hanh relied
on multiple sources for this rendering.[48] This rendering is also
included in Thich Nhat Hanh’s book Path of Compassion: Stories from the
Buddha’s Life.[49] See Turning the Wheel of Dharma

(https://books.google.com/books?id=1ZTo-uAFZD0C&pg=PT80&lpg=PT80&dq=%E2%80%9CMy+brothers,+there+are+two+extremes+that+a+person+on+the+path+should+avoid.+One+is+to+plunge+oneself+into+sensual+pleasures%E2%80%9D+Hanh,+Thich+Nhat&source=bl&ots=-oiXzeGNBE&sig=2YmB6Qt1JVfVlO0foXGGuKDYr0s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=RSHfUKbxNIS10QHRvYHwBA&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ)
The
26th chapter of the Lalitavistara Sutra
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lalitavistara_Sutra) contains a
Mahayana version of the first turning that closely parallels the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. The following English translations of this
text are available:
 â€ą The Play in Full: Lalitavistara (2013),
translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee. Translated from
Tibetan into English and checked against the Sanskrit version.[web 5]
 â€ą Voice of the Buddha: The Beauty of Compassion (1983), translated by Gwendolyn Bays, Dharma Publishing (two-volume set).

This translation has been made from French into English and then checked with the original in Tibetan and Sanskrit.
See also
Edit (
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=11)
 â€ą Dharmacakra (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmacakra)
 â€ą Enlightenment (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Buddhism)
 â€ą Four Noble Truths (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths)
 â€ą Middle Way (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Way)
 â€ą Noble Eightfold Path (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path)
 â€ą Sarnath (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarnath)
 â€ą Taáč‡hā (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ta%E1%B9%87h%C4%81)
 â€ą Three marks of existence (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_marks_of_existence)
Notes
Edit
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=12)
 1
^ For instance, in the context of the objects of mindfulness, dhamma
refers to “mental objects” (see, Satipatthana Sutta
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satipatthana_Sutta)).
 2 ^ English translations of this sutta’s full title include:
 â€ą “Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dhamma” (Bodhi, 2000, pp. 1843–7)
 â€ą
“Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth” (Piyadassi, 1999)[1]

(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.piya.html)
 â€ą “Setting Rolling the Wheel of Truth” (Ñanamoli, 1993)[2] (http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.nymo.html)
 â€ą
“Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion” (Thanissaro, 1993)[3]

(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.than.html)
(Geshe Tashi Tsering, 2005
)[3]
 â€ą “The Discourse That Sets Turning the Wheel of Truth” (Ajahn Sucitto, 2010)[4]
 â€ą “Turning the Wheel of Dhamma” (Dhamma, 1997).
 â€ą “The Four Noble Truths Sutra” (Geshe Tashi Tsering, 2005)[3]
 3 ^ See:
 â€ą La Vallee Possin (1937), Musila et Narada; reprinted in Gombrich (2006), How Buddhism Began, appendix
 â€ą Erich Frauwallner (1953), Geschichte der indischen Philosophie, Band Der Buddha und der Jina (pp. 147-272)
 â€ą
Andre Bareau (1963), Recherches sur la biographiedu Buddha dans les
Sutrapitaka et les Vinayapitaka anciens, Ecole Francaise
d’Extreme-Orient
 â€ą Schmithausen, On some Aspects of Descriptions or
Theories of ‘Liberating Insight’ and ‘Enlightenment’ in Early Buddhism.
In: Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus (Gedenkschrift fĂŒr Ludwig
Alsdorf), hrsg. von Klaus Bruhn und Albrecht Wezler, Wiesbaden 1981,
199-250.
 â€ą Griffiths, Paul (1981), “Concentration or Insight; The
Problematic of Theravada Buddhist Meditation-theory”, The Journal of the
American Academy of Religion
 â€ą K.R. Norman, Four Noble Truths
(http://www.ahandfulofleaves.org/documents/Articles/The%20Four%20Noble%20Truths_Norman_PTS_2003.pdf)
 â€ą Bronkhorst 1993, Chapter 8
 â€ą
Tilman Vetter (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early
Buddhism, by Tilmann Vetter

(http://www.ahandfulofleaves.org/documents/The%20Ideas%20and%20Meditative%20Practices%20of%20Early%20Buddhism_Vetter.pdf)
 â€ą
Richard F. Gombrich (2006) [1996]. How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned
Genesis of the Early Teachings
(https://books.google.com/books?id=hQOAAgAAQBAJ). Routledge. ISBN
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)) 978-1-134-19639-5
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-134-19639-5).,
chapter four
 â€ą Anderson, Carol (1999), Pain and Its Ending: The Four Noble Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon, Routledge
 â€ą Alexander Wynne (2007), The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, Routledge
 4
^ Bhikkhu Sujato & Bhikkhu Brahmali, p.4: “Most academic scholars
of Early Buddhism cautiously affirm that it is possible that the EBTS
contain some authentic sayings of the Buddha. We contend that this
drastically understates the evidence. A sympathetic assessment of
relevant evidence shows that it is very likely that the bulk of the
sayings in the EBTS that are attributed to the Buddha were actually
spoken by him. It is very unlikely that most of these sayings are
inauthentic.[web 3]
 5 ^ According to Schmithausen, three positions
held by scholars of Buddhism can be distinguished regarding the
possibility to retain knowledge of the oldest Buddhism:[16]
 1
“Stress on the fundamental homogeneity and substantial authenticity of
at least a considerable part of the Nikayic materials;”[subnote 1]
 2 “Scepticism with regard to the possibility of retrieving the doctrine of earliest Buddhism;”[subnote 2]
 3 “Cautious optimism in this respect.”[subnote 3]
 6
^ The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta is best-known from the Pāli Canon
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81li_Canon), Saáčƒyutta Nikāya
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samyutta_Nikaya) chapter 56, sutta 11.
In the Chinese Buddhist canon
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Buddhist_canon) there are
numerous editions of this sutra from a variety of different schools in
ancient India, including the Sarvāstivāda
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarvastivada), Dharmaguptaka
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmaguptaka), and Mahīƛāsaka
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%AB%C5%9B%C4%81saka), as well as
an edition translated as early as 170 by the early Parthian missionary
An Shigao (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Shigao). Parallel texts
can be found in other early Buddhist sources as well, such as the
Sarvāstivādin Lalitavistara Sƫtra
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lalitavistara_S%C5%ABtra) and the
Lokottaravādin (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lokottarav%C4%81da)
Mahāvastu (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81vastu).[web 4]
 7 ^ Translation Bhikkhu Bodhi (2000), Samyutta Nikaya, SN 56.11, p.1846. See also Anderson (2001), Pain and its Ending, p.69.
 8
^ MN 26.17 merely says “[’]This will serve for the striving of a
clansman intent on striving.’ And I sat down there thinking: ‘This will
serve for striving.
‘[25]
According to Bhikkhu Bodhi Majjhima Nikaya 36 then continuous with the
extreme ascetic practices, which are omitted in MN 26.[26] In verse 18,
the Buddha has attained Nirvana, being secured from bondage by birth,
ageing, sickness and death, referring to the truths of dependent
origination and “the stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of
all attachments, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation.”[27]
 9
^ According to Cousins, Anderson misunderstands Norman in this respect,
but does “not think that this misunderstanding of Norman’s position
critically affects Anderson’s thesis. Even if these arguments do not
prove that the four truths are definitely a later insertion in the
Dhammacakkapavattana-sutta, it is certainly possible to take the
position that the sutta itself is relatively late.”[29]
 10 ^ Gombrich includes an end note here citing “Norman 1982″ (.[31]
 11
^ “Enlightenment” is a typical western term, which bears its own,
specific western connotations, meanings and interpretations.[34][35][36]
 12
^ Gethin: “The word satya (Pali sacca) can certainly mean truth, but it
might equally be rendered as ‘real’ or ‘actual thing’. That is, we are
not dealing here with propositional truths with which we must either
agree or disagree, but with four ‘true things’ or ‘realities’ whose
nature, we are told, the Buddha finally understood on the night of his
awakening. […] This is not to say that the Buddha’s discourses do not
contain theoretical statements of the nature of suffering, its cause,
its cessation, and the path to its cessation, but these descriptions
function not so much as dogmas of the Buddhist faith as a convenient
conceptual framework for making sense of Buddhist thought.”[41]
Subnotes
 1
^ Well-known proponents of the first position are: * A.K. Warder
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/A.K._Warder). According to A.K. Warder,
in his 1970 publication “Indian Buddhism”, from the oldest extant texts
a common kernel can be drawn out,[17] namely the Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhipakkhiy%C4%81dhamm%C4%81).
According to Warder, c.q. his publisher: “This kernel of doctrine is
presumably common Buddhism of the period before the great schisms of the
fourth and third centuries BC. It may be substantially the Buddhism of
the Buddha himself, although this cannot be proved: at any rate it is a
Buddhism presupposed by the schools as existing about a hundred years
after the parinirvana of the Buddha, and there is no evidence to suggest
that it was formulated by anyone else than the Buddha and his immediate
followers.”[17] * Richard Gombrich
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Gombrich): “I have the greatest
difficulty in accepting that the main edifice is not the work of a
single genius. By “the main edifice” I mean the collections of the main
body of sermons, the four Nikāyas, and of the main body of monastic
rules.”[15]
 2 ^ A proponent of the second position is Ronald
Davidson: “While most scholars agree that there was a rough body of
sacred literature (disputed)(sic) that a relatively early community
(disputed)(sic) maintained and transmitted, we have little confidence
that much, if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word
of the historic Buddha.”[18]
 3 ^ Well-known proponent of the third
position are: * J.W. de Jong: “It would be hypocritical to assert that
nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism […] the
basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well
have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by
his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas.”[19] * Johannes
Bronkhorst: “This position is to be preferred to (ii) for purely
methodological reasons: only those who seek may find, even if no success
is guaranteed.”[20] * Donald Lopez: “The original teachings of the
historical Buddha are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to recover
or reconstruct.”[21]
References
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=13)
 1 ^ Gethin 1998, p. 59.
 2 ^ Norman 2003.
 3 ^ a b Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Location 174.
 4 ^ Sucitto 2010, p. 193.
 5 ^ Sucitto 2010, pp. 10-12.
 6 ^ Dhamma 1997, pp. 22-24.
 7 ^ Geshe Tashi Tsering 2005, Kindle Locations 163-169.
 8 ^ Gethin 1998, p. 25.
9 ^ a b Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Locations 1822-1884.
 10 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, pp. 6-8.
 11 ^ Vetter 1988, p. ix.
 12 ^ Bronkhorst 1993.
 13 ^ Vetter 1988.
 14 ^ Schmithausen 1981.
 15 ^ a b Gombrich 1997.
 16 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. vii.
 17 ^ a b Warder 1999, inside flap.
 18 ^ Davidson 2003, p. 147.
 19 ^ Jong 1993, p. 25.
 20 ^ Bronkhorst 1997, p. vii.
 21 ^ Lopez 1995, p. 4.
 22 ^ a b c d Bronkhorst 1993, p. 110.
 23 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 69.
 24 ^ Bhikkhu Bodhi 2000, p. 1846.
 25 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 259.
 26 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 1216, note 403.
 27 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 259-260.
 28 ^ Anderson 1999, p. 68.
 29 ^ a b Cousins 2001, p. 38.
 30 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. 106.
 31 ^ Norman 1982.
 32 ^ Gombrich 2002, p. 61.
 33 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. 54-55, 96, 99.
 34 ^ Cohen 2006.
 35 ^ Sharf 1995.
 36 ^ Sharf 2000.
 37 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 268.
 38 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. 100-101.
 39 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 131.
 40 ^ a b Anderson 2001, p. 85.
 41 ^ Gethin 1998, p. 60.
 42 ^ a b Anderson 2001, p. 86.
 43 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 86-87.
 44 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 132.
 45 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, p. 257.
 46 ^ Dhamma 1997, pp. 17-20.
 47 ^ Rahula 2007, Kindle Location 2055.
 48 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Location 7566.
 49 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 2012, p. 81.
Sources
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=14)
Printed sources
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=15)
Pali Canon
 â€ą
The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the
Samyutta Nikaya, translated by Bhikkhu, Bodhi, Boston: Wisdom
Publications, 2000, ISBN
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)) 0-86171-331-1
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-331-1)
 â€ą
Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) (1995), The Middle Length Discourses of
the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom
Publications, ISBN (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier))
0-86171-072-X
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-072-X)
Buddhist teachers
 â€ą
Anandajoti Bhikkhu (trans.) (2010). The Earliest Recorded Discourses of
the Buddha (from Lalitavistara, Mahākhandhaka & Mahāvastu). Kuala
Lumpur: Sukhi Hotu. Also available on-line
(http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/English-Texts/Earliest-Discourses/index.htm).
 â€ą Sumedho, Ajahn (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajahn_Sumedho) (2002), The Four Noble Truths, Amaravati Publications
 â€ą
Sucitto, Ajahn (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajahn_Sucitto) (2010),
Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha’s First Teaching,
Shambhala
 â€ą Dhamma, Ven. Dr. Rewata (1997), The First Discourse of
the Buddha, Wisdom, ISBN
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)) 0-86171-104-1
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-104-1)
 â€ą Geshe Tashi Tsering (2005), The Four Noble Truths: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought, Volume I (Kindle ed.), Wisdom
 â€ą Gethin, Rupert (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rupert_Gethin) (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press
 â€ą
Goldstein, Joseph
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Goldstein_(writer)) (2002), One
Dharma: The Emerging Western Buddhism, HarperCollins
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thich_Nhat_Hanh) (1991), Old Path White Clouds, Parallax Press
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh (1999), The Heart of the Buddha’s Teaching, Three River Press
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh (2012), Path of Compassion: Stories from the Buddha’s Life, Parallax Press
 â€ą Rahula, Walpola (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walpola_Rahula) (2007), What the Buddha Taught (Kindle ed.), Grove Press
Secondary
 â€ą Anderson, Carol (2001), Pain and Its Ending: The Four Noble Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon, Motilall Banarsidas
 â€ą Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
 â€ą Cohen, Robert S. (2006), Beyond Enlightenment: Buddhism, Religion, Modernity, Routledge
 â€ą
Cousins, L.S. (2001), “Review of Pain and its Ending: The Four Noble
Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon” (PDF), Journal of Buddhist
Ethics, 8: 36–41
 â€ą Davidson, Ronald M. (2003), Indian Esoteric Buddhism, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12618-2
 â€ą
Gombrich, Richard (2002) [1988], Theravada Buddhism: A Social History
from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, London: Routledge, ISBN
0-415-07585-8
 â€ą Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism Began: The
Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings, Routledge, ISBN
978-1-134-19639-5
 â€ą Harvey, Peter (1990), Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press
 â€ą Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (1995), Buddhism in Practice (PDF), Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-04442-2
 â€ą
Norman, K.R. (1982), “The Four Noble Truths: a problem of Pali syntax”,
in Hercus, L.A.; et al. (eds.), Indological and Buddhist Studies:
Volume in Honour of Professor J.W. de Jong on his Sixtieth Birthday,
Canberra, pp.
9 ^ a b Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Locations 1822-1884.
 10 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, pp. 6-8.
 11 ^ Vetter 1988, p. ix.
 12 ^ Bronkhorst 1993.
 13 ^ Vetter 1988.
 14 ^ Schmithausen 1981.
 15 ^ a b Gombrich 1997.
 16 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. vii.
 17 ^ a b Warder 1999, inside flap.
 18 ^ Davidson 2003, p. 147.
 19 ^ Jong 1993, p. 25.
 20 ^ Bronkhorst 1997, p. vii.
 21 ^ Lopez 1995, p. 4.
 22 ^ a b c d Bronkhorst 1993, p. 110.
 23 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 69.
 24 ^ Bhikkhu Bodhi 2000, p. 1846.
 25 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 259.
 26 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 1216, note 403.
 27 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 259-260.
 28 ^ Anderson 1999, p. 68.
 29 ^ a b Cousins 2001, p. 38.
 30 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. 106.
 31 ^ Norman 1982.
 32 ^ Gombrich 2002, p. 61.
 33 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. 54-55, 96, 99.
 34 ^ Cohen 2006.
 35 ^ Sharf 1995.
 36 ^ Sharf 2000.
 37 ^ Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) 1995, p. 268.
 38 ^ Bronkhorst 1993, p. 100-101.
 39 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 131.
 40 ^ a b Anderson 2001, p. 85.
 41 ^ Gethin 1998, p. 60.
 42 ^ a b Anderson 2001, p. 86.
 43 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 86-87.
 44 ^ Anderson 2001, p. 132.
 45 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 1999, p. 257.
 46 ^ Dhamma 1997, pp. 17-20.
 47 ^ Rahula 2007, Kindle Location 2055.
 48 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 1991, Kindle Location 7566.
 49 ^ Thich Nhat Hanh 2012, p. 81.
Sources
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=14)
Printed sources
Edit (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhammacakkappavattana_Sutta&action=edit§ion=15)
Pali Canon
 â€ą
The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the
Samyutta Nikaya, translated by Bhikkhu, Bodhi, Boston: Wisdom
Publications, 2000, ISBN
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)) 0-86171-331-1
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-331-1)
 â€ą
Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator) (1995), The Middle Length Discourses of
the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom
Publications, ISBN (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier))
0-86171-072-X
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-072-X)
Buddhist teachers
 â€ą
Anandajoti Bhikkhu (trans.) (2010). The Earliest Recorded Discourses of
the Buddha (from Lalitavistara, Mahākhandhaka & Mahāvastu). Kuala
Lumpur: Sukhi Hotu. Also available on-line
(http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/English-Texts/Earliest-Discourses/index.htm).
 â€ą Sumedho, Ajahn (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajahn_Sumedho) (2002), The Four Noble Truths, Amaravati Publications
 â€ą
Sucitto, Ajahn (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajahn_Sucitto) (2010),
Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha’s First Teaching,
Shambhala
 â€ą Dhamma, Ven. Dr. Rewata (1997), The First Discourse of
the Buddha, Wisdom, ISBN
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)) 0-86171-104-1
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86171-104-1)
 â€ą Geshe Tashi Tsering (2005), The Four Noble Truths: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought, Volume I (Kindle ed.), Wisdom
 â€ą Gethin, Rupert (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rupert_Gethin) (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press
 â€ą
Goldstein, Joseph
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Goldstein_(writer)) (2002), One
Dharma: The Emerging Western Buddhism, HarperCollins
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thich_Nhat_Hanh) (1991), Old Path White Clouds, Parallax Press
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh (1999), The Heart of the Buddha’s Teaching, Three River Press
 â€ą Thich Nhat Hanh (2012), Path of Compassion: Stories from the Buddha’s Life, Parallax Press
 â€ą Rahula, Walpola (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walpola_Rahula) (2007), What the Buddha Taught (Kindle ed.), Grove Press
Secondary
 â€ą Anderson, Carol (2001), Pain and Its Ending: The Four Noble Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon, Motilall Banarsidas
 â€ą Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
 â€ą Cohen, Robert S. (2006), Beyond Enlightenment: Buddhism, Religion, Modernity, Routledge
 â€ą
Cousins, L.S. (2001), “Review of Pain and its Ending: The Four Noble
Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon” (PDF), Journal of Buddhist
Ethics, 8: 36–41
 â€ą Davidson, Ronald M. (2003), Indian Esoteric Buddhism, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12618-2
 â€ą
Gombrich, Richard (2002) [1988], Theravada Buddhism: A Social History
from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, London: Routledge, ISBN
0-415-07585-8
 â€ą Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism Began: The
Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings, Routledge, ISBN
978-1-134-19639-5
 â€ą Harvey, Peter (1990), Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press
 â€ą Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (1995), Buddhism in Practice (PDF), Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-04442-2
 â€ą
Norman, K.R. (1982), “The Four Noble Truths: a problem of Pali syntax”,
in Hercus, L.A.; et al. (eds.), Indological and Buddhist Studies:
Volume in Honour of Professor J.W. de Jong on his Sixtieth Birthday,
Canberra, pp.
“Evam me sutam” — “Thus have I heard.”

https://youtu.be/M_EVrdW9GK8
https://youtu.be/lnQuIGxteGI
All the original sermons chanting heard during the Buddha’s forty-five year teaching career.

Most of these sermons therefore begin with the disclaimer, “Evam me sutam” — “Thus have I heard.”

After
the Buddha’s death the teachings continued to be passed down orally
within the monastic community, in keeping with an Prabuddha Bharathian
oral tradition
that long predated the Buddha.

By 250 BCE the
Sangha had systematically arranged and compiled these teachings into
three divisions: the Vinaya Pitaka (the “basket of discipline” — the
texts
concerning the rules and customs of the Sangha), the Sutta
Pitaka (the “basket of discourses” — the sermons and utterances by the
Buddha and his close disciples), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the “basket
of special/higher doctrine” — a detailed psycho-philosophical analysis
of the Dhamma). Together these three are known as the Tipitaka, the
“three baskets.” In the third century BCE Sri Lankan monks began
compiling a series of exhaustive commentaries to the Tipitaka; these
were subsequently collated and translated into Pali beginning in the
fifth century CE.

The Tipitaka plus the post-canonical texts
(commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body
of classical Theravada literature.

Pali was originally a spoken
language with no alphabet of its own. It wasn’t until about 100 BCE that
the Tipitaka was first fixed in writing, by Sri Lankan scribe-monks,
who wrote the
Pali phonetically in a form of early Brahmi script.
Since then the Tipitaka has been transliterated into many different
scripts (Devanagari, Thai, Burmese, Roman, Cyrillic, to name a few).

Although
English translations of the most popular Tipitaka texts abound, many
students of Theravada find that learning the Pali language — even just a
little bit here and there — greatly deepens their understanding and
appreciation of the Buddha’s teachings.

It is the truth towards which the words in the Tipitaka point that ultimately matters, not the words themselves.

Tipitaka
will quietly continue to serve — as it has for centuries — as an
indispensable guide for millions of followers in their quest for
Awakening.

A Brief Summary of the Buddha’s Teachings

The Four Noble Truths

Shortly
after his Awakening, the Buddha delivered his first sermon, in which he
laid out the essential framework upon which all his later teachings
were based. This framework consists of the Four Noble Truths, four
fundamental principles of nature (Dhamma) that emerged from the Buddha’s
radically honest and penetrating assessment of the human condition. He
taught these truths not as metaphysical theories or as articles of
faith, but as categories by which we should frame our direct experience
in a way that conduces to Awakening:

Dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness, discontent, stress;

The
cause of dukkha: the cause of this dissatisfaction is craving (tanha)
for sensuality, for states of becoming, and states of no becoming;

The cessation of dukkha: the relinquishment of that craving;

The
path of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: the Noble
Eightfold Path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right
concentration.

Because of our ignorance (avijja) of these
Noble Truths, because of our inexperience in framing the world in their
terms, we remain bound to samsara, the wearisome cycle of birth, aging,
illness, death, and rebirth. Craving propels this process onward, from
one moment to the next and over the course of countless lifetimes, in
accordance with kamma, the universal law of cause and effect. According
to this immutable law, every action that one performs in the present
moment — whether by body, speech, or mind itself — eventually bears
fruit according to its skillfulness: act in unskillful and harmful ways
and unhappiness is bound to follow; act skillfully and happiness will
ultimately ensue. As long as one remains ignorant of this principle, one
is doomed to an aimless existence: happy one moment, in despair the
next; enjoying one lifetime in heaven, the next in hell.

The
Buddha discovered that gaining release from samsara requires assigning
to each of the Noble Truths a specific task: the first Noble Truth is to
be comprehended; the second, abandoned; the third, realized; the
fourth, developed. The full realization of the third Noble Truth paves
the way for Awakening: the end of ignorance, craving, suffering, and
kamma itself; the direct penetration to the transcendent freedom and
supreme happiness that stands as the final goal of all the Buddha’s
teachings; the Unconditioned, the Deathless, Unbinding — Nibbana the
Eternal Bliss.

The Eightfold Path and the Practice of Dhamma

Because
the roots of ignorance are so intimately entwined with the fabric of
the psyche, the unawakened mind is capable of deceiving itself with
breathtaking ingenuity. The solution therefore requires more than simply
being kind, loving, and mindful in the present moment. The practitioner
must equip him- or herself with the expertise to use a range of tools
to outwit, outlast, and eventually uproot the mind’s unskillful
tendencies. For example, the practice of generosity (dana) erodes the
mind’s habitual tendencies towards craving and teaches valuable lessons
about the motivations behind, and the results of, skillful action. The
practice of virtue (sila) guards one against straying wildly off-course
and into harm’s way. The cultivation of goodwill (metta) helps to
undermine anger’s seductive grasp. The ten recollections offer ways to
alleviate doubt, bear physical pain with composure, maintain a healthy
sense of self-respect, overcome laziness and complacency, and restrain
oneself from unbridled lust. And there are many more skills to learn.

The
good qualities that emerge and mature from these practices not only
smooth the way for the journey to Nibbana; over time they have the
effect of transforming the practitioner into a more generous, loving,
compassionate, peaceful, and clear-headed member of society.

The individual’s sincere pursuit of Awakening is thus a priceless and timely gift to a world in desperate need of help.

Discernment (pañña)

The
Eightfold Path is best understood as a collection of personal qualities
to be developed, rather than as a sequence of steps along a linear
path. The development of right view and right resolve (the factors
classically identified with wisdom and discernment) facilitates the
development of right speech, action, and livelihood (the factors
identified with virtue). As virtue develops so do the factors identified
with concentration (right effort, mindfulness, and concentration).

Likewise,
as concentration matures, discernment evolves to a still deeper level.
And so the process unfolds: development of one factor fosters
development of the next, lifting the practitioner in an upward spiral of
spiritual maturity that eventually culminates in Awakening.

The
long journey to Awakening begins in earnest with the first tentative
stirrings of right view — the discernment by which one recognizes the
validity of the four Noble Truths and the principle of kamma.

One
begins to see that one’s future well-being is neither predestined by
fate, nor left to the whims of a divine being or random chance. The
responsibility for one’s happiness rests squarely on one’s own
shoulders. Seeing this, one’s spiritual aims become suddenly clear: to
relinquish the habitual unskillful tendencies of the mind in favor of
skilful ones. As this right resolve grows stronger, so does the
heartfelt desire to live a morally upright life, to choose one’s actions
with care.

At this point many followers make the inward
commitment to take the Buddha’s teachings to heart, to become “Buddhist”
through the act of taking refuge in the Triple Gem: the Buddha (both
the historical Buddha and one’s own innate potential for Awakening), the
Dhamma (both the Buddha’s teachings and the ultimate Truth towards
which they point), and the Sangha (both the unbroken monastic lineage
that has preserved the teachings since the Buddha’s day, and all those
who have achieved at least some degree of Awakening). With one’s feet
thus planted on solid ground, and with the help of an admirable friend
or teacher (kalyanamitta) to guide the way, one is now well-equipped to
proceed down the Path, following in the footsteps left by the Buddha
himself.

Virtue (sila)

Right view and right resolve
continue to mature through the development of the path factors
associated with sila, or virtue — namely, right speech, right action,
and right livelihood.

These are condensed into a very practical
form in the five precepts, the basic code of ethical conduct to which
every practicing Buddhist subscribes: refraining from killing, stealing,
sexual misconduct, lying, and using intoxicants. Even the monks’
complex code of 227 rules and the nuns’ 311 ultimately have these five
basic precepts at their core.

Concentration (samadhi)

Having
gained a foothold in the purification of one’s outward behavior through
the practice of sila, the essential groundwork has been laid for
delving into the most subtle and transformative aspect of the path:
meditation and the development of samadhi, or concentration. This is
spelled out in detail in the final three path factors: right effort, by
which one learns how to favor skillful qualities of mind over unskillful
ones; right mindfulness, by which one learns to keep one’s attention
continually grounded in the present moment of experience; and right
concentration, by which one learns to immerse the mind so thoroughly and
unwaveringly in its meditation object that it enters jhana, a series of
progressively deeper states of mental and physical tranquillity.

Right
mindfulness and right concentration are developed in tandem through
satipatthana (”frames of reference” or “foundations of mindfulness”), a
systematic approach to meditation practice that embraces a wide range of
skills and techniques. Of these practices, mindfulness of the body
(especially mindfulness of breathing) is particularly effective at
bringing into balance the twin qualities of tranquillity (samatha) and
insight (vipassana), or clear-seeing. Through persistent practice, the
meditator becomes more adept at bringing the combined powers of
samatha-vipassana to bear in an exploration of the fundamental nature of
mind and bodyAs the meditator masters the ability to frame his
immediate experience in terms of anicca (inconstancy), dukkha, and
anatta (not-self), even the subtlest manifestations of these three
characteristics of experience are brought into exquisitely sharp focus.

At
the same time, the root cause of dukkha — craving — is relentlessly
exposed to the light of awareness. Eventually craving is left with no
place to hide, the entire karmic process that fabricates dukkha
unravels, the eightfold path reaches its noble climax, and the meditator
gains, at long last, his or her first unmistakable glimpse of the
Unconditioned Nibbana the Eternal Bliss.

Awakening

This
first awakenment experience, known as stream-entry (sotapatti), is the
first of four progressive stages of Awakening, each of which entails the
irreversible shedding or weakening of several fetters (samyojana), the
manifestations of ignorance that bind a person to the cycle of birth and
death.

Stream-entry marks an unprecedented and radical turning
point both in the practitioner’s current life and in the entirety of his
or her long journey in samsara. For it is at this point that any
lingering doubts about the truth of the Buddha’s teachings disappear; it
is at this point that any belief in the purifying efficacy of rites and
rituals evaporates; and it is at this point that the long-cherished
notion of an abiding personal “self” falls away. The stream-enterer is
said to be assured of no more than seven future rebirths (all of them
favorable) before eventually attaining full Awakening.

But full
Awakening is still a long way off. As the practitioner presses on with
renewed diligence, he or she passes through two more significant
landmarks:
once-returning (sakadagati), which is accompanied by the
weakening of I the fetters of sensual desire and ill-will, and
non-returning (agati), in which these two fetters are uprooted
altogether.

The final stage of Awakening — arahatta — occurs when
even the most refined and subtle levels of craving and conceit are
irrevocably extinguished.

At this point the practitioner — now an
arahant, or “worthy one” — arrives at the end-point of the Buddha’s
teaching. With ignorance, suffering, stress, and rebirth having all come
to their end, the arahant at last can utter the victory cry first
proclaimed by the Buddha upon his Awakening:
“Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done! There is nothing further for the sake of this world.”
— MN 36

The
arahant lives out the remainder of his or her life inwardly enjoying
the bliss of Nibbana, secure at last from the possibility of any future
rebirth. When the arahant’s aeons-long trail of past kamma eventually
unwinds to its end, the arahant dies and he or she enters into
parinibbana — total Unbinding. Although language utterly fails at
describing this extraordinary event, the Buddha likened it to what
happens when a fire finally burns up all its fuel.

“The serious
pursuit of happiness” Buddhism is sometimes naïvely criticized as a
“negative” or “pessimistic” religion and philosophy. Surely life is not
all misery and disappointment: it offers many kinds of happiness and
sublime joy. Why then this dreary Buddhist obsession with
unsatisfactoriness and suffering?

The
Buddha based his teachings on a frank assessment of our plight as
humans: there is unsatisfactoriness and suffering in the world. No one
can argue this fact. Dukkha lurks behind even the highest forms of
worldly pleasure and joy, for, sooner or later, as surely as night
follows day, that happiness must come to an end. Were the Buddha’s
teachings to stop there, we might indeed regard them as pessimistic and
life as utterly hopeless. But, like a doctor who prescribes a remedy for
an illness, the Buddha offers both a hope (the third Noble Truth) and a
cure (the fourth). The Buddha’s teachings thus give cause for
unparalleled optimism and joy. The teachings offer as their reward the
noblest, truest kind of happiness, and give profound value and meaning
to an otherwise grim existence. One modern teacher summed it up well:

“Buddhism is the serious pursuit of happiness.”

Theravada Comes West

Until
the late 19th century, the teachings of Theravada were little known
outside of southern Asia, where they had flourished for some two and
one-half millennia. In the past century, however, the West has begun to
take notice of Theravada’s unique spiritual legacy in its teachings of
Awakening. In recent decades this interest has swelled, with the
monastic Sangha from various schools within Theravada establishing
dozens of monasteries across Europe and North America. Increasing
numbers of lay meditation centers, founded and operated independently of
the
monastic Sangha, strain to meet the demands of lay men and women —
Buddhist and otherwise — seeking to learn selected aspects of the
Buddha’s teachings.

The turn of the 21st century presents both
opportunities and dangers for Theravada in the West: Will the Buddha’s
teachings be patiently studied and put into practice, and allowed
toestablish deep roots in Western soil, for the benefit of many
generations to come? Will the current popular Western climate of
“openness” and cross-fertilization between spiritual traditions lead to
the emergence of a strong new form of Buddhist practice unique to the
modern era, or will it simply lead to confusion and the dilution of
these priceless teachings? These are open questions; only time will
tell.

Spiritual teachings of every description inundate the media
and the marketplace today. Many of today’s popular spiritual teachings
borrow liberally from the Buddha, though only rarely do they place the
Buddha’s words in their true context. Earnest seekers of truth are
therefore often faced with the unsavory task of wading through
fragmentary teachings of dubious accuracy.

How are we to make sense of it all?

Fortunately
the Buddha left us with some simple guidelines to help us navigate
through this bewildering flood. Whenever you find yourself questioning
the authenticity of a particular teaching, heed well the Buddha’s advice
to his stepmother:
[The teachings that promote] the qualities of
which you may know, ‘These qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion;
to being fettered, not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to
shedding; to self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to
contentment; to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to
aroused persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome’:
You may categorically hold, ‘This is not the Dhamma, this is not the
Vinaya, this is not the Teacher’s instruction.’ [As for the teachings
that promote] the qualities of
which you may know, ‘These qualities
lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered, not to being
fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to modesty, not to
self-aggrandizement; to contentment,not to discontent; to seclusion, not
to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to laziness; to being
unburdensome, not to being burdensome’: You may categorically hold,
‘This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher’s
instruction.’
— AN 8.53

The truest test of these teachings, of course, is whether they yield the
promised results in the crucible of your own heart.
The Buddha presents the challenge; the rest is up to you.
END

NAM MO SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA.( 3
TIMES ).
RESEARCH THEREVADA RELIGION BY BACH LIEN HOA.( TAM THANH
).MHDT.30/3/2012.
10 Life Lessons From Buddha (Buddhism)

Bhagawan
Buddha says ‘There is little dust in the eyes of people, remove that
ignorance, they will walk on the path of Dhamma. Being learned and
skillful in craft, Disciplined in morals and well cultivated, Being
gifted with words of wisdom, Each is a great blessing – Mangala Sutta

To share the genuine Theravada Buddhism with the people of the world.

To Study, teach and practice Theravada Buddhism as found in Pali Tipitaka containing the original teachings of the Buddha.


    VINAYA PITAKA – BUDDHIST ETHICS

    Introduction to Vinaya both as Theory and Practice

    Study of the various parts of the Vinaya as rules of Moral Discipline Vinaya as “The Life blood of Dhamma”

    Importance of disciplined conduct in Theravada.

    The background stories of Vinaya rules reveal their spiritual importance.

    The practical Handbook called Patimokkha as the essential core of the monastic discipline.

    Violation of monastic conduct in the form of the seven ‘Offences – apattis’

    A general review of the concept of Sikkhapada – Vinaya discipline and apattis their violations.

    SUTTA PITAKA – BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY

 
  Sutta pitaka uses conventional languages to enunciate and practice
the Dhamma as distinct from Abhidhamma’s non-conventional, paramattha
ultimate terms.

    Introduction to the Suttanata Pitaka and how it differs from the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas.

    Dhammacakkapavatana Sutta – Basic teaching of the Buddha on four Noble Truths.

    Topics of Dhammacakkappavattana sutta.

The two extremes.

    The Middle Path was distinct from the two extremes.
    The Three phases and twelve ways of the Wheel of truth Sutta.

    Digha, Majjhima, Kuddaka, Anguttara, Samyutta Nikayas-study of selected suttas

    ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA- BUDDHIST PSYCHOLOGY

Introduction
to the Abhidhamma Pitaka and how it is distinct from Vinaya and Sutta
Pitakas. The distinction between pannatti (conventional) and paramattha
(ultimate) dhammas. The various categories of analysis of paramattha
Citta, consciousness analyzed into 89 or 121 states Cetasikas constitute
mental factors of consciousness. What is cetasika. The four
characteristics of cetasika as it functions as an associate of citta.
What is the nature of Citta (interpretation). How to associate citta and
cetasika dhammas – sampayoga. How cetasikas are associated with cittas –
sahagata. How cetasikas function as associates of a citta.

    HISTORY OF THERAVADA BUDDHISM

    Definition of Dhamma as found in Theravada.
    Different viewpoints regarding Dhamma.
    The origin of Buddhist culture.
    Ancient as found in India and elsewhere.
    Practice of Buddhist culture in daily life as found in different lands.
    Buddhist ceremonies – cultural, moral and their spiritual significance.

    BASIC PRACTICES OF THERAVADA BUDDHA DHAMMA

    The significance of the 3 Ratanas, The three ways of paying homage.

    The highest attributes of the threefold refuge.

 
  The basic concepts that everyone should understand. What is
wholesome, (Kusala), unwholesome, (Akusala) – Good and Bad, they are the
actual qualities and knowledge.

    The ten meritorious and the
ten de-meritorious actions form one’s conduct, thus making life
upward-moving or downward-moving the mental development.

    The threefold basic principle : Dana, Sila, Bhavana and Sila, Samadhi, Panya

    The ten perfections – Paramis

    Understanding the significance of kamma and its result in life
    The common pali sutta chanting and elaboration of these chanting.

    PRACTICE OF MEDITATION

    Four sublime states – Brahma Viharas – Metta, Karuna, Mudita, Uppekkha
How to radiate and how they differ from each other.
    Benefits of meditation in Theravada Buddhism
    Samatha and Vipassana Meditation.

    Meditation and its 40 subjects.

    LIFE OF BUDDHA

    Buddha’s birth and early life

    Various early life events – Mahabhinikkhamana Buddhas’ struggle for awakenment – 6 years of penance
    The basic fallacies of self mortification and sensual indulgence.
    The struggle for Enlightenment – Bodhi a detailed study
    Setting in motion the Wheel of Truth – Dhammacakkappavattana
    The spreading of the Dhamma – Establishment of Sangha
    Formation of the holy order of Nuns – Bhikkhunis
    The Great Demise – Mahaparinirvana.

    PALI LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

    To learn pali canonical language
    Pali Grammar
    Pali language history
    Pali literature
    Pali works

Sutta PiÎŒaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
(3) P±Όikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]

(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)

5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)

10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)


3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided into 6 books]

(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)

4.
Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged
purely numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)

(5) AΌΌhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)

5.
Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the TipiÎŒaka itself.; 12 books]

(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i

1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the TipiÎŒaka; a collection of 423 verses in 26 vaggas)

3.
Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in
verses, with some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the
utterance)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i 4. Itivuttaka (4
nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha]) 5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in
verse; contains many of the best known, most popular suttas of the
Buddha

(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6.
Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms) 7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems
describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to
their demeritorious acts) 8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight
after the attainment of arahatship from 264 elder bhikkhus; 107 poems,
1,279 g±thas) 9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73
poems, 522 g±thas)

(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II

10.
J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama
Buddha; 547 stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the
number of verses required to tell the story. The full J±taka stories are
actually in the J±taka commentaries that explain the story behind the
verses.

(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i

11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga andthe Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga

(8) PaÎŒisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i

12.
PaΌisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the
Buddha’s teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta
PiΌakas; three vaggas, each containing ten topics [kath±])

(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I

13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piÎŒaka-p±1⁄4i

14.
Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in
answer to a question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic
Sumedha and D2paakara Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including
Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piΌaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)

(11) Nettippakarana, PeÎŒakopadesa-p±1⁄4i

16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain- ing canonical texts)
17. PeÎŒakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the teaching of the Buddha)

(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i

18.
Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after
the mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)

Abhidhamma PiÎŒaka

[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i

2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42

3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.

(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42

5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of AƓoka’s reign, at Patna)

(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42

6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)


(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III

7. PaΌΌh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)

(8) PaΌΌh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) PaΌΌh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) PaΌΌh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) PaΌΌh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) PaΌΌh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V

(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30

(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7

(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______
227

Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the

Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha

3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaÎŒhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism

(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)

2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li

3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]

(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya PiÎŒaka.

LESSON 4035  Mon 19 Jul 2021

Do Good Purify Mind Attain Eternal Bliss
Overcome the worst  Illness - Buddha.

Give
a Missed Call to 8800662528 for Registration to be part of largest
Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for
Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them
to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

According to the
University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June
18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their
predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

The science behind
the new technique involves the molecule Nicotinamide Adenine
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Sutta Piáč­aka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poáč­áč­hapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poáč­áč­hapāda —
Poáč­áč­hapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Note: plain texts
Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously? ‹

Potthapada,
perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in
dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of
reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge
after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of
perception.

https://tenor.com/view/buddha-got-em-circle-game-finger-gif-15059901

Stop, stop. Do not speak. The ultimate truth is not even to think.

  We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.

 
Just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, so also this
teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of liberation.

 
The one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate
becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of
limitless range.

  Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.

 
Long is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to him who is
tired; long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.

    Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.

    Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follows a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.

 
Like a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words
are fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance with them.

 
Our theories of the eternal are as valuable as are those which a chick
which has not broken its way through its shell might form of the outside
world.

    An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.

https://tenor.com/view/pictures-fall-water-gif-13836595

There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path.

    Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.

   
The
awakened one with awareness, intent on jhana, should find delight in
the forest, should practice jhana at the foot of a tree, attaining his
own satisfaction.

    Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened.

Happiness never decreases by being shared.

    It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.

    Set your heart on doing good. Do it over and over again, and you will be filled with joy.

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the
mind on the present moment. See also: 10 Tips to Start Living in the
Present

    Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him
find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.

 
  We are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are
shaped by selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows
them like a shadow that never leaves them.

Quotes By Buddha On Meditation And Spirituality

Just
as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good
deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely
through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the
guidance of virtue.

    The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.

    The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast.

Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a
life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.

    There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth
not going all the way, and not starting.

    Nothing is forever except change.

https://tenor.com/view/buddha-lord-pray-religious-symbolism-gif-11739173

Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life.

    Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.

    To be idle is a short road to death and to be diligent is a way of life; foolish people are idle, wise people are diligent.

    Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let them resolutely pursue a solitary course.

    If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.

https://tenor.com/view/lord-buddha-jai-bhim-gif-14756317

Someone
who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should decide that ‘I
must lead all the beings to nibbana, into that realm of nibbana which
leaves nothing behind’. What is this realm of nirvana which leaves
nothing behind ?

   Looking deeply at life as it is in this very moment, the meditator dwells in stability and freedom.

Meditation
brings wisdom; lack of mediation leaves ignorance. Know well what leads
you forward and what hold you back, and choose the path that leads to
wisdom.

    Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking and pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.

    Resolutely train yourself to attain peace.

Indeed, the sage who’s fully quenched rests at ease in every way; no
sense desire adheres to him whose fires have cooled, deprived of fuel.

All
attachments have been severed, the heart’s been led away from pain;
tranquil, he rests with utmost ease. The mind has found its way to
peace.

    He who sits alone, sleeps alone, and walks alone, who is
strenuous and subdues himself alone, will find delight in the solitude
of the forest.

    Do not turn away what is given you, nor reach out for what is given to others, lest you disturb your quietness.

    Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.

https://tenor.com/view/oh-my-buddha-police-monk-salute-gif-14069944

The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser.

    Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.

    Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.

What
is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in the midst of this
world, where each person is clinging to his piece of debris? What’s the
proper salutation between people as they pass each other in this flood?

    When watching after yourself, you watch after others. When watching after others, you watch after yourself.

  Let none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and
commissions of others. But let one see one’s own acts, done and undone.

    The true master lives in truth, in goodness and restraint, non-violence, moderation, and purity.

   
  Offend in neither word nor deed. Eat with moderation. Live in your
heart. Seek the highest consciousness. Master yourself according to the law. This is the simple teaching of the awakened.

    Life is like the harp string, if it is strung too tight it won’t
play, if it is too loose it hangs, the tension that produces the
beautiful sound lies in the middle.

    Do not believe in anything simply because you have
heard it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and
rumored
by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written
in your religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the
authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions
because they have been handed down for many generations. But after
observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason
and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it
and live up to it.

https://giphy.com/gifs/truth-parody-genie-XHrslxjF0MAjS

    Those who have failed to work toward the truth have missed the purpose of living.

Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a
life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.

    There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth
not going all the way, and not starting.

The calmed say that what is well-spoken is best; second, that one
should say what is right, not unrighteous; third, what’s pleasing, not
displeasing; fourth, what is true, not false.

    Conquer the angry one by not getting angry; conquer the wicked
by goodness; conquer the stingy by generosity, and the liar by speaking the truth.

    Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.

  There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.

    Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.

He who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a timely antidote
will
check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads, — such a monk gives up the
here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its worn-out skin.

    May all that have life be delivered from suffering.

It is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to see one’s own
faults.
One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed in the wind, but one
conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler conceals his dice.

https://tenor.com/view/joker-comics-batman-3d-gif-3438274

Those attached to the notion ‘I am’ and to views roam the world offending people.

There
is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates
people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up
pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a
sword that kills.

    Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared hare; let
therefore mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after passionlessness
for himself.

    When one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in
listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

    The instant we feel anger we have already ceased striving for the truth, and have begun striving for ourselves.

https://giphy.com/gifs/detective-loki-YW6ILhocWyViM

  You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.

    Wear your ego like a loose fitting garment.

    Some do not understand that we must die, but those who do realize this settle their quarrels.


All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place
of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.

    I do not dispute with the world; rather it is the world that disputes with me.

They
blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they
blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in the world who is
not blamed.

    Those who cling to perceptions and views wander the world offending people.

    Whoever doesn’t flare up at someone who’s angry wins a battle hard to win.

Anger will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are
cherished in the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts
of resentment are forgotten.

    Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.

https://giphy.com/gifs/game-loop-xT0xeNRxjPDexpjO9O

hammer strength GIF by CasparWain
Neither fire nor wind, birth nor death can erase our good deeds.

    Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.

    As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.

Praise and blame, gain and loss, pleasure and sorrow come and go like
the wind. To be happy, rest like a giant tree in the midst of them all.

    In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.

    Be a lamp for yourselves. Be your own refuge. Seek for no other. All things must pass. Strive on diligently. Don’t give up.

Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to
live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.

    If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.

https://giphy.com/gifs/xxuSrl9C0XUVG

   Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. Buddha

    To keep the body in good health is a duty
 otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.

    Without health life is not life; it is only a state of langour and suffering – an image of death.

The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the
past, not to worry about the future, not to anticipate the future, but
to live the present moment wisely and earnestly.

Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.

    Irrigators channel waters; fletchers straighten arrows; carpenters bend wood; the wise master themselves.

    Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.

    The greatest gift is to give people your awakenment with awareness, to share it. It has to be the greatest.

    If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.

    The root of suffering is attachment.

   
Silence the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured man with
kindness. Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar with
truth.

    People with opinions just go around bothering each other.

    Even as a solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so are the wise unshaken by praise or blame.

    You yourself must strive. The Buddhas only point the way.

    Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.

    Meditate
 do not delay, lest you later regret it.

    Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.

    Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.

    Ceasing to do evil, cultivating the good, purifying the mind: this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

    Delight in meditation and solitude. Compose yourself, be happy. You are a seeker.

    Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.

    What you are is what you have been. What you’ll be is what you do now.

    If you propose to speak always ask yourself, is it true, is it necessary, is it kind.

   
If you find no one to support you on the spiritual path, walk alone.

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/407786941258311906/

Lord BuddhađŸ™đŸ»â€ïž đŸ’«à„…..z❀NSpiceCđŸŒ¶đŸŠ‹08April2019~*💕 ⭐




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How many languages are there in the world?
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
Posted by: site admin @ 5:23 pm







How many languages are there in the world?

  • 7,117 languages are spoken today.

    That number is constantly in flux, because we’re
    learning more about the world’s languages every day. And beyond that,
    the languages themselves are in flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken
    by communities whose lives are shaped by our rapidly changing world.
    This is a fragile time: Roughly 0% of languages are now endangered,
    often with less than 1,000 speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23
    languages account for more than half the world’s population.

    When
    a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
    baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
    language known as 

  • Classical Magahi Magadhi/

  • Classical Chandaso language/

  • Magadhi Prakrit,

  • Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

  • Classical Pāិi 

  • which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living speices have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com


    in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
    02) Classical Chandaso language,

    03)Magadhi Prakrit,

    04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

    05) Classical Pāិi,

    06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- à€¶à€Ÿà€žà„à€€à„à€°à„€à€Ż à€čà€żà€‚à€Šà„€,

    07) Classical Cyrillic
    08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

    09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
    10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
    11) Classical Arabic-Ű§Ù„Ù„ŰșŰ© Ű§Ù„ŰčŰ±ŰšÙŠŰ© Ű§Ù„ÙŰ”Ű­Ù‰
    12) Classical Armenian-Ő€ŐĄŐœŐĄŐŻŐĄŐ¶ Ő°ŐĄŐ”Ő„Ö€Ő„Ő¶,


    13) Classical Assamese-àŠ§à§à§°à§àŠȘàŠŠà§€ àŠ…àŠžàŠźà§€àŠŻàŠŒàŠŸ

    14) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
    15) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
    16) Classical Belarusian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃŃ–Ń‡ĐœĐ°Ń Đ±Đ”Đ»Đ°Ń€ŃƒŃĐșая,

    17) Classical Bengali-àŠ•à§àŠČàŠŸàŠžàŠżàŠ•à§àŠŻàŠŸàŠČ àŠŹàŠŸàŠ‚àŠČàŠŸ,

    18) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
    19) Classical Bulgaria- КласОчДсĐșĐž българсĐș,

20) Classical  Catalan-CatalĂ  clĂ ssic
21) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

22) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,
23) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-ć€ć…žäž­æ–‡ïŒˆçź€äœ“ïŒ‰,

24) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-ć€ć…žäž­æ–‡ïŒˆçčé«”,

25) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

26) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska

27) Classical  Czech-KlasickĂĄ čeĆĄtina
28) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

29) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
30) Classical English,Roman,
31) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

32) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

33) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
34) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen
,
35) Classical French- Français classique,
36) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
37) Classical Galician-ClĂĄsico galego,
38) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური áƒ„áƒáƒ áƒ—áƒŁáƒšáƒ˜,
39) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
40) Classical Greek-ΚλασσÎčÎșÎŹ ΕλληΜÎčÎșÎŹ,
41) Classical Gujarati-àȘ•à«àȘČàȘŸàȘžàȘżàȘ•àȘČ àȘ—ુàȘœàȘ°àȘŸàȘ€à«€,
42) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyĂČl,

43) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
44) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

45) Classical Hebrew- ŚąŚ‘ŚšŚ™ŚȘ Ś§ŚœŚŚĄŚ™ŚȘ
46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

48) Classical Icelandic-KlassĂ­sk Ă­slensku,
49) Classical Igbo,KlassĂ­skt Igbo,
50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,
51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
53) Classical Japanese-ć€ć…žçš„ăȘむタăƒȘケèȘž,
54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
55) Classical Kannada- àȶàČŸàČžàłàČ€àłàČ°àł€àČŻ àȕàČšàłàČšàČĄ,
56) Classical Kazakh-КлассОĐșĐ°Đ»Ń‹Ò› Ò›Đ°Đ·Đ°Ò›,

57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

  • 58) Classical Kinyarwanda

    59) Classical Korean-êł ì „ 한ꔭ얎,


    60) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-KurdĂź (KurmancĂź),
    61) Classical Kyrgyz-КлассОĐșалыĐș Кыргыз,
    62) Classical Lao-àș„àș„àșČàșȘàșȘàșŽàșàș„àșČàș§,
    63) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

    64) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latvieƥu valoda,
    65) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuviƳ kalba,
    66) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch LĂ«tzebuergesch,

    67) Classical Macedonian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡Đ”Đœ ĐŒĐ°ĐșĐ”ĐŽĐŸĐœŃĐșĐž,
    68) Classical Malagasy,ĐșĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡Đ”Đœ ĐŒĐ°Đ»ĐłĐ°ŃˆĐșĐž,
    69) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
    70) Classical Malayalam-àŽ•à”àŽČàŽŸàŽžàŽżàŽ•à”àŽ•à”œ àŽźàŽČàŽŻàŽŸàŽłàŽ‚,

    71) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
    72) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
    73) Classical Marathi-à€•à„à€Čà€Ÿà€žà€żà€•à€Č à€źà€Ÿà€“à€°à„€,

    74) Classical Mongolian-ĐĄĐŸĐœĐłĐŸĐŽĐŸĐł ĐœĐŸĐœĐłĐŸĐ»,

    75) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မဌနá€șမာ (ဗမာ),

    76) Classical Nepali-à€¶à€Ÿà€žà„à€€à„à€°à„€à€Ż à€źà„à€Żà€Ÿà€‚à€źà€Ÿà€° (à€Źà€°à„à€źà€Ÿ),
    77) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

    78) Classical Odia (Oriya)

    79) Classical Pashto- ٌولګی ÙŸÚšŰȘو
    80) Classical Persian-Ú©Ù„Ű§ŰłÛŒÚ© ÙŰ§Ű±ŰłÛŒ

    81) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
    82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguĂȘs ClĂĄssico,

    83) Classical Punjabi-àš•àšČàšŸàšžà©€àš•àšČ àšȘà©°àšœàšŸàšŹà©€,
    84) Classical Romanian-Clasic romĂąnesc,

    85) Classical Russian-КлассОчДсĐșĐžĐč руссĐșĐžĐč,

    86) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
    87) Classical Sanskrit à€›à„à€Čà€žà„à€žà€żà€šà€Čà„ à€·à€šà„à€žà„à€•à„à€°à€żà€€à„
    88) Classical Scots Gaelic-GĂ idhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
89) Classical Serbian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐž српсĐșĐž,
90) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
91) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
92) Classical Sindhi,
93) Classical Sinhala-සඞ්භාව්à¶ș සිංහග,

94) Classical Slovak-KlasickĂœ slovenskĂœ,

95) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

96) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,

97) Classical Spanish-Español clåsico,
98) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
99) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

100) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
101) Classical Tajik-Ń‚ĐŸÒ·ĐžĐșÓŁ ĐșлассОĐșÓŁ,
  • 102) Classical Tamil-102) àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ




103) Classical Tatar



104) Classical Telugu- క్à°Čà°Ÿà°žà°żà°•à°Č్ ఀెà°Čుగు,
105) Classical Thai-àž àžČàž©àžČàč„àž—àžąàž„àž„àžČàžȘàžȘàžŽàž,
106) Classical Turkish-Klasik TĂŒrk,


107) Classical Turkmen


108) Classical Ukrainian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐžĐč уĐșŃ€Đ°Ń—ĐœŃŃŒĐșĐžĐč,
109) Classical Urdu- Ú©Ù„Ű§ŰłÛŒÚ©ÛŒ Ű§Ű±ŰŻÙˆ

110) Classical Uyghur,

111) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,


112) Classical Vietnamese-Tiáșżng Việ,


113) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,


114) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

115) Classical Yiddish- Ś§ŚœŚŚĄŚ™Ś©Śą Ś™Ś™ÖŽŚ“Ś™Ś©


116) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

117) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

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