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LESSON 4031 Thu 15 Jul 2021 Do Good Purify Mind Attain Eternal Bliss Overcome the worst Illness - Buddha. Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, beans vegetables, Dwarf fruit 🍎 🍉 trees in pots and all over the world and in Space to eat like birds as planned by NASA, British billionaire Richard Branson flew into space aboard a Virgin Galactic vessel and Jeff Bezos. Entire Earth and Space are Amudha SURABI of Manimegalai. Ashoka planted fruit bearing trees all over his empire. Practice Mindful Swimming - Vimalo Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow Practice Mindful Swimming - Vimalo Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow with pictures and videos
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LESSON 4031  Thu 15 Jul 2021

Do Good Purify Mind Attain Eternal Bliss
Overcome the worst  Illness - Buddha. 

Plant  raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots,  beans
vegetables, Dwarf  fruit 🍎 🍉 trees in pots and all over the world and
in
Space to eat like birds as planned by NASA, British billionaire Richard
Branson flew into space aboard a Virgin Galactic vessel and Jeff Bezos.

Entire Earth and Space are  Amudha SURABI of Manimegalai.
Ashoka planted fruit bearing trees all over his empire.

Practice Mindful Swimming - Vimalo
Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow

Practice Mindful Swimming - Vimalo Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow with pictures and videos

Potthapada,
perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in
dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of
reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge
after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception-Buddha



Free online history of Buddhism in Tamil

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Buddhism

Tamil Buddhism is Buddhism amongst the Tamils which was historically found in the Tamilakam and Sri Lanka.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Bodhidharma founder of chan Buddhism
is originated from Kanjipuram.

India   

Origin   

The
heritage of the town of Nākappaáč­áč­inam is found in the Burmese
historical text of the 3rd century BCE and gives evidence of a Budha
Vihar built by the King Ashoka. An inscription from Anuradhapura, Sri
Lanka dated to 2nd century BC records the association of Tamil merchants
with Buddhist institution.

According to A.J.V. Chandrakanthan
who recently (2019) published an article about an 11th-century
comparative work named VEERASOLIYAM, codifying Tamil and Sanskrit
Philology and Poetics is a clear indicator of the prominence given to
Buddhism in Tamil scholarship.

For several centuries in the
second millennium of the common era Buddhism-Various scholarly works
dating back to the 5th, 6th and 7th century of the common era saw the
birth of classical Tamil works composed by eminent Tamil poets with
Buddhist philosophical themes and insights illustrate the impact that
Buddhism had in the world of Tamil scholarship. One of the classical
products of that period is the ancient Tamil Buddhist epic-poem
Manimekalai by the celebrated poet Chithalai Chathanar is set in the
town of Kaveripattanam.

Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th-century
Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue, and a Buddhapada (footprint of the
Buddha) were found in another section of the ancient city, now at
Pallavanesvaram.

Nāgappaáč­áč­inam was a Buddhist centre of the
4th-5th century CE. Its stupa dates from this era-Was revived as of the
9th century. (H.P.Ray, The Winds of Change, Delhi 1994, p. 142) In the
11th century, Chudamani Vihara was built by the Javanese king Sri Vijaya
Soolamanivarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola. The “Animangalam
Copperplate” of Kulothungachola notes that “Kasiba Thera” [Buddhist
Monk] renovated the Buddhist temple in the 6th century with the help of
Buddhist monks of “Naga Nadu”. This “nagar annam vihar” later came to be
known as “Nagananavigar”. Buddhism flourished until the 15th century
and the buildings of the vigara survived until the 18th century.
Kanchipuram is one of the oldest cities in South India, and was a city
of learning for Tamil, Sanskrit, and Pali and was believed to be visited
by Xuanzang. He visited the city in the 7th century and said that this
city was 6 miles in circumference and that its people were famous for
bravery and piety as well as for their love of justice and veneration
for learning. He further recorded that Gautama Buddha had visited the
place. It was during the reign of the Pallava dynasty from the 4th to
the 9th centuries that Kanchipuram attained its limelight. The city
served as the Pallava capital, and many of the known temples were built
during their reign. According to Tamil tradition, the founder of Zen,
Bodhidharma was born here. Great Buddhist scholars such as Dignāga,
Buddhaghosa, Bodhisena Buddadithya Dhammapala Buddadatar vajrabodhi
lived here too.

Sri Lanka   

Jaffna peninsula

Nāga
Tivu/ Nāga Natu was the name of the whole Jaffna Peninsula in some
historical documents. There are number of Buddhist myths associated with
the interactions of people of this historical place with Buddha. This
Nagadeepa Purana Viharaya was located close to the ancient Nainativu
Nagapooshani Amman Temple of Nainativu, one of the Shakti Peethas. The
word Naga was sometimes written in early inscriptions as Nāya, as in
Nāganika - this occurs in the Nanaghat inscription of 150 BCE.

The
famous Vallipuram Buddha statue built with Dravidian sculptural
traditions from Amaravathi village, Guntur district (Amaravati school)
was found in excavations below the Hindu Temple. The language of the
inscription is Tamil language-Prakrit, which shares several similarities
with script inscriptions used in Andhra at the time, when the Telugu
Satavahana dynasty was at the height of its power and its 17th monarch
Hāla (20-24 CE) married a princess from the island.Peter Schalk writes,
“Vallipuram has very rich archaeological remains that point at an early
settlement. It was probably an emporium in the first centuries AD. From
already dated stones with which we compare this Vallipuram statue, we
can conclude that it falls in the period 3-4 century AD. During that
period, the typical Amaravati-Buddha sculpture was developed.”The Buddha
statue found here was given to King of Thailand by the then British
Governor Henry Blake in 1906

Indrapala argued for a flourishing
pre-Christian Buddhist civilization in Jaffna, in agreement with
Paranavithana, and Mudliyar C. Rasanayakam, Ancient Jaffna in an earlier
work, 1965.

This place is similar to Nagapatnam where all Asian
vessels used it as a stopover point and the Buddhist and Hindu Dagobas
are just a resting and worshipping places for the sailors and
international traders.

A group of Dagobas situated close
together at the Kadurugoda Vihara site in Kandarodai served as a
monastery for Tamil monks and reflect the rise in popularity of Mahayana
Buddhism amongst Jaffna Tamils and the Tamils of the ancient Tamil
country in the first few centuries of the common era before the
revivalism of Hinduism amongst the population.

Trincomalee   

Thiriyai
is referred to as Thalakori in the 2nd century CE map of Ptolemy.
Pre-Christian-Buddhist Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions have been found in the
area, the oldest belonging to the 2nd century BCE. Thiriyai formed a
prominent village of Jaffna’s Vannimai districts in the medieval period.
The site is home to Mahayana Buddhist vatadage ruins worshipped by the
locals during the rise of Tamil Buddhism in the area. During
Paramesvaravarman I’s reign, the famous Tiriyai Pallava Grantha
inscriptions of 7th-8th century Tamilakam were recorded in the village.
The inscription refers to Tamil merchant mariners from Tamil Nadu, their
seafaring and commerce to Trincomalee. It details their endowment of
this shrine dedicated to the Buddhist deity Avalokitesvara and his
consort Tara.  Dvarapala sculptures found at the ruins are early
contributions of the Pallava school of art to the island.

The
Chola Dynasty patronized several religions amongst Tamils, including
Saivism, Vaishnavism, and Buddhism. They built Buddhist temples known as
“Perrumpallis”. In the eleventh century the Velgam Vehera of
Periyakulam was renovated and renamed by the Cholas as
Rajarajaperumpalli after they conquered the Anuradhapura and established
their rule in Polonnaruwa. Tamil inscriptions excavated from this site
point to the attention the Cholas paid to the development of Trincomalee
District as a strong Saiva Tamil principality and for their
contributions to the upkeep of several shrines including the monumental
Shiva Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee.

See also   

Buddhaghosa
Dhammapāla
Manimekalai
Kundalakesi
Sri Lanka Maha Bodhi Centre, Chennai

Notes   

^
Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant,
and subsequent accounts became layered with legend.[8] There are three
principal sources for Bodhidharma’s biography.[9]None of them mentions
specifically Tamil Nadu, only “the western regions” and “Souther India”.
See Bodhidharma#Birthplace sources for an extensive overview of
possible origins, and the reliability of the sources provided for these
possible origins.

References

^ Duraiswamy, Dayalan. “Role of Archaeology on Maritime Buddhism”.
^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maáč‡imekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928. Available at www.archive.org [1]
^
Hisselle Dhammaratana,Buddhism in South India, Buddhist Publication
Society, Kandy, 1964. Available on Buddhist Publication Society Online
Library [2]
^ Marine archaeological explorations of
Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast., Rao, S.R.. Journal of
Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 6. Available online at [3]
Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
^ Kambe & year unknown.
^ Zvelebil 1987, p. 125-126.
^ McRae 2003.
^ Dumoulin 2005, p. 85-90.
^
a b Schalk, Peter (2002). Buddhism among Tamils in pre-colonial
Tamilakam and ÄȘlam: Prologue. The Pre-Pallava and the Pallava period,
Uppsala: Upplala Universitet; pp. 1
^ http://www.buddhanet.net/sacred-island/nagadipa.html
^
Malalasekera, G.P. (2003). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names:
Pali-English. Asian Educational Services. p. 42. ISBN 81-206-1823-8.
^
Laura Smid (2003). South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia: Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Great Britain: Routledge. 429.
^
Chelvadurai Manogaran (1987). Ethnic conflict and reconciliation in Sri
Lanka. United States of America: University of Hawaii Press. 21.
^ Ponnampalam Ragupathy. (1987). Early settlements in Jaffna: an archaeological survey. pp. 183
^
Schalk, Peter (2002). Buddhism among Tamils in pre-colonial Tamilakam
and ÄȘlam: Prologue. The Pre-Pallava and the Pallava period. pp.151
^
Schalk, Peter. “The Vallipuram Buddha Image”. Tamilnation.org. Retrieved
10 January 2013. Vallipuram has very rich archaeological remains that
point at an early settlement. It was probably an emporium in the first
centuries AD. [
] From already dated stones with which we compare this
Vallipuram statue, we can conclude that it falls in the period 3-4
century AD. During that period, the typical Amaravati-Buddha sculpture
was developed.

Meera Abraham (1988). Two medieval merchant guilds of south India. Manohar Publications. pp. 136
^ “Velgamvehera”. Department of Archaeology. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
^
Peter Schalk, Ālvāppillai Vēluppillai. Buddhism among Tamils in
pre-colonial Tamilakam and ÄȘlam: Prologue. The Pre-Pallava and the
Pallava period, Page 157-159.

Sources

Kambe, Tstuomu,
Bodhidharma. A collection of stories from Chinese literature (PDF),
archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2015, retrieved 1 April
2013
McRae, John R. (2000), “The Antecedents of Encounter Dialogue in
Chinese Ch’an Buddhism”, in Heine, Steven; Wright, Dale S. (eds.), The
Kƍan: Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford University Press
Zvelebil,
Kamil V. (1987), “The Sound of the One Hand”, Journal of the American
Oriental Society, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107,
No. 1, 107 (1): 125–126, doi:10.2307/602960, JSTOR 602960

Do Good Purify Mind Attain Eternal Bliss
Overcome the worst  Illness Hunger - Buddha. 

Plant  raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots,  beans
vegetables, Dwarf  fruit 🍎 🍉 trees in pots and all over the world and
in
Space to eat like birds as planned by NASA, British billionaire Richard
Branson flew into space aboard a Virgin Galactic vessel and Jeff Bezos.

Entire Earth and Space are  Amudha SURABI of Manimegalai.
Ashoka planted fruit bearing trees all over his empire.

Potthapada,
perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in
dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of
reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge
after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception-Buddha

Practice Mindful Swimming - Vimalo
Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow





102) Classical Tamil-àźȘàźŸàź°àźźàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźŻ àź‡àźšàŻˆàź€àŻàź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźšàŻ†àźźàŻàźźàŻŠàźŽàźż,
3-12-2021
àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àź…àź©àŻˆàź”àź°àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź‰àźČàź• àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ      
Translated from https://translate.google.com

Tamil Buddhists are requested to correct through the same site

Buddhism àź€àŻàź€ àźźàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àźČàź”àźš àź†àź©àŻàźČàŻˆàź©àŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàźżàźČàŻ

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Buddhism

àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź°àŻ€àź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź•àź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/

àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźź àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àźšàźżàź±àŻàź”àźżàźŻàź”àź°àŻ
àź•àźŸàźžàŻàźšàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź©àź€àŻ.

àź‡àźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸ

àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àźźàŻ

àźȘàŻŠ.àźš.àźźàŻ.
3 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àźȘàź°àŻàźźàźżàźŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź‰àź°àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźšàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźšàźżàź©àźźàŻ àźšàź•àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ
àźȘàźŸàź°àźźàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźŻàźźàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àźšàŻ‹àź• àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź”àźżàźčàźŸàź°àŻ
àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźżàźŻ àźšàźŸàź©àŻàź±àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàź°àźŸàź€àźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź•àźżàźźàŻ 2 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àŻ‡àź€àźżàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ.

àź.àźœàŻ‡.àź”àźż. àźšàźźàŻ€àźȘàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
(2019) 11 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àź”àŻ€àź°àźšàŻ‹àźČàźżàźŻàźźàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź± àź’àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźż
àź’àź°àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź°àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸ àźšàźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àź©àŻ, àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźšàźźàźžàŻàź•àźżàź°àŻàź€ àźȘàźżàźČàźŸàźČàźœàźż
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź•àź”àźżàź€àŻˆàź•àźłàŻˆ àź•àŻàź±àźżàźŻàŻ€àźŸàźŸàź•àŻàź•àŻàź”àź€àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàźźàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźšàźżàźČàŻ àźȘ Buddhism
àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźźàŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź€àŻ†àźłàźżàź”àźŸàź© àź•àŻàź±àźżàź•àźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŻàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ.

àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź”àźŸàź©
àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àź°àźŁàŻàźŸàźŸàźźàŻ àźźàźżàźČàŻàźČàźżàź©àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźȘàźČ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźŸàź•, àźȘ Buddhism
àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ-àźȘàźČàŻàź”àŻ‡àź±àŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àźŸàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź”àźŸàź© àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ 5, 6 àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ 7
àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻàź”àŻˆ. àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àź•àź”àźżàźžàź°àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ
àź‡àźŻàź±àŻàź±àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź€àź€àŻàź€àŻàź” àź•àź°àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻàź•àźłàŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźšàŻàźŁàŻàźŁàź±àźżàź”àŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘàźżàź±àźšàŻàź€àź©. àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàźźàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźšàźżàźČàŻ
àź‰àźČàź•àźżàźČàŻ àźàź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻ àź€àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ. àź…àźšàŻàź€àź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźŻàźŸàź°àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ
àź’àź©àŻàź±àŻ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź•àź”àźżàźžàź°àŻ àźšàźżàź€àŻàź€àźČàźŸàźŻàŻ àźšàź€àŻàź€àź©àź°àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àźŸàź”àźżàźŻàź•àŻ
àź•àź”àźżàź€àŻˆ àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆ àźŽàź©àŻàźȘàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàź”àŻ‡àź°àźżàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàźŁàźźàŻ àźšàź•àź°àźżàźČàŻ àź…àźźàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźłàŻàźłàź€àŻ.

4
àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 5 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźźàźŸàźŸàźČàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź‡àźŸàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ, àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàźŸàź€àźŸ (àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àźżàź©àŻ àź€àźŸàźźàŻ) àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àŻˆ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźšàź•àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻŠàź°àŻ
àźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ, àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź©àŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©.

àźšàźŸàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźšàźżàź©àźźàŻ
àźȘàŻŠ.àźš. 4 àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 5 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźȘ center àź€àŻàź€ àźźàŻˆàźŻàźźàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ. àź…àź€àź©àŻ
àźžàŻàź€àŻ‚àźȘàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź”àźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ -9 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. . àź•àŻàźČàŻ‹àź€àŻàź€àŻàź™àŻàź•àźšàŻàźšàŻ‹àźČàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ “àź…àź©àźżàźźàź™àŻàź•àźČàźźàŻ àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź°àŻ àźȘàźżàźłàŻ‡àźŸàŻ”
àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, “àź•àźŸàźšàźżàźȘàźŸ àź€àŻ‡àź°àźŸ” [àźȘ mon àź€àŻàź€ àź€àŻàź±àź”àźż] 6 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ
“àźšàźŸàź•àźŸàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ” àźȘ mon àź€àŻàź€ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź‰àź€àź”àźżàźŻàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻˆ
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàź€àŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ “àźšàź•àź°àŻ àź…àź©àŻàź©àźźàŻ àź”àźżàźčàźŸàź°àŻ” àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ “àźšàźŸàź•àź©àź©àź”àźżàź•àź°àŻ” àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ
àź…àź±àźżàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ 15 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź”àź°àŻˆ àźšàŻ†àźŽàźżàź€àŻàź€àź€àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź”àźżàź•àźŸàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŸàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ 18 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź”àź°àŻˆ àź‰àźŻàźżàź°àŻ àźȘàźżàźŽàŻˆàź€àŻàź€àź©.
àź•àźŸàźžàŻàźšàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźźàźżàź•àźȘàŻ àźȘàźŽàźźàŻˆàźŻàźŸàź© àźšàź•àź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź©àŻàź±àźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ, àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ
àź‡àź€àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ, àźšàźźàźžàŻàź•àźżàź°àŻàź€àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŸàźČàźż àźźàŻŠàźŽàźżàźŻàŻˆàź•àŻ àź•àź±àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźšàź•àź°àźźàźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ,
àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àź‡àź€àŻ àźœàŻàź”àźŸàź©àŻàźšàźŸàź™àŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àŻˆ àź€àź°àŻàź”àź€àźŸàź• àźšàźźàŻàźȘàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àź…àź”àź°àŻ 7 àź†àźźàŻ
àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àźšàź•àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àź”àźżàźœàźŻàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ, àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź•àź°àźźàŻ 6 àźźàŻˆàźČàŻ àźšàŻàź±àŻàź±àźłàź”àŻ
àź•àŻŠàźŁàŻàźŸàź€àŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ, àź…àź€àź©àŻ àźźàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź€àŻàźŁàźżàźšàŻàźšàźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻ
àźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź±àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ, àź…àź€àŻ‡àźȘàŻ‹àźČàŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźšàŻ€àź€àźż àźźàŻ€àź€àźŸàź© àź…àź©àŻàźȘàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź•àź±àŻàź±àźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àźŸàź© àź”àźŁàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźČàŻ àźȘàźżàź°àźȘàźČàźźàźŸàź©àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź±àźżàź©àźŸàź°àŻ. àź• ut àź€àźź
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ àź…àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź”àŻˆàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àźŸàź• àź…àź”àź°àŻ àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àźȘàź€àźżàź”àŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ. 4 àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 9
àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź”àź°àŻˆ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź”àźźàŻàźšàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻàź€àźŸàź©àŻ
àź•àźŸàźžàŻàźšàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźšàŻàźšàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź…àźŸàŻˆàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź•àź°àźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź€àźČàŻˆàźšàź•àź°àźŸàź•
àźšàŻ†àźŻàźČàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ, àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àź…àź±àźżàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàźČ àź•àŻ‹àźŻàźżàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź…àź”àź±àŻàź±àźżàź©àŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©. àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàźŸàź°àźźàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŸàźż, àźœàŻ†àź©àŻ àźšàźżàź±àŻàź”àź©àź°àŻ, àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ àź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ‡
àźȘàźżàź±àźšàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ. àźȘàŻ†àź°àźżàźŻ àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àź…àź±àźżàźžàź°àŻàź•àźłàźŸàź© àźŸàźżàź•àŻàź©àź•àźŸ, àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àŻ‹àźšàźŸ, àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàźšàŻ‡àź©àźŸ
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź€àźżàź€àŻàźŻàźŸ àź€àźźàŻàźźàźȘàźŸàźČ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź€àź€àź°àŻ àź”àźœàŻàź°àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźż àź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ‡àźŻàŻàźźàŻ àź”àźŸàźŽàŻàźšàŻàź€àź©àź°àŻ.

àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆ

àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàźźàŻ àź€àŻ€àźȘàź•àź±àŻàźȘàźźàŻ

àźšàźżàźČ
àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź†àź”àźŁàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àźźàŻàźŽàŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁ àź€àŻ€àźȘàź•àź±àŻàźȘàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàŻ†àźŻàź°àźŸàź• àźšàźŸàź•àźŸ àź€àźżàź”àŻ /
àźšàźŸàź•àźŸ àźšàŻ‡àźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ. àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź‡àźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàź•àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ
àź€àŻŠàźŸàź°àŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź€àŻŠàźŸàź°àŻàźȘàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àźȘàŻàź°àźŸàźŁàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàźČ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàźŸàź•àź€àŻ€àźȘ
àźȘàŻàź°àźŸàźŁ àź”àźżàź•àźŸàź°àŻˆ àźšàź•àŻàź€àźż àźȘàŻ€àź€àź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź©àŻàź±àźŸàź© àźšàŻˆàź©àźŸàźżàź”àŻàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźšàŻˆàź©àźŸàźżàź”àŻ
àźšàźŸàź•àźȘàŻ‚àź·àźŸàź©àźż àź…àźźàŻàźźàź©àŻ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź…àź°àŻàź•àźżàźČàŻ àź…àźźàŻˆàźšàŻàź€àŻàźłàŻàźłàź€àŻ. àźšàźŸàź•àźŸ àźŽàź©àŻàź± àźšàŻŠàźČàŻ àźšàźżàźČ
àźšàźźàźŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àźšàźŸàź•àź©àźżàź•àźŸàź”àŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àźČàź”àŻ‡ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻàźźàŻ àźšàźŻàźŸ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ
àźŽàźŽàŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ - àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźżàźźàŻ 150 àź‡àź©àŻ àźšàźŸàź©àźŸàź•àźŸàŻ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àźšàźżàź•àźŽàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ.

àź•àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ‚àź°àŻ
àźźàźŸàź”àźŸàŻàźŸàźźàŻ (àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż àźȘàźłàŻàźłàźż) àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż àź•àźżàź°àźŸàźźàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźżàź°àźŸàź”àźżàźŸ àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘ
àźźàź°àźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ àź‡àźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ
àź•àŻ€àźŽàŻ‡ àź…àź•àźŽàŻàź”àźŸàź°àźŸàźŻàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŁàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻŠàźŽàźż àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
àźźàŻŠàźŽàźż-àźȘàźżàź°àź•àźżàź°àŻàź€àŻ àź†àź•àŻàźźàŻ, àź‡àź€àŻ àź€àŻ†àźČàŻàź™àŻàź•àŻ àźšàźŸàź”àźčàźŸàź© àź”àźźàŻàźšàźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻ àź…àź€àźżàź•àźŸàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ
àź‰àźšàŻàźšàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, â€‹â€‹àź…àź€àź©àŻ 17 àź”àź€àŻ àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àźčàźČàźŸ (àźȘàŻŠ.àźš. 20-24) àź’àź°àŻ
àź€àźżàź°àŻàźźàźŁàźźàźŸàź©àźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, â€‹â€‹àź†àźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻ àźȘàźŻàź©àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźžàŻàź•àźżàź°àźżàźȘàŻàźŸàŻ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ
àźȘàźČ àź’àź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻˆàźŻàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàź•àźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź€àŻ€àź”àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àźłàź”àź°àźšàźż. àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ
àźŽàźŽàŻàź€àŻàź•àźżàź±àźŸàź°àŻ, “àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻ‡àź±àŻàź±àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àźźàźżàź•àźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ†àź°àźżàźŻ
àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àźŽàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź°àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźČàźŸàźźàŻ. àźàź±àŻàź•àź©àź”àŻ‡ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźČàŻàźČàźżàźȘàŻ‚àź°àźźàŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź’àźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻ
àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àź±àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźźàŻàźŸàźżàź”àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàźźàŻ àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż 3-4
àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź…àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźŸàźČàź•àźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ, àź”àźŽàź•àŻàź•àźźàźŸàź© àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż-àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€
àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘàźźàŻ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. “àź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ àź€àźŸàźŻàŻàźČàźŸàźšàŻàź€àŻ
àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ 1906 àź‡àźČàŻ àź…àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻˆàźŻ àźȘàźżàź°àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź·àŻ àź†àźłàŻàźšàź°àŻ àźčàŻ†àź©àŻàź±àźż àźȘàźżàźłàŻ‡àź•àŻàź•àźŸàźČàŻ
àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ

àź‡àźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àźȘàźŸàźČàźŸ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź•àźżàź±àźżàźžàŻàź€àź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àźšàźŸàź•àź°àźżàź•àźźàŻ, àźȘàź°àźŁàź”àźżàź€àźŸàź©àźŸàź”àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź‰àźŸàź©àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ 1965 àź†àźźàŻ
àź†àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźČàŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàźźàźŸàź© àźźàŻàźŸàŻàźČàźżàźŻàźŸàź°àŻ àźšàźż. àź°àźŸàźšàźšàźŸàźŻàź•àźźàŻ
àź†àź•àźżàźŻàŻ‹àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àźŸàź€àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźŸàź°àŻ.

àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàźźàŻ àźšàźŸàź•àźȘàźŸàŻàź©àźźàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź©àŻàź±àź€àŻ, àź…àź™àŻàź•àŻ
àź…àź©àŻˆàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź†àźšàźżàźŻ àź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻàźźàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźšàźżàź±àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻàźźàźżàźŸàźźàźŸàź• àźȘàźŻàź©àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©, àźȘ and àź€àŻàź€
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźŸàź•àŻ‹àźȘàźŸàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàźŸàźČàŻàźźàźżàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźšàź°àŻàź”àź€àŻ‡àźš àź”àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àź“àźŻàŻàź”àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àźŽàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźČàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźźàŻ‡.

àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àź°àŻ‹àźŸàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ
àź‰àźłàŻàźł àź•àź€àŻàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŸàźŸ àź”àźżàźčàźŸàź°àźŸ àź€àźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź’àź©àŻàź±àźŸàź• àź…àźźàŻˆàźšàŻàź€àŻàźłàŻàźł àź€àźŸàź•àŻ‹àźȘàźŸàźžàŻ àź•àŻàźŽàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
àź€àŻàź±àź”àźżàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźźàźŸàźźàźŸàź• àźȘàźŁàźżàźŻàźŸàź±àŻàź±àźżàźŻàź€àŻàźŸàź©àŻ, àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź”àźŸàź© àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àźšàźżàźČ
àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźźàź•àźŸàźŻàźŸàź© àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻ àź…àź€àźżàź•àź°àźżàź€àŻàź€àź€àŻˆ
àźȘàźżàź°àź€àźżàźȘàźČàźżàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àźźàź•àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àź‡àźšàŻàź€àŻ àźźàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàź±àŻàźźàźČàź°àŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàź©àŻ.

àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ

2
àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àźŸàŻ‹àźČàźźàźżàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź”àź°àŻˆàźȘàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźżàź°àŻˆ àź€àźČàź•àŻ‹àź°àźż àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ
àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź•àźżàź±àźżàźžàŻàź€àź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ-àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ-àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàźźàźż àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŁàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźłàŻàźłàź©, àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźżàźźàŻ
2 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźšàŻ àźšàŻ‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ. àź€àźżàź°àŻàźŻàźŸàźŻàŻ àź‡àźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ
àź”àź©àŻàź©àźżàźźàźŸàźŻàŻ àźźàźŸàź”àźŸàŻàźŸàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźźàŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻ àź•àźżàź°àźŸàźźàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźżàź©àźŸàź°àŻ.
àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàŻ‚àź°àŻàź”àźŸàźšàźżàź•àźłàŻ
àź”àźŽàźżàźȘàźŸàŻàźźàŻ àźźàź•àźŸàźŻàźŸàź© àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àź”àźŸàŻàźŸàźŸàźŸàŻ‡àźœàŻ àź‡àźŸàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàźźàźŸàź• àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©.
àźȘàź°àźźàŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àź”àź°àŻàźźàź©àŻ I àź‡àź©àŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ, 7 àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 8 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ
àź”àź°àŻˆ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź€àźżàź°àŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźżàź°àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź•àźżàź°àźŸàźźàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźȘàź€àźżàź”àŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©. àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àź”àźŁàźżàź•àź•àŻ àź•àźŸàź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻˆàźŻàźżàź©àź°àŻˆàź•àŻ
àź•àŻàź±àźżàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻˆ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àźźàźŸàź©àź€àŻ àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ àź”àź°àŻˆ. àźȘ
Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àź€àŻ†àźŻàŻàź”àźźàźŸàź© àź…àź”àźČàŻ‹àź•àźżàź€àŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àźŸ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź”àź°àź€àŻ àź€àŻàźŁàŻˆàź”àźżàźŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź€àźŸàź°àźŸ
àź†àź•àźżàźŻàŻ‹àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź…àź°àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŁàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź©àŻàź©àź€àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźżàźŻàź€àŻˆ àź‡àź€àŻ
àź”àźżàź”àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź‡àźŸàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźźàŻ àź€àŻàź”àźŸàź°àźȘàźŸàźČ àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźČàŻˆàźȘàŻ
àźȘàźłàŻàźłàźżàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ.

àźšàŻ‹àźŽ àź”àźźàŻàźšàźźàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡
àźšàŻˆàź” àźźàź€àźźàŻ, àź”àŻˆàźŁàź” àźźàź€àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàźżàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàźČ àźźàź€àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ
àź†àź€àź°àźżàź€àŻàź€àź€àŻ. àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ “àźȘàŻ†àź°àŻàźźàŻàźȘàźłàŻàźłàźżàźžàŻ” àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ àź…àźŽàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻˆàź•àŻ
àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àź°àŻ. àźȘàź€àźżàź©àŻŠàź©àŻàź±àźŸàźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ, àźȘàŻ†àź°àźżàźŻàź•àŻàźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź”àŻ†àźČàŻàź•àźźàŻ àź”àŻ†àźčàŻ†àź°àźŸ,
àź…àź©àŻàź°àźŸàź€àźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź•àŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àźż, àźȘàŻŠàźČàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻ àź€àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàźŻàŻˆ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŻ
àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àźšàŻ‹àźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź°àźŸàźœàź°àźŸàźœàźȘàŻ†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàźłàŻàźłàźż àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź€àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ
àźźàź±àŻàźȘàŻ†àźŻàź°àźżàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź€àźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź…àź•àźŽàŻàź”àźŸàź°àźŸàźŻàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ àźźàźŸàź”àźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźČàŻàź”àźŸàź© àźšàŻˆàź” àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àź…àź€àźżàźȘàź°àźŸàź•
àź…àźȘàźżàź”àźżàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àźż àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź”àź€àź±àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ, àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ àźšàźżàź©àŻˆàź”àŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàź©àŻàź© àźšàźżàź”àź©àŻ àź•àŻŠàź©àŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àźźàŻ
àź•àŻ‹àźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź‰àźŸàŻàźȘàźŸ àźȘàźČ àź†àźČàźŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ àźȘàź°àźŸàźźàź°àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàź€àź±àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€
àźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźšàŻ‹àźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźšàŻ†àźČàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻ àź•àź”àź©àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àźšàŻàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź•àŻàź•àźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź©àŻàź±àź©.

àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàŻàź•

àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àŻ‹àźšàźŸ
àź€àźźàŻàźźàźȘàźŸàźČ
àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆ
àź•àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàźČàź•àŻ‡àźšàźż
àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆ àźźàź•àźŸ àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźż àźźàŻˆàźŻàźźàŻ, àźšàŻ†àź©àŻàź©àŻˆ

àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ

Bod
àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ àź•àŻàź±àźżàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźźàź•àźŸàźČ àź”àźŸàźŽàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻˆ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź€àź•àź”àźČàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź…àź€àźżàź•àźźàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©,
àź…àźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àźŁàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻàź°àźŸàźŁàź•àŻàź•àź€àŻˆàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àźŸàŻàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©. [8] àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ
àź”àźŸàźŽàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻˆ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻ‚àź©àŻàź±àŻ àźźàŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻ àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. [9] àź…àź”àź±àŻàź±àźżàźČàŻ
àźŽàź€àŻàź”àŻàźźàŻ‡ àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàź• àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźż àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻàźČàŻˆ, “àźźàŻ‡àź±àŻàź•àŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ” àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ “àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸ” àźźàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźźàŻ‡. àźšàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź© àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àźźàŻ
àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźżàźŻ àź”àźżàź°àźżàź”àźŸàź© àź•àźŁàŻàźŁàŻ‹àźŸàŻàźŸàźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź© àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ
àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àźšàźźàŻàźȘàź•àź€àŻàź€àź©àŻàźźàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ # àźȘàźżàź±àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàźźàŻ
àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàŻàź•.

àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ

^ àź€àŻàź°àŻˆàźšàźŸàźźàźż, àź€àźŻàźČàź©àŻ. “àź•àźŸàźČàŻàźšàźŸàź°àŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàźżàźŻàźČàŻ àźȘàź™àŻàź•àŻ”.
^ àź°àźŸàź”àŻ àźȘàź•àź€àŻ‚àź°àŻ àź•àźżàź°àŻàź·àŻàźŁàźšàŻàź”àźŸàźźàźż àź…àźŻàź™àŻàź•àź°àŻ, àźźàźšàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆ àź…àź€àź©àŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź…àźźàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźČàŻ, àźČàźŁàŻàźŸàź©àŻ, 1928. www.archive.org àź‡àźČàŻ àź•àźżàźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ [1]
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àźčàźżàźšàŻ†àźČàŻàźČàŻ‡ àź€àźźàŻàźźàź°àź€àźŸàź©àźŸ, àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ, àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźȘàźȘàŻàźłàźżàź•àŻ‡àź·àź©àŻ
àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż, àź•àźŁàŻàźŸàźż, 1964. àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźȘàźȘàŻàźłàźżàź•àŻ‡àź·àź©àŻ àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż àź†àź©àŻàźČàŻˆàź©àŻ àźšàŻ‚àźČàź•àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àź•àźżàźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ [2]
Tamil àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻàźšàźŸàźŸàŻ àź•àźŸàź±àŻàź•àź°àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźŸàźżàź°àźŸàź™àŻàź•àźżàźȘàźŸàź°àŻ-àźȘàŻ‚àźźàŻàźȘàŻ‚àźčàźŸàź°àŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àź†àźŻàŻàź”àŻàź•àźłàŻ., àź°àźŸàź”àŻ, àźŽàźžàŻ.àź†àź°àŻ .. àźœàź°àŻàź©àźČàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ
àźźàź°àŻˆàź©àŻ àź†àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻàźŸàźČàźœàźż, àź€àŻŠàź•àŻàź€àźż. II, àźœàŻ‚àźČàŻˆ 1991, àźȘàź•àŻ. 6. àź†àź©àŻàźČàŻˆàź©àźżàźČàŻ àź•àźżàźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ
[3] àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ 24 àźœàź©àź”àź°àźż 2011 àź”àŻ‡àźȘàŻ‡àź•àŻ àź‡àźŻàźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
Arch
“àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźšàź•àźČàŻ” (PDF). 8 àźȘàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź”àź°àźż 2007 àź‡àźČàŻ àź…àźšàźČàŻ (PDF)
àź‡àźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. 2006-10-16 àź…àź©àŻàź±àŻ àźȘàŻ†àź±àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ.
^ àź•àźźàŻàźȘàŻ‡ & àź†àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àŻ†àź°àźżàźŻàź”àźżàźČàŻàźČàŻˆ.
^ àźžàŻàź”àŻ†àźČàźȘàźżàźČàŻ 1987, àźȘ. 125-126.
^ àźźàŻ†àź•àŻàź°àŻ‡ 2003.
^ àźŸàŻàźź ou àźČàźżàź©àŻ 2005, àźȘ. 85-90.
b
a àźȘàźż àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ (2002). àź•àźŸàźČàź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź†àźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ: àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻàź°àŻˆ. àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźŸàźČàźźàŻ, àź‰àźȘàŻàźšàźŸàźČàźŸ: àź‰àźȘàźČàźŸàźČàźŸ àźŻàŻàź©àźżàź”àź°àŻàźšàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ†àźŸàŻ; àźȘàź•àŻ. 1
^ http://www.buddhanet.net/sacred-island/nagadipa.html
^ àźźàźČàźČàźšàŻ‡àź•àź°, àźœàźż.àźȘàźż. (2003). àźȘàźŸàźČàźż àźšàź°àźżàźŻàźŸàź© àźȘàŻ†àźŻàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź…àź•àź°àźŸàź€àźż: àźȘàźŸàźČàźż-àź†àź™àŻàź•àźżàźČàźźàŻ. àź†àźšàźżàźŻ àź•àźČàŻàź”àźż àźšàŻ‡àź”àŻˆàź•àźłàŻ. àźȘ. 42. àź.àźŽàźžàŻ.àźȘàźż.àźŽàź©àŻ 81-206-1823-8.
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àźČàźŸàź°àźŸ àźžàŻàźźàźżàźŸàŻ (2003). àź€àŻ†àź±àŻàź•àźŸàźšàźżàźŻ àźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź±àź”àźżàźŻàźČàŻ: àź’àź°àŻ àź•àźČàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźłàźžàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźźàŻ:
àź†àźȘàŻàź•àźŸàź©àźżàźžàŻàź€àźŸàź©àŻ, àźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàźŸàź€àŻ‡àź·àŻ, àź‡àźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸ, àźȘàźŸàź•àźżàźžàŻàź€àźŸàź©àŻ, àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆ. àź•àźżàź°àŻ‡àźŸàŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàź©àŻ: àź°àŻ‚àźŸàŻàźČàŻ†àźŸàŻàźœàŻ. 429.
^ àźšàŻ†àźČàŻàź”àź€àŻàź°àŻˆ àźźàź©àŻ‹àź•àź°àź©àŻ (1987). àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź© àźźàŻ‹àź€àźČàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźšàźČàŻàźČàźżàźŁàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ. àźŻàŻàź©àŻˆàźŸàŻ†àźŸàŻ àźžàŻàźŸàŻ‡àźŸàŻàźžàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź…àźźàŻ†àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àźŸ: àźčàź”àźŸàźŻàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàź•àźČàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźŽàź•àźźàŻ 21.
^ àźȘàŻŠàź©àŻàź©àźźàŻàźȘàźČàźźàŻ àź°àź•àŻàźȘàź€àźż. (1987). àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻ‡àź±àŻàź±àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ: àź’àź°àŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àź†àźŻàŻàź”àŻ. àźȘàź•àŻ. 183
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àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ (2002). àź•àźŸàźČàź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź†àźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ: àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻàź°àŻˆ. àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźŸàźČàźźàŻ. àźȘàź•àŻ .151
^ àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ. “àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ
àźȘàźŸàźźàŻ”. Tamilnation.org. àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźŸàźłàŻ 10 àźœàź©àź”àź°àźż 2013. àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àźźàźżàź•àź”àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŁàź•àŻàź•àźŸàź° àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©, àź…àź”àŻˆ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻ‡àź±àŻàź±àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźŽàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź°àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźČàźŸàźźàŻ. [
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àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àźšàźŸàźźàŻ àź’àźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻ àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àźàź±àŻàź•àź©àź”àŻ‡ àź€àŻ‡àź€àźżàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸ
àź•àź±àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ, àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż 3-4 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ àźźàŻàźŸàźżàź”àŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźČàźŸàźźàŻ. àź…àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźŸàźČàź•àźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ, àź”àźŽàź•àŻàź•àźźàźŸàź© àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż-àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘàźźàŻ
àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ.

àźźàŻ€àź°àźŸ àź†àźȘàźżàź°àź•àźŸàźźàŻ (1988). àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àź°àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź‡àźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźŸàźČ àź”àźŁàźżàź•àź•àŻ àź•àŻàźŽàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ. àźźàź©àŻ‹àź•àź°àŻ àźȘàźȘàŻàźłàźżàź•àŻ‡àź·àź©àŻàźžàŻ. àźȘàź•àŻ. 136
^ “àź”àŻ†àźČàŻàź•àźźàŻàź”àŻ†àź°àźŸ”. àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àź€àŻàź±àŻˆ. àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźŸàźłàŻ 17 àźàźȘàŻàź°àźČàŻ 2017.
^
àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàź”àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźłàŻàźłàŻˆ àź”àźČàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźłàŻàźłàŻˆ. àź•àźŸàźČàź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź†àźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ: àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻàź°àŻˆ.
àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźŸàźČàźźàŻ, àźȘàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ 157-159.

àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ

àź•àźŸàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‡,
àź€àźžàŻàź€àŻ‚àźźàŻ, àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ. 6 àźšàź”àźźàŻàźȘàź°àŻ 2015 àź…àź©àŻàź±àŻ àź…àźšàźČàŻ (PDF) àź‡àźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ
àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźšàŻ€àź© àź‡àźČàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ (PDF) àź•àź€àŻˆàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź€àŻŠàź•àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ, 1 àźàźȘàŻàź°àźČàŻ
2013 àź‡àźČàŻ àźȘàŻ†àź±àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ
àźźàŻ†àź•àŻàź°àŻ‡, àźœàźŸàź©àŻ àź†àź°àŻ. (2000), àźčàŻ†àźŻàŻàź©àŻ, àźžàŻàźŸàŻ€àź”àź©àźżàźČàŻ
“àźšàŻ€àź© àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź•àź”àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź‰àź°àŻˆàźŻàźŸàźŸàźČàźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻ‹àźŸàźżàź•àźłàŻ”;
àź°àŻˆàźŸàŻ, àźŸàŻ‡àźČàŻ àźŽàźžàŻ. (àźŽàźŸàŻ.), àź€àźż àź•àŻ‹àź©àŻ: àźŸàŻ†àź•àŻàźžàŻàźŸàŻàźžàŻ àź…àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àźšàŻ‚àźŽàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‡àź©àŻ àźœàŻ†àź©àŻ àźȘ
Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ, àź†àź•àŻàźžàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź°àŻàźŸàŻ àźŻàŻàź©àźżàź”àź°àŻàźšàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźż àźȘàźżàź°àźžàŻ
àźžàŻàź”àŻ†àźČàŻ†àźȘàźżàźČàŻ, àź•àźźàźżàźČàŻ àź”àźż.
(1987), “àź€àźż àźšàź”àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź’àź©àŻ àźčàŻ‡àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ”, àźœàź°àŻàź©àźČàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź€àźż àź…àźźàŻ†àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àź©àŻ
àź“àź°àźżàźŻàźŁàŻàźŸàźČàŻ àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż, àźœàź°àŻàź©àźČàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź€àźż àź…àźźàŻ†àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àź©àŻ àź“àź°àźżàźŻàźŁàŻàźŸàźČàŻ àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż,
àź€àŻŠàź•àŻàź€àźż. 107, àźŽàźŁàŻ 1, 107 (1): 125–126, àź€àŻ‹àźŻàŻ: 10.2307 / 602960,
àźœàŻ‡.àźŽàźžàŻ.àźŸàźż.àź“.àź†àź°àŻ 602960

àźšàźżàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻ àź†àź©àźšàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź…àźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźšàźČàŻàźČ àźšàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź•àź°àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àźźàź©àźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ
àźźàŻ‹àźšàźźàźŸàź© àźšàŻ‹àźŻàŻ àźȘàźšàźżàźŻàŻˆàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàź•àŻàź• - àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ.

àźźàŻ‚àźČ àź”àŻ‡àź•àź©àŻ àźȘàŻàź°àŻ‹àź•àŻàź•àŻ‹àźČàźż, àźźàźżàźłàź•àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ‚àźłàŻ, àź”àŻ†àźłàŻàźłàź°àźżàź•àźłàŻ, àź•àŻ‡àź°àźŸàŻ, àźȘàŻ€àź©àŻàźžàŻ àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àź±àŻàź±àŻˆ àźšàźŸàź”àŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ
àź•àźŸàźŻàŻàź•àź±àźżàź•àźłàŻ, àź•àŻàźłàŻàźł àźȘàźŽàźźàŻ pot pot àźȘàźŸàź©àŻˆàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźł àźźàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‰àźČàź•àźźàŻ àźźàŻàźŽàŻàź”àź€àŻàźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àźšàźŸàźšàźŸ
àź€àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźźàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźȘàźŸàźż àźȘàź±àź”àŻˆàź•àźłàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àźČ àźšàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸ àź”àźżàźŁàŻàź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ, àźȘàźżàź°àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź·àŻ àź•àŻ‹àźŸàŻ€àźžàŻàź”àź°àź°àŻ
àź°àźżàźšàŻàźšàź°àŻàźŸàŻ àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàź©àŻàźšàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàź°àŻàźœàźżàź©àŻ àź•àŻ‡àźČàźŸàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźČàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźœàŻ†àźƒàźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ†àźšàŻ‹àźžàŻ
àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àź±àŻàź±àźżàźČàŻ àź”àźżàźŁàŻàź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźȘàź±àźšàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ.

àźźàŻàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻ‚àźźàźżàźŻàŻàźźàŻ àź”àźżàźŁàŻàź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻàźźàŻ àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź…àźźàŻàź€àźŸ àźšàŻàź°àźȘàźż.
àź…àźšàŻ‹àź•àź°àŻ àź€àź©àź€àŻ àźȘàŻ‡àź°àź°àźšàŻ àźźàŻàźŽàŻàź”àź€àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŽàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆàź€àŻ àź€àźŸàź™àŻàź•àźżàźŻ àźźàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ àźšàźŸàŻàźŸàźŸàź°àŻ.

àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź€àźȘàźŸàź€àźŸ,
àź•àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ àźźàŻàź€àźČàźżàźČàŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ. àź…àź±àźżàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àźŽàź©àŻàźȘàź€àŻ
àź‰àźŁàź°àŻàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź’àź°àŻàź”àź°àŻ àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź±àźŸàź°àŻ, â€˜àź‡àź€àŻˆàźšàŻ
àźšàźŸàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźŸàź©àŻ àźŽàź©àŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻàźłàŻàźłàź€àŻ.’ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźȘàź•àŻàź€àŻàź€àź±àźżàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻ‚àźČàźźàŻ àź’àź°àŻàź”àź°àŻ
àźźàŻàź€àźČàźżàźČàŻ àź•àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ àźŽàź©àŻàźȘàź€àŻˆ àź…àź±àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àŻŠàźłàŻàźł àźźàŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻàźźàŻ, àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ
àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ
àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàź”àź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àź•àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ-àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ

àźźàź©àźźàŻ àźšàźżàź±àŻˆàźšàŻàź€ àźšàŻ€àźšàŻàźšàźČàŻ àźȘàźŻàźżàź±àŻàźšàźż - àź”àźżàźźàźČàŻ‹
àź”àźżàźŽàźżàź€àŻàź€ àź…àźšàŻ‹àź•àźŸ àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàźż àźšàź•



71) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,



Mit-3-12-2021 Kollha huma slaten ta ‘din id-dinja


Do tajba jippurifika moħħ tilħaq bliss eterna
Jingħelbu l-agħar mard - Buddha.


Eterna Glitch GIF - Eterna Glitch EternaGlitch GIFs







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4031 Thu 15 Lulju 2021

Do tajba jippurifika moħħ tilħaq bliss eterna
Jingħelbu l-agħar mard - Buddha.

Pjanti vegan mhux ipproċessat brokkoli, bĆŒar, ħjar, karrotti, faĆŒola
ĩxejjex, frott nanu 🍎 siġar fil-qsari u madwar id-dinja u fl-ispazju
biex jieklu għasafar kif ippjanat minn NASA, British Billionaire Richard
Branson tellgħu fl-ispazju abbord bastiment galattiku verĥni u Jeff
Bezos.

Art sħiħa u l-ispazju huma Amudha Surabi ta ‘Manimegalai.
Ashoka mħawla siĥar li jĥorru l-imperu tiegħu.

Potthapada, perċezzjoni tqum l-ewwel, u għarfien wara. U l-għarfien ta
‘għarfien ÄĄej mill-perċezzjoni li tinqala’. Discerns wieħed, “huwa
fid-dipendenza fuq dan li l-għarfien tiegħi nqalgħet.” Permezz din
il-linja ta ‘raÄĄunament wieħed jista’ jirrealizza kif perċezzjoni tqum
l-ewwel, u l-għarfien wara, u kif l-għarfien ta ‘għarfien ÄĄej
mill-perċezzjoni-Buddha

Prattika għawm konxju - vimalo
Qajjem Ashoka Manimegali sħabi
Prattika għawm konxju - Vimalo qajmet Ashoka Manimegali sħabi bi stampi u
vidjows




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Gautam Buddha Quotes on Bliss
Music Credit :-
Motion Graphics :-

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Gautam Buddha Quotes on BlissMusic Credit :-https://www.bensoun

72) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,



Mai i te 3-12-2021 He kingi katoa o tenei ao



Mahi i te hinengaro pure i te wa e rite ana ki a ia
I te mate kino rawa atu - Buddha.

Moana Te Fiti GIF - Moana TeFiti Smiling GIFs






Akoranga
4031 Thu 15 Jul 2021

Mahi i te hinengaro pure i te wa e rite ana ki a ia
I te mate kino rawa atu - Buddha.

Whakatupuru Raw Vegan Broccoli, Peppers, Kukama, kāreti, Peea
Huawhenua, hua tipua 🍎🍎 nga rakau i roto i te ao me te waahi ki te kai
i nga manu i whakamaherehia e NASA, Bransel me Jeff Bezos.

Ko te whenua katoa me te waahi ko Amudha Subi o Manamegalai.
I whakatokia e Ashoka nga hua e puta ana i nga rakau katoa i runga i
tona kingitanga.

Potthapada, Ka puta te tirohanga tuatahi, me te matauranga i muri. Na ko
te aranga o te matauranga ka puta mai i te aranga o te tirohanga. Ko
tetahi e mohio ana, ‘Ko te whakawhirinaki ki a au kua ara ake taku
mohio.’ Na tenei raina whakaaro ka puta te tirohanga tuatahi, me te
matauranga o te matauranga mai i te aranga o te whakawa

Me mahi i te kauhoe - Vimalo
I ara ake i te hoa a Ashoka Manimegali
A faanaho i te kauhoe - Ka ara a Vimalo i a Ashoka Maimegali me nga
pikitia me nga ataata

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Pinati ‘Ahi’ahi…cover by…Seniale Via… Keila Te’ekiu & Ha’unga Fakalelu
Dabonfire Fakalelus
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Da Bonfire Groovin Fakalelus…..Please share..like and subscribe for more if you enjoy our live music

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Pinati ‘Ahi’ahi…cover by…Seniale Via… Keila Te’ekiu & Ha’unga Fakalelu

73) Classical Marathi-à€•à„à€Čà€Ÿà€žà€żà€•à€Č à€źà€Ÿà€“



3-12-2021 à€Șà€Ÿà€žà„‚à€š à€žà€°à„à€” à€Żà€Ÿ à€œà€—à€Ÿà€šà„‡ à€°à€Ÿà€œà„‡ à€†à€čà„‡à€€


à€šà€Ÿà€‚à€—à€Čà„‡ à€¶à„à€Šà„à€§à„€à€•à€°à€Ł à€•à€°à€Łà„‡ à€¶à€Ÿà€¶à„à€”à€€ à€†à€šà€‚à€Š à€źà€żà€łà€”à€Ÿ
à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§ à€žà€°à„à€”à€Ÿà€€ à€”à€Ÿà€ˆà€Ÿ à€†à€œà€Ÿà€°à€Ÿà€”à€° à€źà€Ÿà€€ à€•à€°à€Ÿ.
à€čà€žà€šà€Ÿ Jeeveshu Ahluwalia GIF - à€čà€žà€šà€Ÿ JeeveshuAhluwalia à€€à€Ÿà€Čà„€à€Źà€œà€Ÿà€šà€Ÿ GIFs

Friendsà€Șà€Ÿà€ 
4031 thu 15 Jul 2021

à€šà€Ÿà€‚à€—à€Čà„‡ à€¶à„à€Šà„à€§à„€à€•à€°à€Ł à€•à€°à€Łà„‡ à€¶à€Ÿà€¶à„à€”à€€ à€†à€šà€‚à€Š à€źà€żà€łà€”à€Ÿ
à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§ à€žà€°à„à€”à€Ÿà€€ à€”à€Ÿà€ˆà€Ÿ à€†à€œà€Ÿà€°à€Ÿà€”à€° à€źà€Ÿà€€ à€•à€°à€Ÿ.

à€”à€šà€žà„à€Șà€€à„€ à€•à€šà„à€šà„à€Żà€Ÿ vegan à€Źà„à€°à„‹à€•à„‹à€Čà„€, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, à€Źà„€à€šà„à€ž
à€­à€Ÿà€œà„à€Żà€Ÿ, à€Źà„à€Ąà€« à€«à€ł 📊 ⇅ à€­à€Ÿà€‚à€Ąà„€ à€†à€Łà€ż à€œà€—à€­à€°à€Ÿà€€à„€à€Č à€à€Ÿà€Ąà€Ÿà€‚à€źà€§à„€à€Č à€à€Ÿà€Ąà„‡ à€†à€Łà€ż à€šà€Ÿà€žà€Ÿ, à€Źà„à€°à€żà€Ÿà„€à€¶
à€…à€°à€Źà€Șà€Ÿà€Č à€°à€żà€šà€°à„à€Ą à€Źà„à€°à„…à€šà„à€žà€š à€Żà€Ÿà€‚à€šà„€ à€”à„à€čà€°à„à€œà€żà€š à€—à„…à€Čà„‡à€•à„à€Ÿà€żà€• à€Șà„‹à€€ à€†à€Łà€ż à€œà„‡à€« à€Źà„‡à€à„‹à€ž à€Żà€Ÿà€‚à€šà€Ÿ
à€œà€Ÿà€—à€Ÿ à€źà€żà€łà€”à€żà€Čà„€.

à€źà€šà€żà€‚à€˜à€Ÿà€Čà€ˆà€šà„‡ à€žà€‚à€Șà„‚à€°à„à€Ł à€Șà„ƒà€„à„à€”à„€ à€†à€Łà€ż à€œà€Ÿà€—à€Ÿ à€…à€źà„à€§à€Ÿ à€žà„à€°à„…à€Źà„€ à€†à€čà„‡.
à€…à€¶à„‹à€•à€Ÿà€šà„‡ à€žà€‚à€Șà„‚à€°à„à€Ł à€žà€Ÿà€źà„à€°à€Ÿà€œà„à€Żà€”à€° à€«à€łà€Ÿà€‚à€šà„€ à€Čà€Ÿà€—à€”à€Ą à€•à„‡à€Čà„€.

à€Șà„‹à€Ÿà€„à€Ÿà€Șà€Ÿà€Ąà€Ÿ, à€Šà„ƒà€·à„à€Ÿà„€à€•à„‹à€š à€Șà„à€°à€„à€ź à€†à€Łà€ż à€šà€‚à€€à€° à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€‰à€Šà„à€­à€”à€€à„‡. à€†à€Łà€ż à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€‰à€Šà„à€­à€”à€Łà€Ÿà€°à„‡
à€žà€źà€œà„‚à€€à€œà€š à€‰à€Šà„à€­à€”à€€à€Ÿà€€. à€à€• à€“à€łà€–, ‘à€źà€Ÿà€à„‡ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€‰à€Šà„à€­à€”à€Čà„‡à€Čà„‡ à€†à€čà„‡ à€Żà€Ÿà€”à€° à€…à€”à€Čà€‚à€Źà„‚à€š à€†à€čà„‡.’
à€€à€°à„à€•à€¶à€•à„à€€à„€à€šà„à€Żà€Ÿ à€Żà€Ÿ à€źà€Ÿà€°à„à€—à€Ÿà€šà„‡ à€Șà„à€°à€„à€ź, à€†à€Łà€ż à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€•à€žà„‡ à€‰à€Šà„à€­à€”à€€à„‡ à€†à€Łà€ż à€žà€źà€œà„‚à€€à€Šà€Ÿà€°à€Șà€Łà€Ÿà€šà„‡
à€‰à€Šà„à€Šà€żà€·à„à€Ÿ à€•à€žà„‡ à€‰à€Šà„à€­à€”à€€à„‡ à€€à„‡ à€žà€źà€œà„‚à€š à€˜à„‡à€€à€Ÿ à€Żà„‡à€€à„‡.

à€Șà„à€°à€Ÿà€źà€Ÿà€Łà€żà€• à€œà€Čà€€à€°à€Ł - à€”à€żà€źà€Čà„‹
à€…à€¶à„‹à€• à€źà€šà„‡à€‡à€źà€—à„‡à€Čà„€ à€žà€čà€Żà„‹à€—à„€
à€žà€°à€Ÿà€” à€•à€°à€Łà„‡ à€žà„à€”à€Ÿà€§à„€à€š à€žà„à€”à€żà€źà€żà€‚à€— - à€”à€żà€źà€Čà„‹ à€œà€Ÿà€—à„‡à€•à€Ą


à€œà€°à„à€źà€šà„€ à€•à€Ÿ à€•à€Čà€Ÿà€€à„à€źà€• à€Źà„Œà€Šà„à€§ à€”à€żà€čà€Ÿà€° à€Čà„à€źà„à€Źà€żà€šà„€ à€šà„‡à€Șà€Ÿà€Č / Germany Buddha temple Lumbini nepal all places video
JP Gyan
Lumbini Garden and param jyoti :https://youtu.be/D2G0l-fNtH4

youtube.com

à€Čà„à€źà„à€Źà€żà€šà„€ à€‰à€Šà„à€źà€Ÿà€š /à€Șà€°à€ź à€œà„à€Żà„‹à€€à€ż à€šà„‡à€Șà€Ÿà€Č
Birth place of lord Buddha Lumbini nepal, mayaadevi temple all visitin








74) Classical Mongolian-ĐĄĐŸĐœĐłĐŸĐŽĐŸĐł ĐœĐŸĐœĐłĐŸ





3-12-2021 ĐŸĐœ Ń…ÒŻŃ€Ń‚ŃĐ» Đ‘ÒŻĐłĐŽŃŃŃ€ŃŃ ŃĐœŃ ĐŽŃĐ»Ń…ĐžĐčĐœ хааЮууЮ ŃŽĐŒ


ĐĄĐ°ĐčĐœ цэĐČŃŃ€Đ»ŃĐłŃŃ хоĐčх ĐœŃŒ ĐŒÓ©ĐœŃ…ĐžĐčĐœ Đ°Đ· жаргалЎ Ń…ÒŻŃ€ŃŃ… Đ±ĐŸĐ»ĐœĐŸ
Đ„Đ°ĐŒĐłĐžĐčĐœ ĐŒŃƒŃƒ Ó©ĐČŃ‡ĐœĐžĐčĐł ĐŽĐ°ĐČĐ°Đœ Ń‚ŃƒŃƒĐ»Đ°Ń… - БуЮЮа.

Упал ĐŸĐ°ĐŽĐ”ĐœĐžĐ” GIF - Упал ĐŸĐ°ĐŽĐ”ĐœĐžĐ” ЛДЎ GIFs








Đ„ĐžŃ‡ŃŃĐ»
4033 ĐŸĐœŃ‹ 3-р ŃĐ°Ń€Ń‹Đœ 15-ĐœŃ‹ 1521

ĐĄĐ°ĐčĐœ цэĐČŃŃ€Đ»ŃĐłŃŃ хоĐčх ĐœŃŒ ĐŒÓ©ĐœŃ…ĐžĐčĐœ Đ°Đ· жаргалЎ Ń…ÒŻŃ€ŃŃ… Đ±ĐŸĐ»ĐœĐŸ
Đ„Đ°ĐŒĐłĐžĐčĐœ ĐŒŃƒŃƒ Ó©ĐČŃ‡ĐœĐžĐčĐł ĐŽĐ°ĐČĐ°Đœ Ń‚ŃƒŃƒĐ»Đ°Ń… - БуЮЮа.

ĐąĐ°Ń€ĐžĐ°Đ»Đ°ĐœĐłĐžĐčĐœ Raw Vegan Broccoli, Ń‡ĐžĐœĐ¶ÒŻÒŻ, Ń‡ĐžĐœĐ¶ÒŻÒŻ, өргөстөгч, лууĐČĐ°Đœ,
лууĐČĐ°Đœ, ŃˆĐŸŃˆ
Đ„ÒŻĐœŃĐœĐžĐč ĐœĐŸĐłĐŸĐŸ, ĐŸĐŽĐŸĐč Đ¶ĐžĐŒŃ 🍎 🍉 🍉. Đ‘Ń€ĐžŃ‚Đ°ĐœĐžĐč Đ±ĐŸĐ»ĐŸĐœ ĐŽŃĐ»Ń…ĐžĐčĐœ Ó©ĐœŃ†Ó©Đł Đ±ŃƒĐ»Đ°Đœ
Đ±ÒŻŃ€Ń‚, ĐŽŃĐ»Ń…ĐžĐčĐœ Ó©ĐœŃ†Ó©Đł Đ±ŃƒĐ»Đ°Đœ Đ±ÒŻŃ€Ń‚, КуĐČŃƒŃƒĐœŃ‹ Đ‘Ń€Đ°ĐœŃĐŸĐœ ĐœŃŒ ОРОН ĐĄĐŁĐŁĐŠĐĐ« Đ„ĐŻĐœĐ”Đ ĐĐ›,
НАМАЙГИЙН Đ“ĐĐ—Đ Đ«Đ Đ“ĐĐ—Đ Đ«Đ йУЄАЙ ЄУВЏЊАА ЄУВЏЊАА, ĐĐĐĄĐĐĄĐąĐ ĐĐĄĐąĐ ĐžĐĐ« Đ„ĐŁĐ’ĐŹĐ”
ОРОЛЩОГЧ, ОРОН ĐĄĐŁĐŁĐŠĐĐ« йУЄАЙ ЄУВЏЊААГ ОРОЛЩОЖ БАЙНА.

Đ”ŃĐ»Ń…ĐžĐč Đ±ÒŻŃ…ŃĐ»ĐŽŃŃ, ĐŸŃ€ĐŸĐœ Đ·Đ°Đč ĐœŃŒ ĐœĐ°ĐœĐžĐŒĐ”ĐłĐ°Đ»Đ°Đ»ĐžĐłĐžĐčĐœ Amudha Surabi ŃŽĐŒ.
Ashoka ĐœŃŒ Ń‚ÒŻÒŻĐœĐžĐč ŃĐ·ŃĐœŃ‚ ĐłÒŻŃ€ĐœĐžĐč ĐŽŃŃĐłÒŻÒŻŃ€ Đ¶ĐžĐŒŃĐœĐžĐč Đ¶ĐžĐŒŃĐœĐžĐč ĐŒĐŸĐŽŃ‹Đł Ń‚Đ°Ń€ŃŒŃĐ°Đœ.

ĐŸĐŸŃ‚Ń‚Ń‚Đ°ĐżĐ°ĐŽĐ°, ĐŸĐčĐ»ĐłĐŸĐ»Ń‚ ĐœŃŒ ŃŃ…Đ»ŃŃĐŽ, ĐŒŃĐŽĐ»ŃĐłĐžĐčĐł гаргаж орЮэг. ĐœŃĐŽĐ»ŃĐł ÒŻÒŻŃŃŃ… ĐœŃŒ
ĐŸĐčĐ»ĐłĐŸĐ»Ń‚ ÒŻÒŻŃŃŃ…ŃŃŃ ÒŻÒŻĐŽŃĐ»Ń‚ŃĐč орЮэг. Нэг ĐŽŃĐŒĐžĐč Ń…ÒŻĐœ, “ŃĐœŃ ĐœŃŒ Ń…Đ°ĐŒĐ°Đ°Ń€Đ°Đ»Ń‚Đ°Đč баĐčх
ĐœŃŒ ĐŒĐžĐœĐžĐč ĐŒŃĐŽĐ»ŃĐł Ń‚ĐŸŃ…ĐžĐŸĐ»ĐŽŃĐŸĐœ.

ĐĄŃŃ‚ĐłŃĐ»ĐłŃŃŃ‚ŃĐč ŃƒŃĐ°ĐœĐŽ ŃŃĐ»ŃŃ… Ўасгал хоĐčх - Đ’ĐžĐŒĐ°Đ»ĐŸ
ĐĄŃŃ€ŃŃĐœ ĐŃˆĐŸĐșĐ° ĐœĐ°ĐœĐžĐŒĐ”ĐłĐ°Đ» Ń…ÒŻĐœ
ĐĄŃŃ‚ĐłŃĐ»ĐłŃŃŃ‚ŃĐč ŃƒŃĐ°ĐœĐŽ ŃŃĐ»ŃŃ… Ўасгал хоĐčх - Đ’ĐžĐŒĐ°Đ»ĐŸ ĐŃˆĐžĐŒĐ° ĐŃˆĐžĐŒĐ”ĐłĐ° ĐœĐ°ĐœĐžĐŒĐ”ĐłĐ°Đ»,
ĐČĐžĐŽĐ”ĐŸ Đ±ĐžŃ‡Đ»ŃĐłÒŻÒŻĐŽ


706 subscribers





75) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မဌနá€șမာ (ဗမာ),





၃-၁၂-၂၀၂၁ မဟ စ၍ á€€á€œá€±á€Źá€€á€›á€Ÿá€„á€șဘုရငá€șá€™á€»á€Źá€žá€–á€Œá€…á€șကဌသညá€ș



ကေဏငá€șသသေဏ purify စိတá€șá€€á€­á€Żá€‘á€Źá€á€›á€á€»á€™á€șသသဏရဥေဏငá€șလုပá€șပါ
ဥဆိုသဆုံသနဏမကျနá€șသကိုကျေဏá€șá€œá€œá€Ÿá€Źá€žá€”á€­á€Żá€„á€șဥေဏငá€ș။

ကေဏငá€șသသေဏနေ့ GIF - ကေဏငá€șသသေဏနေ့ GIFs






သငá€șခနá€șှစာ
4031 Thu 15 ဇူလိုငá€ș 2021

ကေဏငá€șသသေဏ purify စိတá€șá€€á€­á€Żá€‘á€Źá€á€›á€á€»á€™á€șသသဏရဥေဏငá€șလုပá€șပါ
ဥဆိုသဆုံသနဏမကျနá€șသကိုကျေဏá€șá€œá€œá€Ÿá€Źá€žá€”á€­á€Żá€„á€șဥေဏငá€ș။

Plant Raw သကá€șá€€á€Œá€źá€žá€›á€œá€šá€șအိုပနá€șသဂေါá€șဂá€șဂငá€ș, ငရုတá€șကေဏငá€șှ, á€žá€á€œá€Źá€žá€žá€źá€ž, မုနá€șá€œá€Źá€„,
ပá€Čမျိုသစုံ,
ဟငá€șှသြှဟငá€șသရလကá€șမျဏသ,
ထေဏငá€șá€•á€Œá€źá€žá€Ąá€žá€źá€žá€™á€»á€Źá€žđŸŽđŸ‰á€€á€™á€čဘာတစá€șဝဟမá€șá€žá€œá€Żá€¶á€žá€›á€Ÿá€­á€žá€…á€șပငá€șá€™á€»á€Źá€žá€”á€Ÿá€„á€·á€șကမá€čဘာတစá€șဝဟမá€șá€žá€œá€Żá€¶á€žá€›á€Ÿá€­á€žá€…á€șပငá€șá€™á€»á€Źá€žá€”á€Ÿá€„á€·á€șá€Ąá€Źá€€á€Źá€žá€Ąá€á€œá€„á€șသရဟိသစá€șပငá€șá€™á€»á€Źá€žá€”á€Ÿá€„á€·á€șá€Ąá€Źá€€á€Źá€žá€Ąá€á€œá€„á€șသရဟိငဟကá€șá€™á€»á€Źá€žá€”á€Ÿá€„á€·á€șá€á€°á€žá€±á€Źá€„á€Ÿá€€á€șမျဏသကá€Č့သို့စဏသရနá€ș,

ကမá€čá€˜á€Źá€™á€Œá€±á€á€…á€șá€á€Żá€œá€Żá€¶á€žá€”á€Ÿá€„á€·á€șအာကာသသညá€ș Manygalai ၏ Amudha Surabi ဖဌစá€șကဌသညá€ș။
Ashoka
သညá€șသူ၏အငá€șပါယဏတစá€șá€œá€»á€Ÿá€±á€Źá€€á€șá€œá€Żá€¶á€žá€žá€…á€șသြှပငá€șစိုကá€șသေဏသစá€șပငá€șမျဏသကိုစိုကá€șá€•á€»á€­á€Żá€žá€€á€Œá€žá€Šá€ș။

Potthapada, á€Ąá€™á€Œá€„á€șသညá€șပထမ ဩှ ဆုံသပေါá€șပေါကá€șá€œá€Źá€•á€Œá€źá€žá€”á€±á€Źá€€á€șဥသိပညဏပေါá€șပေါကá€șလာသညá€ș။
á€—á€Ÿá€Żá€žá€Żá€á€–á€Œá€…á€șပေါá€șá€œá€Źá€žá€±á€Źá€žá€Šá€Źá€€á€­á€Żá€–á€Œá€…á€șပေါá€șစေခဌငá€șá€žá€™á€Ÿá€œá€Źá€žá€Šá€ș။ တစá€șá€á€Żá€™á€Ÿá€Ź
‘ဒါကငါ့ရá€Č့ဥသိပညဏပေါá€șပေါကá€șလာတယá€șဆိုတဏကိုဒဟဥချကá€șကိုဥပေါá€șမူတညá€șတယá€ș။
á€’á€źá€€á€»á€­á€Żá€žá€€á€Œá€±á€Źá€„á€șှဆငá€șခဌငá€șá€™á€Ÿá€Żá€€á€’á€źá€€á€»á€­á€Żá€žá€€á€Œá€±á€Źá€„á€șှဆငá€șခဌငá€șá€™á€Ÿá€Żá€€á€˜á€Źá€€á€Œá€±á€Źá€„á€·á€șလá€Čဆိုတာရá€Čá€·á€Ąá€™á€Œá€„á€șá€€á€Ąá€™á€Œá€„á€șတလေ,
á€—á€Ÿá€Żá€žá€Żá€á€á€œá€±á€€á€”á€Źá€žá€œá€Šá€șá€žá€˜á€±á€Źá€•á€±á€«á€€á€șခဌငá€șှကဘာလá€Čá€†á€­á€Żá€á€Źá€€á€­á€Żá€žá€˜á€±á€Źá€•á€±á€«á€€á€șလာတယá€ș

á€žá€á€­á€›á€Ÿá€­á€žá€±á€Źá€›á€±á€€á€°á€žá€á€Œá€„á€șှ - Vimalo
Ashoka Martimali ချငá€șှစြဂရငá€șှ
သတိရဟိရဟိရေကူသခဌငá€șှ - Vimalo သညá€ș Ashoka Martakalgali
ကိုဓာတá€șá€•á€Żá€¶á€™á€»á€Źá€žá€”á€Ÿá€„á€·á€șá€—á€œá€źá€’á€źá€šá€­á€Żá€™á€»á€Źá€žá€–á€Œá€„á€·á€șနိုသထစေခá€Č့သညá€ș


Story of Buddhism Film 2, Beyond the Illusory World by Benoy K Behl
Benoy Behl
5.12K subscribers
This
film covers the making of early stupas and their sculpted railings. We
see the site of Bharhut, the railings in the Indian Museum Kolkata and
the stupas of Sanchi (2nd century BC - 1st century CE). A film by
culture historian Benoy K Behl.
Please also see my books ‘Buddhism: The Path of Compassion’; ‘The Ajanta Caves’ and ‘The Art of India’ in 2 vols.

youtube.com
Story of Buddhism Film 2, Beyond the Illusory World by Benoy K Behl





It
is an unfortunate,  unpardonable and shocking crime done to the Dalits
by the Hindu religious dominant upper castes in a foreign country.

99.9%
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies including SC/STs/OBCs/Religious
Minorities and some broad minded Upper castes must unite to isolate the
foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe,
western Germany, south Russia, Western Europe, Hungary chitpavan
brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) and return back to their original
home Buddhism. In born quality of chitpavan brahmins are intolerance,
militancy, violence, world’s number one terrorism, ever shooting, mob
lunching, anti national traitors, lunatic, mentally retarded inhumans
practising hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity which are
defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment at mental asylums.They
want to rule the whole world. But they are the real timid slaves always
living out of fear because of their greed for money and power.

99.9%
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies including SC/STs/OBCs/Religious
Minorities and some broad minded Upper castes must unite to isolate the
foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe,
western Germany, south Russia, Western Europe, Hungary chitpavan
brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) and return back to their original
home Buddhism. In born quality of chitpavan brahmins are intolerance,
militancy, violence, world’s number one terrorism, ever shooting, mob
lunching, anti national traitors, lunatic, mentally retarded inhumans
practising hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity which are
defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment at mental asylums.They
want to rule the whole world. But they are the real timid slaves always
living out of fear because of their greed for money and power.
Free online history of Buddhism in Tamil
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Buddhism


99.9%
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies including SC/STs/OBCs/Religious
Minorities and some broad minded Upper castes must unite to isolate the
foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe,
western Germany, south Russia, Western Europe, Hungary chitpavan
brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) and return back to their original
home Buddhism. In born quality of chitpavan brahmins are intolerance,
militancy, violence, world’s number one terrorism, ever shooting, mob
lunching, anti national traitors, lunatic, mentally retarded inhumans
practising hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity which are
defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment at mental asylums.They
want to rule the whole world. But they are the real timid slaves always
living out of fear because of their greed for money and power.
Free online history of Buddhism in Tamil
Tamil Buddhism is Buddhism amongst the Tamils which was historically found in the Tamilakam and Sri Lanka.
Bodhidharma founder of chan Buddhism
is originated from Kanjipuram.
India
Origin
The
heritage of the town of Nākappaáč­áč­inam is found in the Burmese
historical text of the 3rd century BCE and gives evidence of a Budha
Vihar built by the King Ashoka. An inscription from Anuradhapura, Sri
Lanka dated to 2nd century BC records the association of Tamil merchants
with Buddhist institution.
According to A.J.V. Chandrakanthan
who recently (2019) published an article about an 11th-century
comparative work named VEERASOLIYAM, codifying Tamil and Sanskrit
Philology and Poetics is a clear indicator of the prominence given to
Buddhism in Tamil scholarship.
For several centuries in the
second millennium of the common era Buddhism-Various scholarly works
dating back to the 5th, 6th and 7th century of the common era saw the
birth of classical Tamil works composed by eminent Tamil poets with
Buddhist philosophical themes and insights illustrate the impact that
Buddhism had in the world of Tamil scholarship. One of the classical
products of that period is the ancient Tamil Buddhist epic-poem
Manimekalai by the celebrated poet Chithalai Chathanar is set in the
town of Kaveripattanam.
Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th-century
Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue, and a Buddhapada (footprint of the
Buddha) were found in another section of the ancient city, now at
Pallavanesvaram.
Nāgappaáč­áč­inam was a Buddhist centre of the
4th-5th century CE. Its stupa dates from this era-Was revived as of the
9th century. (H.P.Ray, The Winds of Change, Delhi 1994, p. 142) In the
11th century, Chudamani Vihara was built by the Javanese king Sri Vijaya
Soolamanivarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola. The “Animangalam
Copperplate” of Kulothungachola notes that “Kasiba Thera” [Buddhist
Monk] renovated the Buddhist temple in the 6th century with the help of
Buddhist monks of “Naga Nadu”. This “nagar annam vihar” later came to be
known as “Nagananavigar”. Buddhism flourished until the 15th century
and the buildings of the vigara survived until the 18th century.
Kanchipuram is one of the oldest cities in South India, and was a city
of learning for Tamil, Sanskrit, and Pali and was believed to be visited
by Xuanzang. He visited the city in the 7th century and said that this
city was 6 miles in circumference and that its people were famous for
bravery and piety as well as for their love of justice and veneration
for learning. He further recorded that Gautama Buddha had visited the
place. It was during the reign of the Pallava dynasty from the 4th to
the 9th centuries that Kanchipuram attained its limelight. The city
served as the Pallava capital, and many of the known temples were built
during their reign. According to Tamil tradition, the founder of Zen,
Bodhidharma was born here. Great Buddhist scholars such as Dignāga,
Buddhaghosa, Bodhisena Buddadithya Dhammapala Buddadatar vajrabodhi
lived here too.
Sri Lanka
Jaffna peninsula
Nāga
Tivu/ Nāga Natu was the name of the whole Jaffna Peninsula in some
historical documents. There are number of Buddhist myths associated with
the interactions of people of this historical place with Buddha. This
Nagadeepa Purana Viharaya was located close to the ancient Nainativu
Nagapooshani Amman Temple of Nainativu, one of the Shakti Peethas. The
word Naga was sometimes written in early inscriptions as Nāya, as in
Nāganika - this occurs in the Nanaghat inscription of 150 BCE.
The
famous Vallipuram Buddha statue built with Dravidian sculptural
traditions from Amaravathi village, Guntur district (Amaravati school)
was found in excavations below the Hindu Temple. The language of the
inscription is Tamil language-Prakrit, which shares several similarities
with script inscriptions used in Andhra at the time, when the Telugu
Satavahana dynasty was at the height of its power and its 17th monarch
Hāla (20-24 CE) married a princess from the island.Peter Schalk writes,
“Vallipuram has very rich archaeological remains that point at an early
settlement. It was probably an emporium in the first centuries AD. From
already dated stones with which we compare this Vallipuram statue, we
can conclude that it falls in the period 3-4 century AD. During that
period, the typical Amaravati-Buddha sculpture was developed.”The Buddha
statue found here was given to King of Thailand by the then British
Governor Henry Blake in 1906
Indrapala argued for a flourishing
pre-Christian Buddhist civilization in Jaffna, in agreement with
Paranavithana, and Mudliyar C. Rasanayakam, Ancient Jaffna in an earlier
work, 1965.
This place is similar to Nagapatnam where all Asian
vessels used it as a stopover point and the Buddhist and Hindu Dagobas
are just a resting and worshipping places for the sailors and
international traders.
A group of Dagobas situated close
together at the Kadurugoda Vihara site in Kandarodai served as a
monastery for Tamil monks and reflect the rise in popularity of Mahayana
Buddhism amongst Jaffna Tamils and the Tamils of the ancient Tamil
country in the first few centuries of the common era before the
revivalism of Hinduism amongst the population.
Trincomalee
Thiriyai
is referred to as Thalakori in the 2nd century CE map of Ptolemy.
Pre-Christian-Buddhist Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions have been found in the
area, the oldest belonging to the 2nd century BCE. Thiriyai formed a
prominent village of Jaffna’s Vannimai districts in the medieval period.
The site is home to Mahayana Buddhist vatadage ruins worshipped by the
locals during the rise of Tamil Buddhism in the area. During
Paramesvaravarman I’s reign, the famous Tiriyai Pallava Grantha
inscriptions of 7th-8th century Tamilakam were recorded in the village.
The inscription refers to Tamil merchant mariners from Tamil Nadu, their
seafaring and commerce to Trincomalee. It details their endowment of
this shrine dedicated to the Buddhist deity Avalokitesvara and his
consort Tara. Dvarapala sculptures found at the ruins are early
contributions of the Pallava school of art to the island.
The
Chola Dynasty patronized several religions amongst Tamils, including
Saivism, Vaishnavism, and Buddhism. They built Buddhist temples known as
“Perrumpallis”. In the eleventh century the Velgam Vehera of
Periyakulam was renovated and renamed by the Cholas as
Rajarajaperumpalli after they conquered the Anuradhapura and established
their rule in Polonnaruwa. Tamil inscriptions excavated from this site
point to the attention the Cholas paid to the development of Trincomalee
District as a strong Saiva Tamil principality and for their
contributions to the upkeep of several shrines including the monumental
Shiva Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee.
See also
Buddhaghosa
Dhammapāla
Manimekalai
Kundalakesi
Sri Lanka Maha Bodhi Centre, Chennai
Notes
^
Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant,
and subsequent accounts became layered with legend.[8] There are three
principal sources for Bodhidharma’s biography.[9]None of them mentions
specifically Tamil Nadu, only “the western regions” and “Souther India”.
See Bodhidharma#Birthplace sources for an extensive overview of
possible origins, and the reliability of the sources provided for these
possible origins.
References
^ Duraiswamy, Dayalan. “Role of Archaeology on Maritime Buddhism”.
^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maáč‡imekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928. Available at www.archive.org [1]
^
Hisselle Dhammaratana,Buddhism in South India, Buddhist Publication
Society, Kandy, 1964. Available on Buddhist Publication Society Online
Library [2]
^ Marine archaeological explorations of
Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast., Rao, S.R.. Journal of
Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 6. Available online at [3]
Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
^ Kambe & year unknown.
^ Zvelebil 1987, p. 125-126.
^ McRae 2003.
^ Dumoulin 2005, p. 85-90.
^
a b Schalk, Peter (2002). Buddhism among Tamils in pre-colonial
Tamilakam and ÄȘlam: Prologue. The Pre-Pallava and the Pallava period,
Uppsala: Upplala Universitet; pp. 1
^
Malalasekera, G.P. (2003). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names:
Pali-English. Asian Educational Services. p. 42. ISBN 81-206-1823-8.
^
Laura Smid (2003). South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia: Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Great Britain: Routledge. 429.
^
Chelvadurai Manogaran (1987). Ethnic conflict and reconciliation in Sri
Lanka. United States of America: University of Hawaii Press. 21.
^ Ponnampalam Ragupathy. (1987). Early settlements in Jaffna: an archaeological survey. pp. 183
^
Schalk, Peter (2002). Buddhism among Tamils in pre-colonial Tamilakam
and ÄȘlam: Prologue. The Pre-Pallava and the Pallava period. pp.151
^
Schalk, Peter. “The Vallipuram Buddha Image”. Tamilnation.org. Retrieved
10 January 2013. Vallipuram has very rich archaeological remains that
point at an early settlement. It was probably an emporium in the first
centuries AD. [
] From already dated stones with which we compare this
Vallipuram statue, we can conclude that it falls in the period 3-4
century AD. During that period, the typical Amaravati-Buddha sculpture
was developed.
Meera Abraham (1988). Two medieval merchant guilds of south India. Manohar Publications. pp. 136
^ “Velgamvehera”. Department of Archaeology. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
^
Peter Schalk, Ālvāppillai Vēluppillai. Buddhism among Tamils in
pre-colonial Tamilakam and ÄȘlam: Prologue. The Pre-Pallava and the
Pallava period, Page 157-159.
Sources
Kambe, Tstuomu,
Bodhidharma. A collection of stories from Chinese literature (PDF),
archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2015, retrieved 1 April
2013
McRae, John R. (2000), “The Antecedents of Encounter Dialogue in
Chinese Ch’an Buddhism”, in Heine, Steven; Wright, Dale S. (eds.), The
Kƍan: Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford University Press
Zvelebil,
Kamil V. (1987), “The Sound of the One Hand”, Journal of the American
Oriental Society, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107,
No. 1, 107 (1): 125–126, doi:10.2307/602960, JSTOR 602960
Do Good Purify Mind Attain Eternal Bliss
Overcome the worst Illness Hunger - Buddha.
Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, beans
vegetables, Dwarf fruit 🍎 🍉 trees in pots and all over the world and
in
Space to eat like birds as planned by NASA, British billionaire Richard
Branson flew into space aboard a Virgin Galactic vessel and Jeff Bezos.
Entire Earth and Space are Amudha SURABI of Manimegalai.
Ashoka planted fruit bearing trees all over his empire.
Potthapada,
perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in
dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of
reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge
after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception-Buddha
Practice Mindful Swimming - Vimalo
Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow
Chola-era temple in Velachery
The dilapidated Vasudevaperumal temple is said to be 1,000 years old
Work
to clean the precincts of Sri Vasudevaperumal temple at Ram Nagar in
Velachery will be expedited. A large part of the temple is covered with
thick layer of dirt, officials of the Greater Chennai Corporation to
clean up the premises and to remove encroachments from around four acres
of land belonging to Arulmigu Dandeeswarar and Sri Yoga Narasimhar
temples.
Adjacent
to the temple structure, the idols of Sri Vasudevaperumal, Sridevi and
Bhoomidevi, Bhrighu Maharishi, Lord Ganesha and that of Saint Ramanuja
had been installed inside a temporary structure.
Idols found buried
Ananthapadmanabhan, a priest, said the idols were found buried in that area by some devotees.
Padmapriya
Baskaran of Aalayam Kanden Trust had stumbled upon the temple and idols
in 2018 during a recce for a Velachery Local area walk.
In
the book Early History of Madras Region by K. V. Raman, published in
the 1950s, there is a mention about the temple. “He says that it is a
Chola-era temple from the 11th-12th Century and that the idols are in a
seated position. The book also said the deity was the Vedanarayana
Perumal,” Ms. Padmapriya said and added that she was happy that steps
were taken to restore the temple, which had over the years been buried
under rubbish and debris. “You can find temples from the Chola Era and
Pallava antiquities in Velachery, which was earlier known as Vedasreni
and Dinachinthamani Chaturvedimangalam,” Ms. Padmapriya said.
102) Classical Tamil-àźȘàźŸàź°àźźàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźŻ àź‡àźšàŻˆàź€àŻàź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźšàŻ†àźźàŻàźźàŻŠàźŽàźż,
3-12-2021
àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àź…àź©àŻˆàź”àź°àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź‰àźČàź• àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ
Tamil Buddhists are requested to correct through the same site
Buddhism àź€àŻàź€ àźźàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àźČàź”àźš àź†àź©àŻàźČàŻˆàź©àŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàźżàźČàŻ
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź°àŻ€àź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź•àź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ.
àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźź àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àźšàźżàź±àŻàź”àźżàźŻàź”àź°àŻ
àź•àźŸàźžàŻàźšàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź©àź€àŻ.
àź‡àźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸ
àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àźźàŻ
àźȘàŻŠ.àźš.àźźàŻ.
3 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àźȘàź°àŻàźźàźżàźŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź‰àź°àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźšàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźšàźżàź©àźźàŻ àźšàź•àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ
àźȘàźŸàź°àźźàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźŻàźźàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àźšàŻ‹àź• àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź”àźżàźčàźŸàź°àŻ
àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźżàźŻ àźšàźŸàź©àŻàź±àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàź°àźŸàź€àźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź•àźżàźźàŻ 2 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àŻ‡àź€àźżàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ.
àź.àźœàŻ‡.àź”àźż. àźšàźźàŻ€àźȘàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
(2019) 11 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àź”àŻ€àź°àźšàŻ‹àźČàźżàźŻàźźàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź± àź’àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźż
àź’àź°àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź°àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸ àźšàźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àź©àŻ, àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźšàźźàźžàŻàź•àźżàź°àŻàź€ àźȘàźżàźČàźŸàźČàźœàźż
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź•àź”àźżàź€àŻˆàź•àźłàŻˆ àź•àŻàź±àźżàźŻàŻ€àźŸàźŸàź•àŻàź•àŻàź”àź€àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàźźàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźšàźżàźČàŻ àźȘ Buddhism
àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźźàŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź€àŻ†àźłàźżàź”àźŸàź© àź•àŻàź±àźżàź•àźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŻàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ.
àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź”àźŸàź©
àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àź°àźŁàŻàźŸàźŸàźźàŻ àźźàźżàźČàŻàźČàźżàź©àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźȘàźČ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźŸàź•, àźȘ Buddhism
àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ-àźȘàźČàŻàź”àŻ‡àź±àŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àźŸàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź”àźŸàź© àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ 5, 6 àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ 7
àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻàź”àŻˆ. àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àź•àź”àźżàźžàź°àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ
àź‡àźŻàź±àŻàź±àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź€àź€àŻàź€àŻàź” àź•àź°àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻàź•àźłàŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźšàŻàźŁàŻàźŁàź±àźżàź”àŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘàźżàź±àźšàŻàź€àź©. àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàźźàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźšàźżàźČàŻ
àź‰àźČàź•àźżàźČàŻ àźàź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻ àź€àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ. àź…àźšàŻàź€àź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźŻàźŸàź°àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ
àź’àź©àŻàź±àŻ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź•àź”àźżàźžàź°àŻ àźšàźżàź€àŻàź€àźČàźŸàźŻàŻ àźšàź€àŻàź€àź©àź°àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àźŸàź”àźżàźŻàź•àŻ
àź•àź”àźżàź€àŻˆ àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆ àźŽàź©àŻàźȘàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàź”àŻ‡àź°àźżàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàźŁàźźàŻ àźšàź•àź°àźżàźČàŻ àź…àźźàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźłàŻàźłàź€àŻ.
4
àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 5 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźźàźŸàźŸàźČàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź‡àźŸàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ, àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàźŸàź€àźŸ (àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àźżàź©àŻ àź€àźŸàźźàŻ) àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àŻˆ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźšàź•àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻŠàź°àŻ
àźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ, àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź©àŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©.
àźšàźŸàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźšàźżàź©àźźàŻ
àźȘàŻŠ.àźš. 4 àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 5 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźȘ center àź€àŻàź€ àźźàŻˆàźŻàźźàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ. àź…àź€àź©àŻ
àźžàŻàź€àŻ‚àźȘàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź”àźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ -9 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. . àź•àŻàźČàŻ‹àź€àŻàź€àŻàź™àŻàź•àźšàŻàźšàŻ‹àźČàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ â€œàź…àź©àźżàźźàź™àŻàź•àźČàźźàŻ àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź°àŻ àźȘàźżàźłàŻ‡àźŸàŻâ€
àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, â€œàź•àźŸàźšàźżàźȘàźŸ àź€àŻ‡àź°àźŸâ€ [àźȘ mon àź€àŻàź€ àź€àŻàź±àź”àźż] 6 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ
â€œàźšàźŸàź•àźŸàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻâ€ àźȘ mon àź€àŻàź€ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź‰àź€àź”àźżàźŻàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻˆ
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàź€àŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ â€œàźšàź•àź°àŻ àź…àź©àŻàź©àźźàŻ àź”àźżàźčàźŸàź°àŻâ€ àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ â€œàźšàźŸàź•àź©àź©àź”àźżàź•àź°àŻâ€ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ
àź…àź±àźżàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ 15 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź”àź°àŻˆ àźšàŻ†àźŽàźżàź€àŻàź€àź€àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź”àźżàź•àźŸàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŸàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ 18 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź”àź°àŻˆ àź‰àźŻàźżàź°àŻ àźȘàźżàźŽàŻˆàź€àŻàź€àź©.
àź•àźŸàźžàŻàźšàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźźàźżàź•àźȘàŻ àźȘàźŽàźźàŻˆàźŻàźŸàź© àźšàź•àź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź©àŻàź±àźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ, àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ
àź‡àź€àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ, àźšàźźàźžàŻàź•àźżàź°àŻàź€àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŸàźČàźż àźźàŻŠàźŽàźżàźŻàŻˆàź•àŻ àź•àź±àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźšàź•àź°àźźàźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ,
àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àź‡àź€àŻ àźœàŻàź”àźŸàź©àŻàźšàźŸàź™àŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àŻˆ àź€àź°àŻàź”àź€àźŸàź• àźšàźźàŻàźȘàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àź…àź”àź°àŻ 7 àź†àźźàŻ
àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àźšàź•àź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àź”àźżàźœàźŻàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ, àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź•àź°àźźàŻ 6 àźźàŻˆàźČàŻ àźšàŻàź±àŻàź±àźłàź”àŻ
àź•àŻŠàźŁàŻàźŸàź€àŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ, àź…àź€àź©àŻ àźźàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź€àŻàźŁàźżàźšàŻàźšàźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻ
àźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź±àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ, àź…àź€àŻ‡àźȘàŻ‹àźČàŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźšàŻ€àź€àźż àźźàŻ€àź€àźŸàź© àź…àź©àŻàźȘàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź•àź±àŻàź±àźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àźŸàź© àź”àźŁàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźČàŻ àźȘàźżàź°àźȘàźČàźźàźŸàź©àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź±àźżàź©àźŸàź°àŻ. àź• ut àź€àźź
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ àź…àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź”àŻˆàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àźŸàź• àź…àź”àź°àŻ àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àźȘàź€àźżàź”àŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ. 4 àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 9
àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź”àź°àŻˆ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź”àźźàŻàźšàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻàź€àźŸàź©àŻ
àź•àźŸàźžàŻàźšàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźšàŻàźšàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź…àźŸàŻˆàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź•àź°àźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź€àźČàŻˆàźšàź•àź°àźŸàź•
àźšàŻ†àźŻàźČàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ, àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àź…àź±àźżàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàźČ àź•àŻ‹àźŻàźżàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź…àź”àź±àŻàź±àźżàź©àŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©. àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘàźŸàź°àźźàŻàźȘàź°àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŸàźż, àźœàŻ†àź©àŻ àźšàźżàź±àŻàź”àź©àź°àŻ, àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ àź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ‡
àźȘàźżàź±àźšàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ. àźȘàŻ†àź°àźżàźŻ àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àź…àź±àźżàźžàź°àŻàź•àźłàźŸàź© àźŸàźżàź•àŻàź©àź•àźŸ, àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àŻ‹àźšàźŸ, àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàźšàŻ‡àź©àźŸ
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź€àźżàź€àŻàźŻàźŸ àź€àźźàŻàźźàźȘàźŸàźČ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź€àź€àź°àŻ àź”àźœàŻàź°àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźż àź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ‡àźŻàŻàźźàŻ àź”àźŸàźŽàŻàźšàŻàź€àź©àź°àŻ.
àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆ
àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàźźàŻ àź€àŻ€àźȘàź•àź±àŻàźȘàźźàŻ
àźšàźżàźČ
àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź†àź”àźŁàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àźźàŻàźŽàŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁ àź€àŻ€àźȘàź•àź±àŻàźȘàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàŻ†àźŻàź°àźŸàź• àźšàźŸàź•àźŸ àź€àźżàź”àŻ /
àźšàźŸàź•àźŸ àźšàŻ‡àźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ. àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź‡àźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàź•àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ
àź€àŻŠàźŸàź°àŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź€àŻŠàźŸàź°àŻàźȘàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àźȘàŻàź°àźŸàźŁàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàźČ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàźŸàź•àź€àŻ€àźȘ
àźȘàŻàź°àźŸàźŁ àź”àźżàź•àźŸàź°àŻˆ àźšàź•àŻàź€àźż àźȘàŻ€àź€àź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź©àŻàź±àźŸàź© àźšàŻˆàź©àźŸàźżàź”àŻàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźšàŻˆàź©àźŸàźżàź”àŻ
àźšàźŸàź•àźȘàŻ‚àź·àźŸàź©àźż àź…àźźàŻàźźàź©àŻ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź…àź°àŻàź•àźżàźČàŻ àź…àźźàŻˆàźšàŻàź€àŻàźłàŻàźłàź€àŻ. àźšàźŸàź•àźŸ àźŽàź©àŻàź± àźšàŻŠàźČàŻ àźšàźżàźČ
àźšàźźàźŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àźšàźŸàź•àź©àźżàź•àźŸàź”àŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àźČàź”àŻ‡ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻàźźàŻ àźšàźŻàźŸ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ
àźŽàźŽàŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ - àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźżàźźàŻ 150 àź‡àź©àŻ àźšàźŸàź©àźŸàź•àźŸàŻ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àźšàźżàź•àźŽàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ.
àź•àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ‚àź°àŻ
àźźàźŸàź”àźŸàŻàźŸàźźàŻ (àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż àźȘàźłàŻàźłàźż) àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż àź•àźżàź°àźŸàźźàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźżàź°àźŸàź”àźżàźŸ àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘ
àźźàź°àźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ àź‡àźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ
àź•àŻ€àźŽàŻ‡ àź…àź•àźŽàŻàź”àźŸàź°àźŸàźŻàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŁàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻŠàźŽàźż àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
àźźàŻŠàźŽàźż-àźȘàźżàź°àź•àźżàź°àŻàź€àŻ àź†àź•àŻàźźàŻ, àź‡àź€àŻ àź€àŻ†àźČàŻàź™àŻàź•àŻ àźšàźŸàź”àźčàźŸàź© àź”àźźàŻàźšàźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻ àź…àź€àźżàź•àźŸàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ
àź‰àźšàŻàźšàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, â€‹â€‹àź…àź€àź©àŻ 17 àź”àź€àŻ àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àźčàźČàźŸ (àźȘàŻŠ.àźš. 20-24) àź’àź°àŻ
àź€àźżàź°àŻàźźàźŁàźźàźŸàź©àźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, â€‹â€‹àź†àźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻ àźȘàźŻàź©àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźžàŻàź•àźżàź°àźżàźȘàŻàźŸàŻ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ
àźȘàźČ àź’àź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻˆàźŻàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàź•àźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź€àŻ€àź”àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àźłàź”àź°àźšàźż. àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ
àźŽàźŽàŻàź€àŻàź•àźżàź±àźŸàź°àŻ, â€œàź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻ‡àź±àŻàź±àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àźźàźżàź•àźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ†àź°àźżàźŻ
àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àźŽàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź°àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźČàźŸàźźàŻ. àźàź±àŻàź•àź©àź”àŻ‡ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźČàŻàźČàźżàźȘàŻ‚àź°àźźàŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź’àźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻ
àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àź±àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźźàŻàźŸàźżàź”àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàźźàŻ àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż 3-4
àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź…àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźŸàźČàź•àźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ, àź”àźŽàź•àŻàź•àźźàźŸàź© àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż-àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€
àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘàźźàŻ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. â€œàź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ àź€àźŸàźŻàŻàźČàźŸàźšàŻàź€àŻ
àźźàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ 1906 àź‡àźČàŻ àź…àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻˆàźŻ àźȘàźżàź°àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź·àŻ àź†àźłàŻàźšàź°àŻ àźčàŻ†àź©àŻàź±àźż àźȘàźżàźłàŻ‡àź•àŻàź•àźŸàźČàŻ
àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ
àź‡àźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àźȘàźŸàźČàźŸ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź•àźżàź±àźżàźžàŻàź€àź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àźšàźŸàź•àź°àźżàź•àźźàŻ, àźȘàź°àźŁàź”àźżàź€àźŸàź©àźŸàź”àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź‰àźŸàź©àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ 1965 àź†àźźàŻ
àź†àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àźȘàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźČàŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàźźàźŸàź© àźźàŻàźŸàŻàźČàźżàźŻàźŸàź°àŻ àźšàźż. àź°àźŸàźšàźšàźŸàźŻàź•àźźàŻ
àź†àź•àźżàźŻàŻ‹àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àźŸàź€àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźŸàź°àŻ.
àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàźźàŻ àźšàźŸàź•àźȘàźŸàŻàź©àźźàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź©àŻàź±àź€àŻ, àź…àź™àŻàź•àŻ
àź…àź©àŻˆàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź†àźšàźżàźŻ àź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻàźźàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźšàźżàź±àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻàźźàźżàźŸàźźàźŸàź• àźȘàźŻàź©àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©, àźȘ and àź€àŻàź€
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźŸàź•àŻ‹àźȘàźŸàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàźŸàźČàŻàźźàźżàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àźšàź°àŻàź”àź€àŻ‡àźš àź”àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àź“àźŻàŻàź”àŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àźŽàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźČàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźźàŻ‡.
àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àź°àŻ‹àźŸàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ
àź‰àźłàŻàźł àź•àź€àŻàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŸàźŸ àź”àźżàźčàźŸàź°àźŸ àź€àźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź’àź©àŻàź±àźŸàź• àź…àźźàŻˆàźšàŻàź€àŻàźłàŻàźł àź€àźŸàź•àŻ‹àźȘàźŸàźžàŻ àź•àŻàźŽàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
àź€àŻàź±àź”àźżàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźźàźŸàźźàźŸàź• àźȘàźŁàźżàźŻàźŸàź±àŻàź±àźżàźŻàź€àŻàźŸàź©àŻ, àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź”àźŸàź© àźšàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àźšàźżàźČ
àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźźàź•àźŸàźŻàźŸàź© àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻ àź…àź€àźżàź•àź°àźżàź€àŻàź€àź€àŻˆ
àźȘàźżàź°àź€àźżàźȘàźČàźżàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àźźàź•àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àź‡àźšàŻàź€àŻ àźźàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźźàź±àŻàźźàźČàź°àŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàź©àŻ.
àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ
2
àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź©àŻ àźŸàŻ‹àźČàźźàźżàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź”àź°àŻˆàźȘàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźżàź°àŻˆ àź€àźČàź•àŻ‹àź°àźż àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ
àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź•àźżàź±àźżàźžàŻàź€àź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ-àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ-àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàźźàźż àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŁàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźłàŻàźłàź©, àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźżàźźàŻ
2 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻˆàźšàŻ àźšàŻ‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àź€àŻ. àź€àźżàź°àŻàźŻàźŸàźŻàŻ àź‡àźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ
àź”àź©àŻàź©àźżàźźàźŸàźŻàŻ àźźàźŸàź”àźŸàŻàźŸàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźźàŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻ àź•àźżàź°àźŸàźźàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźżàź©àźŸàź°àŻ.
àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàź•àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàŻ‚àź°àŻàź”àźŸàźšàźżàź•àźłàŻ
àź”àźŽàźżàźȘàźŸàŻàźźàŻ àźźàź•àźŸàźŻàźŸàź© àźȘ Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àź”àźŸàŻàźŸàźŸàźŸàŻ‡àźœàŻ àź‡àźŸàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàźźàźŸàź• àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©.
àźȘàź°àźźàŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àź”àź°àŻàźźàź©àŻ I àź‡àź©àŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ, 7 àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ 8 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ
àź”àź°àŻˆ àźȘàŻàź•àźŽàŻàźȘàŻ†àź±àŻàź± àź€àźżàź°àŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźżàź°àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź•àźżàź°àźŸàźźàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźȘàź€àźżàź”àŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©. àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àź”àźŁàźżàź•àź•àŻ àź•àźŸàź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻˆàźŻàźżàź©àź°àŻˆàź•àŻ
àź•àŻàź±àźżàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻˆ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àźźàźŸàź©àź€àŻ àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ àź”àź°àŻˆ. àźȘ
Buddhist àź€àŻàź€ àź€àŻ†àźŻàŻàź”àźźàźŸàź© àź…àź”àźČàŻ‹àź•àźżàź€àŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àźŸ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź”àź°àź€àŻ àź€àŻàźŁàŻˆàź”àźżàźŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź€àźŸàź°àźŸ
àź†àź•àźżàźŻàŻ‹àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź…àź°àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŁàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàź©àŻàź©àź€àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźżàźŻàź€àŻˆ àź‡àź€àŻ
àź”àźżàź”àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź‡àźŸàźżàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźźàŻ àź€àŻàź”àźŸàź°àźȘàźŸàźČ àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźČàŻˆàźȘàŻ
àźȘàźłàŻàźłàźżàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàźŸàź•àŻàźźàŻ.
àźšàŻ‹àźŽ àź”àźźàŻàźšàźźàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡
àźšàŻˆàź” àźźàź€àźźàŻ, àź”àŻˆàźŁàź” àźźàź€àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàźżàźŸàŻàźŸ àźȘàźČ àźźàź€àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ
àź†àź€àź°àźżàź€àŻàź€àź€àŻ. àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ “àźȘàŻ†àź°àŻàźźàŻàźȘàźłàŻàźłàźżàźžàŻâ€ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ àź…àźŽàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àŻ‹àź”àźżàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻˆàź•àŻ
àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź©àź°àŻ. àźȘàź€àźżàź©àŻŠàź©àŻàź±àźŸàźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ, àźȘàŻ†àź°àźżàźŻàź•àŻàźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź”àŻ†àźČàŻàź•àźźàŻ àź”àŻ†àźčàŻ†àź°àźŸ,
àź…àź©àŻàź°àźŸàź€àźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź•àŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àźż, àźȘàŻŠàźČàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻ àź€àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź†àźŸàŻàźšàźżàźŻàŻˆ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàźŻ
àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àźšàŻ‹àźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź°àźŸàźœàź°àźŸàźœàźȘàŻ†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàźłàŻàźłàźż àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź€àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ
àźźàź±àŻàźȘàŻ†àźŻàź°àźżàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź€àźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź…àź•àźŽàŻàź”àźŸàź°àźŸàźŻàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
àź•àźČàŻàź”àŻ†àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ àźźàźŸàź”àźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźČàŻàź”àźŸàź© àźšàŻˆàź” àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ àź…àź€àźżàźȘàź°àźŸàź•
àź…àźȘàźżàź”àźżàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àźż àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź”àź€àź±àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ, àź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻ‹àźŁàźźàźČàŻˆ àźšàźżàź©àŻˆàź”àŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàź©àŻàź© àźšàźżàź”àź©àŻ àź•àŻŠàź©àŻ‡àźžàŻàź”àź°àźźàŻ
àź•àŻ‹àźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź‰àźŸàŻàźȘàźŸ àźȘàźČ àź†àźČàźŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ àźȘàź°àźŸàźźàź°àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàź€àź±àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€
àźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźšàŻ‹àźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźšàŻ†àźČàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻ àź•àź”àź©àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àźšàŻàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź•àŻàź•àźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźżàź©àŻàź±àź©.
àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàŻàź•
àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź•àŻ‹àźšàźŸ
àź€àźźàŻàźźàźȘàźŸàźČ
àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆ
àź•àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàźČàź•àŻ‡àźšàźż
àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆ àźźàź•àźŸ àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźż àźźàŻˆàźŻàźźàŻ, àźšàŻ†àź©àŻàź©àŻˆ
àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ
Bod
àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ àź•àŻàź±àźżàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźźàź•àźŸàźČ àź”àźŸàźŽàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻˆ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź€àź•àź”àźČàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź…àź€àźżàź•àźźàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©,
àź…àźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€ àź•àźŁàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻàź°àźŸàźŁàź•àŻàź•àź€àŻˆàź•àźłàŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àźŸàŻàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź©. [8] àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ
àź”àźŸàźŽàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻˆ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻ‚àź©àŻàź±àŻ àźźàŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻ àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. [9] àź…àź”àź±àŻàź±àźżàźČàŻ
àźŽàź€àŻàź”àŻàźźàŻ‡ àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàź• àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻàźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźż àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻàźČàŻˆ, â€œàźźàŻ‡àź±àŻàź•àŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻâ€ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ â€œàź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸâ€ àźźàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźźàŻ‡. àźšàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź© àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àźźàŻ
àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźżàźŻ àź”àźżàź°àźżàź”àźŸàź© àź•àźŁàŻàźŁàŻ‹àźŸàŻàźŸàźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźšàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź© àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ
àź”àźŽàź™àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àźšàźźàŻàźȘàź•àź€àŻàź€àź©àŻàźźàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ # àźȘàźżàź±àźšàŻàź€ àź‡àźŸàźźàŻ
àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàźŁàŻàź•.
àź•àŻàź±àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ
^ àź€àŻàź°àŻˆàźšàźŸàźźàźż, àź€àźŻàźČàź©àŻ. â€œàź•àźŸàźČàŻàźšàźŸàź°àŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàźżàźŻàźČàŻ àźȘàź™àŻàź•àŻâ€.
^ àź°àźŸàź”àŻ àźȘàź•àź€àŻ‚àź°àŻ àź•àźżàź°àŻàź·àŻàźŁàźšàŻàź”àźŸàźźàźż àź…àźŻàź™àŻàź•àź°àŻ, àźźàźšàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆ àź…àź€àź©àŻ àź”àź°àźČàźŸàź±àŻàź±àŻ àź…àźźàŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźČàŻ, àźČàźŁàŻàźŸàź©àŻ, 1928. www.archive.org àź‡àźČàŻ àź•àźżàźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ [1]
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àźčàźżàźšàŻ†àźČàŻàźČàŻ‡ àź€àźźàŻàźźàź°àź€àźŸàź©àźŸ, àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź”àźżàźČàŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ, àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźȘàźȘàŻàźłàźżàź•àŻ‡àź·àź©àŻ
àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż, àź•àźŁàŻàźŸàźż, 1964. àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźȘàźȘàŻàźłàźżàź•àŻ‡àź·àź©àŻ àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż àź†àź©àŻàźČàŻˆàź©àŻ àźšàŻ‚àźČàź•àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àź•àźżàźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ [2]
Tamil àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻàźšàźŸàźŸàŻ àź•àźŸàź±àŻàź•àź°àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźŸàźżàź°àźŸàź™àŻàź•àźżàźȘàźŸàź°àŻ-àźȘàŻ‚àźźàŻàźȘàŻ‚àźčàźŸàź°àŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ àź•àźŸàźČàŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àź†àźŻàŻàź”àŻàź•àźłàŻ., àź°àźŸàź”àŻ, àźŽàźžàŻ.àź†àź°àŻ .. àźœàź°àŻàź©àźČàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ
àźźàź°àŻˆàź©àŻ àź†àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻàźŸàźČàźœàźż, àź€àŻŠàź•àŻàź€àźż. II, àźœàŻ‚àźČàŻˆ 1991, àźȘàź•àŻ. 6. àź†àź©àŻàźČàŻˆàź©àźżàźČàŻ àź•àźżàźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ
[3] àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ 24 àźœàź©àź”àź°àźż 2011 àź”àŻ‡àźȘàŻ‡àź•àŻ àź‡àźŻàźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
Arch
â€œàź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźšàź•àźČàŻâ€ (PDF). 8 àźȘàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź”àź°àźż 2007 àź‡àźČàŻ àź…àźšàźČàŻ (PDF)
àź‡àźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ. 2006-10-16 àź…àź©àŻàź±àŻ àźȘàŻ†àź±àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ.
^ àź•àźźàŻàźȘàŻ‡ & àź†àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź€àŻ†àź°àźżàźŻàź”àźżàźČàŻàźČàŻˆ.
^ àźžàŻàź”àŻ†àźČàźȘàźżàźČàŻ 1987, àźȘ. 125-126.
^ àźźàŻ†àź•àŻàź°àŻ‡ 2003.
^ àźŸàŻàźź ou àźČàźżàź©àŻ 2005, àźȘ. 85-90.
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a àźȘàźż àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ (2002). àź•àźŸàźČàź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź†àźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ: àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻàź°àŻˆ. àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźŸàźČàźźàŻ, àź‰àźȘàŻàźšàźŸàźČàźŸ: àź‰àźȘàźČàźŸàźČàźŸ àźŻàŻàź©àźżàź”àź°àŻàźšàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ†àźŸàŻ; àźȘàź•àŻ. 1
^ àźźàźČàźČàźšàŻ‡àź•àź°, àźœàźż.àźȘàźż. (2003). àźȘàźŸàźČàźż àźšàź°àźżàźŻàźŸàź© àźȘàŻ†àźŻàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź…àź•àź°àźŸàź€àźż: àźȘàźŸàźČàźż-àź†àź™àŻàź•àźżàźČàźźàŻ. àź†àźšàźżàźŻ àź•àźČàŻàź”àźż àźšàŻ‡àź”àŻˆàź•àźłàŻ. àźȘ. 42. àź.àźŽàźžàŻ.àźȘàźż.àźŽàź©àŻ 81-206-1823-8.
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àźČàźŸàź°àźŸ àźžàŻàźźàźżàźŸàŻ (2003). àź€àŻ†àź±àŻàź•àźŸàźšàźżàźŻ àźšàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻàź±àź”àźżàźŻàźČàŻ: àź’àź°àŻ àź•àźČàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźłàźžàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźźàŻ:
àź†àźȘàŻàź•àźŸàź©àźżàźžàŻàź€àźŸàź©àŻ, àźȘàź™àŻàź•àźłàźŸàź€àŻ‡àź·àŻ, àź‡àźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸ, àźȘàźŸàź•àźżàźžàŻàź€àźŸàź©àŻ, àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆ. àź•àźżàź°àŻ‡àźŸàŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàź©àŻ: àź°àŻ‚àźŸàŻàźČàŻ†àźŸàŻàźœàŻ. 429.
^ àźšàŻ†àźČàŻàź”àź€àŻàź°àŻˆ àźźàź©àŻ‹àź•àź°àź©àŻ (1987). àź‡àźČàź™àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź‡àź© àźźàŻ‹àź€àźČàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźšàźČàŻàźČàźżàźŁàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ. àźŻàŻàź©àŻˆàźŸàŻ†àźŸàŻ àźžàŻàźŸàŻ‡àźŸàŻàźžàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź…àźźàŻ†àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àźŸ: àźčàź”àźŸàźŻàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàź•àźČàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźŽàź•àźźàŻ 21.
^ àźȘàŻŠàź©àŻàź©àźźàŻàźȘàźČàźźàŻ àź°àź•àŻàźȘàź€àźż. (1987). àźŻàźŸàźŽàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŁàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻ‡àź±àŻàź±àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ: àź’àź°àŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àź†àźŻàŻàź”àŻ. àźȘàź•àŻ. 183
^
àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ (2002). àź•àźŸàźČàź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź†àźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ: àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻàź°àŻˆ. àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźŸàźČàźźàŻ. àźȘàź•àŻ .151
^ àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ. â€œàź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ
àźȘàźŸàźźàŻâ€. Tamilnation.org. àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźŸàźłàŻ 10 àźœàź©àź”àź°àźż 2013. àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àźźàźżàź•àź”àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŁàź•àŻàź•àźŸàź° àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©, àź…àź”àŻˆ àź†àź°àźźàŻàźȘàź•àźŸàźČ àź•àŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻ‡àź±àŻàź±àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àź‰àźłàŻàźłàź©. àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż àźźàŻàź€àźČàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźŽàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź°àźżàźŻàźźàźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźČàźŸàźźàŻ. [
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àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àź”àźłàŻàźłàźżàźȘàŻàź°àźźàŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àźšàźŸàźźàŻ àź’àźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻ àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àźàź±àŻàź•àź©àź”àŻ‡ àź€àŻ‡àź€àźżàźŻàźżàźŸàŻàźŸ
àź•àź±àŻàź•àźłàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ, àź‡àź€àŻ àź•àźż.àźȘàźż 3-4 àź†àźźàŻ àźšàŻ‚àź±àŻàź±àźŸàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź±àŻ àźźàŻàźŸàźżàź”àŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźČàźŸàźźàŻ. àź…àźšàŻàź€ àź•àźŸàźČàź•àźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ, àź”àźŽàź•àŻàź•àźźàźŸàź© àź…àźźàź°àźŸàź”àź€àźż-àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźżàź±àŻàźȘàźźàŻ
àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ.
àźźàŻ€àź°àźŸ àź†àźȘàźżàź°àź•àźŸàźźàŻ (1988). àź€àŻ†àź©àŻàź©àźżàźšàŻàź€àźżàźŻàźŸàź”àźżàź©àŻ àź‡àź°àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź‡àźŸàŻˆàź•àŻàź•àźŸàźČ àź”àźŁàźżàź•àź•àŻ àź•àŻàźŽàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ. àźźàź©àŻ‹àź•àź°àŻ àźȘàźȘàŻàźłàźżàź•àŻ‡àź·àź©àŻàźžàŻ. àźȘàź•àŻ. 136
^ â€œàź”àŻ†àźČàŻàź•àźźàŻàź”àŻ†àź°àźŸâ€. àź€àŻŠàźČàŻàźȘàŻŠàź°àŻàźłàŻ àź€àŻàź±àŻˆ. àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ àźšàźŸàźłàŻ 17 àźàźȘàŻàź°àźČàŻ 2017.
^
àźȘàŻ€àźŸàŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź·àźŸàźČàŻàź•àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàź”àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźłàŻàźłàŻˆ àź”àźČàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźłàŻàźłàŻˆ. àź•àźŸàźČàź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻàź”àź€àŻàź€àźżàź±àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ
àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź•àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź†àźČàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàź°àŻàź•àźłàźżàźŸàŻˆàźŻàŻ‡ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ: àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻàź°àŻˆ.
àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻˆàźŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźČàŻàźČàź” àź•àźŸàźČàźźàŻ, àźȘàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ 157-159.
àź†àź€àźŸàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ
àź•àźŸàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‡,
àź€àźžàŻàź€àŻ‚àźźàŻ, àźȘàŻ‹àź€àźżàź€àź°àŻàźźàźŸ. 6 àźšàź”àźźàŻàźȘàź°àŻ 2015 àź…àź©àŻàź±àŻ àź…àźšàźČàŻ (PDF) àź‡àźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ
àź•àźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàź€àŻàź€àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àźšàŻ€àź© àź‡àźČàź•àŻàź•àźżàźŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź©àŻ (PDF) àź•àź€àŻˆàź•àźłàźżàź©àŻ àź€àŻŠàź•àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ, 1 àźàźȘàŻàź°àźČàŻ
2013 àź‡àźČàŻ àźȘàŻ†àź±àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàź€àŻ
àźźàŻ†àź•àŻàź°àŻ‡, àźœàźŸàź©àŻ àź†àź°àŻ. (2000), àźčàŻ†àźŻàŻàź©àŻ, àźžàŻàźŸàŻ€àź”àź©àźżàźČàŻ
â€œàźšàŻ€àź© àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àźȘ Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźŽàź©àŻàź•àź”àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàź°àŻ àź‰àź°àŻˆàźŻàźŸàźŸàźČàźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻàź©àŻàź©àŻ‹àźŸàźżàź•àźłàŻâ€;
àź°àŻˆàźŸàŻ, àźŸàŻ‡àźČàŻ àźŽàźžàŻ. (àźŽàźŸàŻ.), àź€àźż àź•àŻ‹àź©àŻ: àźŸàŻ†àź•àŻàźžàŻàźŸàŻàźžàŻ àź…àźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àźšàŻ‚àźŽàźČàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź‡àź©àŻ àźœàŻ†àź©àŻ àźȘ
Buddhism àź€àŻàź€àźźàŻ, àź†àź•àŻàźžàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź°àŻàźŸàŻ àźŻàŻàź©àźżàź”àź°àŻàźšàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźż àźȘàźżàź°àźžàŻ
àźžàŻàź”àŻ†àźČàŻ†àźȘàźżàźČàŻ, àź•àźźàźżàźČàŻ àź”àźż.
(1987), â€œàź€àźż àźšàź”àŻàźŁàŻàźŸàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź’àź©àŻ àźčàŻ‡àźŁàŻàźŸàŻâ€, àźœàź°àŻàź©àźČàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź€àźż àź…àźźàŻ†àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àź©àŻ
àź“àź°àźżàźŻàźŁàŻàźŸàźČàŻ àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż, àźœàź°àŻàź©àźČàŻ àź†àźƒàźȘàŻ àź€àźż àź…àźźàŻ†àź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àź©àŻ àź“àź°àźżàźŻàźŁàŻàźŸàźČàŻ àźšàŻŠàźšàŻˆàźŸàŻàźŸàźż,
àź€àŻŠàź•àŻàź€àźż. 107, àźŽàźŁàŻ 1, 107 (1): 125–126, àź€àŻ‹àźŻàŻ: 10.2307 / 602960,
àźœàŻ‡.àźŽàźžàŻ.àźŸàźż.àź“.àź†àź°àŻ 602960
àźšàźżàź€àŻàź€àźżàźŻ àź†àź©àźšàŻàź€àź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź…àźŸàŻˆàźŻ àźšàźČàŻàźČ àźšàŻàź€àŻàź€àźżàź•àź°àźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àźźàź©àźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ
àźźàŻ‹àźšàźźàźŸàź© àźšàŻ‹àźŻàŻ àźȘàźšàźżàźŻàŻˆàź•àŻ àź•àźŸàź•àŻàź• - àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àŻ.
àźźàŻ‚àźČ àź”àŻ‡àź•àź©àŻ àźȘàŻàź°àŻ‹àź•àŻàź•àŻ‹àźČàźż, àźźàźżàźłàź•àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ‚àźłàŻ, àź”àŻ†àźłàŻàźłàź°àźżàź•àźłàŻ, àź•àŻ‡àź°àźŸàŻ, àźȘàŻ€àź©àŻàźžàŻ àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àź±àŻàź±àŻˆ àźšàźŸàź”àŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàŻàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ
àź•àźŸàźŻàŻàź•àź±àźżàź•àźłàŻ, àź•àŻàźłàŻàźł àźȘàźŽàźźàŻ pot pot àźȘàźŸàź©àŻˆàź•àźłàźżàźČàŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźł àźźàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‰àźČàź•àźźàŻ àźźàŻàźŽàŻàź”àź€àŻàźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àźšàźŸàźšàźŸ
àź€àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźźàźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźȘàźŸàźż àźȘàź±àź”àŻˆàź•àźłàŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àźČ àźšàźŸàźȘàŻàźȘàźżàźŸ àź”àźżàźŁàŻàź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ, àźȘàźżàź°àźżàźŸàŻàźŸàźżàź·àŻ àź•àŻ‹àźŸàŻ€àźžàŻàź”àź°àź°àŻ
àź°àźżàźšàŻàźšàź°àŻàźŸàŻ àźȘàźżàź°àźŸàź©àŻàźšàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàź°àŻàźœàźżàź©àŻ àź•àŻ‡àźČàźŸàźżàź•àŻ àź•àźȘàŻàźȘàźČàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźœàŻ†àźƒàźȘàŻ àźȘàŻ†àźšàŻ‹àźžàŻ
àź†àź•àźżàźŻàź”àź±àŻàź±àźżàźČàŻ àź”àźżàźŁàŻàź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àźȘàź±àźšàŻàź€àźŸàź°àŻ.
àźźàŻàźŽàŻ àźȘàŻ‚àźźàźżàźŻàŻàźźàŻ àź”àźżàźŁàŻàź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻàźźàŻ àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàź©àŻ àź…àźźàŻàź€àźŸ àźšàŻàź°àźȘàźż.
àź…àźšàŻ‹àź•àź°àŻ àź€àź©àź€àŻ àźȘàŻ‡àź°àź°àźšàŻ àźźàŻàźŽàŻàź”àź€àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàźŽàź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆàź€àŻ àź€àźŸàź™àŻàź•àźżàźŻ àźźàź°àź™àŻàź•àźłàŻˆ àźšàźŸàŻàźŸàźŸàź°àŻ.
àźȘàŻŠàź€àŻàź€àźȘàźŸàź€àźŸ,
àź•àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ àźźàŻàź€àźČàźżàźČàŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ. àź…àź±àźżàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àźŽàź©àŻàźȘàź€àŻ
àź‰àźŁàź°àŻàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ. àź’àź°àŻàź”àź°àŻ àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź±àźŸàź°àŻ, â€˜àź‡àź€àŻˆàźšàŻ
àźšàźŸàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź€àźŸàź©àŻ àźŽàź©àŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻàźłàŻàźłàź€àŻ.’ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźȘàź•àŻàź€àŻàź€àź±àźżàź”àźżàź©àŻ àźźàŻ‚àźČàźźàŻ àź’àź°àŻàź”àź°àŻ
àźźàŻàź€àźČàźżàźČàŻ àź•àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àź‰àź°àŻàź”àźŸàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ àźŽàź©àŻàźȘàź€àŻˆ àź…àź±àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àŻŠàźłàŻàźł àźźàŻàźŸàźżàźŻàŻàźźàŻ, àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ
àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ
àźȘàźżàź©àŻàź©àź°àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź±àźżàź”àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàź”àź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àź•àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻ-àźȘàŻàź€àŻàź€àź°àźżàź©àŻ àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźżàźŻàźżàźČàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź”àź°àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ
àźźàź©àźźàŻ àźšàźżàź±àŻˆàźšàŻàź€ àźšàŻ€àźšàŻàźšàźČàŻ àźȘàźŻàźżàź±àŻàźšàźż - àź”àźżàźźàźČàŻ‹
àź”àźżàźŽàźżàź€àŻàź€ àź…àźšàŻ‹àź•àźŸ àźźàźŁàźżàźźàŻ‡àź•àźČàźż àźšàź•
Tamil Buddhism - Wikipedia

en.m.wikipedia.org

Tamil Buddhism - Wikipedia
The
heritage of the town of Nākappaáč­áč­inam is found in the Burmese
historical text of the 3rd century BCE and gives evidence of a Budha
Vihar built by the King Ashoka. An inscription from Anuradhapura, Sri
Lanka dated to 2nd century BC records the association of Tamil merchants
with Buddhist ins…

https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/28/indian-prime-minister-genetic-science-existed-ancient-times

image.jpegimage.jpeg

Modi
went on: “We worship Lord Ganesha. There must have been some plastic
surgeon at that time who got an elephant’s head on the body of a human
being and began the practice of plastic surgery.”

He
also wrote the foreword to a book for school students in Gujarat which
maintains, among other things, that the Hindu God Rama flew the first
aeroplane and that stem cell technology was known in ancient India

No Indian scientist has come forward as yet to challenge him.

When
Shiva was away Parvathi wanted to take bath. In order to avoid any one
entering the bathroom, she gathered all the dirt from her body and
created a boy and kept him as gate keeper to prevent anyone entering the
bathroom. Shiva returning saw the boy not allowing him into the
bathroom. So shiva got furious and cutoff the head of the boy. Parvathi
explained the situation. Shiva then cut off the head of an elephant and
placed on the head of the boy.

Now Modi did not say what happened to the head of the boy and was there any surgery to place the head on elephant body.



76) Classical Nepali-à€¶à€Ÿà€žà„à€€à„à€°à„€à€Ż à€źà„à€Żà€Ÿà€‚à€źà€Ÿà€° (à€Źà€°à„à€źà€Ÿ),



12-à„§à„š-à„šà„Šà„§à„š à€Šà„‡à€–à€ż à€žà€Źà„ˆ à€Żà€ž à€žà€‚à€žà€Ÿà€°à€•à€Ÿ à€°à€Ÿà€œà€Ÿà€čà€°à„‚ à€čà„à€šà„



à€°à€Ÿà€źà„à€°à„‹ à€žà€«à€Ÿ à€źà€šà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€¶à„à€Šà„à€§ à€—à€šà„à€§ à€Șà„à€°à€Ÿà€Șà„à€€ à€—à€°à„à€šà„à€čà„‹à€žà„
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Miracle Pizza Praying For Pizza Sticker - Miracle Pizza Praying For Pizza Pizza Stickers





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à€°à€Ÿà€źà„à€°à„‹ à€žà€«à€Ÿ à€źà€šà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€¶à„à€Šà„à€§ à€—à€šà„à€§ à€Șà„à€°à€Ÿà€Șà„à€€ à€—à€°à„à€šà„à€čà„‹à€žà„
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à€Źà€żà€°à„‚à€”à€Ÿ à€•à€šà„à€šà€Ÿ à€¶à€Ÿà€źà€żà€Č à€Źà„à€°à„‹à€•à„‹à€Čà„€, à€źà€żà€°à„à€š, à€•à€Ÿà€•à€źà„à€Źà€°, à€—à€Ÿà€œà€°, à€žà€żà€źà„€
à€€à€°à€•à€Ÿà€°à„€à€čà€°à„‚, à€Źà„Œà€šà€Ÿ à€«à€Čà€čà€°à„‚ 🍎 🍉 🍉 🍉 🍉 🍉 🍉🍎 à€°à„‚à€–à€čà€°à„‚ à€Źà„‹à€•à„‡à€•à€Ÿ à€°à„‚à€–à€čà€°à„‚ à€°
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à€žà€źà„à€Șà„‚à€°à„à€Ł à€Șà„ƒà€„à„à€”à„€ à€° à€ à€Ÿà€‰à€ à€źà€Ÿà€źà€żà€šà€Ÿà€Čà€Ÿà€Čà€Ÿ à€•à„‹ à€…à€§à€Ąà€Ÿà€čà€Ÿà€°à€Ÿà€Źà„€à€čà€°à„ à€čà„à€šà„à„€
à€…à€¶à„‹à€•à€Čà„‡ à€†à€«à„à€šà„‹ à€žà€Źà„ˆ à€žà€Ÿà€źà„à€°à€Ÿà€œà„à€Żà€•à„‹ à€«à€Č à€«à€žà€Č à€•à€Ÿà€Ÿà„à€šà„‡ à€°à„‚à€–à€čà€°à„‚à„€

Potthapaada, à€§à€Ÿà€°à€Łà€Ÿ, à€Șà€čà€żà€Čà„‹, à€° à€Șà€›à€ż à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€‰à€ à„à€›à„€ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€‰à€€à„à€Șà€šà„à€š à€čà„à€šà„‡ à€•à„à€°à€Ÿ
à€†à€—à„à€›à„€ à€à€• à€”à€żà€”à„‡à€•, ‘à€Żà„‹ à€šà€żà€°à„à€­à€°à€€à€Ÿà€źà€Ÿ à€źà„‡à€°à„‹ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€‰à€€à„à€Șà€šà„à€š à€­à€à€•à„‹ à€›à„€’ à€Żà„‹ à€€à€°à„à€•
à€źà€Ÿà€°à„à€«à€€ à€•à€žà„ˆà€Čà„‡ à€Źà„à€à€Ÿà€‰à€š à€žà€•à„à€› à€•à€ż à€•à€žà€°à„€ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€šà€•à„‹ à€‰à€ à„à€šà„‡ - à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à„‹ à€œà„à€€à„à€€à€Ÿ à€•à€žà„à€€à„‹
à€§à€Ÿà€°à€Łà€Ÿ à€čà„à€šà„à€› à€­à€šà„‡à€° à€Źà„à€à„à€š à€žà€•à€żà€šà„à€›à„€

à€…à€­à„à€Żà€Ÿà€ž à€źà€šà€źà„‹à€čà€• à€Șà„Œà€Ąà„€ à€–à„‡à€Čà„à€šà„‡ - vimalo
à€…à€¶à„‹à€• à€źà„à€Żà€Ÿà€šà€żà€źà„‡à€źà€żà€—à€Č à€°à„‹à€— à€Źà„à€Żà„‚à€à€à€šà„à€­à€Żà„‹
à€…à€­à„à€Żà€Ÿà€ž à€—à€°à„à€š à€…à€­à„à€Żà€Ÿà€ž à€—à€°à„à€šà„à€čà„‹à€žà„ - Vimalo à€…à€¶à„‹à€• à€źà€Ÿà€šà€żà€Żà„‹à€źà€żà€Ÿà€Ÿà€źà€żà€Żà€Ÿà€Č à€žà€Ÿà€„à„€à€čà€°à„ à€šà€żà€€à„à€°à€čà€°à„ à€° à€­à€żà€Ąà€żà€Żà„‹à€čà€°à„ à€•à„‹ à€žà€Ÿà€„

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à€­à€—à€”à€Ÿà€š à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€źà€čà€€à„à€”à€Șà„à€°à„à€Ł à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„
à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€Șà„à€°à„‡à€°à€• à€­à€šà€Ÿà€‡à€čà€°à„ à„€ à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„ à„€ Motivational Quotes of Gautam Buddha in Nepali
à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€Șà„à€°à„‡à€°à€• à€­à€šà€Ÿà€‡ à€čà€°à„(Gautam Buddha motivational quotes in Nepali)
à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à„‹
à€”à€Ÿà€žà„à€€à€”à€żà€• à€šà€Ÿà€ź à€žà€żà€Šà„à€§à€Ÿà€°à„à€„ à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€čà„‹ à„€ à€‰à€šà„€ à€¶à€Ÿà€•à„à€Żà€”à€‚à€¶à„€à€Ż à€°à€Ÿà€œà€Ÿ à€¶à„à€Šà„à€§à„‹à€§à€š à€€à€„à€Ÿ à€°à€Ÿà€šà„€
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à€°à„‹à€—à„€, à€”à„ƒà€Šà„à€§ à€€à€„à€Ÿ à€źà€°à„‡à€•à„‹ à€źà€Ÿà€šà€żà€ž à€Šà„‡à€–à„‡à€Șà€›à€ż à€žà€‚à€žà€Ÿà€°à€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€Šà„à€ƒà€–à€źà€Ż à€œà€Ÿà€šà„‡ à„€ à€€à„à€Żà€čà„€
à€Šà„à€ƒà€–à€źà„à€•à„à€€à€żà€•à„‹ à€‰à€Șà€Ÿà€Ż à€–à„‹à€œà„à€š à€‰à€šà€Čà„‡ à€Șà€°à€żà€”à€Ÿà€° à€€à€„à€Ÿ à€°à€Ÿà€œà€žà„€ à€žà„à€–à€žà€Żà€Č à€€à„à€Żà€Ÿà€— à€—à€°à„‡ à„€ à€‰à€šà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ
à€źà€Ÿà€šà€” à€œà„€à€”à€šà€źà€Ÿ à€†à€‡à€Șà€°à„à€šà„‡ à€Șà„€à€Ąà€Ÿ à€à€”à€‚ à€Šà„à€ƒà€– à€šà€żà€”à€Ÿà€°à€Ł à€—à€°à„à€šà„‡ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€šà€•à„‹ à€–à„‹à€œà„€ à€„à€żà€Żà„‹ à„€
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à€”à„à€Šà„à€§ à€§à€°à„à€ź à€° à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶ à€źà€Ÿà€šà„à€šà„‡ à€…à€šà„à€Żà€Ÿà€Żà„€à€čà€°à„‚ à€šà„‡à€Șà€Ÿà€Č à€žà€čà€żà€€ à€­à€Ÿà€°à€€, à€šà„€à€š, à€¶à„à€°à„€à€Čà€‚à€•à€Ÿ,
à€Źà€°à„à€źà€Ÿ, à€„à€Ÿà€‡à€Čà„à€Żà€Ÿà€šà„à€Ą, à€Čà€Ÿà€“à€ž, à€•à„à€Żà€Ÿà€źà„à€Źà„‹à€Ąà€żà€Żà€Ÿ, à€­à€żà€Żà€€à€šà€Ÿà€ź, à€­à„à€Ÿà€Ÿà€š, à€œà€Ÿà€Șà€Ÿà€š, à€źà€‚à€—à„‹à€Čà€żà€Żà€Ÿ,
à€•à„‹à€°à€żà€Żà€Ÿ à€†à€Šà€ż à€Šà„‡à€¶à€źà€Ÿ à€«à„ˆà€Čà€żà€à€•à€Ÿ à€›à€šà„ à„€ à€žà€‚à€žà€Ÿà€°à€­à€°à€ż à€«à„ˆà€Čà€żà€à€•à„‹ à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§ à€Šà€°à„à€¶à€šà€•à„‹ à€‰à€Šà„à€—à€ź
à€”à€żà€šà„à€Šà„ à€šà„‡à€Șà€Ÿà€Čà€źà€Ÿ à€­à€à€•à€Ÿà€Čà„‡ à€šà„‡à€Șà€Ÿà€Čà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€¶à€Ÿà€šà„à€€à€żà€•à„‹ à€Šà„‡à€¶ à€Șà€šà€ż à€­à€šà€żà€šà„à€› à„€
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à€Șà€¶à„à€šà€Ÿà€€ à€‰à€čà€Ÿà€à€•à€Ÿ à€¶à€żà€·à„à€Żà€čà€°à„‚à€Čà„‡ à€‰à€čà€Ÿà€à€•à€Ÿ à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„à€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€žà„‚à€€à„à€°à€Źà€Šà„à€§ à€—à€°à„à€šà„‡ à€•à„à€°à€źà€źà€Ÿ
à€šà€żà€°à„à€źà€Ÿà€Ł à€­à€à€•à„‹ à€—à„à€°à€šà„à€„ à€čà„‹ à„€ à€Żà€ž à€—à„à€°à€šà„à€„à€źà€Ÿ à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„‚à€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€žà„‚à€€à„à€° -à€Șà€Ÿà€Čà€żà€­à€Ÿà€·à€Ÿà€źà€Ÿ
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à€•à„à€šà„ˆ à€”à€—à„à€—à€čà€°à„‚à€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€šà€żà€•à€Ÿà€Żà€źà€Ÿ -à€žà„à€€à„à€€à€Șà€żà€Ÿà€•à€źà€Ÿ) à€”à€Ÿ à€šà€żà€•à€Ÿà€Ż à€œà€žà„à€€à„ˆ à€Șà„à€°à€•à€Ÿà€°à€•à€Ÿ à€–à€Łà„à€Ąà€čà€°à„‚à€źà€Ÿ
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à€­à„Œà€€à€żà€• à€—à„à€Łà€čà€°à„‚à€•à„‹ à€žà€”à€żà€žà„à€€à€Ÿà€° à€”à€°à„à€Łà€š à€› à„€ à€€à„à€Żà€čà€Ÿà€ à€”à„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à„źà„š à€čà€œà€Ÿà€° à€° à€‰à€šà€•à€Ÿ à€Șà„à€°à€źà„à€–
à€¶à€żà€·à„à€Żà€čà€°à„‚à€•à€Ÿ à„š à€čà€œà€Ÿà€° à€—à€°à„€ à„źà„Ș à€čà€œà€Ÿà€° à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€šà€žà„‚à€€à„à€° à€žà€‚à€—à„ƒà€čà„€à€€ à€›à€šà„ à„€ à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à„‹ à€źà„à€–à„à€Ż
à€Šà€Ÿà€°à„à€¶à€šà€żà€• à€žà€żà€Šà„à€§à€Ÿà€šà„à€€ à€Șà„à€°à€€à€żà€€à„à€Ż-à€žà€źà„à€€à„à€Șà€Ÿà€Š à€čà„‹ à„€ à€Șà„à€°à€€à„€à€€à„à€Ż à€žà€źà„à€€à„à€Șà€Ÿà€Šà€•à„‹ à€žà€żà€Šà„à€§à€Ÿà€šà„à€€
à€­à€šà„à€Šà€›- à€•à„à€šà„ˆ à€Șà€šà€ż à€˜à€Ÿà€šà€Ÿ à€•à„‡à€”à€Č à€Šà„‹à€žà„à€°à„‹ à€˜à€Ÿà€šà€Ÿà€čà€°à„‚à€•à€Ÿ à€•à€Ÿà€°à€Ł à€šà„ˆà€‚ à€à€• à€œà€Ÿà€żà€Č
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à€° à€”à€żà€Șà€Ÿà€• (à€•à€°à„à€źà€•à€Ÿ à€Șà€°à€żà€Łà€Ÿà€ź)à€•à€Ÿ à€…à€šà„à€žà€Ÿà€° à€žà€‚à€žà€Ÿà€°à€•à„‹ à€šà€•à„à€° à€›à„ˆà€š à„€ à€•à€żà€šà€­à€šà„‡ à€žà€Źà„ˆ à€•à„‡à€čà„€
à€…à€šà€żà€€à„à€Ż à€° à€…à€šà€Ÿà€€à„à€ź (à€”à€żà€šà€Ÿ à€†à€€à„à€źà€Ÿà€•à„‹) à€čà„à€šà„à€›, à€•à„à€šà„ˆ à€Șà€šà€ż à€•à„à€°à€Ÿ à€žà€šà„à€šà€Ÿà€‡à€źà€Ÿ à€”à€żà€Šà„à€Żà€źà€Ÿà€š
à€›à„ˆà€š à„€ à€čà€°à„‡à€• à€˜à€Ÿà€šà€Ÿ à€źà„‚à€Čà€€à€ƒ à€¶à„‚à€šà„à€Ż à€čà„à€šà„à€›à€šà„ à„€ à€Șà€°à€šà„à€€à„ à€źà€Ÿà€šà€żà€žà€źà€Ÿ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€šà€•à„‹ à€¶à€•à„à€€à€ż à€›,
à€‰à€šà„€à€čà€°à„‚à€Čà„‡ à€€à„ƒà€·à„à€Łà€Ÿà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€Šà„à€ƒà€–à€•à„‹ à€•à€Ÿà€°à€Ł à€­à€šà„à€šà„‡ à€œà€Ÿà€šà„€ à€€à„à€Żà€žà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€€à„à€Żà€Ÿà€—à„‡à€°, à€€à„ƒà€·à„à€Łà€Ÿà€źà€Ÿ à€šà€·à„à€Ÿ
à€­à€à€•à„‹ à€¶à€•à„à€€à€żà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€œà„à€žà€Ÿà€š à€° à€§à„à€Żà€Ÿà€šà€źà€Ÿ à€Źà€Šà€Čà„‡à€°, à€šà€żà€°à„à€”à€Ÿà€Ł à€Șà€Ÿà€‰à€š à€žà€•à„à€›à€šà„ à„€ à€Żà€žà€°à„€ à€…à€šà€żà€€à„à€Ż,
à€Šà„à€ƒà€– à€° à€…à€šà€Ÿà€€à„à€źà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€†à€§à€Ÿà€°à€­à„‚à€€ à€žà€żà€Šà„à€§à€Ÿà€šà„à€€ à€źà€Ÿà€šà€żà€šà„à€› à„€
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à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€čà€żà€šà„à€Šà„‚ à€§à€°à„à€źà€Ÿà€”à€Čà€źà„à€Źà„€à€čà€°à„‚à€Čà„‡ à€­à€—à€”à€Ÿà€š à€”à€żà€·à„à€Łà„à€•à€Ÿ à€Šà€¶ à€…à€”à€€à€Ÿà€°à€čà€°à„‚à€źà€§à„à€Żà„‡ à€à€•
à€…à€”à€€à€Ÿà€° à€źà€Ÿà€šà„à€Šà€›à€šà„ à„€ à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€à€žà€żà€Żà€Ÿà€•à€Ÿ à€€à€Ÿà€°à€Ÿ à€Șà€šà€ż à€­à€šà€żà€šà„à€› à„€
à€Źà„Œà€Šà„à€§ à€§à€°à„à€źà€źà€Ÿ à€Șà€žà„à€šà€¶à„€à€Č
à€Źà„Œà€Šà„à€§
à€§à€°à„à€źà€źà€Ÿ à€Șà€žà„à€šà€¶à„€à€Čà€•à„‹ à€œà„à€Żà€Ÿà€Šà„ˆ à€ à„‚à€Čà„‹ à€źà€čà€€à„à€” à€› à„€ à€Żà„‹ à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§ à€§à€°à„à€źà€•à„‹ à€†à€§à€Ÿà€°à€­à„‚à€€ à€Șà€Ÿà€à€š
à€¶à„€à€Čà€čà€°à„à€•à„‹ à€žà€‚à€—à„à€°à€č à€čà„‹ à„€ à€Șà€žà„à€šà€¶à„€à€Čà€Čà€Ÿà€ˆ à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§ à€§à€°à„à€źà€źà€Ÿ à€Șà„à€°à€”à„‡à€¶ à€—à€°à„à€šà„‡ à€źà„‚à€Čà€Šà„à€”à€Ÿà€°
à€źà€Ÿà€šà€żà€šà„à€› à„€ à€Żà€ž à€…à€šà„à€žà€Ÿà€° à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à„‹ à€źà€Ÿà€°à„à€—à€źà€Ÿ à€čà€żà€‚à€Ąà„à€šà€•à€Ÿ à€Čà€Ÿà€—à€ż à€Șà„à€°à€Ÿà€Łà„€à€čà€żà€‚à€žà€Ÿ à€šà€—à€°à„à€šà„‡,
à€°à€•à„à€žà„€ à€”à€Ÿ à€źà€Šà„à€Żà€Șà€Ÿà€š à€šà€—à€°à„à€šà„‡, à€šà„‹à€°à„€ à€šà€—à€°à„à€šà„‡ à€”à€Ÿ à€•à€žà„ˆà€Čà„‡ à€šà€Šà€żà€à€•à„‹ à€šà€Čà€żà€šà„‡, à€à„à€ à„‹ à€•à„à€°à€Ÿ
à€šà€Źà„‹à€Čà„à€šà„‡ à€° à€†Ë†à€šà„‹ à€Șà€€à€żà€Șà€€à„à€šà„€ à€Źà€Ÿà€čà„‡à€• à€…à€°à„‚à€žà€à€— à€šà€Čà€Ÿà€—à„à€šà„‡ (à€­à€żà€•à„à€·à„à€čà€°à„‚à€Čà„‡ à€šà€Ÿà€čà€żà€ à€•à„‹à€čà„€à€žà€‚à€—
à€Șà€šà€ż à€”à„à€Żà€­à€żà€šà€Ÿà€° à€šà€—à€°à„à€šà„‡) à€Șà„à€°à€Ł à€—à€°à€żà€šà„à€› à„€ à€Șà€žà„à€šà€¶à„€à€Čà€•à„‹ à€šà€Ÿà€–à€Čà€Ÿà€—à„à€Šà„‹ à€° à€…à€šà„Œà€ à„‹ à€•à„à€°à€Ÿ à€•à„‡ à€›
à€­à€šà„‡ à€Żà€ž à€Șà€Ÿà€ à€źà€Ÿ à€•à„à€šà„ˆ à€Șà€šà€ż à€ à€Ÿà€‰à€à€źà€Ÿ à€†Ë†à€šà„‹ à€Șà„à€°à€Ÿà€šà„‹ à€§à€°à„à€ź à€€à„à€Żà€Ÿà€—à„à€šà„‡ à€”à€Ÿ à€…à€°à„‚ à€§à€°à„à€ź
à€›à„‹à€Ąà„à€šà„‡ à€”à€żà€§à€ż à€Čà„‡à€–à€żà€à€•à„‹ à€›à„ˆà€š à„€ à€Żà„€ à€šà€żà€Żà€źà€čà€°à„‚ à€Șà€Ÿà€Čà€šà€Ÿ à€šà€—à€°à„‡à€źà€Ÿ à€ˆà€¶à„à€”à€° à€”à€Ÿ à€•à„à€šà„ˆ à€­à„Œà€€à€żà€•
à€¶à€•à„à€€à€żà€Šà„à€”à€Ÿà€°à€Ÿ à€Šà€Łà„à€Ąà€żà€€ à€čà„à€šà„à€Șà€°à„à€šà„‡ à€”à€Ÿ à€šà€°à„à€•à€źà€Ÿ à€œà€Ÿà€šà„‡ à€Șà€šà€ż à€‰à€Čà„à€Čà„‡à€– à€—à€°à€żà€à€•à„‹ à€›à„ˆà€š à„€ à€§à€°à„à€ź
à€Șà€Ÿà€Čà€šà€Ÿ à€šà€żà€€à€Ÿà€šà„à€€ à€”à„à€Żà€•à„à€€à€żà€—à€€ à€°à„‚à€Șà€źà€Ÿ à€›à„‹à€Ąà€żà€à€•à„‹ à€› à„€
à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à„‹ à€…à€šà„à€€à„à€Żà€Șà€›à€ż, à€Źà„Œà€Šà„à€§ à€§à€°à„à€źà€•à€Ÿ à€„à„à€Șà„à€°à„ˆ à€žà€źà„à€Șà„à€°à€Šà€Ÿà€Ż à€–à€Ąà€Ÿ à€­à€‡à€žà€•à„‡à€•à€Ÿ à€›à€šà„, à€€à€° à€Żà„€ à€žà€Źà„ˆà€•à€Ÿ à€•à„‡à€čà„€ à€žà€żà€Šà„à€§à€Ÿà€šà„à€€ à€źà€żà€Čà„à€›à€š à„€
©Copyright Free Nepali Music. 2021

youtube.com
à€­à€—à€”à€Ÿà€š à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€Șà„à€°à„‡à€°à€• à€­à€šà€Ÿà€‡ à€° à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„
à€­à€—à€”à€Ÿà€š
à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€źà€čà€€à„à€”à€Șà„à€°à„à€Ł à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€Șà„à€°à„‡à€°à€• à€­à€šà€Ÿà€‡à€čà€°à„ à„€ à€‰à€Șà€Šà„‡à€¶à€čà€°à„ à„€
Motivational Quotes of Gautam Buddha in Nepali à€—à„Œà€€à€ź à€Źà„à€Šà„à€§à€•à€Ÿ à€Ș…

77) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,



Fra 3-12-2021 Alle er konger i denne verden



GjÞr godt renset sinnet oppnÄ evig lykke
Overvinne den verste sykdommen - Buddha.


Xq Xq Holland Sticker - Xq Xq Holland Xqlusive Holland Stickers

FriendsLESSON
4031 THU 15 JUL 2021

GjÞr godt renset sinnet oppnÄ evig lykke
Overvinne den verste sykdommen - Buddha.

Plant rÄ vegansk brokkoli, paprika, agurker, gulrÞtter, bÞnner
Grþnnsaker, dvergfrukt 🍎 🍉 Trér i potter og over hele verden og i
rommet for Ă„ spise som fugler som planlagt av NASA, flĂžy British
Millionaire Richard Branson inn i rommet ombord pÄ et jomfru galaktisk
fartĂžy og Jeff Bezos.

Hele jorden og plassen er Amudha Surabi av Manimegalai.
Ashoka plantet fruktbĂŠrende trĂŠr over hele sitt imperium.

PotThapada, perception oppstÄr fÞrst og kunnskap etter. Og det oppstÄr
som oppstĂ„r, kommer fra oppstart av oppfatning. En skikkelig, “Det er i
avhengighet av dette at min kunnskap har oppstĂ„tt.” Gjennom denne
anbÞrsnoten kan man innse hvordan oppfatningen oppstÄr fÞrst, og
kunnskap etter, og hvordan oppnÄelsen av kunnskap kommer fra oppstart av
Perception-Buddha

Øv meg Mindful SvÞmming - Vimalo
Vekket ashoka manimegali fyr
Øvelse Mindful SvÞmming - Vimalo Awakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow med
bilder og videoer


Crea tu paz - Suzanne Powell - Lima, PerĂș 20-07-2014
Ponencias Zen
111K subscribers
Crea tu paz, con principios bĂĄsicos de humildad y desapego.
Conferencia realizada el viernes 18 julio 2014 en el auditorio del Colegio San AgustĂ­n, Lima PerĂș
Libros de Suzanne disponibles en: http://amatetv.blogspot.com.es/p/suza
Otros vĂ­deos:
No hay tiempo, febrero 2017:
Uniendo cielo y tierra - Buenos Aires 01/05/16
Claves para entender la vida y volver a tu esencia - Albacete 29-10-2016
Las relaciones humanas el amor incondicional

youtube.com

Crea tu paz - Suzanne Powell - Lima, PerĂș 20-07-2014
Crea tu paz, con principios bĂĄsicos de humildad y desapego.Confer


78) Classical Odia (Oriya




3-12-2021 àŹ°à­ àŹžàŹźàŹžà­àŹ€à­‡ àŹàŹčàŹż àŹœàŹ—àŹ€àŹ° àŹ°àŹŸàŹœàŹŸ àŹ…àŹŸàŹšà­àŹ€àŹż |

àŹ­àŹČ àŹ¶à­àŹŠà­àŹ§ àŹźàŹš àŹ…àŹšàŹšà­àŹ€ àŹžà­àŹ– àŹȘà­àŹ°àŹŸàŹȘà­àŹ€ àŹ•àŹ°à­‡ |
àŹ–àŹ°àŹŸàŹȘ àŹ°à­‹àŹ—àŹ•à­ àŹŠà­‚àŹ° àŹ•àŹ° - àŹŹà­àŹŠà­àŹ§ |

630 ë°ë ˆìŠ€í…Œìżš Sticker - 630 ë°ë ˆìŠ€í…Œìżš Thank You Stickers

àŹ¶àŹżàŹ•à­àŹ·àŹŸ
4031 àŹ„à­ 15 àŹœà­àŹČàŹŸàŹ‡ 2021 |

àŹ­àŹČ àŹ¶à­àŹŠà­àŹ§ àŹźàŹš àŹ…àŹšàŹšà­àŹ€ àŹžà­àŹ– àŹȘà­àŹ°àŹŸàŹȘà­àŹ€ àŹ•àŹ°à­‡ |
àŹ–àŹ°àŹŸàŹȘ àŹ°à­‹àŹ—àŹ•à­ àŹŠà­‚àŹ° àŹ•àŹ° - àŹŹà­àŹŠà­àŹ§ |

àŹ•àŹžà­àŹšàŹŸ àŹ­à­‡àŹ—àŹŸàŹšà­ àŹŹà­àŹ°à­‹àŹ•à­‹àŹČàŹż, àŹČàŹ™à­àŹ•àŹŸ, àŹ•àŹŸàŹ•à­àŹĄàŹż, àŹ•àŹŸàŹ‰àŹšàŹžà­, àŹŹàŹżàŹšà­àŹž |
àŹȘàŹšàŹżàŹȘàŹ°àŹżàŹŹàŹŸ, àŹĄà­à­±àŹŸàŹ°à­àŹ«à­ àŹ«àŹł, àŹžàŹźàŹ—à­àŹ° àŹœàŹ—àŹ€àŹ°à­‡ àŹ„àŹżàŹŹàŹŸ àŹšàŹŸàŹžàŹŸ àŹȘàŹ°àŹż, àŹšàŹŸàŹžàŹŸ àŹŠà­à­±àŹŸàŹ°àŹŸ àŹ„àŹżàŹŹàŹŸ àŹšàŹŸàŹžàŹŸ,
àŹŹà­àŹ°àŹżàŹŸàŹżàŹ¶à­ àŹ—àŹŸàŹČàŹŸàŹ•à­àŹŸàŹżàŹ•à­ àŹȘàŹŸàŹ€à­àŹ° àŹàŹŹàŹ‚ àŹœà­‡àŹ«à­ àŹŹà­‡àŹœà­‹àŹžà­ àŹœàŹŸàŹčàŹŸàŹœàŹ°à­‡ àŹ‰àŹĄàŹżàŹŻàŹŸàŹ‰àŹ„àŹżàŹČàŹŸ |

àŹžàŹźàŹ—à­àŹ° àŹȘà­ƒàŹ„àŹżàŹŹà­€ àŹàŹŹàŹ‚ àŹžà­àŹ„àŹŸàŹš àŹźàŹŸàŹšàŹżàŹźàŹ° àŹžàŹ°àŹ•àŹŸàŹ°àŹ° àŹ…àŹźà­‚àŹ°à­àŹĄàŹ° àŹžàŹ°àŹŸàŹŠàŹż |
àŹ…àŹ¶à­‹àŹ•àŹŸ àŹ€àŹŸàŹ™à­àŹ• àŹžàŹŸàŹźà­àŹ°àŹŸàŹœà­à­ŸàŹ° àŹŹà­ƒàŹ•à­àŹ·àŹ° àŹ‰àŹŠà­àŹ­àŹżàŹŠ àŹ‰àŹ€à­àŹȘàŹŸàŹŠàŹš àŹ•àŹ°àŹżàŹ„àŹżàŹČେ |

àŹȘàŹ€àŹšà­‹àŹȘàŹŸàŹĄàŹŸ, àŹ§àŹŸàŹ°àŹŁàŹŸàŹ•à­ àŹȘà­àŹ°àŹ„àŹźà­‡, àŹàŹŹàŹ‚ àŹœà­àŹžàŹŸàŹš àŹȘàŹ°à­‡ àŹ‰àŹ€à­àŹȘàŹšà­àŹš àŹčà­àŹ | àŹàŹŹàŹ‚ àŹœà­àŹžàŹŸàŹšàŹ° àŹ‰àŹ€à­àŹȘàŹšà­àŹš
àŹŹà­à­ŸàŹ•à­àŹ€àŹżàŹźàŹŸàŹšà­‡ àŹ—à­àŹ°àŹčàŹŁàŹ™à­àŹ• àŹŠà­à­±àŹŸàŹ°àŹŸ àŹ†àŹžàŹżàŹ„àŹŸàŹ | àŹ—à­‹àŹŸàŹżàŹ àŹŹà­àŹĄàŹŒàŹżàŹŻàŹŸàŹ, ‘àŹàŹčàŹŸ àŹšàŹżàŹ°à­àŹ­àŹ°àŹ°à­‡
àŹšàŹżàŹ°à­àŹ­àŹ°àŹ¶à­€àŹł |’ àŹ•àŹŸàŹ°àŹŁ àŹŠàŹ°à­àŹ¶àŹŸàŹ‡ àŹàŹčàŹż àŹȘàŹ°àŹżàŹžàŹ°àŹ—à­àŹĄàŹŒàŹżàŹ• àŹŠà­‡àŹ‡ àŹŠàŹ°à­àŹ¶àŹ•, àŹàŹŹàŹ‚ àŹœà­àŹžàŹŸàŹš àŹ•àŹżàŹȘàŹ°àŹż
àŹžà­ƒàŹ·à­àŹŸàŹż àŹčà­àŹ | àŹŹà­àŹŠà­àŹ§àŹŸàŹ° àŹ‰àŹ€à­àŹȘàŹšà­àŹš àŹŹà­à­ŸàŹ•à­àŹ€àŹżàŹźàŹŸàŹšà­‡ àŹ•àŹżàŹȘàŹ°àŹż àŹ†àŹžàŹšà­àŹ€àŹż |

àŹźàŹšàŹźà­‚àŹłàŹ• àŹžàŹšà­àŹ€àŹ°àŹŁàŹ•àŹŸàŹ°à­€àŹ™à­àŹ•à­ àŹ…àŹ­à­à­ŸàŹŸàŹž àŹ•àŹ° - àŹ­àŹżàŹźàŹŸàŹČୋàŹČ୍ |
àŹ…àŹ¶à­‹àŹ•àŹŸ àŹźà­à­ŸàŹŸàŹšàŹżàŹźàŹ—àŹŸàŹČ୍ àŹžàŹŸàŹ„à­€àŹ™à­àŹ•à­ àŹœàŹŸàŹ—à­àŹ°àŹ€ àŹ•àŹ°àŹŸàŹŻàŹŸàŹ‡àŹ›àŹż |
àŹźàŹšàŹźà­‚àŹłàŹ• àŹžàŹšà­àŹ€àŹ°àŹŁàŹ•àŹŸàŹ°à­€àŹ™à­àŹ•à­ àŹšàŹżàŹ€à­àŹ° àŹàŹŹàŹ‚ àŹ­àŹżàŹĄàŹżàŹ“ àŹžàŹčàŹżàŹ€ àŹ…àŹ¶à­‹àŹ•àŹŸ àŹźàŹšà­‹àŹźàŹŸàŹ—àŹŸàŹšàŹż àŹžàŹŸàŹ„à­€àŹ•à­ àŹœàŹŸàŹ—à­àŹ°àŹ€
àŹ•àŹČେ


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ă€ŒăŒăă«ăŻăȘにもăȘい」「捗æ–čç†Šæ„ ăšéŽźćźˆăźæŁźă€ć°æ± é™œäșșた須磚deăƒ©ă‚€ăƒ–ă€€çŹŹćć›ž
須磚ćŻșć°æ± é™œäșșăźéšæƒłéŒČ
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çš†æ§˜ă€ă„ă€ă‚‚ă”èŠ–èŽă‚ă‚ŠăŒăšă†ă”ă–ă„ăŸă™ă€‚
こぼćșŠćć›žç›źăźăƒ©ă‚€ăƒ–é…äżĄă‚’
èĄŒă„ăŸă„ăšæ€ă„ăŸă™ă€‚
今曞も、
äžŠæ‰‹ăă„ăă‹ćˆ†ă‹ă‚ŠăŸă›ă‚“ăŒă€
æž©ă‹ăèŠ‹ćźˆăŁăŠăă ă•ă„ăŸă™ăšćčžç”šă§ă™ă€‚
ăŠæ™‚é–“ă‚ă‚ŠăŸă™æ–č、
チャットăȘă©ă§æ°—è»œă«ă”ć‚ćŠ ăă ă•ă„ă€‚
ăŠćŸ…ăĄă—ăŠăŠă‚ŠăŸă™ă€‚
æ„ŸèŹćˆæŽŒ
ă€æŻŽæœˆă€é ˆçŁšćŻșă«ăŠæł•è©±ă‚’ă•ă›ăŠé ‚ă„ăŠăŠă‚ŠăŸă™ă€‘
æŻŽæœˆ18æ—„ăź10æ™‚ă‹ă‚‰ăźè­·æ‘©ç„ˆç„·ăšć†™ç”ŒäŒšă€20æ—„ăš21æ—„ăŻ11æ™‚ćŠă‹ă‚‰ć„„ăźé™ąă«ăŠă€ăă—ăŠă€21æ—„ăŻ14æ™‚ă‹ă‚‰è­·æ‘©ç„ˆç„·ă‚’ă•ă›ăŠé ‚ăă€æł•è©±ă‚’ă•ă›ăŠé ‚ă„ăŠăŠă‚ŠăŸă™ă€‚
【須磹ćŻșă‚Șăƒ•ă‚Łă‚·ăƒŁăƒ«ă‚”ă‚€ăƒˆă€‘
【須磹ćŻș äžć‹•è­·æ‘©äŸ›ăźă”çŽč介】
【須磹ćŻșă€Œé ˆçŁšăźç«ç„­ă‚Š ïœžæŸŽç‡ˆć€§è­·æ‘©äŸ›ă€€ç«ç”Ÿäž‰æ˜§ç«æžĄă‚ŠäżźèĄŒïœžă€ă€‘
【須磹ćŻșïŒšć››äž‡ć…­ćƒæ—„ ăżă‚ă‹ă‚ŠèŠłéŸł çŻæ˜ŽäŒšă€‘
【須磹ćŻșéŸłæ„œæł•èŠç„­ă€Œć€œéŸł2017」】
ă€ç”ŒæœšäŸ›é€Šæ‰€ă€Œć…«è§’ć ‚ă€èœæ…¶æł•èŠïŒšć€§æœŹć±± 須磚ćŻș】
â– æ„œæ›ČæäŸ›ïŒšć°éŠŹćŽŽé”äčŸ
Youtube Channnelhttps://www.youtube.com/user/PangaeaM
ć°æ± é™œäșșた須磚deăƒ©ă‚€ăƒ–ă€€çŹŹćć›ž
çš†æ§˜ă€ă„ă€ă‚‚ă”èŠ–èŽă‚ă‚ŠăŒăšă†ă”ă–ă„ăŸă™ă€‚ă“ăźćșŠćć›žç›źăźăƒ©ă‚€ăƒ–é…äżĄă‚’èĄŒă„ăŸă„ăšæ€ă„ăŸă™ă€‚ä»Šć›žă‚‚ă€äžŠæ‰‹ăă„ăă‹ćˆ†ă‹ă‚ŠăŸă›ă‚“ăŒă€æž©ă‹ăèŠ‹ćźˆăŁăŠăă ă•ă„ăŸă™ăšćčžç”šă§ă™ă€‚ăŠæ™‚é–“ă‚ă‚ŠăŸă™æ–č、チャットăȘă©ă§æ°—è»œă«ă”…





79) Classical Pashto- ٌولګی ÙŸÚšŰȘو


له 3-12-2021 Ú…ŰźÙ‡ ٌول ŰŻ ŰŻÛ نړۍ ÙŸŰ§Ú†Ű§Ű§Ù† ŰŻÙŠ






ۯ۱۳
4031 1531 15 ŰŹÙˆÙ„Ű§ÛŒ 2021

ښه ÙŸŰ§Ú©ÙŠ Ű°Ù‡Ù† ŰŻ ŰȘل Ű§ŰšŰŻÛ ŰłŰ±Ù‡
ŰŻ ۚۯŰȘŰ±ÛŒÙ† Ù†Ű§Ű±ÙˆŰșۍ Ù…ŰźÙ‡ ÙˆÙ†ÛŒŰłŰŠ - ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§.

ŰŻ Ù†ŰšŰ§ŰȘ ŰźŰ§Ù… ÙˆÚ«Űł ŰšŰ±ÙˆÚ©ÙˆÙ„ÙŠŰŒ Ù…Ű±Ú†ŰŒ Ú©Ú©Ú“ŰŒ ÚŻŰ§ŰŹŰ±ŰŒ Ù„ÙˆŰšÛŒŰ§
۳ۚŰČÛŒŰŹŰ§ŰȘی dwav ÙŰ±ÙˆŰČ. ٟه ŰŹÙˆŰł Ű§Ùˆ ٌوله نړۍ کې ونې Ű§Ùˆ ٟه ٌوله نړۍ کې Ű§Ùˆ ٟه
ٌوله نړۍ کې ŰŻ Ù…Ű±Űșیو ٟه Ú…ÛŒŰ± ŰźÙˆÚ“Ù„Ùˆ Ù„ÙŸŰ§Ű±Ù‡

ٌوله ځمکه Ű§Ùˆ ÚŰ§ÛŒ ŰŻ Ù…ÛŒÙ†ÛŒÚ«Ù„Ű§ŰŻÙ„Ű§Ű§ÛŒ Ù…Ű­Ù…ŰŻÙŠ ŰŻÛŒ.
ۧ۔ۭکۧک ŰŻ هŰșه ŰŻ Ű§Ù…ÙŸŰ±Ű§ŰȘÙˆŰ±Û ٟه Ű§ÙˆÚ–ŰŻÙˆ کې ونې ونې Ú©ÛŒÚšÙˆŰŻ.

ÙŸÙˆÙŒÚŸÙŸŰ§ŰŻÙ‡ŰŒ ۯ۱ک لومړی Ű§Ùˆ نه ÙˆŰ±ÙˆŰłŰȘه ٟوهه Ű±Ű§ÙŸÙˆŰ±ŰȘه کوي. Ű§Ùˆ ŰŻ ٟوهې Ű±Ű§ÙŸÙˆŰ±ŰȘه
Ú©ÛŒŰŻÙ„ ŰŻ ۭۧ۳ۧ۳ له Ű±Ű§ÙŸÙˆŰ±ŰȘه Ú©ÛŒŰŻÙˆ Ú…ŰźÙ‡ Ű±Ű§ÚÙŠ. یو Ù†Ű§Ű±Ű§Ű¶ŰŒ ‘ۯۧ ÙŸŰŻÛ ÙŸÙˆŰ±Û Ű§Ù†Ű­Ű”Ű§Ű± ŰŻÛŒ
چې ŰČÙ…Ű§ ٟوهه یې Ű±Ű§Ù…ÛŒÙ†ÚŰȘه کړې ŰŻÙ‡. ÙˆŰ±ÙˆŰłŰȘه ŰŻ ŰŻÛ Ú©Ű±ÚšÛ ŰŻ ŰŻÛ Ú©Ű±ÚšÛ له Ù„Ű§Ű±ÛŰŒ Ű§Ùˆ
څنګه چې څنګه ŰŻ ٟوهې - ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§ له ŰšŰ±ŰźÛ Ú…ŰźÙ‡ Ű±Ű§ÙŸÙˆŰ±ŰȘه کیږي

ٟه ŰČړه ÙŸÙˆŰ±Û Ù„Ű§Ù…ŰšÙˆ وهلو ŰȘÙ…Ű±ÛŒÙ† کول - ویمیلو
ŰŻ ŰąŰłÚ©Ű§Û Ù…ÛŒÙ…Ú«Ű§Ù„ÙŠ Ù…Ù„Ú«Ű±ÛŒ
ٟه ŰČړه ÙŸÙˆŰ±Û Ù„Ű§Ù…ŰšÙˆ وهلو ŰȘÙ…Ű±ÛŒÙ† کول - ویمیویلو ŰŻ ŰčÚ©ŰłÙˆÙ†Ùˆ Ű§Ùˆ ÙˆÛŒÚ‰ÛŒÙˆÚ«Ű§Ù†Ùˆ ŰłŰ±Ù‡ ŰŻ
ۧ۳کۧ میني فیلو Ù…Ù„Ú«Ű±ÛŒ و

ښه ÙŸŰ§Ú©ÙŠ Ű°Ù‡Ù† ŰŻ ŰȘل Ű§ŰšŰŻÛ ŰłŰ±Ù‡
ŰŻ ۚۯŰȘŰ±ÛŒÙ† Ù†Ű§Ű±ÙˆŰșۍ Ù…ŰźÙ‡ ÙˆÙ†ÛŒŰłŰŠ - ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§.

ŰłŰšŰ­Ű§Ù† Ű§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ Sticker - ŰłŰšŰ­Ű§Ù† Ű§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ ŰłŰšŰ­Ű§Ù†Ű§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ Stickers


Friends


『æșæ°ç‰©èȘžă€ć…‰æșæ°ăźćŠ ć†  / THE TALE OF GENJI ; The Paulownia PavilionThe coming-of-age ceremony of Hikaru Genji
INSTITUTE of COURT CULTURE
738 subscribers
ă“ăźă€ŽèŁ…æŸćŠ‡ 慉æșæ°ăźćŠ ć† ă€ăŻçŽ«ćŒéƒšæ—„èš˜æˆç«‹ćƒćčŽă‚’èš˜ćż”しど 2010 ćčŽă«æž‹è°· Bunkamura ă‚ȘăƒŒăƒăƒŁăƒŒăƒ‰ ăƒ›ăƒŒăƒ«ă§ć…ŹæŒ”ăƒ»ćŽéŒČしたもぼです。
This
play is composed of four scenes, the accession to the throne, the birth
of the prince Hikaru, the coming-of-age ceremony of the left minister’s
daughter “Aoi” and the “Kakan-no-gi” the coming-of- age for Hikaru
Genji.
And it is composed and directed by Mr.Munehisa Sengoku(Institute of Court Culture) collaborating with the Kokusai-bunka-Gakuen.
You
might enjoy to look at the many Japanese traditional court costumes
worn by the Tennou, the civil officers, the military officers, the
imperial guards and the ladies-in-waiting.
And you might also enjoy to watch how to be done the imperial events.

youtube.com
『æșæ°ç‰©èȘžă€ć…‰æșæ°ăźćŠ ć†  / THE TALE OF GENJI ; The Paulownia PavilionThe coming-of-age ceremony of Hikaru Genji
ă“ăźă€ŽèŁ…æŸćŠ‡
慉æșæ°ăźćŠ ć† ă€ăŻçŽ«ćŒéƒšæ—„èš˜æˆç«‹ćƒćčŽă‚’èš˜ćż”しど 2010 ćčŽă«æž‹è°· Bunkamura ă‚ȘăƒŒăƒăƒŁăƒŒăƒ‰ ăƒ›ăƒŒăƒ«ă§ć…ŹæŒ”ăƒ»ćŽéŒČしたもぼです。This
play is composed of four scenes, the accession to the throne, the birth
of the …

80) Classical Persian-Ú©Ù„Ű§ŰłÛŒÚ© ÙŰ§Ű±ŰłÛŒ



ۧŰČ 3-12-2021 همه ÙŸŰ§ŰŻŰŽŰ§Ù‡Ű§Ù† Ű§ÛŒÙ† ŰŹÙ‡Ű§Ù† Ù‡ŰłŰȘÙ†ŰŻ



ŰźÙˆŰš ŰȘمیŰČ Ú©Ű±ŰŻÙ† Ű°Ù‡Ù† ŰšÙ‡ ŰŻŰłŰȘ ŰąÙˆŰ±ŰŻÙ† ŰłŰčۧۯŰȘ Ű§ŰšŰŻÛŒ
ŰșÙ„ŰšÙ‡ ۚ۱ ۚۯŰȘŰ±ÛŒÙ† ŰšÛŒÙ…Ű§Ű±ÛŒ - ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§.
ŰźÙˆŰš Good Morning Holidays GIF - ŰźÙˆŰš GoodMorningHolidays GIFs

ۯ۱۳
4031 Thu 15 Ú˜ÙˆŰŠÛŒÙ‡ 2021

ŰźÙˆŰš ŰȘمیŰČ Ú©Ű±ŰŻÙ† Ű°Ù‡Ù† ŰšÙ‡ ŰŻŰłŰȘ ŰąÙˆŰ±ŰŻÙ† ŰłŰčۧۯŰȘ Ű§ŰšŰŻÛŒ
ŰșÙ„ŰšÙ‡ ۚ۱ ۚۯŰȘŰ±ÛŒÙ† ŰšÛŒÙ…Ű§Ű±ÛŒ - ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§.

کلم ŰšŰ±ÙˆÚ©Ù„ÛŒ ÙˆÚŻŰ§Ù† ÚŻÛŒŰ§Ù‡ÛŒŰŒ ÙÙ„ÙÙ„ŰŒ ŰźÛŒŰ§Ű±ŰŒ Ù‡ÙˆÛŒŰŹŰŒ Ù„ÙˆŰšÛŒŰ§
۳ۚŰČÛŒŰŹŰ§ŰȘی میوه کوŰȘوله 🍎 🍉 ۯ۱۟ŰȘŰ§Ù† ۯ۱ ÚŻÙ„ŰŻŰ§Ù† Ù‡Ű§ و ۯ۱ ۳۱ۧ۳۱ ŰŹÙ‡Ű§Ù† و ۯ۱ ÙŰ¶Ű§
ŰšŰ±Ű§ÛŒ ŰźÙˆŰ±ŰŻÙ† Ù…Ű§Ù†Ù†ŰŻ ÙŸŰ±Ù†ŰŻÚŻŰ§Ù† ŰšÙ‡ ŰčÙ†ÙˆŰ§Ù† ŰšŰ±Ù†Ű§Ù…Ù‡ Ű±ÛŒŰČی ŰŽŰŻÙ‡ ŰȘÙˆŰłŰ· Ù†Ű§ŰłŰ§ŰŒ Ù…ÛŒÙ„ÛŒŰ§Ű±ŰŻŰ±
ŰšŰ±ÛŒŰȘŰ§Ù†ÛŒŰ§ Ű±ÛŒÚ†Ű§Ű±ŰŻ ŰšŰ±Ű§Ù†ŰłÙˆÙ† ŰšÙ‡ ÙŰ¶Ű§ ۚ۱ Ű±ÙˆÛŒ یک Ú©ŰŽŰȘی ŰšŰ§Ú©Ű±Ù‡ Ű§ÛŒ Ú©Ù‡Ú©ŰŽŰ§Ù†ÛŒ و ŰŹÙ
ŰšÛŒÙˆŰČÙˆŰł ÙŸŰ±ÙˆŰ§ŰČ Ú©Ű±ŰŻ.

کل ŰČمین و ÙŰ¶Ű§ Amudha Surabi ۧŰČ Manimegalai ۧ۳ŰȘ.
Ashoka ۯ۱۟ŰȘŰ§Ù† ŰšÙ„ŰšŰ±ÛŒÙ†ÚŻ ۱ۧ ۯ۱ ۳۱ۧ۳۱ Ű§Ù…ÙŸŰ±Ű§ŰȘÙˆŰ±ÛŒ ŰźÙˆŰŻ Ú©ŰŽŰȘ.

Potthapadaی ۧۯ۱ۧک Ű§ÙˆÙ„ و ŰŻŰ§Ù†ŰŽ ÙŸŰł ۧŰČ ŰąÙ† ŰšÙˆŰŹÙˆŰŻ می ŰąÛŒŰŻ. و Ù†Ű§ŰŽÛŒ ۧŰČ ŰŻŰ§Ù†ŰŽ Ù†Ű§ŰŽÛŒ
ۧŰČ ŰžÙ‡ÙˆŰ± ۧۯ۱ۧک ۧ۳ŰȘ. یکی ۧŰČ ÙˆŰ§Ú˜Ù‡ Ù‡Ű§ŰŒ “Ű§ÛŒÙ† ÙˆŰ§ŰšŰłŰȘÚŻÛŒ ŰšÙ‡ Ű§ÛŒÙ† ۧ۳ŰȘ که ŰŻŰ§Ù†ŰŽ من
ŰšÙˆŰŹÙˆŰŻ ŰąÙ…ŰŻÙ‡ ۧ۳ŰȘ. ۧŰČ Ű·Ű±ÛŒÙ‚ Ű§ÛŒÙ† ۟۷ ۧ۳ŰȘŰŻÙ„Ű§Ù„ŰŒ می ŰȘÙˆŰ§Ù† مŰȘÙˆŰŹÙ‡ ŰŽŰŻ که Ú†ÚŻÙˆÙ†Ù‡ ۧۯ۱ۧک
Ű§ÙˆÙ„ و ŰŻŰ§Ù†ŰŽ ÙŸŰł ۧŰČ ŰąÙ†ŰŒ و Ù†Ű­ÙˆÙ‡ Ù†Ű§ŰŽÛŒ ۧŰČ ŰŻŰ§Ù†ŰŽ Ù†Ű§ŰŽÛŒ ۧŰČ Ű§ŰŻŰ±Ű§Ú©-ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§ ۧ۳ŰȘ

ŰȘÙ…Ű±ÛŒÙ† ŰŽÙ†Ű§ Ú©Ű±ŰŻÙ† Ű°Ù‡Ù† - vimalo
Ashoka Manimegali Ù‡Ù…Ú©Ű§Ű± Ashoka Manimegali
ŰȘÙ…Ű±ÛŒÙ† ŰŽÙ†Ű§ ŰŽÙ†Ű§ŰźŰȘی - Vimalo Ashoka Manimegali Agust ۚۧ ŰȘŰ”Ű§ÙˆÛŒŰ± و فیلم Ù‡Ű§
ŰšÛŒŰŻŰ§Ű± ŰŽŰŻ


Friends


parsidari | ۯۧ۳ŰȘŰ§Ù† ŰČÙ†ŰŻÚŻÛŒ ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§ Who was Buddha
parsi dari
43.4K subscribers
ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§
Ù‡Ű±ÚŻŰČ Ű§ŰŻŰčŰ§ÛŒÛŒ Ù…ŰšÙ†ÛŒ ۚ۱ ۯۧێŰȘن ۧ۱ŰȘۚۧ۷ ۚۧ ۟ۯۧ و ÛŒŰ§ Ù‡Ű± Ù…ÙˆŰŹÙˆŰŻ فوق Ű·ŰšÛŒŰčی ŰŻÛŒÚŻŰ±
Ù†ŰŻŰ§ŰŽŰȘ. Ű§Ùˆ Ù‡Ű±ÚŻŰČ Ű§ŰŻŰčŰ§ÛŒ ۟ۯۧ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ†ŰŒ ŰȘŰŹŰłÙ… ۟ۯۧ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ†ŰŒ ÙŸÛŒŰ§Ù…ŰšŰ± ۟ۯۧ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ† و ÛŒŰ§ Ù…ÙˆŰŹÙˆŰŻ
ŰźŰ§Ű±Ù‚ Ű§Ù„ŰčŰ§ŰŻÙ‡ Ű§ÛŒ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ† Ù†Ú©Ű±ŰŻ.
Ű§Ùˆ ŰȘÙ†Ù‡Ű§ یک Ű§Ù†ŰłŰ§Ù† ŰšÙˆŰŻ. یک Ű§Ù†ŰłŰ§Ù† مŰčمولی ولی Ù…Ű”Ù…Ù…. Ű§Ùˆ ŰȘÙ…Ű§Ù… ŰŻŰ§Ù†ŰłŰȘه Ù‡Ű§ÛŒÛŒ ۱ۧ که ۚۯ۳ŰȘ ŰąÙˆŰ±ŰŻ نŰȘÛŒŰŹÙ‡ ŰȘÙ„Ű§ŰŽ و ÙŸŰŽŰȘکۧ۱ ŰźÙˆŰŻŰŽ ŰšÙˆŰŻ.
Ű§Ùˆ
ŰšÙˆŰłÛŒÙ„Ù‡ Ú©ÙˆŰŽŰŽÛŒ ŰšÛŒ وقفه ŰšÙ‡ ŰšŰ§Ù„Ű§ŰȘŰ±ÛŒÙ† Ű­ŰŻ فهم Ű°Ù‡Ù†ÛŒ و مŰčنوی Ű±ŰłÛŒŰŻ و ۯ۱ ŰȘÙ…Ű§Ù…
ŰźŰ”ÙˆŰ”ÛŒŰ§ŰȘ Ű§Ù†ŰłŰ§Ù†ÛŒ Ú©Ű§Ù…Ù„ ŰŽŰŻ. Ű§Ùˆ Ù‡Ű±ÚŻŰČ Ű§ŰŻŰčŰ§ÛŒÛŒ Ù…ŰšÙ†ÛŒ ۚ۱ Ű§ÛŒÙ†Ú©Ù‡ Ù…Ù†ŰŹÛŒ Ű±ÙˆŰ­ Ű§Ù†ŰłŰ§Ù†Ù‡Ű§ŰłŰȘ
Ù†Ú©Ű±ŰŻ ŰČÛŒŰ±Ű§ مŰčŰȘÙ‚ŰŻ ŰšÙˆŰŻ که Ù‡Ű±Ú©ŰłÛŒ ŰȘÙ†Ù‡Ű§ ŰźÙˆŰŻŰŽ می ŰȘÙˆŰ§Ù†ŰŻ ۚۧ ŰȘÙ„Ű§ŰŽ و Ú©ÙˆŰŽŰŽŰŒ ŰźÙˆŰŻŰŽ ۱ۧ
Ù†ŰŹŰ§ŰȘ ŰŻÙ‡ŰŻ و Ú©Űł ŰŻÛŒÚŻŰ±ÛŒ ۚۧ ۧۏۚۧ۱ و ŰČÙˆŰ± نمی ŰȘÙˆŰ§Ù†ŰŻ Ú©ŰłÛŒ ۱ۧ Ù†ŰŹŰ§ŰȘ ŰŻÙ‡ŰŻ. ŰŻÛŒÚŻŰ±Ű§Ù†
ŰȘÙ†Ù‡Ű§ می ŰȘÙˆŰ§Ù†Ù†ŰŻ Ű±Ű§Ù‡ ۱ۧ ŰšÙ‡ Ù…Ű§ Ù†ŰŽŰ§Ù† ŰŻÙ‡Ù†ŰŻ ولی Ű·ÛŒ Ú©Ű±ŰŻÙ† Ù…ŰłÛŒŰ± ŰšÙ‡ ŰčÙ‡ŰŻÙ‡ ŰźÙˆŰŻ Ù…Ű§ŰłŰȘ.
Ù†Ű§Ù…ŰŽ
ŰłÛŒŰŻŰ§Ű±ŰȘۧ ÚŻÙˆŰȘŰ§Ù…Ű§ ŰšÙˆŰŻ که ŰšŰčŰŻ Ù‡Ű§ ŰšÙ‡ ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§ مŰčŰ±ÙˆÙ ŰŽŰŻ. ÙˆŰ§Ú˜Ù‡ ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§ یŰčنی ŰšÛŒŰŻŰ§Ű± ŰŽŰŻÙ‡
ÛŒŰ§ ŰšÙ‡ Űčۚۧ۱ŰȘ ŰŻÛŒÚŻŰ±ŰŒ Ú©ŰłÛŒ که ŰšÙ‡ Ű±ÙˆŰŽÙ†ÛŒ Ű±ŰłÛŒŰŻÙ‡ ۧ۳ŰȘ مŰčنی می ŰŻÙ‡ŰŻ.

youtube.com
parsidari | ۯۧ۳ŰȘŰ§Ù† ŰČÙ†ŰŻÚŻÛŒ ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§ Who was Buddha
ŰšÙˆŰŻŰ§
Ù‡Ű±ÚŻŰČ Ű§ŰŻŰčŰ§ÛŒÛŒ Ù…ŰšÙ†ÛŒ ۚ۱ ۯۧێŰȘن ۧ۱ŰȘۚۧ۷ ۚۧ ۟ۯۧ و ÛŒŰ§ Ù‡Ű± Ù…ÙˆŰŹÙˆŰŻ فوق Ű·ŰšÛŒŰčی ŰŻÛŒÚŻŰ±
Ù†ŰŻŰ§ŰŽŰȘ. Ű§Ùˆ Ù‡Ű±ÚŻŰČ Ű§ŰŻŰčŰ§ÛŒ ۟ۯۧ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ†ŰŒ ŰȘŰŹŰłÙ… ۟ۯۧ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ†ŰŒ ÙŸÛŒŰ§Ù…ŰšŰ± ۟ۯۧ ŰšÙˆŰŻÙ† و ÛŒŰ§ Ù…ÙˆŰŹÙˆŰŻ
ŰźŰ§Ű±Ù‚ Ű§Ù„Űčۧۯ…

81) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,




Od 3-12-2021 Wszyscy są królami tego ƛwiata


Czy dobry umysƂ oczyszczający osiągnąć wieczne bƂogoƛć
Pokonaj najgorszą chorobę - Budda.
Lekcja
4031 Czw 15 lipca 2021

Czy dobry umysƂ oczyszczający osiągnąć wieczne bƂogoƛć
Pokonaj najgorszą chorobę - Budda.

Roƛliny surowe wegaƄskie brokuƂy, papryka, ogórki, marchewki, fasola
Warzywa, owocowe owoce 🍎 🍉 drzewa w doniczkach i na caƂym ƛwiecie oraz
w kosmosie, aby jeƛć jak ptaki zaplanowane przez NASA, brytyjski
billionire Richard Branson przeleciaƂ w kosmos na pokƂadzie na pokƂadzie
dziewiczego statku galaktycznego i Jeffa Bezosu.

CaƂa ziemia i przestrzeƄ to Amudha Surabi Manimegalai.
Ashoka zasadziƂ drzewa ƂoĆŒyska owocĂłw na caƂym swoim imperium.

Potthapada pojawia się postrzeganie najpierw i wiedzę po. A powstanie
wiedzy pochodzi z wyniku percepcji. Jeden rozrĂłĆŒnia: “W zaleĆŒnoƛci od
tego powstaje moja wiedza”

Praktyka Maskuj pƂywanie - Vimalo
Przebudzony Ashoka Manimegali Fellow
Praktyka UwaĆŒa pƂywanie - Vimeto Auakened Ashoka Manimegali Fellow z
obrazkami i filmami

Gothic Frontside GIF - Gothic Frontside OOOOOOO GIFs

Dhammapada (ƚcieĆŒka Mądroƛci Buddy) | Buddyzm
ErXz ~ {Poszukiwacz Prawdy}
65 subscribers

youtube.com
Dhammapada (ƚcieĆŒka Mądroƛci Buddy) | Buddyzm
Link do Tekstu: http://mahajana.net/teksty/dhammapada/dhammapada.html




82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguĂȘs ClĂĄssico,


De 3-12-2021 Todos sĂŁo reis deste mundo
Faça bem purificar a mente atinge a felicidade eterna
Superar a pior doença - Buda.

Lição
4031 Qui 15 jul 2021

Faça bem purificar a mente atinge a felicidade eterna
Superar a pior doença - Buda.

Planta Raw Vegan BrĂłcolis, Pimentas, Pepinos, Cenouras, FeijĂŁo
Legumes, Anão Fruta 🍎 🍉 árvores em vasos e em todo o mundo e no espaço
para comer como pĂĄssaros como planejado pela NASA, BilionĂĄrio
Britùnico, Richard Branson, voou para o espaço a bordo de um vadio
galĂĄctico e Jeff Bezos.

Toda a terra e o espaço são surabi amudha de manimegalai.
Ashoka plantou årvores de rolamento de frutas em todo o império.

Potthapada, a percepção surge primeiro, e conhecimento depois. E o
surgimento do conhecimento vem do surgimento da percepção. Um discerni,
‘estĂĄ em dependĂȘncia disso que meu conhecimento se surgiu.’ AtravĂ©s
desta linha de raciocínio pode-se perceber como a percepção surge
primeiro, e conhecimento depois, e como o surgimento do conhecimento vem
do surgimento da percepção - Buda

Pratique natação consciente - Vimalo
Acordado Ashoka Manimegali companheiro
Pratique natação consciente - Vimalo despertou ashoka manimegali
companheiro com fotos e vĂ­deos


Imagen Eterna GIF - Trippy Pattern Striped GIFs







Friends

ReflexÔes sobre a Mente, segundo Buda
Organização Internacional Nova Acrópole do Brasil
“O maior mal Ă© causado pela mente mal dirigida, e o maior bem nos farĂĄ a mente bem dirigida”.
Essa Ă© uma das ideias trazidas neste episĂłdio dedicado Ă  compreender
sobre a Felicidade utilizando a nossa Mente a partir dos ensinamentos de
Sidarta Gautama, o Buda. Com base no compilado de aforismas
“Dhammappada” a professora voluntĂĄria, MĂŽnica Dias, trabalhou aspectos
que impulsionam a mente para a conquista da Felicidade.
Participantes: MĂŽnica Dias e Pedro GuimarĂŁes
Trilha Sonora: G. P. Teleman - Concerto para Trompete em D maior adagio
ReflexÔes sobre a Mente, segundo Buda
“O
maior mal Ă© causado pela mente mal dirigida, e o maior bem nos farĂĄ a
mente bem dirigida”. Essa Ă© uma das ideias trazidas neste episĂłdio
dedicado Ă  comp
re…

83) Classical Punjabi-àš•àšČàšŸàšžà©€àš•àšČ àšȘà©°àšœàšŸàšŹà©€,



3-12-2021 àš€à©‹àš‚ àšžàšŸàš°à©‡ àš‡àšž àšžà©°àšžàšŸàš° àšŠà©‡ àš°àšŸàšœà©‡ àščàšš


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àššà©°àš—à©‡ àšžàšŒà©à©±àš§ àš•àš°à©‹ àšźàšš àš…àššàšŸàšŠàšż àš…àššà©°àšŠ àšȘà©àš°àšŸàšȘàš€ àš•àš°àšŠà©‡ àščੋ
àšŹà©àš°à©€ àšŹàšżàšźàšŸàš°à©€ àššà©‚à©° àšŠà©‚àš° àš•àš°à©‹ - àšŹà©à©±àš§.
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Japji Sahib Full Path by Harshdeep Kaur
Harshdeep Kaur
338K subscribers
Japji
Sahib was my first introduction to the Almighty. Every morning my
mother used to hum it for me when I was little. Years later I recited Ik
Onkar for Rang De Basanti and received so much love for it.
For me, this was not just a project but a journey that connected me to God through the path of music.
Vocals & Composition: Harshdeep Kaur
Music Production: KJ Singh
Recorded at : Yashraj Studios
To Listen to Chaupai Sahib by Harshdeep Kaur :- https://youtu.be/Ekep1UkVC-w
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Ik On’kār - Japji Sahib
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Japji Sahib Full Path by Harshdeep Kaur
Japji
Sahib was my first introduction to the Almighty. Every morning my
mother used to hum it for me when I was little. Years later I recited Ik
Onkar for Ra…







84) Classical Romanian-Clasic romĂąnesc,


Din 3-12-2021 Toți sunt regi ai acestei lumi



85) Classical Russian-КлассОчДсĐșĐžĐč руссĐșĐžĐč,


ĐĄ 3-12-2021 ВсД ĐșĐŸŃ€ĐŸĐ»Đž ŃŃ‚ĐŸĐłĐŸ ĐŒĐžŃ€Đ°

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Mai le 3-12-2021 uma tupu o lenei lalolagi
86) Skine Syspical Samoa-Samoas Samoa,

87) Classical Sanskrit à€›à„à€Čà€žà„à€žà€żà€šà€Čà„ à€·à€šà„à€žà„à€•à„à€°à€żà€€à„
Fà€°à„‹à€źà„ 3-12-2021 à€†à€Čà„à€Čà„ à€…à€°à„‡ à€•à€żà€šà„à€—à„à€žà„ à€“f à€„à€żà€žà„ wà€“à€°à„à€Čà„à€Šà„

Bho 3-12-2021 tha na h-uile uile nan rĂŹghrean den t-saoghal seo
88) GĂ idhlig Clasaigeach na h-Alba-GĂ idhlig Albabanch Clachaigeach,

ОЮ 3-12-2021, сĐČĐ” су ĐșраљДĐČĐž ĐŸĐČĐŸĐł сĐČДта
89) ЊлассОцал ĐĄĐ”Ń€Đ±ĐžĐ°Đœ-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐž српсĐșĐž,

Ho tloha ho 3-12-2021 Bohle ke marena a lefatĆĄe lena
90) Classical Sesotho-Sy Boholo-Holo,
Kubva 3- Bhaibheri-2021 zvese madzimambo enyika ino

91) Classical Shona-shona Shona,
3-12-2021 Ú©Ű§Ù† ŰłÚ€ŰŠÙŠ ŰŻÙ†ÙŠŰ§ ۏۧ ŰšŰ§ŰŻŰŽŰ§ÚŸ ŰąÚŸÙ†
928 ÙżÙˆŰŒ
3-12-2021 සිà¶șග්ගඞ සිà¶șග්ග ඞේ ගෝකà¶șේ à¶»à¶ąà·€à¶»à·” à¶ș
93) සඞ්භාව්à¶ș සිංහග - විස්තරාත්ඞක,

Od 3-12-2021 VĆĄetci sĂș krĂĄli tohto sveta
94) KlasickĂœ slovensko-KlasickĂœ SlovenskĂœ,

Od 3-12-2021 so vsi kralji tega sveta
95) Klasična slovenơčina-Klasična Slovenska,

Laga bilaabo 3-12-2021 dhammaantood waa boqorro adduunkan
96) Kastaaska Soomaalida-Somali-Soumali Qeemaysay,

Del 3-12-2021 todos son reyes de este mundo.
97) clåsico español-español clåsico,

Ti 3-12-2021 sadayana mangrupikeun raja dunya ieu
98) Klasik Sundana-Sunda Klasik,

Kutoka 3-12-2021 wote ni wafalme wa ulimwengu huu
99) Kiswahili cha kawaida, Kiswahili cha Classical,

FrÄn 3-12-2021 Àr alla kungar i denna vÀrld
100) Klassisk svensk-Klassisk Svensk,

Аз 3-12-2021 ÒČĐ°ĐŒĐ° ĐżĐŸĐŽŃˆĐŸÒłĐŸĐœĐž ĐžĐœ Ò·Đ°ÒłĐŸĐœ ĐŒĐ”Đ±ĐŸŃˆĐ°ĐœĐŽ
101) КабОраĐșÒłĐŸĐž ĐșлассОĐșОО Ń‚ĐŸÒ·ĐžĐșÓŁ-Ń‚ĐŸÒ·ĐžĐșÓŁ

3-12-2021 Đ”Đ»ĐŽĐ°Đœ барысы ĐŽĐ° бу ĐŽÓ©ĐœŃŒŃ ĐżĐ°Ń‚ŃˆĐ°Đ»Đ°Ń€Ń‹
103) КлассОĐș татар

3-12-2021 à°šà±à°‚à°Ąà°ż ఈ à°Ș్రà°Șంచం à°Żà±Šà°•à±à°• రటజుà°Čు
104) à°žà°Ÿà°‚à°Șà±à°°à°Šà°Ÿà°Żà°żà°• ఀెà°Čుగు-క్à°Čà±‹à°žà°żà°•à°Č్ à°čెà°Čుగు,
àž•àž±àč‰àž‡àčàž•àčˆ 3-12-2021 àž—àž±àč‰àž‡àž«àžĄàž”àč€àž›àč‡àž™àžŁàžČàžŠàžČàž‚àž­àž‡àč‚àž„àžàž™àž”àč‰
105) àž„àž„àžČàžȘàžȘàžŽàžàč„àž—àžą - àž àžČàž©àžČàč„àž—àžąàž„àž„àž±àčˆàž‡àž‹àžŽàž„àč€àž‹àžČ
3-12-2021 arasında hepsi bu dĂŒnyanın krallarıdır
106) Klasik TĂŒrk-Klasik TĂŒrk,

3-12-22-2021-den bu dĂŒnĂœĂ€niƈ beĂœleki Ɵalary
107) nusgawy tĂŒrkmenler

З 3-12-2021 Ń€ĐŸĐșу ĐČсі ĐșĐŸŃ€ĐŸĐ»Ń– Ń†ŃŒĐŸĐłĐŸ сĐČіту
108) ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐžĐč уĐșŃ€Đ°Ń—ĐœŃŃŒĐșĐžĐč-ĐșĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐžĐč уĐșŃ€Đ°Ń—ĐœŃŃŒĐșĐžĐč,
3-12-2021 ŰłÛ’ ۳ۚ ۧ۳ ŰŻÙ†ÛŒŰ§ کے ŰšŰ§ŰŻŰŽŰ§Û ہیÚș
109) Ú©Ù„Ű§ŰłÛŒÚ©ÛŒ Ű§Ű±ŰŻÙˆ- Ú©ÙˆŰłÛŒÚ©ÛŒ Ű§Ű±ŰŻÙˆ
3-12-2021 نىڭ ÚŸÛ•Ù…Ù…Ù‰ŰłÙ‰ ŰšÛ‡ ŰŻÛ‡Ù†ÙŠŰ§Ù†Ù‰Ú­ ÙŸŰ§ŰŻÙ‰ŰŽŰ§ÚŸÙ„Ù‰Ű±Ù‰
110) ÙƒÙ„Ű§ŰłŰłÙ‰Ùƒ ŰŠÛ‡ÙŠŰșÛ‡Ű±,
3-12-2021 yillarda bu dunyoning podshohlari
111) Klassik o’zbek-klassik o’ti,

Từ 3-12-2021 Táș„t cáșŁ đều lĂ  những vị vua của tháșż giới nĂ y
112) Tiáșżng Việt-Tiáșżng Việt Tiáșżng Việt VING,

O 3-12-2021 mae pob un yn frenhinoedd o’r byd hwn
113) Clasurol Cymraeg-Cymraeg Clasurol,

Ukusuka kwi-3-12-2021 Onke ngooKumkani baLihlabathi
I-114) IsiXhosa-IsiXhosa ZESESSA,
Ś€Ś•ŚŸ 3-12-2021 ŚÖ·ŚœŚą Ś–ŚąŚ ŚąŚŸ ŚžŚœŚ›Ś™Ś Ś€Ś•ŚŸ Ś“ŚąŚš Ś•Ś•ŚąŚœŚ˜
115) Ś§ŚœŚŚĄŚ™Ś©Śą Ś™Ś™ÖŽŚ“Ś™Ś©- Ś§ŚœŚŚĄŚ©Ś™Ś” Ś™Ś™ÖŽŚ“Ś™Ś©
Lati 3-12-2021 jáșč awọn ọba ti aye yii
116) Ayeba Yoruba-Yoruba Yorba,

Kusuka ku-3-12-2021 wonke amakhosi alo mhlaba
117) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

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