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𝓛𝓔𝓱𝓱𝓞𝓝 4046 Fri 30 đ“™đ“Ÿđ“” 2021 Free Online Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention in Awakened One’s Own Words Mahāparinibbāna Sutta & Mahāsatipaáč­áč­hāna Sutta in 05) Classical Pāិi,102) Classical Tamil-102) àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ & 30) Classical English,Roman
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𝓛𝓔𝓱𝓱𝓞𝓝 4046 Fri 30 đ“™đ“Ÿđ“” 2021

Free Online Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention in Awakened One’s Own Words

Mahāparinibbāna Sutta & Mahāsatipaáč­áč­hāna Sutta in 05) Classical Pāិi,102) Classical Tamil-102) àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ & 30) Classical English,Roman

GHMC to plant 1.5 crore saplings under Haritha Haram -
đ“čđ“»đ“žđ“čđ“Ș𝓰đ“Ște đ“”đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“” đ“‘đ“”đ“Čđ“Œđ“Œ đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“± đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“·đ“°
đ“»đ“Ș𝔀 đ“„đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“· đ“‘đ“»đ“žđ“Źđ“Źđ“žđ“”đ“Č, đ“č𝓼đ“čđ“čđ“źđ“»đ“Œ,đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“Źđ“Ÿđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“»đ“Œ,
𝓬đ“Șđ“»đ“»đ“žđ“œđ“Œ, đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“·đ“Œ đ“żđ“źđ“°đ“źđ“œđ“Șđ“«đ“”đ“źđ“Œ,𝓓𝔀đ“Șđ“»đ“Ż đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ 🍎 🍉 đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ
đ“Čđ“· đ“čđ“žđ“œđ“Œ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“”đ“­ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Čđ“·
𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“œđ“ž 𝓼đ“Șđ“œ đ“”đ“Č𝓮𝓼 đ“«đ“Čđ“»đ“­đ“Œ đ“Șđ“Œ đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“«đ”‚
𝓝𝓐𝓱𝓐, đ“‘đ“»đ“Čđ“œđ“Čđ“Œđ“± đ“«đ“Čđ“”đ“”đ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“Čđ“»đ“ź 𝓡đ“Čđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“­
đ“‘đ“»đ“Șđ“·đ“Œđ“žđ“· đ“Żđ“”đ“źđ”€ đ“Čđ“·đ“œđ“ž đ“Œđ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“«đ“žđ“Șđ“»đ“­ đ“Ș đ“„đ“Čđ“»đ“°đ“Čđ“·
𝓖đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬 đ“żđ“źđ“Œđ“Œđ“źđ“” đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓙𝓼𝓯𝓯 đ“‘đ“źđ”ƒđ“žđ“Œ.

đ“”đ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“»đ“ź
𝓔đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“± đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“»đ“ź đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“€đ“Ąđ“đ“‘đ“˜ 𝓾𝓯
𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č. đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“źđ“­ đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ
đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“»đ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“±đ“Čđ“Œ đ“źđ“¶đ“čđ“Čđ“»đ“ź.Mayawati
said that that after she becomes the Prime Minister she will bring back
the Ashokan Rule.

𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č 𝓯𝓼𝓭 đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ“čđ“žđ“žđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“± đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“±đ“Č .

đ“đ“”đ“Œđ“ž
đ“œđ“ž đ“œđ“»đ“Șđ“Čđ“· đ“č𝓼𝓾đ“čđ“”đ“ź đ“žđ“· 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“°,
đ“Łđ“±đ“Șđ“Č đ“’đ“±đ“Č, 𝓚đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“»đ“Č đ“đ“»đ“œđ“Œ, đ“™đ“Ÿđ“­đ“ž, 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œđ“ź, đ“šđ“Ÿđ“·đ“°
đ“•đ“Ÿ đ“¶đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Čđ“Șđ“” đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Œ.
đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬𝓼 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“° - đ“„đ“Čđ“¶đ“Șđ“”đ“ž 𝓐𝔀đ“Șđ“Žđ“źđ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș 𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Č đ“•đ“źđ“”đ“”đ“žđ”€.

From

𝓔-đ“«đ“žđ“žđ“Ž-𝓓𝓞 𝓖𝓞𝓞𝓓 đ“Ÿđ“€đ“Ąđ“˜đ“•đ“š 𝓜𝓘𝓝𝓓 𝓐𝓣𝓣𝓐𝓘𝓝 𝓔𝓣𝓔𝓡𝓝𝓐𝓛 𝓑𝓛𝓘𝓱𝓱
đ“Żđ“»đ“žđ“¶ đ“šđ“Ÿđ“Œđ“±đ“Čđ“·đ“Șđ“»đ“Ș 𝓝𝓘𝓑𝓑Ā𝓝𝓐 đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș 18đ“Żđ“œ
𝓓đ“Čđ“Ș. đ“Ș 3𝓓 360 đ“­đ“źđ“°đ“»đ“źđ“ź 𝓬đ“Čđ“»đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“”đ“Șđ“» 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș đ“Șđ“œ

đ“Šđ“±đ“Čđ“œđ“ź đ“—đ“žđ“¶đ“ź,
668 5đ“œđ“± 𝓐 𝓜đ“Șđ“Čđ“· 𝓡𝓾đ“Ș𝓭,
8đ“œđ“± đ“’đ“»đ“žđ“Œđ“Œ,
𝓗𝓐𝓛 𝓘𝓘𝓘 đ“ąđ“œđ“Ș𝓰𝓼,
đ“Ÿđ“Ÿđ“·đ“Č𝔂đ“Ș đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ đ“‘đ“źđ“·đ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Ÿ,
𝓜đ“Ș𝓰đ“Șđ“­đ“±đ“Č 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Ș𝓮đ“Ș,
đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“‘đ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œ đ“˜đ“·đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“”
đ“±đ“œđ“œđ“č://đ“Œđ“Șđ“»đ“żđ“Ș𝓳đ“Șđ“·.đ“Șđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“­đ“Žđ“Șđ“».đ“žđ“»đ“°
đ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Șđ“Œđ“Șđ“Č𝓭2đ“Ÿđ“Œ@đ“°đ“¶đ“Șđ“Čđ“”.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
đ“łđ“Źđ“Œ4đ“źđ“żđ“źđ“»@đ“žđ“Ÿđ“œđ“”đ“žđ“žđ“Ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
đ“łđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“·đ“­đ“»đ“Șđ“Œđ“źđ“Žđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“·@𝔂đ“Șđ“±đ“žđ“ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
080-25203792
9449260443
9449835875
𝔀đ“Čđ“Œđ“±đ“źđ“Œ
đ“œđ“ž
đ“«đ“ź đ“Ș đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“Žđ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“čđ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“·đ“źđ“» 𝔀đ“Čđ“œđ“± GHMC & GCC for its
One crore saplings are anticipated to be planted as a part of the
programme within the metropolis, with 10 lakh saplings proposed to be
planted within the first 12 months. Along with Residents’ welfare
associations that will play a serious position within the drive. As The
civic physique is planning to entrust the associations with the duty of
sustaining the bushes of their neighbourhood.And the Officers suggest
to reward the associations that handle the saplings for a sure time
period.
Congratulations for ‘Best day ever’: Jeff Bezos blasts into space on own rocket



28) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,


Prabuddha Intellectuals Conventions.
Bhagawan Buddha siger
“Mine
brÞdre, der er disse to ekstremer, som en person pÄ stien skal undgÄ.
Hvilke to? Den ene er at springe sig ind i sensuelle fornĂžjelser. Og den
anden er at Ăžve de stramninger, der fratager kroppens behov. Begge
disse ekstremer fĂžrer til fiasko.
“Den
vej, jeg har opdaget, er middelvejen, som undgÄr begge ekstremer og har
kapacitet til at fÞre en til forstÄelse, befrielse og fred. Det er den
Êdle ottefoldede vej til hÞjre forstÄelse, hÞjre tanke, hÞjre tale,
hĂžjre handling, hĂžjre levebrĂžd, ret indsats, ret mindfulness og
retkoncentration. Jeg har fulgt denne ĂŠdle ottefoldige sti og har
realiseret forstÄelse, befrielse og fred.
Den
fþrste er eksistensen af ​​lidelse. Fþdsel, alderdom, sygdom og dþd
lider. Tristhed, vrede, jalousi, bekymring, angst, frygt og fortvivlelse
lider. Adskillelse fra kĂŠre lider. Association med dem, du ikke kan
lide, lider. Ønsket, vedhÊftning og klamrer sig til de fem aggregater
lider.
“BrĂždre, den anden sandhed afslĂžrer Ă„rsagen til lidelse. PĂ„ grund af
uvidenhed kan folk ikke se sandheden om livet, og de bliver fanget i
skþnheden af ​​lyst, vrede, jalousi, sorg, bekymring, frygt og
fortvivlelse.
“BrĂždre, den tredje sandhed er ophĂžr af lidelse.
ForstÄelse af livets sandhed medfÞrer ophÞr af enhver sorg og sorg og giver anledning til fred og glÊde.
“BrĂždre, den fjerde sandhed er den vej, der fĂžrer til ophĂžr af
lidelse. Det er den ĂŠdle ottefoldige vej, som jeg lige har forklaret.
Den ĂŠdle ottefoldige sti er nĂŠret ved at leve mindeligt. Mindfulness
fÞrer til koncentration og forstÄelse, med frigÞr dig fra enhver smerte
og sorg og fĂžrer til fred og glĂŠde. Jeg vil lede dig langs denne vej til
realisering.
“Vision opstod, opsigt opstand, skelnen opstod, viden opstod, belysning
opstod i mig med hensyn til ting, der aldrig blev hĂžrt fĂžr:” Denne ĂŠdle
sandhed om stress er blevet forstĂ„et. “
“Den
ĂŠdle sandhed om ophĂžr af stress: den komplette fading & cessation,
afkald, afkald, frigivelse og slip af det meget trang. Denne ĂŠdle
sandhed om ophĂžr af stress er blevet realiseret. Dette er den ĂŠdle
sandhed af vejen for Ăžvelsen, der fĂžrer til ophĂžr af stress.
“SĂ„
snart min viden og vision om disse fire ĂŠdle sandheder, som de er
kommet til at vĂŠre virkelig rene, gjorde jeg det, at jeg hĂŠvdede at have
vĂŠret direkte vĂŠkket til den rigtige selvvakende uforklaret i kosmos
med alle sine usete vejledninger, overvejelser, Brahmans, dens Royalty
& Commonfolk. Knowledge & Vision opstod i mig: ‘Unshakable er
min udgivelse. Dette er min sidste fĂždsel. Der er nu ingen fornyet
eksistens. “
Mens
Siddhartha forklarede de fire édle sandheder, en af ​​munkene, fþlte
Kondanna pludselig en stor skinnende inden for sit eget sind. Han kunne
smag den befrielse, han havde sÞgt sÄ lÊnge. Hans ansigt strÄlede med
glĂŠde. Buddha pegede pĂ„ ham og grĂŠd: “Kondanna! Du har det! Du har det!”
Kondanna
sluttede sig til sine palmer og bĂžjede sig for Siddhartha. Med dybeste
respekt talte han, “Venerable Gautama, vĂŠr venlig at acceptere mig som
din discipel. Jeg ved, at under din vejledning vil jeg nÄ den store
opvĂ„gning. “
De
andre fire munke bĂžjede ogsĂ„ pĂ„ Siddhartha’s fĂždder, sluttede sig til
deres palmer og bad om at blive modtaget som disciple. Siddhartha sagde:
“Brothers! BĂžrnene i landsbyen har givet mig navnet ‘Buddha. ” Du kan
ogsĂ„ ringe til mig ved det navn, hvis du vil. “
Kondanna spurgte: “Buddha ‘betyder ikke’ en, der er vĂŠkket ‘?”
“Det er korrekt, og de kalder den vej, jeg har opdaget ‘vejen for opvĂ„gnen.’ Hvad synes du om dette navn?”
“”
En, der er vĂŠkket “! ‘Vejen til opvĂ„gning’! Vidunderlig! Vidunderlig!
Disse navne er sande, men alligevel enkle. Vi vil heldigvis ringe til
dig Buddha, og stien du har opdaget vejen for opvÄgnen. Som du lige
sagde, er at leve hver dag mindeligt meget grundlag for Ă„ndelig praksis.
” De fem munke var af et sind at acceptere Gautama som deres lĂŠrer og
kalde ham Buddha.
Buddha
smilede pĂ„ dem. ” VĂŠr venlig, brĂždre, praksis med en Ă„ben og
intelligent Änd, og i tre mÄneder vil du have opnÄet friheden af
​​befrielse. ”
Sutta piáč­aka-digha nikāya
DN 16 - (D II 137)
Mahāparinibbāna sutta.
{uddrag}
- de sidste instruktioner -
[mahā-parinibbāna]
Denne
Sutta samler forskellige instruktioner Buddha gav af hensyn til
tilhĂŠngere efter hans passerer vĂŠk, hvilket gĂžr det et meget vigtigt sĂŠt
instruktioner for os i dag.
Jeg
vil forklare diskursen pÄ Dhamma, som hedder Dhammādāsa, der besidder,
som Ariyasāvaka, hvis han Ăžnsker, kan erklĂŠre af sig selv: “For mig er
der ikke mere niraya, ikke mere tiracchāna-yoni, ikke mere pettivisaya,
nej Mere tilstand af ulykke, af ulykke, elendighed, jeg er en Sotāpanna,
af naturen fri for elendighedsstater, visse sig af at vĂŠre bestemt til
Sambodhi.
Og hvad, ānanda, er
Denne
diskurs pÄ Dhamma, der hedder Dhammādāsa, besidder, som Ariyasāvaka,
hvis han sĂ„ Ăžnsker, kan erklĂŠre af sig selv: “For mig er der ikke mere
Niraya, ikke mere Tiracchāna-Yoni, ikke mere Pettivisaya, ikke mere
tilstand af ulykke, af ulykke, elendighed, jeg er en sotāpanna, af natur
fri for elendigheder af elendighed, visse af at vĂŠre bestemt til
Sambodhi?
Her er ānanda, en Ariyasāvaka udstyret med Buddhe Aveccappasāda:
Han er udstyret med Dhamme Aveccappasāda:
Han er udstyret med Saugthe Aveccappasāda:
Han er udstyret med en SÄ«la, som er behageligt for Ariyas,
Dette,
ānanda, er diskursen pÄ Dhamma, der hedder Dhammādāsa, der besidder,
som Ariyasāvaka, hvis han Ăžnsker, kan erklĂŠre af sig selv: “For mig er
der ikke mere Niraya, ikke mere Tiracchāna-Yoni, ikke mere Pettivisaya ,
ingen mere tilstand af ulykke, af ulykke, elendighed, jeg er en
Sotāpanna, af naturen fri for elendigheder, visse af at vÊre bestemt til
Sambodhi.
Sato Skal du forblive, Bhikkhus og Sampajānos. Dette er vores indsats til dig.
Og hvordan, Bhikkhus, er en Bhikkhu Sato? Her, Bhikkhus, en Bhikkhu
SÄledes er Bhikkhus, en Bhikkhu Sato. Og hvordan, Bhikkhus, er en Bhikkhu Sampajāno? Her, Bhikkhus,
SÄledes er Bhikkhus, en Bhikkhu Sampajāno. Sato Skal du forblive, Bhikkhus og Sampajānos. Dette er vores indsats til dig.
- Ananda, Twin Sala
TrĂŠer
er i fuld blomst, selv om det ikke er sésonen af ​​blomstringen. Og
blomsterne regner pÄ tathagataens legeme og drop og spredes og er strÞdt
pÄ det i tilbedelse af Tathagata. Og himmelske koralblomster og
himmelske sandeltrÊ pulver fra himlen regn ned pÄ tathagataens krop og
slip og spredes og er strÞdt pÄ det i tilbedelse af Tathagata. Og lyden
af ​​himmelske stemmer og himmelske instrumenter gþr musik i luften ud
af ĂŠrbĂždighed for Tathagata.
Det
er ikke ved dette, ānanda, at Tathāgata respekteres, Êret, vÊrdsat,
betalt hyldest og hĂŠdret. Men Ananda, enhver Bhikkhu eller Bhikkhuni,
Layman eller Laywoman, Resterende Dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáč­ipanna,
sāmÄ«ci’p'paáč­ipanna,
At
bo i overensstemmelse med Dhamma, at en respekt, vener, Esteems, betaler
hyldest og Êrer Tathāgata med den mest fremragende hyldest. Derfor,
ānanda, bĂžr du trĂŠne jer sĂ„ledes: ‘Vi vil forblive
dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáč­ipanna, sāmÄ«ci’p'paáč­ipanna, der bor i
overensstemmelse med Dhamma’.
LĂžb, kastes, religions ulighed var der,
er der
og
vil fortsĂŠtte med at vĂŠre der
DĂ„rlig og stingy beslutninger var der
Er der
og
vil fortsĂŠtte med at vĂŠre der!
PĂ„ samme tid
“Der er lidt stĂžv i folks Ăžjne, fjern den uvidenhed, de vil gĂ„ pĂ„ vej til Dhamma ‘i Vinaya Pitaka - Buddhist Ethics
var ogsÄ der
er der
og
vil fortsĂŠtte med at vĂŠre der!
Hvilket betyder
LĂžb, kastes, religions ulighed var ikke der,
vil ikke vĂŠre er der
og
vil fortsĂŠtte med ikke at vĂŠre der
Prabuddha Bharat Sammelans.
Religioner, lĂžb, kastes, uligheder,
Var der
Er der
Og
Vil fortsĂŠtte med at vĂŠre der!
Dr b.r.ambedkar torden “Main Bharat Baudhaj Karunga.” (Jeg vil gĂžre dette land buddhist)
Alle aboriginale vĂŠkkede samfund torden “hum prapanch prabuddha bharatmay karunge.” (Vi vil gĂžre hele verden Prabuddha Prapanch
Dette vil ske gennem Prabuddha Bharat Samelans
Derefter
Religioner, lĂžb, kastes og uligheder
Vil ikke vĂŠre der
VĂ€rldens religioner - tidsuppfattning
Mikael Glans
14 subscribers
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29) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,



Friends

Prabuddha intellectuelen conventies
Bhagawan Buddha zegt
“Mijn
broers, er zijn deze twee uitersten die een persoon op het pad moet
vermijden. Welke twee? Men is om zich in sensuele genoegens te duiken.
En de andere is om soberheden te beoefenen die het lichaam van zijn
behoeften beroven. Beide uitersten leiden tot falen.
“Het
pad dat ik heb ontdekt, is de middelste manier, die beide extreme
vermijdt en het vermogen heeft om een ​​tot begrip, bevrijding en vrede
te leiden. Het is het nobele achtvoudige pad van het juiste begrip, de
juiste gedachte, rechtertoespraak, juiste actie, rechter
levensonderhoud, juiste inspanning, juiste mindfulness en juiste
concentratie. Ik heb dit nobele achtvoudige pad gevolgd en heb begrip,
bevrijding en vrede gerealiseerd.
De
eerste is het bestaan ​​van lijden. Geboorte, ouderdom, ziekte en dood
zijn lijden. Droefheid, woede, jaloezie, zorgen, angst, angst en wanhoop
zijn lijden. Scheiding van geliefden is lijden. Associatie met degenen
die u niet leuk vindt, is lijden. Verlangen, gehechtheid, en vastklampen
aan de vijf aggregaten zijn lijden.
“Broeders, de tweede waarheid onthult de oorzaak van lijden. Vanwege
onwetendheid kunnen mensen de waarheid over het leven niet zien, en ze
raken betrapt in de vlammen van verlangen, woede, jaloezie, verdriet,
zorgen, angst en wanhoop.
“Brothers, de derde waarheid is de stopzetting van lijden.
Het
begrijpen van de waarheid van het leven brengt de stopzetting van elk
verdriet en verdriet en geeft aanleiding tot vrede en vreugde.
“Brothers, de vierde waarheid is het pad dat leidt tot de
stopzetting van lijden. Het is het nobele achtvoudige pad, dat ik
zojuist heb uitgelegd. Het Noble Eightfold-pad wordt gevoed door op zich
te wonen. Mindfulness leidt tot concentratie en begrip, waarbij je je
bevrijdt van elke pijn en verdriet en leidt tot vrede en vreugde. Ik zal
je begeleiden langs dit pad van realisatie.
“Vision ontstond, inzicht ontstond, ontstond, ontstond, kennis
ontstond, verlichting ontstond in mij met betrekking tot dingen die nog
nooit eerder hoorde: ‘Deze nobele waarheid van stress is begrepen.’
“De
nobele waarheid van de stopzetting van stress: de complete fading en
stopzetting, verzaking, religing, vrijgave en loslaten van die zeer
hunkeren. Deze nobele waarheid van de stopzetting van stress is
gerealiseerd. Dit is de nobele waarheid van de manier van oefenen die
leidt tot de stopzetting van stress.
“Zodra
mijn kennis en visie met betrekking tot deze vier nobele waarheden als
ze zijn gekomen, was ik echt puur, toen beweerde ik het rechtstreeks te
zijn gewekt aan de juiste zelfontwakende niet-uitgekname in de kosmos
met al zijn onzichtbare gidsen, contemplatives, Brahmans, zijn Royalty
& Commonfolk. Kennis & visie ontstond in mij: ‘Onscherpbaar is
mijn release. Dit is mijn laatste geboorte. Er is nu geen hernieuwd
bestaan. “
Terwijl
Siddhartha de vier nobele waarheden uitlegde, voelde Kondanna een van
de monniken, plotseling een grote schijnt in zijn eigen geest. Hij kon
de bevrijding proeven die hij zo lang was gezocht. Zijn gezicht straalde
met vreugde. De Boeddha wees naar hem en riep, “Kondanna! Jij hebt het!
Jij hebt het!”
Kondanna
voegde zich bij zijn handpalmen en boog voor Siddhartha. Met het
diepste respect sprak hij, “Eerwaarde Gautama, accepteer me alsjeblieft
als je discipel. Ik weet dat ik onder je begeleiding de grote ontwaken
zal bereiken. “
De
andere vier monniken gebogen ook bij Siddhartha’s voeten, voegde zich
bij hun handpalmen en vroeg om als discipelen te worden ontvangen.
Siddhartha zei: “Broeders! De kinderen van het dorp hebben me de naam
‘The Buddha’ gegeven. Ook jij mag me door die naam bellen als je wilt. “
Vroeg Kondanna, “betekent niet ‘Boeddha’ ‘iemand die is ontwaakt’?”
“Dat is correct, en ze noemen het pad dat ik ‘de manier van ontwaken’ heb ontdekt, wat vind je van deze naam?”
“‘Iemand
die is ontwaakt’! ‘De manier van ontwaken’! Prachtig! Prachtig! Deze
namen zijn waar, maar eenvoudig. We zullen je graag de Boeddha noemen,
en het pad dat je hebt ontdekt de manier van ontwaken. Zoals je net zei,
is het leven elke dag de basis van spirituele praktijk. ” De vijf
monniken waren van een geest om Gautama als hun leraar te accepteren en
hem de Boeddha te noemen.
De
Boeddha glimlachte naar hen. ” Alsjeblieft, broers, oefenen met een
open en intelligente geest, en in drie maanden heb je de vrucht van
bevrijding bereikt. ”
Sutta Piáč­aka-Digha Nikāya
DN 16 - (D II 137)
Mahāparinibbāna sutta
{fragment}
- de laatste instructies -
[mahā-parinibbāna]
Deze
Sutta verzamelt verschillende instructies. De Boeddha gaven na zijn
overlijden van volgelingen, waardoor het tegenwoordig een zeer
belangrijke reeks instructies voor ons is.
Ik
zal het discours uitleggen op de Dhamma die Dhammādāsa wordt genoemd,
bezeten waarvan de Ariyasāvaka, als hij zo verlangt, kan verklaren van
zichzelf: ‘Voor mij is er geen niraya meer, geen tiracchāna-yoni, geen
Pettivisaya meer, nee Meer toestand van ongeluk, van ongeluk, van
ellende, ik ben een sotāpanna, van nature vrij van staten van ellende,
zeker bestemd zijn voor Sambodhi.
En wat, ānanda, is
Dat
discours op de Dhamma die Dhammādāsa wordt genoemd, bezeten waarvan de
Ariyasāvaka, als hij zo verlangt, kan verklaren van zichzelf: ‘Voor mij
is er geen niraya meer, geen tiracchāna-yoni, geen Pettivisaya meer,
niet meer Ongeluk, van ongeluk, van ellende, ik ben een sotāpanna, van
nature vrij van staten van ellende, zeker van bestemd zijn voor
Sambodhi?
Hier is ānanda, een Ariyasāvaka begiftigd met Buddhe Aveccappasāda:
Hij is begiftigd met Dhamme Aveccappasāda:
Hij is begiftigd met Saáč…ghe AvecCappasāda:
Hij is begiftigd met een sīla die aangenaam is voor de Ariyas,
Dit,
ānanda, is het discours op de Dhamma, die Dhammādāsa wordt genoemd,
bezeten waarvan de Ariyasāvaka, als hij zo wenst, zichzelf kan
verklaren: ‘Voor mij is er geen niraya meer, geen tiracchāna-yoni, niet
meer Pettivisaya meer , niet meer de staat van ongeluk, van ongeluk,
ellende, ik ben een sotāpanna, van nature vrij van staten van ellende,
zeker bestemd zijn voor Sambodhi.
Sato moet je blijven, Bhikkhus en Sampajānos. Dit is onze instructie voor jou.
En hoe, Bhikkhus, is een Bhikkhu Sato? Hier, Bhikkhus, een Bhikkhu
Dus, Bhikkhus, is een Bhikkhu Sato. En hoe, Bhikkhus, is een Bhikkhu Sampajāno? Hier, Bhikkhus,
Dus, Bhikkhus, is een Bhikkhu Sampajāno. Sato moet je blijven, Bhikkhus en Sampajānos. Dit is onze instructie voor jou.
- Ananda, de Twin Sala
Bomen
zijn in volle bloei, hoewel het niet het seizoen van bloei is. En de
bloesems regenen op het lichaam van de tathagata en druppel en
verspreiding en zijn bezaaid op het in aanbidding van de Tathagata. En
hemelse koraalbloemen en hemelse sandelhoutpoeder van de hemel regenen
op het lichaam van de tathagata, en laat vallen en verspreiden zich en
zijn er bezaaid op het in aanbidding van de Tathagata. En het geluid van
hemelse stemmen en hemelse instrumenten maakt muziek in de lucht uit
eerbied voor de Tathagata.
Het
is hier niet door, ānanda, dat de Tathāgata wordt gerespecteerd,
vereerd, gewaardeerd, betaald hulde en geëerd. Maar, Ananda, Any Bhikkhu
of Bhikkhuni, Layman of Laywoman, Resterende
Dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáč­ipanna, SāmÄ«ci’p'paáč­ipanna,
Wonen
in overeenstemming met de Dhamma, die men respecteert, verheerlijkt,
Edeems, betaalt eerbetoon en eert de Tathāgata met het meest uitstekende
hulde. Daarom, ānanda, moet je jezelf zo trainen: ‘We zullen
Dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáč­ipanna, SāmÄ«ci’p'paáč­ipanna, leven in
overeenstemming met de Dhamma’ blijven.
Races, castes, religies ongelijkheid waren er,
zijn er
en
zal daar blijven
Arme & stekende beslissingen waren er
Is er
en
zal daar blijven!
Tegelijkertijd
‘Er
is weinig stof in de ogen van mensen, verwijder die onwetendheid, ze
zullen op het pad van Dhamma “in Vinaya Pitaka - boeddhistische ethiek
lopen
was er ook
is er
en
zal daar blijven!
Dat betekent
Races, castes, ongelijkheid godsdiensten waren er niet,
zal er niet zijn
en
zal er niet blijven zijn
Prabuddha Bharat Sammelans
Religies, races, kasten, ongelijkheden,
Waren daar
Zijn er
En
Zal daar blijven!
Dr. B.R.Bedkar donderde “Main Bharat Baudhmay Karunga.” (Ik zal dit land boeddhist maken)
Alle
Aboriginal Awaked Societies Thunder “Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay
Karunge.” (We zullen de Wereld Prabuddha Prapanch maken
Dit gebeurt door Prabuddha Bharat Samelans
Vervolgens
Religies, races, kasten en ongelijkheden
Zal er niet zijn!
Dhammapada (ƚcieĆŒka Mądroƛci Buddy) | Buddyzm
ErXz ~ {Poszukiwacz Prawdy}
65 subscribers
Dhammapada (ƚcieĆŒka Mądroƛci Buddy) | Buddyzm
Link do Tekstu: http://mahajana.net/teksty/dhammapada/dhammapada.html

Buddha Spirit GIF - Buddha Spirit Lotus GIFs


(8)
Puna
ca·paraáčƒ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarÄ«raáčƒ sivathikāya
chaឍឍitaáčƒ aáč­áč­hikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaáčƒ
upasaáčƒharati: ‘ayaáčƒ pi kho kāyo evaáčƒÂ·dhammo evaáčƒÂ·bhāvÄ« evaáčƒÂ·an·atÄ«to’
ti. ‹

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a
year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” ‹

Iti ajjhattaáčƒ vā kāye kāyānupassÄ« viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā kāyasmiáčƒ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā kāyasmiáčƒ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ«
vā kāyasmiáčƒ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaáč­áč­hitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāáč‡a·mattāya paáč­issati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassÄ« viharati. ‹‹‹

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāáč‡a and mere
paáč­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ,
àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ, àź’àź°àŻàź”àŻ‡àźłàŻˆ àź…àź”àź°àŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻˆàź”àźŸàź© àź‡àźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ  àź’àź°àŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àŻ‡àź€àźźàŻ àź‡àźŸàŻàź•àźŸàźŸàŻ àźšàźżàźČàź€àŻàź€àźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźŽàź±àźżàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàź€àŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻàź•àŻ
àź•àŻŠàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àźŸàźČàŻ,àźŽàźČàŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ àź’àź°àŻ àź†àźŁàŻàźŸàŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻ‡ àźȘàźŽàŻˆàźŻàź€àźŸàź•àźż àź•àŻàź”àźżàźŻàźČàŻ àźȘàŻ‹àźČàŻ 
àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àźŸàźČàŻ, àź…àź”àź°àŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€ àźźàŻ†àźŻàŻàźźàŻàźźàŻ‚àźČàźźàźŸàź© kāya  àź‰àźŸàźČàŻ/àź•àźŸàźŻ àź†àźŽàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź†àź°àźŸàźŻ: â€œàź‡àźšàŻàź€
kāya  àź‰àźŸàźČàŻ/àź•àźŸàźŻ àź•àŻ‚àźŸ àź…àź”àŻàź”àź•àŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź’àź°àŻ àź‡àźŻàź±àŻàź•àŻˆ àź†àź±àŻàź±àźČàŻ àź‰àźŸàŻˆàźŻàź€àźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ,
àź…àź€àŻàź”àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźż  àź†àź•àź€àŻàź€àŻŠàźŸàź™àŻàź•àŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻˆàźŻ àź’àź°àŻ 
àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź”àź°àźźàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàź±àŻàź± àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźźàŻˆ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź”àŻ‡àź±àźČàŻàźČ.


àź‡àź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻ
kāya in kāya àź‰àźŸàźČàŻ/àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźłàŻ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ
àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ
àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàŻ‡ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ;àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ
àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź• àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ
àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź•àź€àŻˆ àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àŻàźšàŻ†àźČàŻàźČàŻàź”àź€àŻˆ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ; àź‡àźČàŻàźČàźŸàź”àźżàźŸàźżàźČàŻ
àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźŸàźŻàźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź± àź‰àźŁàź°àŻ àź‰àźŸàź©àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻˆ,àźšàŻàźźàŻàźźàźŸ àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźźàŻ àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ àźžàźŸàź©àźźàŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ paáč­issati àźŽàź© àźŽàźŁàŻàźŁàźż àźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ.‹


(9)
Puna
ca·paraáčƒ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarÄ«raáčƒ sivathikāya
chaឍឍitaáčƒ aáč­áč­hikāni pĆ«tÄ«ni cuáč‡áč‡aka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaáčƒ
upasaáčƒharati: ‘ayaáčƒ pi kho kāyo evaáčƒÂ·dhammo evaáčƒÂ·bhāvÄ« evaáčƒÂ·an·atÄ«to’
ti. ‹

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced
to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” ‹

Iti ajjhattaáčƒ vā kāye kāyānupassÄ« viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā kāyasmiáčƒ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā kāyasmiáčƒ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ«
vā kāyasmiáčƒ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaáč­áč­hitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāáč‡a·mattāya paáč­issati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassÄ« viharati. ‹‹‹

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāáč‡a and mere
paáč­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

àźźàŻ‡àźČàŻàźźàŻ,
àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ, àź’àź°àŻàź”àŻ‡àźłàŻˆ àź…àź”àź°àŻ àź€àŻŠàźČàŻˆàź”àźŸàź© àź‡àźŸàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ  àź’àź°àŻ
àźȘàźżàź°àŻ‡àź€àźźàŻ àź‡àźŸàŻàź•àźŸàźŸàŻ àźšàźżàźČàź€àŻàź€àźłàź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ àźŽàź±àźżàźŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ àź‡àź°àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàź€àŻˆàźȘàŻ àźȘàźŸàź°àŻàź€àŻàź€àŻàź•àŻ
àź•àŻŠàźŁàŻàźŸàźżàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àźŸàźČàŻ,àźšàŻ€àź°àźŽàźżàźšàŻàź€ àźŽàźČàŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàŻ àźȘàŻŠàźŸàźżàźŻàźŸàź•àźż  àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àźŸàźČàŻ, àź…àź”àź°àŻ àź‡àźšàŻàź€
àźźàŻ†àźŻàŻàźźàŻàźźàŻ‚àźČàźźàźŸàź© kāya  àź‰àźŸàźČàŻ/àź•àźŸàźŻ àź†àźŽàŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź†àź°àźŸàźŻ: â€œàź‡àźšàŻàź€ kāya  àź‰àźŸàźČàŻ/àź•àźŸàźŻ àź•àŻ‚àźŸ
àź…àź”àŻàź”àź•àŻˆàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ àź’àź°àŻ àź‡àźŻàź±àŻàź•àŻˆ àź†àź±àŻàź±àźČàŻ àź‰àźŸàŻˆàźŻàź€àźŸàź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àź…àź€àŻàź”àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźż 
àź†àź•àź€àŻàź€àŻŠàźŸàź™àŻàź•àŻ àźȘàŻ‹àź• àź‡àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź…àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻˆàźŻ àź’àź°àŻ  àź•àźŸàŻàźŸàŻàźȘàŻàźȘàźŸàźŸàŻàźŸàŻ
àź”àź°àźźàŻàźȘàŻàź•àźłàź±àŻàź± àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźźàŻˆ àź‡àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź”àŻ‡àź±àźČàŻàźČ.


àź‡àź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àź…àź”àź°àŻ kāya in kāya
àź‰àźŸàźČàŻ/àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźłàŻ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ
àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź€àŻˆ àź•àźŸàźŻàź€àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻ
àź‰àźłàŻàźłàŻ‡ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ;àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź•
àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź•àź€àŻˆ
àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àŻàźšàŻ†àźČàŻàźČàŻàź”àź€àŻˆ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ; àź‡àźČàŻàźČàźŸàź”àźżàźŸàźżàźČàŻ
àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźŸàźŻàźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź± àź‰àźŁàź°àŻ àź‰àźŸàź©àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻˆ,àźšàŻàźźàŻàźźàźŸ àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźźàŻ àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ àźžàźŸàź©àźźàŻ
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ paáč­issati àźŽàź© àźŽàźŁàŻàźŁàźż àźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ.

________________________________________________________________________________________
II. Vedanānupassanā


Kathaáčƒ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassÄ« viharati? ‹


II. Observation of Vedanā

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? ‹
Idha,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaáčƒ vā vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno ‘sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaáčƒ vā vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaáčƒ vā vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno
‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaáčƒ vā sukhaáčƒ
vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaáčƒ sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
nirāmisaáčƒ vā sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaáčƒ sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaáčƒ vā dukkhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaáčƒ
dukkhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaáčƒ vā dukkhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaáčƒ dukkhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaáčƒ vā
a·dukkham-a·sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaáčƒ a·dukkham-a·sukhaáčƒ
vedanaáčƒ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaáčƒ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaáčƒ a·dukkham-a·sukhaáčƒ vedanaáčƒ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. ‹
Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am
experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands:
“I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā
vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”;
experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands:
“I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha
vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa,
undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am
experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. ‹
Iti ajjhattaáčƒ vā
vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati;
‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaáč­áč­hitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāáč‡a·mattāya paáč­issati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati. ‹‹‹

Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally,
or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing
the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the
samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:]
“this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
ñāáč‡a and mere paáč­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā
in vedanā.


II. àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àźČàŻ


àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ, vedanā in vedanā  àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ?


àź‡àź™àŻàź•àŻ,
àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ, àź’àź°àŻ sukha vedanā àźšàŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ
àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźšàŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź©
àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ: àź’àź°àŻ dukkha vedanā àź€àŻàź•àŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ,
àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àź€àŻàź•àŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ: àź’àź°àŻ 
adukkham-asukhā vedanā  àź…àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àź…àźšàŻàź• (àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àźšàŻàź•àźźàź±àŻàź±) àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ
àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ adukkham-asukhā vedanā  àź…àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àź…àźšàŻàź•
(àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àźšàŻàź•àźźàź±àŻàź±) àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:àź’àź°àŻ sukhā
vedanā  sāmisa àźšàŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ
sukhā vedanā  sāmisa àźšàŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź©
àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:àź’àź°àŻ sukhā vedanā  nirāmisa àźšàŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ
àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ sukhā vedanā nirāmisa àźšàŻàź•
àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:àź’àź°àŻ dukkha
vedanā  sāmisa àź€àŻàź•àŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ
àź’àź°àŻ dukkha vedanā  sāmisa àź€àŻàź•àŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ
àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:àź’àź°àŻ dukkha vedanā  nirāmisa àź€àŻàź•àŻàź• àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ
àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ dukkha vedanā nirāmisa àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•
àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:àź’àź°àŻ
adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  sāmisa àź…àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àź…àźšàŻàź• (àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àźšàŻàź•àźźàź±àŻàź±) àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ
àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  sāmisa
àź…àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àź…àźšàŻàź• (àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àźšàŻàź•àźźàź±àŻàź±)  àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź©
àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:àź’àź°àŻ adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  nirāmisa àź…àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àź…àźšàŻàź•
(àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àźšàŻàź•àźźàź±àŻàź±)  àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàźźàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ, àźšàźŸàź©àŻ àź’àź°àŻ
adukkham-asukhā  vedanā nirāmisa àź…àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àź…àźšàŻàź• (àź€àŻàź•àŻàź•-àźšàŻàź•àźźàź±àŻàź±)  àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ
àź‰àźŁàź”àŻˆ àźźàź©àźȘàŻàźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻàźŸàź©àŻ àź…àź©àŻàźȘàź”àźżàź•àŻàź±àŻ‡àź©àŻ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ:


àź‡àź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ
àź…àź”àź°àŻ  vedanā in vedanā  àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź”àŻ‡àź€àź©àŻˆàź•àŻàź•àŻ àź‰àźłàŻàźłàŻ‡ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ;àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź• àźŽàźŽàŻàźšàŻàźšàźż àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźż àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,
àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź•àź€àŻˆ àź•àźŸàźšàŻàź€àŻàźšàŻ†àźČàŻàźČàŻàź”àź€àŻˆ àź•àźŁàŻàź•àźŸàźŁàźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ; àź‡àźČàŻàźČàźŸàź”àźżàźŸàźżàźČàŻ àźŽàźšàŻàźšàź°àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźŸàźŻàźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź± àź‰àźŁàź°àŻ àź‰àźŸàź©àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻˆ,àźšàŻàźźàŻàźźàźŸ
àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźźàŻ àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ àźžàźŸàź©àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ paáč­issati àźŽàź© àźŽàźŁàŻàźŁàźż àźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ.


sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piáč­aka

— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaáč­áč­hāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. II. Vedanānupassanā
II. Observation of Vedanā  - III. Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àźČàŻ

>> Sutta Piáč­aka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)

Mahāsatipaáč­áč­hāna Sutta


— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaáč­áč­hāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.




Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāិi



Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā

   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paáč­ikĆ«lamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā

   A. NÄ«varaáč‡a Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaáč…ga Pabba



English



Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya

   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas


   A. Section on the NÄ«varaáč‡as
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaáč…gas

III. Cittānupassanā

Kathaáčƒ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassÄ« viharati?




III. Observation of Citta


And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?


Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sa·rāgaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜sa·rāgaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, vÄ«ta·rāgaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜vÄ«ta·rāgaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, sa·dosaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜sa·dosaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, vÄ«ta·dosaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜vÄ«ta·dosaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, sa·mohaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜sa·mohaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, vÄ«ta·mohaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜vÄ«ta·mohaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, saáč…khittaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜saáč…khittaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, vikkhittaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜vikkhittaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, mahaggataáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜mahaggataáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, a·mahaggataáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜a·mahaggataáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, sa·uttaraáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜sa·uttaraáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, an·uttaraáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜an·uttaraáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, samāhitaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜samāhitaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, a·samāhitaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜a·samāhitaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, vimuttaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜vimuttaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti, a·vimuttaáčƒ vā cittaáčƒ â€˜a·vimuttaáčƒ cittaáčƒâ€™ ti pajānāti.



Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga“, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga“, or he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa“, or he understands citta without dosa as “citta without dosa“, or he understands citta with moha as “citta with moha“, or he understands citta without moha as “citta without moha“, or he understands a collected citta as “a collected citta“, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered citta“, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta“, or he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta“, or he understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta“, or he understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta“, or he understands a concentrated citta as “a concentrated citta“, or he understands an unconcentrated citta as “an unconcentrated citta“, or he understands a liberated citta as “a liberated citta“, or he understands an unliberated citta as “an unliberated citta“.


Iti ajjhattaáčƒ vā citte cittānupassÄ« viharati, bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassÄ« viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassÄ« viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā cittasmiáčƒ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā cittasmiáčƒ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄ« vā cittasmiáčƒ viharati; ‘atthi cittaáčƒâ€™ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaáč­áč­hitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāáč‡a·mattāya paáč­issati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassÄ« viharati.



Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāáč‡a and mere paáč­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.



àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻâ€š

III. Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àźČàŻ


àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ, Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ in Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ?


àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‡àźȘàŻàźȘàŻ‹àź€àŻ àźŽàź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ,
Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ rāga  àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ ” Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ rāga àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźŸàź•â€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ
àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ rāga àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±àź€àŻˆ, “Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ rāga
àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±àź€àŻâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ


Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ
àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ “dosa àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ 
dosa àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàźŸàź•â€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,”Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ dosa àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±àź€àŻˆ, Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ dosa
àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±àź€àŻâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ
àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ moha  àźźàź°àŻàźŸàŻàźšàźż  àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàŻˆ “Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ 
moha àźźàź°àŻàźŸàŻàźšàźż àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,”Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ moha àźźàź°àŻàźŸàŻàźšàźż àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±àź€àŻˆ, Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ moha
àźźàź°àŻàźŸàŻàźšàźż àź†àź°àŻàź” àź”àŻ‡àźŸàŻàź•àŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±àź€àŻâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźšàŻ‡àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€
Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àźšàŻ‡àź°àŻàź€àŻàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź©
àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,  àź’àź°àŻ àźšàźżàź€àź±àźČàźŸàź©
Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ
àźšàźżàź€àź±àźČàźŸàź© Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àź”àźżàź°àźżàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàź°àźżàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€
Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,  àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàź°àźżàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźŸàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàź°àźżàź”àźŸàź•àŻàź•àźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźŸàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ
àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àźźàźżàź• àźźàŻ‡àź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ
àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àźźàźżàź• àźźàŻ‡àź±àŻàźȘàźŸàŻàźŸ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź©
àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,  àź’àź°àŻ  àźźàźżàź• àźźàŻ‡àź±àŻàźȘàźŸàźŸàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ
àźźàźżàź• àźźàŻ‡àź±àŻàźȘàźŸàźŸàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ
àź€àźżàźŁàŻàźźàŻˆàźŻàźŸàź© Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àź€àźżàźŁàŻàźźàŻˆàźŻàźŸàź© Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,  àź’àź°àŻ àź€àźżàźŁàŻàźźàŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź± Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àź€àźżàźŁàŻàźźàŻˆàźŻàź±àŻàź±  Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź©
àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàźŸàŻàź€àźČàŻˆ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ 
â€œàź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàźŸàŻàź€àźČàŻˆ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, 
àź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàźŸàŻàź€àźČàŻˆ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźŸàź€ Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ  â€œàź’àź°àŻ àź”àźżàźŸàŻàź€àźČàŻˆ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàźŻàźŸàź€ 
Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àźȘàŻàź°àźżàźšàŻàź€àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ.


àź‡àź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àŻ
àź…àź”àź°àŻ  Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ in Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ
àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àź…àźČàŻàźČàź€àŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ in Citta
àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź”àŻ†àźłàźżàźŻàŻ‡ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€ àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ
àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ;samudaya of phenomena àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź• àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ
àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź•
àź•àźŽàźżàź€àźČàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ, samudaya
and passing away of phenomena àźȘàŻàźČàź©àŻàź•àźłàźŸàźČàŻ àź‰àźŁàź°àź€àŻàź€àź•àŻàź• àź€àŻ‹àź±àŻàź±àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź•àźŽàźżàź€àźČàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ  àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ  àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ,
àź‡àźČàŻàźČàźŸàź”àźżàźŸàźżàźČàŻ â€œàź‡àź€àŻ  citta  àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆâ€ àźŽàź© àź‰àźŁàź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ,  sati àź”àźżàźŽàźżàźȘàŻàźȘàŻ àźšàźżàźČàŻˆ
àź…àź”àź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàźłàŻ àź”àźšàŻàź€àźżàź°àŻàź•àŻàź•àźżàź±àź€àŻ, àźšàŻàźźàŻàźźàźŸ àź”àŻ†àź±àŻàźźàŻ ñāáč‡a  àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ àźžàźŸàź©àźźàŻ àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ
àź“àź°àŻàź…àźłàź”àŻ paáč­issati àźŽàź© àźŽàźŁàŻàźŁàźż àźȘàź±àŻàź±àź±àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ. àźźàź±àŻàź±àŻàźźàŻ àź‰àźČàź•àź€àŻàź€àźżàźČàŻ
àźšàźżàź±àźżàź€àźłàź”àźŸàź”àź€àŻ àźȘàź±àŻàź±àźżàź•àŻàź•àŻŠàźłàŻàźłàźŸàź€àŻ,àź…àź”àŻàź”àźŸàź±àźŸàź• àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻàź•àŻàź•àźłàŻ‡, àź’àź°àŻ àźȘàźżàź•àŻàź•àŻ, Citta
àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàŻˆ in Citta àźźàź©àźźàŻ àź…àź€àź©àŻàźŸàŻˆàźŻ àź…àź•àźšàźżàźČàŻˆàźŻàźżàźČàŻ àź•àŻ‚àź°àŻàźšàŻàź€àŻ 
àź•àź”àź©àźżàź€àŻàź€àŻ àź”àźŸàźšàźźàŻ àźšàŻ†àźŻàŻàź•àźżàź°àźŸàź°àŻ.

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The Buddha Talks to a Brahmin Supremacist

How a Buddhist teaching on dismantling the superiority of the brahmin class can help us take on racism

The
belief that a group of people can be born superior to all other groups
has been around for a very long time, and even existed during the time
of the Buddha.

For
3,000 years, society in South Asia has been dominated by the caste
system, according to which a person is born into one of four major
castes (varna), or social stations: laborers, merchants, warriors, and
brahmins. According to the earliest Hindu scriptures, brahmins—scholars
and priests—were the highest caste and viewed as morally and spiritually
superior to the others; indeed, they are called “brahmins” because
according to one of the hymns of the Rg Veda, they were born from the
mouth of Brahman [God].
Some believe in soul for human beings and no soul for other beings so that you can harm them.

In Varna system

The chitpavan brahmin is first rate athma (soul)
the kshatria, vysia, shudras are 2nd, 3r, 4th rate souls
And the Aboriginal SC/STs have no soul. So that all sorts of atrocities could be committed on them.
Buddha did not believe in any soul. He said all are equal.

In
the Pali Canon, the Buddha has many conversations with brahmins who,
clearly provoked by his ideas of radical equality, routinely approached
him to argue and learn. Late in the Middle Length Discourses, we meet a
group of 500 brahmins who live in the town of Savatthi, where the Buddha
is staying at the time. When they hear that the Buddha has been
teaching that all the castes are equally “pure,” they are outraged, and
decide to send a smart young brahmin to go and debate him.

In
the following conversation between the Buddha and the proud brahmin
Assalayana (after whom the Assalayana Sutta is named), the Buddha offers
some ways to address the obdurate belief in superiority of caste, race,
or any other birth group.

Master
Gotama, the brahmins say, ‘Brahmins are the superior caste; any other
caste is inferior. Only brahmins are the fair caste; any other caste is
dark. Only brahmins are pure, not non-brahmins. Only brahmins are the
sons and offspring of Brahma: born of his mouth, born of Brahma, created
by Brahma, heirs of Brahma.’ What does Master Gotama have to say with
regard to that?

The Buddha begins to dismantle Assalayana’s notions of superiority by noting that we all enter the world the same way:
But,
Assalayana, the brahmins’ brahmin-women are plainly seen having their
periods, becoming pregnant, giving birth, and nursing [their children].
And yet the brahmins, being born through the birth canal, say, “Brahmins
are the superior caste . . .”

The
Buddha grounds this initial discussion in physical reality, as it is
difficult to argue that people who give birth the same way are
fundamentally different. Besides, how delightful is it that a creature
who emerges from the nether end of its mother can entertain fantasies
about its own transcendent superiority! We see from this exchange that
the Buddha has a wry sense of humor as well as a comedian’s gift for
drawing out the absurd.

The
Buddha then proceeds to ask questions that he already knows
Assalayana’s answers to. First, whether a person is a brahmin, a
warrior, a merchant, or a laborer, if he does bad things, can he expect
to suffer bad consequences? And if he does good things, can he expect to
be rewarded with good consequences? Surely, replies Assalayana. Good
people are good people, and bad people are bad people, no matter what
they come from, and all can be expected to suffer the appropriate
consequences. Even a brahmin supremacist has to admit to knowing some
brahmins who are terrible people and some farm laborers who are wise and
noble.

Next,
the Buddha asks whether brahmins, warriors, merchants, and workers have
the same relationship to their bodies and to the physical world. When
anybody from any caste goes down to the river to bathe, do they not all
scrub their skin and then rinse with water? And when they start a fire
using logs, kindling, and a lighter, do they not all produce fire and
heat, and smoke that makes everyone cough? Using the same materials and
techniques, every human being will produce the same fire; thus notions
of caste superiority have no basis whatsoever in the physical nature of
the world.

At
this point, in case Assalayana doesn’t believe that the laws of
physics, chemistry, and biology have any bearing on the issue of ethical
supremacy, the Buddha swerves back to the question of merit within the
same caste. Between two brahmin brothers, is it possible for one to be
worthier than the other—for example, the hard-working, respectful
brother, versus the lazy, slanderous one? That is, when we’re dealing
only with brahmins, it is clear that merit has nothing to do with birth;
at least, we behave as if the more virtuous brother has deserved more
respect.

To
his credit, at this point in the conversation Assalayana has already
understood the weakness of his prejudices. The brahmin student
Assalayana sat silent, abashed, his shoulders drooping, his head down,
brooding, at a loss for words. He is too intelligent not to see that
when he thinks about it, the supremacist posture turns out to be an
embarrassment to the intelligence. The Buddha then delivers an amusing
coup de grĂące by retelling the legend of the ancient Hindu sage Devala
the Dark’s challenge to seven arrogant brahmins:
But do you know, masters, if the mother who bore you went only with a brahmin, and not with a non-brahmin?

No, master.

And
do you know if the mothers of the mother who bore you—back seven
generations of mothers—went only with brahmins, and not with
non-brahmins?

No, master.

And do you know if the father who sired you went only with a brahmin woman, and not with a non-brahmin woman?

No, master.

And
do you know if the fathers of the father who bore you—back seven
generations of fathers—went only with brahmin women, and not with
non-brahmin women?

No, master.

We
know next to nothing about the sexual behavior of our parents, let
alone our ancestors; about some things there is just no knowing. If we
do not know the circumstances of our conception and the conceptions of
those who conceived us, we have no right to claim superiority because of
birth.

That being the case, do you know who you are? the Buddha asks.
That being the case, master, we don’t know who we are.

Assalayana
has learned something, as have we: how a Buddha dispels an inveterate,
vehemently held prejudice by calmly asking what it is based on.
Throughout all of this, the Buddha has expressed no irritation, anger,
or indignation. He is engaging with Assalayana on Assalayana’s own
terms, using images and vocabulary from ordinary life. He treats
Assalayana with respect, trusting his intelligence and knowing that the
young man is smart enough to put two and two together for himself. If
the Buddha had asked leading questions, Assalayana would have been put
on the defensive and potentially found ways to argue back. Instead, the
Buddha appears to be genuinely interested in what Assalayana will say,
but he also knows what a reasonable response to the questions will be
because the Buddha himself—having been born in the warrior caste—has
thought them through.

Did
the Assalayana Sutta shake the caste system to its foundations and
transform Indian society? No. Even today, the matrimonial pages of South
Asian newspapers will specify not only castes but sub-castes and
sub-sub-castes, and fairness of complexion is still explicitly
preferred.

But
still, for today’s practitioners, this Buddhist sutta illustrates a
tactic we might use against racist sentiment: it demonstrates a method
of unraveling deep-rooted prejudice by asking questions that activate
intelligent reflection. In these times in which racism is openly
espoused both in-person and online, this persistent form of questioning
might serve as one of the more trustworthy tools we can use against it.

The Assalayana Sutta (translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu) can be read here.

Kondanna or Ajnata Kaundinya

Kondanna(Pali)

or Ajnata Kaundinya(Sanskrit) was one of the first five monks with
Buddha. He was born in the 6th century BCE in a Brahmin family in
Donavathu near Kapilavastu. As a youth due to his mastery of Vedas and
his excellence in the science of physiognomy(Lakhana Manta) he was
appointed as a royal court scholar in Kapilvastu where the Shakya Empire
was ruled by King Shudhodhana. When the Queen gave birth to a son
Siddhartha Gautam, Kondanna predicted that the Prince would become an
Enlightened Being and vowed to follow him.

Renouncement and Arahantship

When
prince Siddhartha left the kingdom to become an ascetic, Kondanna and
the other four friends also accompanied him. They were known as the
Pancavaggiyya or the Group of Five. When he attained enlightenment and
gave his first Sermon to his five monk friends it is said that Kondanna
was the first to comprehend his teachings and became an Arahant when he
heard the Anattalakkhana Sutta regarding soul-lessness or non self. He
then requested Buddha to permit him to retire from the world and Buddha
agreed and declared him the First Bhikkhu in the Sangha.

After Awakenment

After
the Buddha set up the Sangha, Kondanna and the other monks travelled
with the Buddha by foot to spread Dhamma. When Buddha went to
communicate his teachings and his exalted enlightened state to King
Bimbisara as promised, Kondanna went to his home town and converted many
followers to Buddha’s teachings, foremost among them being his nephew
Punna. Punna in turn preached and converted 500 of his clan to monks.
Buddha too acknowledged Punna for his preaching skills and declared him
foremost among his disciples.

Many discourses and writings are
attributed to Kondana in Buddhist literature being one of the seniormost
monks. After spending a period in the Sangha Kondanna then retired to
the Himalayas to spend more time in religious practice as he was being
inhibited by the growing popularity of the Sangha. This is mentioned in
the Samyutta Nikaya. When he knew his end was near he returned to stroke
and kiss the Buddha’s feet lovingly and asked his disciples not to
mourn him. The next morning he passed away and was cremated with the
ceremony being presided by Anuruddha one of the ten chief disciples and
500 other monks. The ashes were then enshrined in a silver Stupa at
Veluvana.

Past Births

Kondanna was said to have been born a
number of times with the Buddha in earlier births and had already
reached a very high state of spiritual evolvement which culminated in
his Arahantship in the present lifetime.

Conclusion

Kondanna
was one of the closest monks, disciples and initially a friend of the
Buddha when he was a worldly Prince. His love and servitude towards
Buddha was exemplary and he was honoured and respected by all being one
of the seniormost monks. He always exhorted the fellow disciples to give
up transitory pleasures and dwell on the impermanence of life and seek
Self realisation or Liberation.

The Buddha Talks to a Brahmin Supremacist

The Buddha Talks to a Brahmin Supremacist

How a Buddhist teaching on dismantling the superiority of the brahmi

MNx_093 Assalayana, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Middle-length Discourses,(Jan 2020, Audio Texts)
lich tran


Audio
Texts….”"Then the seven brahmin seers went to the seer Devala the
Dark and paid homage to him. Then he said to them: ‘Sirs, I heard that
while the seven brahmin seers were dwelling in leaf huts in the forest,
this pernicious view arose in them: “Brahmins are the highest caste..
.heirs of Brahma.’”
‘That is so, sir.’ ‘

“But, sirs, do you know if the mother who bore you went only with a brahmin and never with a non-brahmin?’

‘No, sir.’ ‘


“But, sirs, do you know if your mother’s mothers back to the seventh
generation went only with brahmins and never with non-brahmins?’

‘No, sir.’ ‘

“But, sirs, do you know if the father who begot you went only with a brahmin woman and never with a non-brahmin woman?’

‘No, sir.’ ‘


“But, sirs, do you know if your father’s fathers back to the seventh
generation went only with brahmin women and never with non-brahmin
women?’

‘No, sir.’ ‘

“But, sirs, do you know how the conception of an embryo in a womb comes about?’ ‘


“Sir, we know how the conception of an embryo in a womb comes about.
Here, there is a union of the mother and father, and it is the mother’s
season, and the being to be reborn is present. Thus the conception of an
embryo in a womb comes about through the union of these three things.’

“Then, sirs, do you know for sure whether that being to be reborn is a noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker?’ ‘


“Sir, we do not know for sure whether that being to be reborn is a
noble, or a brahmin, or a merchant, or a worker.’ “‘That being so, sirs,
then what are you?’ ‘
“That being so, sir, we do not know what we are.’


“Now, Assalayana, even those seven brahmin seers, on being pressed and
questioned and cross-questioned by the seer Devala the Dark on their own
assertion about birth, were unable to support it. But how shall you, on
being pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by me now on your
assertion about birth, be able to support it? You, who rely on the
teachers’ doctrines, are not even fit to be their spoon-holder Punna.”


When this was said, the brahmin student Assalayana said to the Blessed
One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!…(as
Sutta 91)…From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower
who has gone to him for refuge for life.”


In summary, a group of brahmins asked a young brahmin Assalayana to go
to the Buddha to debate that brahmins are the highest caste . The
brahmin student Assalayana replied: “Sirs, the recluse Gotama is one who
speaks the Dhamma. Now those who speak the Dhamma are difficult to
dispute with. I am not able to dispute with the recluse Gotama about
this assertion.” After multiple rejections to go, the brahmins persisted
in encouraging Assalayana to go challenge the Buddha.


Finally Assalayana went to the Buddha and said to the Blessed One:
“Master Gotama, the brahmins say thus: ‘Brahmins are the highest caste,
those of any other caste are inferior; brahmins are the fairest caste,
those of any other caste are dark; only brahmins are purified, not
non-brahmins; brahmins alone are the sons of Brahma, the offspring of
Brahma, born of his mouth, born of Brahma, created by Brahma, heirs of
Brahma.’ What does Master Gotama say about that?”


Buddha firstly use science to rebut the brahmin’s claim that “brahmin
is born from Brahma’s mouth; he said all human beings are born from the
wombs of their respective mothers. This is followed by Buddha’s
thoroughly rational and convincing set of arguments for the position
that it is individual merit, not birth that distinguishes one man from
another; thus all castes are equal.


Finally Assalayana was convinced by the Buddha that his theory of
“Brahmins are the highet caste” was wrong. He became a lay follower of
the Buddha and took refuge in him.
..”
—————–
Majjhima Nikaya
(Middle Length Discourses)
Translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi
MN 93 Assalayana Sutta:
To Assalayana
MNx_093_BhikkhuBodhi_MajjhimaNikaya.pdf - Adobe Acrobat Pro 2020-01-16 09-28-46.mp4
MNx_093 Assalayana, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Middle-length Discourses,(Jan 2020, Audio Texts)
The Buddha Talks to a Brahmin Supremacist
How a Buddhist teaching on dismantling the superiority of the brahmi

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Best Birthday Wishes for Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
May he be ever happy, well and secure,
May he live long at least for 150 years with the help of NAD pills!
May he have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that every theing is changing!
form
Appa, Amma, Pradeep, Banu, Shifu, Tushar, Harshith, Pranay, Vinay and all relatives and friend’s

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https://youtu.be/GrRRWpUUjUc
Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan’s different postures of Kaya

Thanks
to Dr Devendran and his family who did,doing and will continue to do
great services to the society. Hence a place in Bengaluru in named as
Devendran Nagar. May we all work to create Prabuddha Universe for the
happiness,welfare and peace for all societies and for them to attain
Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

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𝓛𝓔𝓱𝓱𝓞𝓝 4045 Thu 29 đ“™đ“Ÿđ“” 2021 KEEP CALM and Happy 49th Birthday GIF Best Birthday Wishes for Sashikanth Chandrasekharan May he be ever happy, well and secure, May he live long at least for 150 years with the help of NAD pills! May he have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that every theing is changing! form Appa, Amma, Pradeep, Banu, Shifu, Tushar, Harshith, Pranay, Vinay and all relatives and friends Free Online Prabuddha Intelectuals Convention in Awakened One’s own words
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𝓛𝓔𝓱𝓱𝓞𝓝 4045 Thu 29 đ“™đ“Ÿđ“” 2021

KEEP CALM and Happy 49th Birthday GIF
Best Birthday Wishes for Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
May he be ever happy, well and secure,
May he live long at least for 150 years with the help of NAD pills!
May he have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that every theing is changing!
form
Appa, Amma, Pradeep, Banu, Shifu, Tushar, Harshith, Pranay, Vinay and all relatives and friends


Free Online Prabuddha Intelectuals Convention in Awakened One’s own words


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đ“Čđ“· đ“čđ“žđ“œđ“Œ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“”đ“­ đ“Șđ“·đ“­ đ“Čđ“·
𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“œđ“ž 𝓼đ“Șđ“œ đ“”đ“Č𝓮𝓼 đ“«đ“Čđ“»đ“­đ“Œ đ“Șđ“Œ đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“«đ”‚
𝓝𝓐𝓱𝓐, đ“‘đ“»đ“Čđ“œđ“Čđ“Œđ“± đ“«đ“Čđ“”đ“”đ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“Čđ“»đ“ź 𝓡đ“Čđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“­
đ“‘đ“»đ“Șđ“·đ“Œđ“žđ“· đ“Żđ“”đ“źđ”€ đ“Čđ“·đ“œđ“ž đ“Œđ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“«đ“žđ“Șđ“»đ“­ đ“Ș đ“„đ“Čđ“»đ“°đ“Čđ“·
𝓖đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬 đ“żđ“źđ“Œđ“Œđ“źđ“” đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓙𝓼𝓯𝓯 đ“‘đ“źđ”ƒđ“žđ“Œ.

đ“”đ“·đ“œđ“Čđ“»đ“ź
𝓔đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“± đ“Șđ“·đ“­ 𝓱đ“čđ“Ș𝓬𝓼 đ“Șđ“»đ“ź đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“€đ“Ąđ“đ“‘đ“˜ 𝓾𝓯
𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č. đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș đ“čđ“”đ“Șđ“·đ“œđ“źđ“­ đ“Żđ“»đ“Ÿđ“Čđ“œ
đ“«đ“źđ“Șđ“»đ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“œđ“»đ“źđ“źđ“Œ đ“Șđ“”đ“” đ“žđ“żđ“źđ“» đ“±đ“Čđ“Œ đ“źđ“¶đ“čđ“Čđ“»đ“ź.Mayawati
said that that after she becomes the Prime Minister she will bring back
the Ashokan Rule.

𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“Č 𝓯𝓼𝓭 đ“œđ“±đ“ź đ“čđ“žđ“žđ“» đ“œđ“±đ“»đ“žđ“Ÿđ“°đ“± đ“đ“¶đ“Ÿđ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“ąđ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“±đ“Č .

đ“đ“”đ“Œđ“ž
đ“œđ“ž đ“œđ“»đ“Șđ“Čđ“· đ“č𝓼𝓾đ“čđ“”đ“ź đ“žđ“· 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“°,
đ“Łđ“±đ“Șđ“Č đ“’đ“±đ“Č, 𝓚đ“Șđ“”đ“Șđ“»đ“Č đ“đ“»đ“œđ“Œ, đ“™đ“Ÿđ“­đ“ž, 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œđ“ź, đ“šđ“Ÿđ“·đ“°
đ“•đ“Ÿ đ“¶đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Čđ“Șđ“” đ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“Œ.
đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“Źđ“œđ“Č𝓬𝓼 𝓜đ“Čđ“·đ“­đ“Żđ“Ÿđ“” 𝓱𝔀đ“Čđ“¶đ“¶đ“Čđ“·đ“° - đ“„đ“Čđ“¶đ“Șđ“”đ“ž 𝓐𝔀đ“Șđ“Žđ“źđ“·đ“źđ“­ đ“đ“Œđ“±đ“žđ“Žđ“Ș 𝓜đ“Șđ“·đ“Čđ“¶đ“źđ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Č đ“•đ“źđ“”đ“”đ“žđ”€.

From

𝓔-đ“«đ“žđ“žđ“Ž-𝓓𝓞 𝓖𝓞𝓞𝓓 đ“Ÿđ“€đ“Ąđ“˜đ“•đ“š 𝓜𝓘𝓝𝓓 𝓐𝓣𝓣𝓐𝓘𝓝 𝓔𝓣𝓔𝓡𝓝𝓐𝓛 𝓑𝓛𝓘𝓱𝓱
đ“Żđ“»đ“žđ“¶ đ“šđ“Ÿđ“Œđ“±đ“Čđ“·đ“Șđ“»đ“Ș 𝓝𝓘𝓑𝓑Ā𝓝𝓐 đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș 18đ“Żđ“œ
𝓓đ“Čđ“Ș. đ“Ș 3𝓓 360 đ“­đ“źđ“°đ“»đ“źđ“ź 𝓬đ“Čđ“»đ“Źđ“Ÿđ“”đ“Șđ“» 𝓟đ“Ș𝓰𝓾𝓭đ“Ș đ“Șđ“œ

đ“Šđ“±đ“Čđ“œđ“ź đ“—đ“žđ“¶đ“ź,
668 5đ“œđ“± 𝓐 𝓜đ“Șđ“Čđ“· 𝓡𝓾đ“Ș𝓭,
8đ“œđ“± đ“’đ“»đ“žđ“Œđ“Œ,
𝓗𝓐𝓛 𝓘𝓘𝓘 đ“ąđ“œđ“Ș𝓰𝓼,
đ“Ÿđ“Ÿđ“·đ“Č𝔂đ“Ș đ“‘đ“—đ“€đ“œđ“˜ đ“‘đ“źđ“·đ“°đ“Șđ“”đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Ÿ,
𝓜đ“Ș𝓰đ“Șđ“­đ“±đ“Č 𝓚đ“Șđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Ș𝓮đ“Ș,
đ“Ÿđ“»đ“Șđ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Ș đ“‘đ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“œ đ“˜đ“·đ“œđ“źđ“»đ“·đ“Șđ“œđ“Čđ“žđ“·đ“Șđ“”
đ“±đ“œđ“œđ“č://đ“Œđ“Șđ“»đ“żđ“Ș𝓳đ“Șđ“·.đ“Șđ“¶đ“«đ“źđ“­đ“Žđ“Șđ“».đ“žđ“»đ“°
đ“«đ“Ÿđ“­đ“­đ“±đ“Șđ“Œđ“Șđ“Č𝓭2đ“Ÿđ“Œ@đ“°đ“¶đ“Șđ“Čđ“”.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
đ“łđ“Źđ“Œ4đ“źđ“żđ“źđ“»@đ“žđ“Ÿđ“œđ“”đ“žđ“žđ“Ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
đ“łđ“Źđ“±đ“Șđ“·đ“­đ“»đ“Șđ“Œđ“źđ“Žđ“±đ“Șđ“»đ“Șđ“·@𝔂đ“Șđ“±đ“žđ“ž.đ“Źđ“žđ“¶
080-25203792
9449260443
9449835875
𝔀đ“Čđ“Œđ“±đ“źđ“Œ
đ“œđ“ž
đ“«đ“ź đ“Ș đ”€đ“žđ“»đ“Žđ“Čđ“·đ“° đ“čđ“Șđ“»đ“œđ“·đ“źđ“» 𝔀đ“Čđ“œđ“± GHMC & GCC for its
One crore saplings are anticipated to be planted as a part of the
programme within the metropolis, with 10 lakh saplings proposed to be
planted within the first 12 months. Along with Residents’ welfare
associations that will play a serious position within the drive. As The
civic physique is planning to entrust the associations with the duty of
sustaining the bushes of their neighbourhood.And the Officers suggest
to reward the associations that handle the saplings for a sure time
period.
https://youtu.be/_sFm8xgP38I
Congratulations for ‘Best day ever’: Jeff Bezos blasts into space on own rocket




https://youtu.be/In6kiUC846Y

â„œđ”ąđ”©đ”Šđ”€đ”Šđ”Źđ”«đ”°, ℜ𝔞𝔠𝔩𝔰đ”Ș, đ”Šđ”«đ”ąđ”źđ”Čđ”žđ”©đ”Šđ”±đ”¶, đ” đ”žđ”°đ”±đ”ąđ”Šđ”°đ”Ș,
𝔚𝔱𝔯𝔱 đ”±đ”„đ”ąđ”Żđ”ą
𝔄𝔯𝔱 đ”±đ”„đ”ąđ”Żđ”ą
đ”„đ”«đ”Ą
đ”šđ”Šđ”©đ”© đ” đ”Źđ”«đ”±đ”Šđ”«đ”Č𝔱 đ”±đ”Ź 𝔟𝔱 đ”±đ”„đ”ąđ”Żđ”ą!

𝔇𝔯
𝔅.ℜ.𝔄đ”Ș𝔟𝔱𝔡𝔹𝔞𝔯 đ”±đ”„đ”Čđ”«đ”Ąđ”ąđ”Żđ”ąđ”Ą â€œđ”đ”žđ”Šđ”« đ”…đ”„đ”žđ”Żđ”žđ”±
𝔅𝔞đ”Čđ”Ąđ”„đ”Șđ”žđ”¶ 𝔹𝔞𝔯đ”Čđ”«đ”€đ”ž.” (ℑ đ”Žđ”Šđ”©đ”© đ”Ș𝔞𝔹𝔱 â„‘đ”«đ”Ąđ”Šđ”ž
𝔅đ”Čđ”Ąđ”Ąđ”„đ”Šđ”°đ”±)

đ”„đ”©đ”© đ”„đ”Ÿđ”Źđ”Żđ”Šđ”€đ”Šđ”«đ”žđ”©  đ”„đ”Žđ”žđ”šđ”ąđ”«đ”ąđ”Ą
đ”–đ”Źđ” đ”Šđ”ąđ”±đ”Šđ”ąđ”° đ”—đ”„đ”Čđ”«đ”Ąđ”ąđ”Ż ” ℌđ”Čđ”Ș đ”“đ”Żđ”žđ”­đ”žđ”«đ” đ”„
𝔓𝔯𝔞𝔟đ”Čđ”Ąđ”Ąđ”„đ”ž đ”…đ”„đ”žđ”Żđ”žđ”±đ”Șđ”žđ”¶ 𝔹𝔞𝔯đ”Čđ”«đ”€đ”ą.” (𝔚𝔱 đ”Žđ”Šđ”©đ”©
đ”Ș𝔞𝔹𝔱 đ”Žđ”Źđ”Żđ”©đ”Ą 𝔓𝔯𝔞𝔟đ”Čđ”Ąđ”Ąđ”„đ”ž đ”“đ”Żđ”žđ”­đ”žđ”«đ” đ”„

ℑ𝔣 đ”±đ”„đ”Šđ”° đ”„đ”žđ”­đ”­đ”ąđ”«đ”° đ”±đ”„đ”Żđ”Źđ”Čđ”€đ”„ 𝔓𝔯𝔞𝔟đ”Čđ”Ąđ”Ąđ”„đ”ž đ”…đ”„đ”žđ”Żđ”žđ”± 𝔖𝔞đ”Șđ”ąđ”©đ”žđ”«đ”°

â„œđ”ąđ”©đ”Šđ”€đ”Šđ”Źđ”«đ”°, ℜ𝔞𝔠𝔩𝔰đ”Ș, đ”Šđ”«đ”ąđ”źđ”Čđ”žđ”©đ”Šđ”±đ”¶, đ” đ”žđ”°đ”±đ”ąđ”Šđ”°đ”Ș,

đ”šđ”Šđ”©đ”© đ”«đ”Źđ”± đ”±đ”Ź 𝔟𝔱 đ”±đ”„đ”ąđ”Żđ”ą!


29) Classical English, Roman



FIST OF FURY (2020) | MARTIAL ARTS ACTION FILM
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Aboriginal SC/STs’ fist of fury
Harish S. Wankhede
July 28, 2021 00:15 IST
Updated: July 28, 2021 10:39 IST
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Recent portrayals of Aboriginal SC/STs in cinema are agnostic to Ambedkar’s political principles and social ethics
Portraying
a Aboriginal SC character as the protagonist is a significant
development in Tamil cinema. Aboriginal SC/STs are now shown as
courageous men performing fantastic heroic deeds.In Kabali, the
Aboriginal SC is the leader og Malaysian migrants.
In Kaala, he is the good-minded mafia don who challenges the authority of the ruling class in Mumbai .
In Asuran, he is an angry man who uses violence to protect his family against feudal lords.
In Karnan, he is a village rebel who kills a police inspector in a revengeful of act of justice.
These are violent stories about Aboriginal SC/STs social struggles, aspiration and quest for justice.
In these films, the Aboriginal SC/ST characters emerge as the equal claiments of popular heroic virtues.
A beautiful metaphor
In
Pa Ranjits Sarapatta Parambarai, the hero Kabilan (Arya) stands
distinct from earlier Aboriginal SC/ST protagonists. Though these
characters often play under the shadow of symbols like Dr BR Ambedka’s
photograph of Buddha’s statue, we have to see an authentic portrayal of a
Aboriginal SC/ST protagonist who can present Awakened One’s Ambedkarite
cultural aesthetics and Aboriginal SC/STs political and Awakened One’s
vision on screen.
đ‘…đ’¶đ’žđ‘’đ“ˆ, đ’žđ’¶đ“ˆđ“‰đ‘’đ“ˆ, đ“‡đ‘’đ“đ’Ÿđ‘”đ’Ÿđ‘œđ“ƒđ“ˆ đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ‘’đ“†đ“Šđ’¶đ“đ’Ÿđ“‰đ“Ž 𝓌𝑒𝓇𝑒 đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’,
đ’¶đ“‡đ‘’ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’¶đ“ƒđ’č
đ“Œđ’Ÿđ“đ“ đ’žđ‘œđ“ƒđ“‰đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ“Šđ‘’ 𝓉𝑜 đ’·đ‘’ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’«đ‘œđ‘œđ“‡ & đ’źđ“‰đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ‘”đ“Ž đ’čđ‘’đ’žđ’Ÿđ“ˆđ’Ÿđ‘œđ“ƒđ“ˆ 𝓌𝑒𝓇𝑒 đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đŒđ“ˆ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’¶đ“ƒđ’č
đ“Œđ’Ÿđ“đ“ đ’žđ‘œđ“ƒđ“‰đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ“Šđ‘’ 𝓉𝑜 đ’·đ‘’ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’!
𝒜𝓉 đ“‰đ’œđ‘’ đ“ˆđ’¶đ“‚đ‘’ đ“‰đ’Ÿđ“‚đ‘’
‘đ’Żđ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’Ÿđ“ˆ đ“đ’Ÿđ“‰đ“‰đ“đ‘’ đ’č𝓊𝓈𝓉 đ’Ÿđ“ƒ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’ 𝑒𝓎𝑒𝓈 đ‘œđ’»
𝓅𝑒𝑜𝓅𝓁𝑒,𝓇𝑒𝓂𝑜𝓋𝑒 đ“‰đ’œđ’¶đ“‰ đ’Ÿđ‘”đ“ƒđ‘œđ“‡đ’¶đ“ƒđ’žđ‘’, đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“Ž đ“Œđ’Ÿđ“đ“
đ“Œđ’¶đ“đ“€ 𝑜𝓃 đ“‰đ’œđ‘’ đ“…đ’¶đ“‰đ’œ đ‘œđ’» đ’Ÿđ’œđ’¶đ“‚đ“‚đ’¶’ đ’Ÿđ“ƒ đ’±đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ’¶đ“Žđ’¶
đ’«đ’Ÿđ“‰đ’¶đ“€đ’¶ - đ”đ“Šđ’čđ’čđ’œđ’Ÿđ“ˆđ“‰ đžđ“‰đ’œđ’Ÿđ’žđ“ˆ
đ“Œđ’¶đ“ˆ đ’¶đ“đ“ˆđ‘œ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’Ÿđ“ˆ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’¶đ“ƒđ’č
đ“Œđ’Ÿđ“đ“ đ’žđ‘œđ“ƒđ“‰đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ“Šđ‘’ 𝓉𝑜 đ’·đ‘’ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’!
đ’Čđ’œđ’Ÿđ’žđ’œ đ“‚đ‘’đ’¶đ“ƒ
đ‘…đ’¶đ’žđ‘’đ“ˆ, đ’žđ’¶đ“ˆđ“‰đ‘’đ“ˆ, đ“‡đ‘’đ“đ’Ÿđ‘”đ’Ÿđ‘œđ“ƒđ“ˆ đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ‘’đ“†đ“Šđ’¶đ“đ’Ÿđ“‰đ“Ž 𝓌𝑒𝓇𝑒 𝓃𝑜𝓉 đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’,
đ“Œđ’Ÿđ“đ“ 𝓃𝑜𝓉 đ’·đ‘’ đ’¶đ“‡đ‘’ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
đ’¶đ“ƒđ’č
đ“Œđ’Ÿđ“đ“ đ’žđ‘œđ“ƒđ“‰đ’Ÿđ“ƒđ“Šđ‘’ 𝓃𝑜𝓉 𝓉𝑜 đ’·đ‘’ đ“‰đ’œđ‘’đ“‡đ‘’
May be an image of 1 person and text

How many languages are there in the world?

  • 7,117 languages are spoken today.

    That number is constantly in flux, because we’re
    learning more about the world’s languages every day. And beyond that,
    the languages themselves are in flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken
    by communities whose lives are shaped by our rapidly changing world.
    This is a fragile time: Roughly 0% of languages are now endangered,
    often with less than 1,000 speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23
    languages account for more than half the world’s population.

    When
    a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
    baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
    language known as 

  • Classical Magahi Magadhi/

  • Classical Chandaso language/

  • Magadhi Prakrit,

  • Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

  • Classical Pāិi 

  • which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living speices have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com


    in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
    02) Classical Chandaso language,

    03)Magadhi Prakrit,

    04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

    05) Classical Pāិi,

    06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- à€¶à€Ÿà€žà„à€€à„à€°à„€à€Ż à€čà€żà€‚à€Šà„€,

    07) Classical Cyrillic
    08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

    09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
    10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
    11) Classical Arabic-Ű§Ù„Ù„ŰșŰ© Ű§Ù„ŰčŰ±ŰšÙŠŰ© Ű§Ù„ÙŰ”Ű­Ù‰
    12) Classical Armenian-Ő€ŐĄŐœŐĄŐŻŐĄŐ¶ Ő°ŐĄŐ”Ő„Ö€Ő„Ő¶,
    13) Classical Assamese-àŠ§à§à§°à§àŠȘàŠŠà§€ àŠ…àŠžàŠźà§€àŠŻàŠŒàŠŸ

    14) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
    15) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
    16) Classical Belarusian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃŃ–Ń‡ĐœĐ°Ń Đ±Đ”Đ»Đ°Ń€ŃƒŃĐșая,

    17) Classical Bengali-àŠ•à§àŠČàŠŸàŠžàŠżàŠ•à§àŠŻàŠŸàŠČ àŠŹàŠŸàŠ‚àŠČàŠŸ,

    18) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
    19) Classical Bulgaria- КласОчДсĐșĐž българсĐș,

20) Classical  Catalan-CatalĂ  clĂ ssic
21) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

22) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,
23) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-ć€ć…žäž­æ–‡ïŒˆçź€äœ“ïŒ‰,

24) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-ć€ć…žäž­æ–‡ïŒˆçčé«”,

25) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

26) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska

27) Classical  Czech-KlasickĂĄ čeĆĄtina
28) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

29) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
30) Classical English,Roman,
31) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

32) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

33) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
34) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen
,
35) Classical French- Français classique,
36) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
37) Classical Galician-ClĂĄsico galego,
38) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური áƒ„áƒáƒ áƒ—áƒŁáƒšáƒ˜,
39) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
40) Classical Greek-ΚλασσÎčÎșÎŹ ΕλληΜÎčÎșÎŹ,
41) Classical Gujarati-àȘ•à«àȘČàȘŸàȘžàȘżàȘ•àȘČ àȘ—ુàȘœàȘ°àȘŸàȘ€à«€,
42) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyĂČl,

43) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
44) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

45) Classical Hebrew- ŚąŚ‘ŚšŚ™ŚȘ Ś§ŚœŚŚĄŚ™ŚȘ
46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

48) Classical Icelandic-KlassĂ­sk Ă­slensku,
49) Classical Igbo,KlassĂ­skt Igbo,
50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,
51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
53) Classical Japanese-ć€ć…žçš„ăȘむタăƒȘケèȘž,
54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
55) Classical Kannada- àȶàČŸàČžàłàČ€àłàČ°àł€àČŻ àȕàČšàłàČšàČĄ,
56) Classical Kazakh-КлассОĐșĐ°Đ»Ń‹Ò› Ò›Đ°Đ·Đ°Ò›,

57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

58) Classical Kinyarwanda
  • 59) Classical Korean-êł ì „ 한ꔭ얎,

    60) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-KurdĂź (KurmancĂź),
    61) Classical Kyrgyz-КлассОĐșалыĐș Кыргыз,
    62) Classical Lao-àș„àș„àșČàșȘàșȘàșŽàșàș„àșČàș§,
    63) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

    64) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latvieƥu valoda,
    65) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuviƳ kalba,
    66) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch LĂ«tzebuergesch,

    67) Classical Macedonian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡Đ”Đœ ĐŒĐ°ĐșĐ”ĐŽĐŸĐœŃĐșĐž,
    68) Classical Malagasy,ĐșĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡Đ”Đœ ĐŒĐ°Đ»ĐłĐ°ŃˆĐșĐž,
    69) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
    70) Classical Malayalam-àŽ•à”àŽČàŽŸàŽžàŽżàŽ•à”àŽ•à”œ àŽźàŽČàŽŻàŽŸàŽłàŽ‚,

    71) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
    72) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
    73) Classical Marathi-à€•à„à€Čà€Ÿà€žà€żà€•à€Č à€źà€Ÿà€“à€°à„€,

    74) Classical Mongolian-ĐĄĐŸĐœĐłĐŸĐŽĐŸĐł ĐœĐŸĐœĐłĐŸĐ»,

    75) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မဌနá€șမာ (ဗမာ),

    76) Classical Nepali-à€¶à€Ÿà€žà„à€€à„à€°à„€à€Ż à€źà„à€Żà€Ÿà€‚à€źà€Ÿà€° (à€Źà€°à„à€źà€Ÿ),
    77) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

    78) Classical Odia (Oriya)

    79) Classical Pashto- ٌولګی ÙŸÚšŰȘو
    80) Classical Persian-Ú©Ù„Ű§ŰłÛŒÚ© ÙŰ§Ű±ŰłÛŒ

    81) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
    82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguĂȘs ClĂĄssico,

    83) Classical Punjabi-àš•àšČàšŸàšžà©€àš•àšČ àšȘà©°àšœàšŸàšŹà©€,
    84) Classical Romanian-Clasic romĂąnesc,

    85) Classical Russian-КлассОчДсĐșĐžĐč руссĐșĐžĐč,

    86) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
    87) Classical Sanskrit à€›à„à€Čà€žà„à€žà€żà€šà€Čà„ à€·à€šà„à€žà„à€•à„à€°à€żà€€à„
  • 88) Classical Scots Gaelic-GĂ idhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

89) Classical Serbian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐž српсĐșĐž,
90) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
91) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
92) Classical Sindhi,
93) Classical Sinhala-සඞ්භාව්à¶ș සිංහග,

94) Classical Slovak-KlasickĂœ slovenskĂœ,

95) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

96) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,

97) Classical Spanish-Español clåsico,
98) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
99) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

100) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
101) Classical Tajik-Ń‚ĐŸÒ·ĐžĐșÓŁ ĐșлассОĐșÓŁ,
102) Classical Tamil-102) àź•àźżàźłàźŸàźšàźżàź•àŻàź•àźČàŻ àź€àźźàźżàźŽàŻ
103) Classical Tatar
104) Classical Telugu- క్à°Čà°Ÿà°žà°żà°•à°Č్ ఀెà°Čుగు,
105) Classical Thai-àž àžČàž©àžČàč„àž—àžąàž„àž„àžČàžȘàžȘàžŽàž,
106) Classical Turkish-Klasik TĂŒrk,



107) Classical Turkmen



108) Classical Ukrainian-ĐšĐ»Đ°ŃĐžŃ‡ĐœĐžĐč уĐșŃ€Đ°Ń—ĐœŃŃŒĐșĐžĐč,
109) Classical Urdu- Ú©Ù„Ű§ŰłÛŒÚ©ÛŒ Ű§Ű±ŰŻÙˆ

110) Classical Uyghur,


111) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,


112) Classical Vietnamese-Tiáșżng Việ,

113) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,

114) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

115) Classical Yiddish- Ś§ŚœŚŚĄŚ™Ś©Śą Ś™Ś™ÖŽŚ“Ś™Ś©

116) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

117) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu



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