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๐“›๐“”๐“ข๐“ข๐“ž๐“ 4148 Thu 11 and Nov 2021 Do Good Purify Mind - Path to Eternal Bliss 1. Today to save Democracy Freedom, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity all fraud EVMs must and should be replaced by BALLOT PAPERS. 2. Worst Disease And Greatest Happiness Hunger is the greatest ill, the greatest dukkha - conditionedness, knowing this reality at it is: Nibbana bliss supreme. Hunger is the worst kind of illness said the Buddha. Form Free Online Prabuddha Universal All Societies ( Blacks/SC/STs/Arogya Rakshakas/OBCs/Religious Minorities/Poor Upper Castes) Multipurpose Cooperative Society to Grow Broccoli, Bell Pepper, Cucumber, Carrots ๐Ÿฅ• Beans in pots. Sujata fed Buddha to overcome hunger Ashoka planted fruit bearing trees all over his Mauryan Empire. Mayawati wants to establish that Ashoka rule. Practice Mindful Meditative Swimming ๐ŸŠ 3. Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered โ€œMain Bharat Baudhmay karunga.โ€ (I will make this country Buddhist) All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder โ€ Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Prapanchmay karunge.โ€ We will make the whole world Prabuddha Prapanch Universe. 4. live upto 150 years for the price of coffee Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)15Grams at $62.00 which plays a role in generating energy in the human body available โ€˜for the price of a coffee a dayโ€™ a Stunning anti-ageing breakthrough could see humans live to 150 years and regenerate organ.New process has been found by Harvard Professor David Sinclair and researchers from the University of New South Wales, involving cell reprogramming. According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly. 5. Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated It is like a blind man searching for a black cat in a dark room which is not there. WORLD WILL BE FREE FROM HOAX - STRENGTHENING THE TRUST FOR BEST OF HEALTH -SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY SURVEY ๐™๐™ฉ๐™ฉ๐™ฅ://๐™จ๐™–๐™ง๐™ซ๐™–๐™Ÿ๐™–๐™ฃ.๐™–๐™ข๐™—๐™š๐™™๐™ ๐™–๐™ง.๐™ค๐™ง๐™œ Wake up at 03:45 AM After Bath Practice Patanjali Yogic Meditation From 04:00 AM to 05:00 AM at ๐™†๐™ช๐™จ๐™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ง๐™– ๐™‰๐™„๐˜ฝ๐˜ฝฤ€๐™‰๐˜ผ ๐˜ฝ๐™ƒ๐™๐™ˆ๐™„ ๐™‹๐™–๐™œ๐™ค๐™™๐™– 18๐™›๐™ฉ ๐˜ฟ๐™ž๐™–. ๐™– 3๐˜ฟ 360 ๐™™๐™š๐™œ๐™ง๐™š๐™š ๐™˜๐™ž๐™ง๐™˜๐™ช๐™ก๐™–๐™ง ๐™‹๐™–๐™œ๐™ค๐™™๐™– ๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™’๐™๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™š ๐™ƒ๐™ค๐™ข๐™š, 668 5๐™ฉ๐™ ๐˜ผ ๐™ˆ๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™๐™ค๐™–๐™™, 8๐™ฉ๐™ ๐˜พ๐™ง๐™ค๐™จ๐™จ, ๐™ƒ๐˜ผ๐™‡ ๐™„๐™„๐™„ ๐™Ž๐™ฉ๐™–๐™œ๐™š, ๐™‹๐™ช๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ฎ๐™– ๐˜ฝ๐™ƒ๐™๐™ˆ๐™„ ๐˜ฝ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™œ๐™–๐™ก๐™ช๐™ง๐™ช, ๐™ˆ๐™–๐™œ๐™–๐™™๐™๐™ž ๐™†๐™–๐™ง๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ ๐™–, ๐™‹๐™ง๐™–๐™—๐™ช๐™™๐™™๐™๐™– ๐˜ฝ๐™๐™–๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™„๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ง๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ก ๐™—๐™ช๐™™๐™™๐™๐™–๐™จ๐™–๐™ž๐™™2๐™ช๐™จ@๐™œ๐™ข๐™–๐™ž๐™ก.๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข ๐™Ÿ๐™˜๐™จ4๐™š๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง@๐™ค๐™ช๐™ฉ๐™ก๐™ค๐™ค๐™ .๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข ๐™Ÿ๐™˜๐™๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™๐™ง๐™–๐™จ๐™š๐™ ๐™๐™–๐™ง๐™–๐™ฃ@๐™ฎ๐™–๐™๐™ค๐™ค.๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข 080-25203792 9449260443 9449835875 Spread the Words of Buddha from ๐™๐™ฉ๐™ฉ๐™ฅ://๐™จ๐™–๐™ง๐™ซ๐™–๐™Ÿ๐™–๐™ฃ.๐™–๐™ข๐™—๐™š๐™™๐™ ๐™–๐™ง.๐™ค๐™ง๐™œ, WhatApp, Telegram,Facebook, Twitter, more than 5000 Emails. Practicing Mindful Swimming at Dolphin Aquatics at Halasuru from 05:30 AM to 07:00 AM
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 5:58 pm
๐“›๐“”๐“ข๐“ข๐“ž๐“ 4148 Thu 11 and Nov 2021

Do Good Purify Mind - Path to Eternal Bliss

1.
Today to save Democracy Freedom, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity all
fraud EVMs must and should be replaced by BALLOT PAPERS.
2. Worst Disease And Greatest Happiness

Hunger is the greatest ill,
the greatest dukkha - conditionedness,
knowing this reality at it is:
Nibbana bliss supreme.

Hunger is the worst kind of illness said the Buddha.

Form Free Online Prabuddha Universal All Societies (
Blacks/SC/STs/Arogya Rakshakas/OBCs/Religious Minorities/Poor Upper
Castes) Multipurpose Cooperative Society

to

Grow Broccoli, Bell Pepper, Cucumber, Carrots ๐Ÿฅ• Beans in pots.

Sujata fed Buddha to overcome hunger

Ashoka planted fruit bearing trees all over his Mauryan Empire.

Mayawati wants to establish that Ashoka rule.

Practice Mindful Meditative Swimming

๐ŸŠ


3. Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered โ€œMain Bharat Baudhmay karunga.โ€ (I will make this country Buddhist)

All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder โ€ Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.โ€ We will make the whole world Prabuddha Prapanch Universe.


4. live upto 150 years for the price of coffee


Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)15Grams at $62.00 which plays a role in generating energy in the human
body available โ€˜for the price of a coffee a dayโ€™ a Stunning anti-ageing
breakthrough could see humans live to 150 years and regenerate organ.New process has been
found by Harvard Professor David Sinclair and researchers from the
University of New South Wales, involving cell reprogramming.


According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries.
From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their
predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.


5. Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever
Perpetrated It is like a blind man searching for a black cat in a dark
room which is not there.


WORLD WILL BE FREE FROM HOAX - STRENGTHENING THE TRUST FOR BEST OF HEALTH -SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY SURVEY


๐™๐™ฉ๐™ฉ๐™ฅ://๐™จ๐™–๐™ง๐™ซ๐™–๐™Ÿ๐™–๐™ฃ.๐™–๐™ข๐™—๐™š๐™™๐™ ๐™–๐™ง.๐™ค๐™ง๐™œ


Wake up at 03:45 AM
After Bath Practice Patanjali Yogic Meditation From 04:00 AM to 05:00 AM at


๐™†๐™ช๐™จ๐™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ง๐™– ๐™‰๐™„๐˜ฝ๐˜ฝฤ€๐™‰๐˜ผ ๐˜ฝ๐™ƒ๐™๐™ˆ๐™„ ๐™‹๐™–๐™œ๐™ค๐™™๐™–


18๐™›๐™ฉ ๐˜ฟ๐™ž๐™–. ๐™– 3๐˜ฟ 360 ๐™™๐™š๐™œ๐™ง๐™š๐™š ๐™˜๐™ž๐™ง๐™˜๐™ช๐™ก๐™–๐™ง ๐™‹๐™–๐™œ๐™ค๐™™๐™– ๐™–๐™ฉ
๐™’๐™๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™š ๐™ƒ๐™ค๐™ข๐™š,
668 5๐™ฉ๐™ ๐˜ผ ๐™ˆ๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™๐™ค๐™–๐™™,
8๐™ฉ๐™ ๐˜พ๐™ง๐™ค๐™จ๐™จ, ๐™ƒ๐˜ผ๐™‡ ๐™„๐™„๐™„ ๐™Ž๐™ฉ๐™–๐™œ๐™š,
๐™‹๐™ช๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ฎ๐™– ๐˜ฝ๐™ƒ๐™๐™ˆ๐™„ ๐˜ฝ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™œ๐™–๐™ก๐™ช๐™ง๐™ช,
๐™ˆ๐™–๐™œ๐™–๐™™๐™๐™ž ๐™†๐™–๐™ง๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ ๐™–,
๐™‹๐™ง๐™–๐™—๐™ช๐™™๐™™๐™๐™– ๐˜ฝ๐™๐™–๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™„๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ง๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ก


๐™—๐™ช๐™™๐™™๐™๐™–๐™จ๐™–๐™ž๐™™2๐™ช๐™จ@๐™œ๐™ข๐™–๐™ž๐™ก.๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข
๐™Ÿ๐™˜๐™จ4๐™š๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง@๐™ค๐™ช๐™ฉ๐™ก๐™ค๐™ค๐™ .๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข
๐™Ÿ๐™˜๐™๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™๐™ง๐™–๐™จ๐™š๐™ ๐™๐™–๐™ง๐™–๐™ฃ@๐™ฎ๐™–๐™๐™ค๐™ค.๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข
080-25203792
9449260443


9449835875


Spread the Words of Buddha from


๐™๐™ฉ๐™ฉ๐™ฅ://๐™จ๐™–๐™ง๐™ซ๐™–๐™Ÿ๐™–๐™ฃ.๐™–๐™ข๐™—๐™š๐™™๐™ ๐™–๐™ง.๐™ค๐™ง๐™œ, WhatApp, Telegram,Facebook, Twitter, more than 5000 Emails.


Practicing Mindful Swimming at Dolphin Aquatics at Halasuru from 05:30 AM to 07:00 AM


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oX1aA37KG3U
เฎคเฎฎเฎฟเฎดเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎฒ เฎ†เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ•เฎดเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฏ€เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑ เฎคเฏเฎตเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎฟ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
เฎคเฎฎเฎฟเฎดเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎฒ เฎ†เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ•เฎดเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฏ€เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑ เฎคเฏเฎตเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎฟ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
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News
7 Tamil Television, part of Alliance Broadcasting Private Limited, is
rapidly growing into a most watched and most respected news channel both
in India as well as among the Tamil global diaspora. The channelโ€™s
strength has been its in-depth coverage coupled with the quality of
international television production.


เฎคเฎฎเฎฟเฎดเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎฒ เฎ†เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ•เฎดเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฏ€เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑ เฎคเฏเฎตเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎฟ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
เฎคเฎฎเฎฟเฎดเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎฒ เฎ†เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ•เฎดเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฏ€เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑ เฎคเฏเฎตเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎฟ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
News
7 Tamil Television, part of Alliance Broadcasting Private Limited, is
rapidly growing into a most watched and most respected news channel both
in India as well as among the Tamil global diaspora. The channelโ€™s
strength has been its in-depth coverage coupled with the quality of
international television production.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฉ?
เฎฎเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎตเฎฐเฏ. เฎ…เฎฒเฏ†เฎ•เฏเฎšเฎพเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎฐเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎฉเฏ, เฎฎเฏ‡เฎŸเฏ เฎฒเฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎŸเฏ†เฎฉเฏ

เฎ‡เฎฏเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎŽเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ
เฎชเฏเฎฐเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏ เฎฎเฏเฎดเฏ เฎฎเฎฉเฎฟเฎค เฎ†เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฒเฏˆเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ• เฎ‰เฎคเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎตเฎดเฎฟเฎฎเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฉเฏ
เฎคเฏŠเฎ•เฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฏ‡ เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ.

เฎ‡เฎจเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎตเฎฟเฎฒเฏ
2,500 เฎ†เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎฎเฏเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎฐเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎตเฎฐเฎพเฎฒเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎšเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎค เฎ•เฏŒเฎคเฎฎเฎฐเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎตเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฎคเฏ. เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎ†เฎšเฎฟเฎฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎฎเฏ
เฎฎเฏเฎดเฏเฎตเฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฐเฎตเฎฟ เฎคเฎฑเฏเฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฏ เฎ‰เฎฒเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎตเฎคเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฎฟเฎฏ เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎ• เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎพเฎฒเฎพเฎฉ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎดเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ†เฎดเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎ• เฎ…เฎตเฎฐเฏ เฎšเฏเฎฏเฎฎเฎพเฎ•
เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฏˆ, เฎ‡เฎคเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎณเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฏŠเฎณเฎฟ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฎพเฎ•
เฎฎเฎพเฎฑเฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฏ. เฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎฎเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎตเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ, เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฎฎเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎตเฏ‡เฎฑเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฏ, เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฎพเฎ• เฎฎเฎพเฎฑเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฎฉเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏ
เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎšเฎฎเฎฎเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏˆ เฎ…เฎตเฎฐเฏ เฎ•เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎพเฎฐเฏ. เฎ‡เฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎฎเฎคเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎณเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎ•,
เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎตเฎฐเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎตเฎฐเฏˆเฎฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎ•เฎŸเฏˆเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎตเฎฐเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ, เฎฎเฏเฎดเฏเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฎฉเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎตเฎฐเฏ
เฎŽเฎฃเฏเฎฃเฎฑเฏเฎฑ เฎตเฎดเฎฟเฎฎเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏ.
เฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎณเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏ เฎ•เฎฒเฎพเฎšเฏเฎšเฎพเฎฐเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏ‡เฎŸเฏเฎช เฎชเฏ†เฎณเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฒเฎตเฎฟเฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ
เฎšเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎ…เฎคเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ, เฎชเฏ†เฎณเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฒเฏเฎตเฏ‡เฎฑเฏ เฎตเฎŸเฎฟเฎตเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‰เฎฐเฏเฎตเฏ†เฎŸเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฏ,
เฎ†เฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ, เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎ’เฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฉเฏ.
เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆ เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ โ€“ เฎจเฎพเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ‰เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฎฟเฎฉเฏ
เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ‰เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉ, เฎ…เฎจเฏเฎค เฎจเฎพเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฏ
เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฟเฎคเฎฐเฏเฎšเฎฉเฎฎเฎพเฎฉเฎตเฏˆ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎ‰เฎฏเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ
เฎ•เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎฑเฎฟเฎฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฏเฎณเฏเฎณเฎฉ :
เฎฎเฏเฎคเฎฒเฏ เฎ‰เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆ : เฎจเฎฟเฎœเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎตเฎฟเฎฒเฏ
เฎŽเฎตเฏเฎตเฎณเฎตเฏ‹ เฎšเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ‹เฎทเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฒเฏเฎฎเฏ, เฎšเฎฟเฎฑเฏ เฎชเฏ‚เฎšเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ, เฎตเฏ€เฎŸเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎพเฎคเฎตเฎฐเฏ,
เฎ•เฏ‹เฎŸเฏ€เฎธเฏเฎตเฎฐเฎฐเฏ เฎŽเฎฉ เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏ‡ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎŽเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ. เฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฎชเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎ‡เฎฑเฎชเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ, เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎตเฎฏเฏ‹เฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฎฎเฏ, เฎ‰เฎŸเฎฒเฏ เฎจเฎฒเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎตเฏ, เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ
เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎฎเฎพเฎฉเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎ‡เฎฑเฎชเฏเฎชเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎตเฏ†เฎฑเฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฎ•เฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ. เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ
เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏเฎชเฏเฎตเฎคเฏ เฎ•เฎฟเฎŸเฏˆเฎชเฏเฎชเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฏˆ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎคเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎพเฎคเฎคเฏˆเฎชเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ.
เฎ‡เฎฐเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎพเฎตเฎคเฏ เฎ‰เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆ : เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎšเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฃเฎฎเฏ
เฎšเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฒเฎพเฎฉ
เฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฃเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฟเฎชเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ†เฎ•เฎฟเฎฏเฎตเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฒเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ‡ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎŽเฎดเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉ.
เฎ†เฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏ‹, เฎŽเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฏ‡ เฎ‡เฎฑเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฃเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎพเฎฐเฏ:
เฎตเฎพเฎด เฎšเฎพเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑ เฎตเฎดเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ•เฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎคเฏ เฎฎเฎฉเฎฎเฏ, เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎณเฏเฎณเฏเฎฎเฏ,
เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎณเฏเฎณเฏเฎฎเฏ, เฎŽเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎพเฎตเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎฎเฏเฎชเฏเฎตเฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฃเฎฎเฏ.
เฎฎเฏ‚เฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎพเฎตเฎคเฏ เฎ‰เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆ: เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎตเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎคเฎฒเฏ
เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ
เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฎเฏˆ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฃเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎ…เฎดเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎŽเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎพเฎชเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ
เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎตเฎคเฏ‹เฎŸเฏ เฎŽเฎชเฏเฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎจเฏเฎคเฎชเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฉเฏเฎชเฎตเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•
เฎตเฏ‡เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏˆ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏ เฎ•เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎพเฎฐเฏ.
เฎจเฎพเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎตเฎคเฏ เฎ‰เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ‰เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆ : เฎฎเฎฉเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎšเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎชเฎพเฎคเฏˆ
เฎŽเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ
เฎšเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎ• เฎชเฏเฎฐเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎ…เฎ•เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎจเฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎชเฏ‹เฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ.
เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ’เฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ‹เฎŸเฏŠเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎ‡เฎฃเฏˆเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ, เฎšเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฒเฏ
เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎšเฏ เฎšเฏ†เฎฏเฏเฎฏ เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ. เฎ‡เฎคเฎฉเฏ เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎšเฎฎเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎ…เฎฉเฏเฎชเฏ
เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎตเฎณเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ†เฎŸเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ• เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ. เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฎฟ
เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑ เฎ’เฎชเฏเฎชเฏ€เฎŸเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏเฎดเฎชเฏเฎชเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎ…เฎ•เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎชเฎฏเฎฉเฏเฎชเฏ†เฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎตเฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎšเฏ†เฎฏเฎฒเฏเฎชเฎŸ เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ.
เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎตเฎ•เฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎคเฎฒเฎพเฎฏเฏเฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฎพ เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟ เฎฎเฏ‚เฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎคเฎฎเฎพเฎฉ เฎตเฎฟเฎณเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎฐเฏเฎตเฎพเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎพเฎฐเฏ:
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฎฟเฎฏเฎฒเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎฎเฎฉเฎฎเฏ โ€“ เฎ…เฎ•เฎจเฎฟเฎฒเฏˆ เฎ…เฎฉเฏเฎชเฎตเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎชเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ, เฎšเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎšเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎŽเฎตเฏเฎตเฎพเฎฑเฏ เฎšเฏ†เฎฏเฎฒเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉ
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎตเฎฎเฏ โ€“ เฎจเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏ†เฎฑเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ, เฎคเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎฏเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฏ เฎชเฏเฎฐเฎฟเฎคเฎฒเฏ
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฏ โ€“ เฎ•เฎŸเฎจเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎฎเฏ€เฎคเฎพเฎฉ เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆ, เฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎพ, เฎšเฎŸเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค
เฎตเฎฟเฎžเฏเฎžเฎพเฎฉเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎตเฏ€เฎฉ เฎจเฎฐเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฏเฎฒเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฎฟเฎฏเฎฒเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎ‡เฎฃเฏˆเฎชเฏเฎชเฏ, เฎเฎฉเฏ†เฎฉเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ…เฎตเฏˆ เฎฎเฎฉเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎชเฎฒเฏเฎตเฏ‡เฎฑเฏ
เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฎพเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฒเฏ เฎšเฏ†เฎฏเฎฒเฏเฎชเฎพเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎŸเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฏ เฎชเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏˆ, เฎšเฏ†เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฏ, เฎ•เฎตเฎฉเฎฎเฏ, เฎฎเฎฉเฎจเฎฟเฎฑเฏˆเฎตเฏ,
เฎจเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎชเฎ•เฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎคเฏ เฎจเฏ‡เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎฑเฏˆ, เฎŽเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎฑเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎตเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฎฟเฎตเฎพเฎฉ
เฎตเฎฐเฏˆเฎชเฎŸเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ. เฎจเฏ‡เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎฑเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎจเฎฐเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฏเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎพเฎคเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎตเฎ•เฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎคเฎฉเฏ เฎฎเฏ‚เฎฒเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎคเฏ
เฎฎเฎฉเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎจเฎฉเฏเฎฎเฏˆ, เฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎฎเฏ‡เฎฎเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฏ.

เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎšเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎตเฎฟเฎŸ เฎตเฎฟเฎšเฎพเฎฐเฎฃเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎฏเฏ‡ เฎ…เฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฎฎเฏ
เฎšเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎŽเฎฉเฎตเฏ‡ เฎตเฎฟเฎžเฏเฎžเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎšเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ
เฎฎเฎฟเฎ•เฎชเฏเฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‰เฎคเฎตเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎ• เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉ. โ€“ 14เฎตเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎฒเฎพเฎฏเฏ เฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฎพ
เฎ‰เฎŸเฎฒเฏ
เฎ…เฎณเฎตเฎฟเฎฒเฏ, เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎตเฎฟเฎžเฏเฎžเฎพเฎฉเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎคเฎฟเฎจเฎตเฏ€เฎฉ เฎฎเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎต เฎฎเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎŸเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฏเฎคเฏ เฎ…เฎคเฎพเฎตเฎคเฏ
เฎŽเฎฃเฏเฎฃเฎฟเฎฒเฎŸเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎพ เฎจเฏ‹เฎฏเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎšเฎฟเฎ•เฎฟเฎšเฏเฎšเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎšเฏ‡เฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏ. เฎตเฏ†เฎณเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ‹เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏ
เฎ…เฎตเฏˆ เฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฎเฏ เฎšเฎ•เฏเฎคเฎฟ เฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฎฟเฎตเฎพเฎฉ เฎ†เฎฏเฏเฎตเฏˆเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎ‡เฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎ•เฏเฎตเฎพเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎฏเฎฑเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฏเฎฒเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฒเฏเฎตเฏ‡เฎฑเฏ เฎ’เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉ. เฎฎเฏ‡เฎฒเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎตเฏˆ
เฎ…เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎคเฏ‹เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฎเฏ, เฎคเฎฑเฏเฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฏˆเฎฏ เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎตเฏˆเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟ
เฎตเฎฟเฎตเฎพเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ. เฎ…เฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎšเฎฟเฎฑเฏ เฎจเฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎ• เฎคเฏŠเฎŸเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ, เฎ‡เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎคเฏŠเฎŸเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎคเฎตเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค
เฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎตเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฏ‚เฎŸเฏเฎŸเฏเฎšเฏเฎšเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎชเฏ, เฎšเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎชเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฎเฏˆ, เฎคเฏŠเฎŸเฎฐเฏเฎชเฏ เฎ†เฎ•เฎฟเฎฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎšเฎฏเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎ•เฏ
เฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎณเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ. เฎคเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎตเฎฟเฎฐเฎฟเฎตเฎพเฎฉ เฎคเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎ•เฎฃเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ‹เฎŸเฏเฎชเฎพเฎŸเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎตเฎฟเฎตเฎพเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎตเฎดเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎ…เฎคเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎคเฏ เฎฎเฎฉเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎคเฎตเฎฑเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฎฑเฏเฎชเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ
เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎณ เฎ‰เฎคเฎตเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎจเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏ†เฎฑเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ, เฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎคเฏ เฎจเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎคเฏ เฎŽเฎคเฏ เฎคเฏ€เฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏˆ เฎตเฏ‡เฎฑเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏ.

เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ‹ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎคเฏ เฎ†เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ‹, เฎ•เฎŸเฎตเฏเฎณเฏ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎคเฏ เฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎพ เฎฎเฏ€เฎคเฏ
เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฎพ เฎ‡เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฏˆเฎฏเฏ‹, เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏ€เฎ• เฎจเฏ†เฎฑเฎฟเฎฎเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ
เฎ•เฎŸเฏˆเฎชเฎฟเฎŸเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ• เฎตเฏ‡เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ. โ€“ 14เฎตเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎฒเฎพเฎฏเฏ เฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฎพ
เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆ
เฎฎเฎฉเฎฟเฎคเฎชเฏเฎชเฎฃเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฎณเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎฃเฏˆ, เฎจเฏ‡เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏˆ, เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏเฎฎเฏˆ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏŠเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎชเฏ‹เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ,
เฎฎเฏ‡เฎฎเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฎฐเฏˆ เฎ•เฎŸเฎฟเฎฉเฎฉเฎฎเฎพเฎ• เฎฎเฏเฎฏเฎฑเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ• เฎตเฏ‡เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฏ, เฎ…เฎคเฏ‡ เฎšเฎฎเฎฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎคเฏ€เฎ™เฏเฎ• เฎเฎฑเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏ‚เฎŸเฎพเฎคเฏ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค
เฎฎเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎพ, เฎ•เฎŸเฎจเฏเฎค เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฒ เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆ, เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฎชเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎตเฎดเฎฟเฎฎเฏเฎฑเฏˆ,
เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฎชเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎคเฎฒเฏˆ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฎเฏ เฎžเฎพเฎฉ เฎจเฎฟเฎฒเฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎ…เฎŸเฏˆเฎคเฎฒเฏ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎŸ
เฎคเฎฒเฏˆเฎชเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎณเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ. เฎœเฏ†เฎชเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฒเฏ, เฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎฎเฏ, เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎŸ
เฎชเฎฏเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎคเฏ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎŸเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฏเฎคเฏ. เฎ’เฎตเฏเฎตเฏŠเฎฐเฏ เฎฎเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎคเฏ
เฎชเฎพเฎฐเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎเฎฑเฏเฎช เฎ…เฎคเฎฉเฏ เฎ…เฎŸเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸ เฎจเฏ‚เฎฒเฏ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎคเฏ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ โ€˜เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎชเฏˆเฎชเฎฟเฎณเฏโ€™ เฎชเฏ‹เฎฉเฏเฎฑ เฎŽเฎจเฏเฎค เฎชเฏเฎฉเฎฟเฎค เฎจเฏ‚เฎฒเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฎฟเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎคเฏ.
เฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎŽเฎจเฏเฎค เฎจเฏ‡เฎฐเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎตเฏ‡เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏเฎฎเฎพเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎšเฏ†เฎฏเฏเฎฏเฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฏ, เฎŽเฎฉเฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฒเฎฐเฏ
เฎ•เฏ‹เฎตเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ‹ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎคเฏ เฎตเฏ€เฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎšเฎฟเฎฒเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎฎเฏเฎฉเฏเฎชเฏ‹
เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ. เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎตเฎฐเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎชเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎ•
เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒ, เฎฎเฎพเฎฑเฎพเฎ• เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎณเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎค เฎ‰เฎฑเฏเฎคเฎฟ, เฎ‡เฎฐเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎžเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฎฟ เฎŽเฎดเฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฏเฎตเฎคเฎพเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎ‰เฎฃเฎตเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎŸเฏเฎŸเฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎพเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎŽเฎคเฏเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฏˆ, เฎ†เฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎพเฎฒเฎพเฎฉ เฎ•เฏเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎคเฏ เฎฎเฎพเฎฃเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ
เฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฎฐเฏˆ เฎšเฏˆเฎต เฎ‰เฎฃเฎตเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎŸเฏเฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎณเฎšเฏ เฎšเฏŠเฎฒเฏเฎตเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ, เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฏ‚เฎŸ เฎคเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎชเฏ
เฎชเฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎชเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎฎเฎคเฏ เฎ…เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎตเฏ‹ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฏˆเฎชเฏ เฎชเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎŽเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎณเฎตเฏ‹ เฎ•เฏ‚เฎŸเฎพเฎคเฏ
เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฏเฎฑเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฎพเฎฐเฏ. เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎชเฎฏเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏ เฎฎเฎฉเฎจเฎฟเฎฑเฏˆเฎตเฏ, เฎšเฏเฎฏ เฎ’เฎดเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ
เฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎชเฏŠเฎคเฏเฎตเฎพเฎ• เฎฎเฎคเฏ เฎ…เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ‹ เฎชเฎฟเฎฑ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฏˆ เฎชเฎดเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฎเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฒเฏ‹
เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎคเฏ เฎจเฎฟเฎฒเฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎ‡เฎดเฎชเฏเฎชเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ
เฎคเฏเฎฑเฎตเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎธเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ†เฎฉ เฎคเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎตเฎฟ เฎฎเฎŸเฎชเฏ เฎชเฎพเฎฐเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏ
เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎ…เฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฎšเฏเฎšเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎชเฎŸ เฎจเฏ‚เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฃเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎšเฎชเฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉ. เฎ…เฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎคเฎฒเฏˆเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎฏเฏˆ เฎฎเฏŠเฎŸเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎŸเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏ, เฎคเฏเฎฑเฎตเฎฑ
เฎšเฎฎเฏ‚เฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฎฐเฏ‹เฎŸเฏ เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉเฎฐเฏ. เฎ…เฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎคเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎ•เฎฒเฏเฎตเฎฟ, เฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎฎเฏ,
เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎพเฎฐเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎคเฎพเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸ เฎšเฎฎเฏ‚เฎ•เฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎšเฎŸเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆเฎšเฏ
เฎšเฏ†เฎฏเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฐเฏเฎชเฏเฎชเฎฃเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉเฎฐเฏ. เฎ…เฎฃเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฒเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎพเฎ• เฎชเฎฒ เฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎชเฎŸเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ, เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎค เฎฎเฏˆเฎฏเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎคเฎฟเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎชเฎฏเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎšเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฎฉเฎฐเฏ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฏ‹เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏ
เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏˆเฎชเฏ
เฎชเฏ‹เฎฉเฏเฎฑ เฎฎเฎฉเฎฟเฎคเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ, เฎŽเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฎฟ เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ, เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎ•เฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎชเฎพเฎŸเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎŽเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฎฟ เฎ•เฎŸเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ
เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎฎเฏเฎดเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฑเฎฉเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎฃเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฏˆ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏ เฎ•เฎฃเฏเฎŸเฎฑเฎฟเฎจเฏเฎคเฎพเฎฐเฏ; เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏ
เฎ‡เฎคเฏˆ เฎจเฎพเฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎณเฏ โ€œเฎžเฎพเฎฉเฎจเฎฟเฎฒเฏˆโ€ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฏ‹เฎฎเฏ. เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฏ เฎคเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎ•เฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎ…เฎšเฏˆเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ
เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎŽเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎพเฎตเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎฏเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎคเฏ€เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎพเฎฏเฎตเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฐเฎฐเฏ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒ.
เฎฎเฎพเฎฑเฎพเฎ• เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆเฎชเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฐเฎšเฏเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏˆ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ‡
เฎตเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎตเฎฟเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏ เฎ…เฎคเฎฉเฏˆ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎชเฎพเฎคเฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎ…เฎฎเฏˆเฎคเฏเฎคเฏ
เฎ•เฏŠเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎพเฎฐเฏ. เฎ…เฎคเฏ‡ เฎชเฏ‹เฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฉเฎคเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎจเฎฒเฏเฎฒ เฎชเฎฃเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฎณเฎพเฎฉ โ€“ เฎ…เฎฉเฏเฎชเฏ,
เฎ‡เฎฐเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฎเฏ, เฎชเฏ†เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฎฉเฏเฎฎเฏˆ, เฎžเฎพเฎฉเฎฎเฏ เฎ‰เฎณเฏเฎณเฎฟเฎŸเฏเฎŸ เฎชเฎฒเฎตเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏˆ เฎฎเฏ‡เฎฎเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎตเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฑเฎฟเฎตเฏเฎฑเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟ
เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎพเฎฐเฏ.
เฎ‡เฎจเฏเฎคเฎชเฏ
เฎชเฎฃเฏเฎชเฏเฎ•เฎณเฏˆ เฎŽเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฎฟ เฎฎเฏ‡เฎฎเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฟเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎณเฏเฎตเฎคเฏ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎชเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎตเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ
เฎตเฏ†เฎณเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎคเฏ - เฎ•เฎฒเฎพเฎšเฏเฎšเฎพเฎฐ เฎชเฎฟเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฎฃเฎฟ เฎ…เฎฒเฏเฎฒเฎคเฏ เฎฎเฎคเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆเฎชเฏ เฎชเฏŠเฎฐเฏเฎŸเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฏˆ.
เฎชเฏŒเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฎเฏ เฎ•เฎŸเฎตเฏเฎณเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฏˆ เฎ‰เฎŸเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎตเฎคเฎฟเฎฒเฏเฎฒเฏˆ, เฎ†เฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏ†เฎฑเฏเฎชเฎตเฏˆ
เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎคเฎฟเฎชเฏเฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏเฎฐเฎฟเฎฏเฎคเฏ เฎคเฎพเฎฉเฎพ เฎŽเฎฉเฏเฎฑเฏ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฏ เฎฎเฏ‚เฎฒเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏˆ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ‡ เฎŽเฎณเฎฟเฎฏ
เฎฎเฏเฎฑเฏˆเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ†เฎฐเฎพเฎฏเฎšเฏ เฎšเฏŠเฎฒเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ. เฎ‡เฎจเฏเฎค เฎตเฎดเฎฟเฎฏเฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎจเฎพเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฐเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎชเฏ‹เฎคเฎฉเฏˆเฎ•เฎณเฎฟเฎฉเฏ
เฎจเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฎฃเฎคเฏเฎคเฏˆ เฎชเฏ‹เฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฒเฎพเฎฎเฏ โ€“ เฎจเฎฉเฏเฎฉเฏ†เฎฑเฎฟเฎ•เฎณเฏ, เฎ‡เฎฐเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฎเฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎžเฎพเฎฉเฎฎเฏ - เฎ‡เฎฏเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎ•เฎตเฏ‡
เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏˆ เฎคเฏ€เฎ™เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฒเฏ เฎ‡เฎฐเฏเฎจเฏเฎคเฏ เฎตเฎฟเฎฒเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎ•เฏ เฎ•เฏŠเฎฃเฏเฎŸเฏ เฎจเฏ‡เฎฐเฏเฎฎเฎฑเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉเฎตเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฎฟเฎฒเฏ
เฎˆเฎŸเฏเฎชเฎŸเฏเฎคเฏเฎคเฏเฎ•เฎฟเฎฑเฎคเฏ, เฎ‡เฎคเฎฉเฎพเฎฒเฏ เฎจเฎฎเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฟเฎฑเฎฐเฏเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ เฎชเฎฒเฎฉเฏ เฎ•เฎฟเฎŸเฏˆเฎ•เฏเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ. เฎ‡เฎคเฏเฎตเฏ‡
เฎจเฎฎเฏเฎฎเฏเฎŸเฏˆเฎฏ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎ…เฎฉเฏˆเฎตเฎฐเฎฟเฎฉเฏ เฎ†เฎšเฏˆเฎฏเฎพเฎฉ เฎฎเฎ•เฎฟเฎดเฏเฎšเฏเฎšเฎฟ เฎฎเฎฑเฏเฎฑเฏเฎฎเฏ เฎจเฎฒเฏเฎตเฎพเฎดเฏเฎตเฏˆ เฎšเฎฎเฎฎเฎพเฎ•
เฎ…เฎŸเฏˆเฎตเฎคเฎฑเฏเฎ•เฎพเฎฉ เฎตเฎดเฎฟ เฎจเฎŸเฎคเฏเฎคเฎฒเฎพเฎ•เฏเฎฎเฏ.
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Theravฤda
(/หŒtษ›rษ™หˆvษ‘หdษ™/; Pฤli, lit. “School of the Elders”) is the most commonly
accepted name of Buddhism’s oldest existing school.
The
school’s adherents, termed Theravฤdins, have preserved their version of
Gautama Buddha’s teaching or Buddha Dhamma in the Pฤli Canon for over a
millennium.
The
Pฤli Canon is the most complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical
Indian language, Pฤli, which serves as the school’s sacred language and
lingua franca. In contrast to Mahฤyฤna and Vajrayฤna, Theravฤda tends
to be conservative in matters of doctrine (pariyatti) and monastic
discipline (vinaya). One element of this conservatism is the fact that
Theravฤda rejects the authenticity of the Mahayana sutras (which
appeared c. 1st century BCE onwards).
Modern
Theravฤda derives from the Mahฤvihฤra order, a Sri Lankan branch of the
Vibhajjavฤda tradition, who are in turn a sect of the Indian Sthavira
Nikaya. This tradition began to establish itself in Sri Lanka from the
3rd century BCE onwards. It was in Sri Lanka that the Pฤli Canon was
written down and the school’s commentary literature developed. From Sri
Lanka, the Theravฤda Mahฤvihฤra tradition subsequently spread to the
rest of Southeast Asia. It is the dominant religion in Cambodia, Laos,
Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand and is practiced by minorities in
India, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, and Vietnam. The diaspora of all of
these groups, as well as converts around the world, also embrace and
practice Theravฤda Buddhism.
The
Pฤli Canon is the most complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical
Indian language, Pฤli, which serves as the school’s sacred language and
lingua franca. In contrast to Mahฤyฤna and Vajrayฤna, Theravฤda tends
to be conservative in matters of doctrine (pariyatti) and monastic
discipline (vinaya). One element of this conservatism is the fact that
Theravฤda rejects the authenticity of the Mahayana sutras (which
appeared c. 1st century BCE onwards)
Modern
Theravฤda derives from the Mahฤvihฤra order, a Sri Lankan branch of the
Vibhajjavฤda tradition, who are in turn a sect of the Indian Sthavira
Nikaya. This tradition began to establish itself in Sri Lanka from the
3rd century BCE onwards. It was in Sri Lanka that the Pฤli Canon was
written down and the school’s commentary literature developed. From Sri
Lanka, the Theravฤda Mahฤvihฤra tradition subsequently spread to the
rest of Southeast Asia. It is the dominant religion in Cambodia, Laos,
Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand and is practiced by minorities in
India, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, and Vietnam. The diaspora of all of
these groups, as well as converts around the world, also embrace and
practice Theravฤda Buddhism.
During
the modern era, new developments have included Buddhist modernism, the
Vipassana movement which reinvigorated Theravฤda meditation practice,
the growth of the Thai Forest Tradition which reemphasized forest
monasticism and the spread of Theravฤda westward to places such as India
and Nepal, along with buddhist immigrants and converts in the European
Union and the United States.

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History
Main article: History of Theravฤda Buddhism
Pre-Modern
The
Thuparamaya Stupa, the earliest stupa after Theravada Buddhism became
the official religion in Sri Lanka, dating back to the reign of King
Devanampiya Tissa (247โ€“207 BCE).
The Ruwanwelisaya stupa, built by the Sri Lankan King Dutugemunu (c. 140 B.C.E.).
The
Theravฤda school descends from the Vibhajjavฤda, a division within the
Sthฤvira nikฤya, one of the two major orders that arose after the first
schism in the Indian Buddhist community. Theravฤda sources trace their
tradition to the Third Buddhist council, when elder Moggaliputta-Tissa
is said to have compiled the Kathavatthu, an important work which lays
out the Vibhajjavฤda doctrinal position.
Aided
by patronage of Mauryan kings like Ashoka, this school spread
throughout India and reached Sri Lanka through the efforts of missionary
monks like Mahinda. In Sri Lanka, it became known as the Tambapaแน‡แน‡iya
(and later as Mahฤvihฤravฤsins) which was based at the Great Vihara
(Mahavihara) in Anuradhapura (the ancient Sri Lankan capital). According
to Theravฤda sources, another one of the Ashokan missions was also sent
to Suvaแน‡แน‡abhลซmi (”The Golden Land”), which may refer to Southeast Asia.
By
the first century BCE, Theravฤda Buddhism was well established in the
main settlements of the Kingdom of Anuradhapura. The Pali Canon, which
contains the main scriptures of the Theravฤda, was committed to writing
in the first century BCE. Throughout the history of ancient and medieval
Sri Lanka, Theravฤda was the main religion of the Sinhalese people and
its temples and monasteries were patronized by the Sri Lankan kings, who
saw themselves as the protectors of the religion.
Gold Plates containing fragments of the Pali Tipitaka (5th century) found in Maunggan (a village near the city of Sriksetra).
Bagan,
the capital of the Bagan Kingdom. Between the 11th and 13th centuries,
more than 10,000 temples, pagodas and monasteries were constructed in
the Bagan plains.
Over
time, two other sects split off from the Mahฤvihฤra tradition, the
Abhayagiri and Jetavana. While the Abhayagiri sect became known for the
syncretic study of Mahayana and Vajrayana texts as well as the Theravฤda
canon, the Mahฤvihฤra tradition did not accept these new created
scriptures. Instead, Mahฤvihฤra scholars like Buddhaghosa focused on the
exegesis of the Pali scriptures and on the Abhidhamma. These Theravฤda
sub-sects often came into conflict with each other over royal patronage.
The reign of Parฤkramabฤhu I (1153โ€“1186) saw an extensive reform of the
Sri Lankan sangha after years of warfare on the island. Parฤkramabฤhu
created a single unified sangha which came to be dominated by the
Mahฤvihฤra sect.
Epigraphical
evidence has established that Theravฤda Buddhism became a dominant
religion in the Southeast Asian kingdoms of Sri Ksetra and Dvaravati
from about the 5th century CE onwards. The oldest surviving Buddhist
texts in the Pฤli language are gold plates found at Sri Ksetra dated
circa 5th to 6th century. Before the Theravฤda tradition became the
dominant religion in Southeast Asia, Mahฤyฤna, Vajrayana and Hinduism
were also prominent.
Starting
at around the 11th century, Sinhalese Theravฤda monks and Southeast
Asian elites led a widespread conversion of most of mainland Southeast
Asia to the Theravฤdin Mahavihara school. The patronage of monarchs such
as the Burmese king Anawrahta (Pali: Aniruddha, 1044โ€“1077) and the Thai
king Ram Khamhaeng (flourit. late 13th century) was instrumental in the
rise of Theravฤda Buddhism as the predominant religion of Burma and
Thailand.
Burmese
and Thai kings saw themselves as Dhamma Kings and as protectors of the
Theravฤda faith. They promoted the building of new temples, patronized
scholarship, monastic ordinations and missionary works as well as
attempted to eliminate certain non-Buddhist practices like animal
sacrifices. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Theravฤda also became
established as the state religion in Cambodia and Laos. In Cambodia,
numerous Hindu and Mahayana temples, most famously Angkor Wat and Angkor
Thom, were transformed into Theravฤdin monasteries.


Modern history
A Burmese man meditates in Myanmar. The widespread practice of meditation by laypersons is a modern development in Theravฤda.
In
the 19th and 20th centuries, Theravฤda Buddhists came into direct
contact with western ideologies, religions and modern science. The
various responses to this encounter have been called “Buddhist
modernism”. In the British colonies of Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka) and
Burma (Myanmar), Buddhist institutions lost their traditional role as
the prime providers of education (a role that was often filled by
Christian schools). In response to this, Buddhist organizations were
founded which sought to preserve Buddhist scholarship and provide a
Buddhist education. Anagarika Dhammapala, Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera,
Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera and Henry Steel Olcott (one of the first
American western converts to Buddhism) were some of the main figures of
the Sri Lankan Buddhist revival. Two new monastic orders were formed in
the 19th century, the Amarapura Nikฤya and the Rฤmaรฑรฑa Nikฤya.
In
Burma, an influential modernist figure was king Mindon Min (1808โ€“1878),
known for his patronage of the Fifth Buddhist council (1871) and the
Tripiแนญaka tablets at Kuthodaw Pagoda (still the world’s largest book)
with the intention of preserving the Buddha Dhamma. Burma also saw the
growth of the “Vipassana movement”, which focused on reviving Buddhist
meditation and doctrinal learning. Ledi Sayadaw (1846โ€“1923) was one of
the key figures in this movement.[40] After independence, Myanmar held
the Sixth Buddhist council (Vesak 1954 to Vesak 1956) to create a new
redaction of the Pฤli Canon, which was then published by the government
in 40 volumes. The Vipassana movement continued to grow after
independence, becoming an international movement with centers around the
world. Influential meditation teachers of the post-independence era
include U Narada, Mahasi Sayadaw, Sayadaw U Pandita, Nyanaponika Thera,
Webu Sayadaw, U Ba Khin and his student S.N. Goenka.
Meanwhile,
in Thailand (the only Theravฤda nation to retain its independence
throughout the colonial era), the religion became much more centralized,
bureaucratized and controlled by the state after a series of reforms
promoted by Thai kings of the Chakri dynasty. King Mongkut (r.
1851โ€“1868) and his successor Chulalongkorn (1868โ€“1910) were especially
involved in centralizing sangha reforms. Under these kings, the sangha
was organized into a hierarchical bureaucracy led by the Sangha Council
of Elders (Pali: Mahฤthera Samฤgama), the highest body of the Thai
sangha. Mongkut also led the creation of a new monastic order, the
Dhammayuttika Nikaya, which kept a stricter monastic discipline than the
rest of the Thai sangha (this included not using money , not storing up
food and not taking milk in the evening). The Dhammayuttika movement
was characterized by an emphasis on the original Pali Canon and a
rejection of Thai folk beliefs which were seen as irrational. Under the
leadership of Prince Wachirayan Warorot, a new education and examination
system was introduced for Thai monks.
Thai Forest teacher Ajahn Chah with Ajahn Sumedho (front right), Ajahn Pasanno (rear and left of Sumedho) and other monastics.
The
20th century also saw the growth of “forest traditions” which focused
on forest living and strict monastic discipline. The main forest
movements of this era are the Sri Lankan Forest Tradition and the Thai
Forest Tradition, founded by Ajahn Mun (1870โ€“1949) and his students.
Theravฤda
Buddhism in Cambodia and Laos went through similar experiences in the
modern era. Both had to endure french colonialism, destructive civil
wars and oppressive communist governments. Under French Rule, French
indologists of the ร‰cole franรงaise d’Extrรชme-Orient became involved in
the reform of Buddhism, setting up institutions for the training of
Cambodian and Lao monks, such as the Ecole de Pali which was founded in
Phnom Penh in 1914. While the Khmer Rouge effectively destroyed
Cambodia’s Buddhist institutions, after the end of the communist regime
the Cambodian Sangha was re-established by monks who had returned from
exile. In contrast, communist rule in Laos was less destructive since
the Pathet Lao sought to make use of the sangha for political ends by
imposing direct state control. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the
official attitudes towards Buddhism began to liberalise in Laos and
there was a resurgence of traditional Buddhist activity such as merit
making and doctrinal study.
Global
Vipassana Pagoda, Maharashtra, India. S.N. Goenka laid the foundation
for the structure in 2000 and the pagoda opened in 2009. Regular
meditation courses are held at the complex.
The
modern era also saw the spread of Theravฤda Buddhism around the world
and the revival of the religion in places where it remains a minority
faith. Some of the major events of the spread of modern Theravฤda
include:
The 20th century Nepalese Theravฤda movement which introduced
Theravฤda Buddhism to Nepal and was led by prominent figures such as
Dharmaditya Dharmacharya, Mahapragya, Pragyananda and Dhammalok
Mahasthavir.
The
establishment of some of the first Theravฤda Viharas in the Western
world, such as the London Buddhist Vihara (1926), Das Buddhistische Haus
in Berlin (1957) and the Washington Buddhist Vihara in Washington, DC
(1965).
The founding
of the Bengal Buddhist Association (1892) and the Dharmankur Vihar
(1900) in Calcutta by the Bengali monk Kripasaran Mahasthavir, which
were key events in the Bengali Theravฤda revival.
The founding of the Maha Bodhi Society in 1891 by Anagarika
Dharmapala which focused on the conservation and restoration of
important Indian Buddhist sites, such as Bodh Gaya and Sarnath.
The introduction of Theravฤda to other Southeast Asian nations like
Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia. Especially with Ven. K. Sri
Dhammananda missionary efforts among English-speaking Chinese
communities.
The
return of Western Theravฤdin monks trained in the Thai Forest Tradition
to western countries and the subsequent founding of monasteries led by
western monastics, such as Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery, Chithurst
Buddhist Monastery, Metta Forest Monastery, Amaravati Buddhist
Monastery, Birken Forest Buddhist Monastery, Bodhinyana Monastery and
Santacittarama.
The
spread of the Vipassana movement around the world by the efforts of
people like S.N. Goenka, Anagarika Munindra, Joseph Goldstein, Jack
Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, Dipa Ma, and Ruth Denison.
The Vietnamese Theravฤda movement, led by figures such as Ven. Hแป™-Tรดng (Vansarakkhita).

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Texts
Pฤli Tipiแนญaka
Main article: Pali Canon
Pre-modern
copies of the Tipiแนญaka were preserved in Palm-leaf manuscripts, most of
which have not survived the humid climate of South Asia and Southeast
Asia.
A full modern set of the Tipiแนญaka can fill many volumes (from 40 to over 50 volumes depending on the edition).
According
to Kate Crosby, for Theravฤda, the Pฤli Tipiแนญaka, also known as the
Pฤli Canon is “the highest authority on what constitutes the Dhamma (the
truth or teaching of the Buddha) and the organization of the Sangha
(the community of monks and nuns).”
The
language of the Tipiแนญaka, Pฤli, is a middle-Indic language which is the
main religious and scholarly language in Theravฤda. This language may
have evolved out of various Indian dialects, and is related to, but not
the same as, the ancient language of Magadha.
An
early form of the Tipiแนญaka may have been transmitted to Sri Lanka
during the reign of Ashoka, which saw a period of Buddhist missionary
activity. After being orally transmitted (as was the custom for
religious texts in those days) for some centuries, the texts were
finally committed to writing in the 1st century BCE. Theravฤda is one of
the first Buddhist schools to commit its Tipiแนญaka to writing.The
recension of the Tipiแนญaka which survives today is that of the Sri Lankan
Mahavihara sect.
The
oldest manuscripts of the Tipiแนญaka from Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia
date to the 15th Century, and they are incomplete. Complete manuscripts
of the four Nikayas are only available from the 17th Century
onwards.[60] However, fragments of the Tipiแนญaka have been found in
inscriptions from Southeast Asia, the earliest of which have been dated
to the 3rd or 4th century. According to Alexander Wynne, “they agree
almost exactly with extant Pฤli manuscripts. This means that the Pฤli
Tipiแนญaka has been transmitted with a high degree of accuracy for well
over 1,500 years.”
There
are numerous editions of the Tipiแนญaka, some of the major modern
editions include the Pali Text Society edition (published in roman
script), the Burmese Sixth Council edition (in Burmese script, 1954โ€“56)
and the Thai Tipiแนญaka edited and published in Thai script after the
council held during the reign of Rama VII (1925โ€“35). There is also a
Khmer edition, published in Phnom Penh (1931โ€“69).
The
Pฤli Tipitaka consists of three parts: the Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka
and Abhidhamma Pitaka. Of these, the Abhidhamma Pitaka is believed to be
a later addition to the collection, its composition dating from around
the 3rd century BCE onwards.The Pฤli Abhidhamma was not recognized
outside the Theravฤda school. There are also some texts which were late
additions that are included in the fifth Nikaya, the Khuddaka Nikฤya
(’Minor Collection’), such as the Paแนญisambhidฤmagga (possibly c. 3rd to
1st century BCE) and the Buddhavaแนƒsa (c. 1st and 2nd century BCE).
The
main parts of the Sutta Pitaka and some portions of the Vinaya shows
considerable overlap in content to the Agamas, the parallel collections
used by non-Theravฤda schools in India which are preserved in Chinese
and partially in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Tibetan, as well as the various
non-Theravฤda Vinayas. On this basis, these Early Buddhist texts (i.e.
the Nikayas and parts of the Vinaya) are generally believed to be some
of the oldest and most authoritative sources on the doctrines of
pre-sectarian Buddhism by modern scholars.
Much
of the material in the earlier portions is not specifically
“Theravฤdan”, but the collection of teachings that this school’s
adherents preserved from the early, non-sectarian body of teachings.
According to Peter Harvey, while the Theravฤdans may have added texts to
their Tipiแนญaka (such as the Abhidhamma texts and so on), they generally
did not tamper with the earlier material.
The
historically later parts of the canon, mainly the Abhidhamma and some
parts of the Vinaya, contain some distinctive elements and teachings
which are unique to the Theravฤda school and often differ with the
Abhidharmas or Vinayas of other early Buddhist schools. For example,
while the Theravฤda Vinaya contains a total of 227 monastic rules for
bhikkhus, the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya (used in East Asian Buddhism) has a
total of 253 rules for bhikkhus (though the overall structure is the
same). These differences arose from the systematization and historical
development of doctrines and monasticism in the centuries after the
death of the Buddha.
The
Abhidhamma-pitaka contains “a restatement of the doctrine of the Buddha
in strictly formalized language.” Its texts present a new method, the
Abhidhamma method, which attempts to build a single consistent
philosophical system (in contrast with the suttas, which present
numerous teachings given by the Buddha to particular individuals
according to their need). Because the Abhidhamma focuses on analyzing
the internal lived experience of beings and the intentional structure of
consciousness, it has often been compared to a kind of phenomenological
psychology by numerous modern scholars such as Nyanaponika, Bhikkhu
Bodhi and Alexander Piatigorsky.
The
Theravฤda school has traditionally held the doctrinal position that the
canonical Abhidhamma Pitaka was actually taught by the Buddha himself.
Modern scholarship in contrast, has generally held that the Abhidhamma
texts date from the 3rd century BCE onwards. However some scholars, such
as Frauwallner, also hold that the early Abhidhamma texts developed out
of exegetical and catechetical work which made use of doctrinal lists
which can be seen in the suttas, called matikas.



Non-canonical literature
Main article: Pali literature
Buddhaghosa
(right) (c. 5th century), shown here presenting three copies of his
influential doctrinal compendium, the Visuddhimagga, to the elders of
the Sri Lankan Mahavihara school.
There
are numerous Theravฤda works which are important for the tradition even
though they are not part of the Tipiแนญaka. Perhaps the most important
texts apart from the Tipiแนญaka are the works of the influential scholar
Buddhaghosa (4thโ€“5th century CE), known for his Pฤli commentaries (which
were based on older Sri Lankan commentaries of the Mahavihara
tradition). He is also the author of a very important compendium of
Theravฤda doctrine, the Visuddhimagga. Other figures like Dhammapala and
Buddhadatta also wrote Theravฤda commentaries and other works in Pali
during the time of Buddhaghosa. While these texts do not have the same
scriptural authority in Theravฤda as the Tipiแนญaka, they remain
influential works for the exegesis of the Tipiแนญaka.
An
important genre of Theravฤdin literature is shorter handbooks and
summaries, which serve as introductions and study guides for the larger
commentaries. Two of the more influential summaries are Sariputta
Thera’s Pฤlimuttakavinayavinicchayasaแน…gaha, a summary of Buddhaghosa’s
Vinaya commentary and Anuruddha’s Abhidhammaแนญแนญhasaแน…gaha (a “Manual of
Abhidhamma”).
Throughout
the history of Theravฤda, Theravฤda monks also produced other works of
Pฤli literature such as historical chronicles (like the Dipavamsa and
the Mahavamsa), hagiographies, poetry, Pฤli grammars, and
“sub-commentaries” (that is, commentaries on the commantries).
While
Pฤli texts are symbolically and ritually important for many
Theravฤdins, most people are likely to access Buddhist teachings though
vernacular literature, oral teachings, sermons, art and performance as
well as films and Internet media.[83] According to Kate Crosby, “there
is a far greater volume of Theravฤda literature in vernacular languages
than in Pฤli.”
An
important genre of Theravฤdin literature, in both Pฤli and vernacular
languages are the Jataka tales, stories of the Buddha’s past lives. They
are very popular among all classes and are rendered in a wide variety
of media formats, from cartoons to high literature. The Vessantara
Jฤtaka is one of the most popular of these.
Most
Theravฤda Buddhists generally consider Mahฤyฤna Buddhist scriptures to
be apocryphal, meaning that they are not authentic words of the Buddha.

No photo description available.


Doctrine
Painting of Buddha’s first sermon from Wat Chedi Liem in Thailand
Core teachings
The
core of Theravฤda Buddhist doctrine is contained in the Pฤli Canon, the
only complete collection of Early Buddhist Texts surviving in a
classical Indic language. These basic Buddhist ideas are shared by the
other Early Buddhist schools as well as by Mahayana traditions. They
include central concepts such as:[88]
A doctrine of Karma (action), which is based on intention (cetana)
and a related doctrine of rebirth which holds that after death, sentient
beings which are not fully awakened will transmigrate to another body,
possibly in another realm of existence. The type of realm one will be
reborn in is determined by the beings past karma. This cyclical universe
filled with birth and death is named samsara.
A rejection of other doctrines and practices found in Brahmanical
Hinduism, including the idea that the Vedas are a divine authority. Any
form of sacrifices to the gods (including animal sacrifices) and ritual
purification by bathing are considered useless and spiritually
corrupted. The Pฤli texts also reject the idea that castes are divinely
ordained.
A set of major teachings called the bodhipakkhiyฤdhammฤ (factors conducive to awakening).
Descriptions of various meditative practices or states, namely the
four jhanas (meditative absorptions) and the formless dimensions
(arupฤyatana).
Ethical training (sila) including the ten courses of wholesome action and the five precepts.
Nirvana (Pali: nibbana), the highest good and final goal in
Theravฤda Buddhism. It is the complete and final end of suffering, a
state of perfection. It is also the end of all rebirth, but it is not an
annihilation (uccheda).
The corruptions or influxes (ฤsavas), such as the corruption of
sensual pleasures (kฤmฤsava), existence-corruption (bhavฤsava), and
ignorance-corruption (avijjฤsava).
The doctrine of impermanence (anicca), which holds that all physical
and mental phenomena are transient, unstable and inconstant.
The doctrine of not-self (anatta), which holds that all the
constituents of a person, namely, the five aggregates (physical form,
feelings, perceptions, intentions and consciousness), are empty of a
self (atta), since they are impermanent and not always under our
control. Therefore, there is no unchanging substance, permanent self,
soul, or essence.
The Five hindrances (paรฑca nฤซvaraแน‡ฤni), which are obstacles to
meditation: (1) sense desire, (2) hostility, (3) sloth and torpor, (4)
restlessness and worry and (5) doubt.
The Four Divine Abodes (brahmavihฤrฤ), also known as the four immeasurables (appamaรฑรฑฤ)
The Four Noble Truths, which state, in brief: (1) There is dukkha
(suffering, unease); (2) There is a cause of dukkha, mainly craving
(tanha); (3) The removal of craving leads to the end (nirodha) of
suffering, and (4) there is a path (magga) to follow to bring this
about.
The framework
of Dependent Arising (paแนญiccasamuppฤda), which explains how suffering
arises (beginning with ignorance and ending in birth, old age and death)
and how suffering can be brought to an end.
The Middle Way, which is seen as having two major facets. First, it
is a middle path between extreme asceticism and sensual indulgence. It
is also seen as a middle view between the idea that at death beings are
annihilated and the idea that there is an eternal self (Pali: atta).
The Noble Eightfold Path, one of the main outlines of the Buddhist
path to awakening. The eight factors are: Right View, Right Intention,
Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right
Mindfulness, and Right Samadhi.
The practice of taking refuge in the “Triple Gems”: the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Saแน…gha.
The Seven Aids to Awakening (satta bojjhaแน…gฤ): mindfulness (sati),
investigation (dhamma vicaya), energy (viriya), bliss (pฤซti), relaxation
(passaddhi), samฤdhi, and equanimity (upekkha).
The six sense bases (saแธทฤyatana) and a corresponding theory of Sense impression (phassa) and consciousness (viรฑรฑana).
Various frameworks for the practice of mindfulness (sati), mainly,
the four satipatthanas (establishments of mindfulness) and the 16
elements of anapanasati (mindfulness of breathing).

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Abhidhamma philosophy
Main article: Theravฤda Abhidhamma
Ledi Sayadaw, was one of the great Abhidhamma scholars of the 20th century as well as a teacher of meditation.
Theravฤda
scholastics developed a systematic exposition of the Buddhist doctrine
called the Abhidhamma. In the Pฤli Nikayas, the Buddha teaches through
an analytical method in which experience is explained using various
conceptual groupings of physical and mental processes, which are called
“dhammas”. Examples of lists of dhammas taught by the Buddha include the
twelve sense ’spheres’ or ayatanas, the five aggregates or khanda and
the eighteen elements of cognition or dhatus.
Theravฤda
traditionally promotes itself as the Vibhajjavฤda “teaching of
analysis” and as the heirs to the Buddha’s analytical method. Expanding
this model, Theravฤda Abhidhamma scholasticism concerned itself with
analyzing “ultimate truth” (paramattha-sacca) which it sees as being
composed of all possible dhammas and their relationships. The central
theory of the Abhidhamma is thus known as the “dhamma theory”. “Dhamma”
has been translated as “factors” (Collett Cox), “psychic
characteristics” (Bronkhorst), “psycho-physical events” (Noa Ronkin) and
“phenomena” (Nyanaponika Thera).
According
to the Sri Lankan scholar Y. Karunadasa, a dhammas (”principles” or
“elements”) are “those items that result when the process of analysis is
taken to its ultimate limits”.[98] However, this does not mean that
they have an independent existence, for it is “only for the purposes of
description” that they are postulated. Noa Ronkin defines dhammas as
“the constituents of sentient experience; the irreducible ‘building
blocks’ that make up one’s world, albeit they are not static mental
contents and certainly not substances.” Thus, while in Theravฤda
Abhidhamma, dhammas are the ultimate constituents of experience, they
are not seen as substances, essences or independent particulars, since
they are empty (suรฑรฑa) of a self (attฤ) and conditioned. This is spelled
out in the Patisambhidhamagga, which states that dhammas are empty of
svabhava (sabhavena suรฑรฑam).
According
to Ronkin, the canonical Pฤli Abhidhamma remains pragmatic and
psychological, and “does not take much interest in ontology” in contrast
with the Sarvastivada tradition. Paul Williams also notes that the
Abhidhamma remains focused on the practicalities of insight meditation
and leaves ontology “relatively unexplored”. Ronkin does note however
that later Theravฤda sub-commentaries (แนญฤซkฤ) do show a doctrinal shift
towards ontological realism from the earlier epistemic and practical
concerns.
The
Theravฤda Abhidhamma holds that there is a total of 82 possible types
of dhammas, 81 of these are conditioned (sankhata), while one is
unconditioned, which is nibbana. The 81 conditioned dhammas are divided
into three broad categories: consciousness (citta), associated mentality
(cetasika) and materiality, or physical phenomena (rupa). Since no
dhamma exists independently, every single dhamma of consciousness, known
as a citta, arises associated (sampayutta) with at least seven mental
factors (cetasikas). In Abhidhamma, all awareness events are thus seen
as being characterized by intentionality and never exist in isolation.
Much of Abhidhamma philosophy deals with categorizing the different
consciousnesses and their accompanying mental factors as well as their
conditioned relationships (paccaya).
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Cosmology
Sakka in Tavatimsa Heaven, Wat Yang Thong, Songkhla, Thailand.
A Burmese depiction of a hell scene
Main article: Buddhist cosmology of the Theravada school
The
Pฤli Tipiแนญaka outlines a hierarchical cosmological system with various
planes existence (bhava) into which sentient beings may be reborn
depending on their past actions. Good actions lead one to the higher
realms, bad actions lead to the lower realms. However, even for the gods
(devas) in the higher realms like Indra and Vishnu, there is still
death, loss and suffering.
The main categories of the planes of existence are:
Arลซpa-bhava, the formless or incorporeal plane. These are associated
with the four formless meditations, that is: infinite space, infinite
consciousness, infinite nothingness and neither perception nor
non-perception. Beings in these realms live extremely long lives
(thousands of kappas).
Kฤma-bhava, the plane of desires. This includes numerous realms of
existence such as: various hells (niraya) which are devoid of happiness,
the realms of animals, the hungry ghosts (peta), the realm of humans,
and various heaven realms where the devas live (such as Tavatimsa and
Tusita).
Rลซpa-bhava,
the plane of form. The realms in this plane are associated with the
four meditative absorptions (jhanas) and those who attain these
meditations are reborn in these divine realms.
These
various planes of existence can be found in countless world systems
(loka-dhatu), which are born, expand, contract and are destroyed in a
cyclical nature across vast expanses of time (measures in kappas). This
cosmology is similar to other ancient Indian systems, such as the Jain
cosmology. This entire cyclical multiverse of constant birth and death
is called samsara. Outside of this system of samsara is nibbana (lit.
“vanishing, quenching, blowing out”), a deathless (amata) and
transcendent reality, which is a total and final release (vimutti) from
all suffering (dukkha) and rebirth.


Soteriology and Buddhology
According to Theravฤda doctrine, release from suffering (i.e. nibbana) is attained in four stages of awakening (bodhi):
Stream-Enterers: Those who have destroyed the first three fetters
(the false view of self, doubt/indecision, and clinging to ethics and
vows);
Once-Returners: Those who have destroyed the first three fetters and have weakened the fetters of desire and ill-will;
Non-Returners: Those who have destroyed the five lower fetters, which bind beings to the world of the senses;
Arahants (lit. “honorable” or “worthies”): Those who have realized
Nibbana and are free from all defilements. They have abandoned all
ignorance, craving for existence, restlessness (uddhacca) and subtle
pride (mฤna).
In
Theravฤda Buddhism, a Buddha is a sentient being who has discovered the
path out of samsara by themselves, has reached Nibbana and then makes
the path available to others by teaching (known as “turning the wheel of
the Dhamma”). A Buddha is also believed to have extraordinary powers
and abilities (abhiรฑรฑฤ), such as the ability to read minds and fly
through the air.
The
Theravฤda canon depicts Gautama Buddha as being the most recent Buddha
in a line of previous Buddhas stretching back for aeons. They also
mention the future Buddha, named Metteya. Traditionally, the Theravฤda
school also rejects the idea that there can be numerous Buddhas active
in the world at the same time.
A Burmese illustrated manuscript depicting Sumedha (the future Buddha Gautama) and Dฤซpankara Buddha.
Regarding
the question of how a sentient being becomes a Buddha, the Theravฤda
school also includes a presentation of this path. Indeed, according to
Buddhaghosa, there are three main soteriological paths: the path of the
Buddhas (buddhayฤna); the way of the individual Buddhas
(paccekabuddhayฤna); and the way of the disciples (sฤvakayฤna).
However,
unlike in Mahayana Buddhism, the Theravฤda holds that the Buddha path
is not for everyone and that beings on the Buddha path (bodhisattas) are
quite rare. While in Mahayana, bodhisattas refers to beings who have
developed the wish to become Buddhas, Theravฤda (like other early
Buddhist schools), defines a bodhisatta as someone who has made a
resolution (abhinฤซhฤra) to become a Buddha in front of a living Buddha,
and has also received a confirmation from that Buddha that they will
reach Buddhahood. Dhammapala’s Cariyฤpiแนญaka is a Theravฤda text which
focuses on the path of the Buddhas, while the Nidฤnakathฤ and the
Buddhavaแนƒsa are also Theravฤda texts which discuss the Buddha path.
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Main doctrinal differences with other Buddhist traditions
A
statue of the arahant Moggallana, who is identifiable by his dark
(nila, i.e. blue/black) skin. He was one of the two most senior
disciples of the Buddha and the foremost in psychic powers.
The
orthodox standpoints of Theravฤda in comparison to other Buddhist
schools are presented in the Kathฤvatthu (”Points of Controversy”), as
well as in other works by later commentators like Buddhaghosa.
Traditionally,
the Theravฤda maintains the following key doctrinal positions, though
not all Theravฤdins agree with the traditional point of view:
On the philosophy of time, the Theravฤda tradition follows
philosophical presentism, the view that only present moment phenomena
(dhamma) exist, against the eternalist view of the Sarvฤstivฤdin
tradition, which held that dhammas exist in all three times โ€“ past,
present, future.
The
arahant is never a layperson, for they have abandoned the fetters of a
layperson, including married life, using money, etc.
The power (bala) of a Buddha is unique and not common to the disciples (savaka) or arahants.
Theravฤda Abhidhamma holds that a single thought (citta) cannot last as long as a day.
Theravฤda Abhidhamma holds that insight into the four noble truths
happens in one moment (khaแน‡a), rather than gradually (anupubba), as was
held by Sarvastivada. The defilements (kilesa) are also abandoned in a
single moment, not gradually.[citation needed]
Theravฤda Abhidhamma traditionally rejects the view that there is an
intermediate or transitional state (antarabhฤva) between rebirths, they
hold that rebirth happens instantaneously (in one mind moment).
However, as has been noted by various modern scholars like Bhikkhu
Sujato, there are canonical passages which support the idea of an
intermediate state (such as the Kutuhalasฤla Sutta). Some Theravฤda
scholars (such as Balangoda Ananda Maitreya) have defended the idea of
an intermediate state and it is also a very common belief among some
monks and laypersons in the Theravฤda world (where it is commonly
referred to as the gandhabba or antarabhฤva).
Theravฤda also does not accept the Mahayana notion that there are
two forms of nibbana, an inferior “localized” or “abiding” (pratiแนฃแนญhita)
nirvana and a non-abiding (apratiแนฃแนญhita) nirvana. Such a dual nirvana
theory is absent in the suttas. According to the Kathฤvatthu, there can
be no divining line separating the unconditioned element and there is no
superiority or inferiority in the unity of nibbana.
Theravฤda exegetical works consider nibbana to be a real existent,
instead of just a conceptual or nominal existent (prajรฑapti) referring
to the mere destruction (khayamatta) of the defilements or non-existence
of the five aggregates, as was held by some in the Sautrantika school
for example. In Theravฤda scholasticism, nibbana is defined as the
cessation (nirodha) consisting in non-arising and exists separately from
the mere destruction of passion, hatred and delusion.
Theravฤda exegetical works, mental phenomena last for a very short moment or instant (khaแน‡a), but physical phenomena do not.
Theravฤda holds that the Buddha resided in the human realm
(manussa-loka). It rejects the docetic view found in Mahayana, which
says that the Buddha’s physical body was a mere manifestation, emanation
or magical creation (nirmฤแน‡a) of a transcendental being, and thus, that
his birth and death a mere show and unreal. Also, the Theravฤda school
rejects the view that there are currently numerous Buddhas in all
directions.
Theravฤda holds that there is a ground level of consciousness called the
bhavaแน…ga, which conditions the rebirth consciousness.
Theravฤda rejects the Pudgalavada doctrine of the pudgala (”person”
or “personal entity”) as being more than a conceptual designation
imputed on the five aggregates.
Theravฤda rejects the view of the Lokottaravada schools which held
that the all acts done by the Buddha (including all speech, defecation
and urination, etc.) were supramundane or transcendental (lokuttara).
Also, for Theravฤda, a Buddha does not have the power to stop something
that has arisen from ceasing, they cannot stop a being from getting old,
sick or dying, and they cannot create a permanent thing (like a flower
that doesn’t die).
Theravฤda traditionally defends the idea that the Buddha himself taught
the Abhidhamma Pitaka. This is now being questioned by some modern
Theravฤdins in light of modern Buddhist studies scholarship.
Theravฤda, nibbana is the only unconstructed phenomenon
(asankhata-dhamma, asankhatadhatu). Unlike in the Sarvฤstivฤda school,
space (akasa), is seen as a constructed dhamma in Theravฤda. Even the
four noble truths are not unconstructed phenomena, neither is the domain
of cessation (nirodhasamapatti). “Tness” (tathatฤ) is also a
constructed phenomenon. According to the Dhammasangani, nibbana, the
unconstructed element, is ‘without condition’ (appaccaya) and is
different from the five aggregates which are ‘with condition’
(sappaccaya).
Theravฤda, the bodhisatta path is suitable only for a few exceptional
people (like Sakyamuni and Metteya) Theravฤda also defines a bodhisatta
as someone who has made a vow in front of a living Buddha..
Theravฤda, there is a physical sensory organ (indriya) that
conditions the mental consciousness (manovinรฑฤna) and is the material
support for consciousness. Some later Theravฤda works like the
Visuddhimagga locate this physical basis for consciousness at the heart
(hadaya-vatthu), the Pali Canon itself is silent on this issue. Some
modern Theravฤda scholars propose alternative notions. For example,
Suwanda H. J. Sugunasiri proposes that the basis for consciousness is
the entire physical organism, which he ties with the canonical concept
of jฤซvitindriya or life faculty. W. F. Jayasuriya meanwhile, argues that
“hadaya” is not meant literally (it can also mean “essence”, “core”),
but refers to the entire nervous system (including the brain), which is
dependent on the heart and blood.
Theravฤdins generally reject the Mahayana sutras as Buddhavacana
(word of the Buddha), and do not study or see these texts (or Mahayana
doctrines) as reliable sources. They reject the view that the Tipitaka
is incomplete or inferior (i.e. “Hinayana”) and that Mahayana texts are
somehow more advanced.
Theravฤdins traditionally believe that an awakened arahant has an
“incorruptible nature” and are thus morally perfect. They have no
ignorance or doubts. According to Theravฤda doctrine, arahants (as well
as the other three lesser ariyas: stream enterers etc.) cannot fall back
or regress from their state

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Modern developments
The
modern era saw new developments in Theravฤda scholarship due to the
influence of Western thought. As Donald K. Swearer writes:
Although monastic education is still grounded in the study of
Buddhist texts, doctrine, and the Pali language, the curricula of
monastic colleges and universities also reflect subject matter and
disciplines associated with Western education.
Buddhist
modernist trends can be traced to figures like Anagarika Dhammapala,
King Mongkut, and the first prime minister of Burma U Nu. They promoted a
form of Buddhism that was compatible with rationalism and science, and
opposed to superstition and certain folk practices. Walpola Rahula’s,
What the Buddha Taught is seen by scholars as an introduction to
modernist Buddhist thought and the book continues to be widely used in
universities.
Another
modern phenomenon is Buddhist philosophers who received an education in
the West, such as K. N. Jayatilleke (a student of Wittgenstein at
Cambridge) and Hammalawa Saddhatissa (who received his Phd at
Edinburgh), going on to write modern works on Buddhist philosophy (Early
Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, 1963 and Buddhist Ethics, 1987
respectively). Henepola Gunaratana is another modern Theravฤda scholar
who studied philosophy in the west (at the American University). The
modern encounter with Christian missionaries also led to new debates
(such as the Panadura debate) and doctrinal works written in defense of
Buddhism or attacking Christian ideas, such as Gunapala Dharmasiri’s A
Buddhist critique of the Christian concept of God (1988).
There
have also been several modern Theravฤda scholars which have taken a
historical critical perspective on Theravฤda literature and doctrine,
attempting to understand its historical development. Some of these
figures, such as David Kalupahana, Buddhadasa, and Bhikkhu Sujato, have
criticized traditional Theravฤda commentators like Buddhaghosa for their
doctrinal innovations which differ in significant ways from the early
Buddhist texts.
The
modern era also saw new Buddhist works on topics which pre-modern
Buddhists avoided, such as socially engaged Buddhism and Buddhist
economics. Thinkers such as Buddhadasa, Sulak Sivaraksa, Prayudh
Payutto, Neville Karunatilake and Padmasiri de Silva have written on
these topics. Modern scholarship in western languages by western
Buddhist monks such as Nyanatiloka, Nyanaponika, Nyanamoli, Bhikkhu
Bodhi and Analayo is another recent development in the Theravฤda world.
Practice (paแนญipatti)
The Dhamma Wheel with eight spokes usually symbolizes the Noble Eightfold Path.
Textual basis
In
the Pฤli Canon, the path (magga) or way (patipada) of Buddhist practice
is described in various ways, one of the most widely used frameworks in
Theravฤda is the Noble Eightfold Path:
The Blessed One said, “Now what, monks, is the Noble Eightfold Path?
Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.”
The
Noble Eightfold Path can also be summarized as the Three Noble
Disciplines of sฤซla (moral conduct or discipline), Samฤdhi (meditation
or concentration) and Paรฑรฑฤ (understanding or wisdom).
Theravฤda
orthodoxy takes the seven stages of purification as outlined in the
Visuddhimagga as the basic outline of the path to be followed. The
Visuddhimagga, a Sinhala Theravฤda doctrinal summa written in the fifth
century by Buddhaghosa, became the orthodox account of the Theravฤda
path to liberation in Sri Lanka after the 12th century and this
influence spread to other Theravฤda nations.It gives the sequence of
seven purifications, in three sections:
The first section (part 1) explains the rules of discipline, and the
method for finding a correct temple to practice, or how to meet a good
teacher.
The second
section (part 2) describes Samatha (calming) practice, object by object
(see Kammaแนญแนญhฤna for the list of the forty traditional objects). It
mentions different stages of Samฤdhi.
The third section (parts 3โ€“7) is a description of the five khandhas,
ayatanas, the Four Noble Truths, dependent origination, and the
practise of Vipassanฤ (insight) through the development of wisdom. It
emphasizes different forms of knowledge emerging because of the
practice. This part shows a great analytical effort specific to Buddhist
philosophy.
This
basic outline is based on the threefold discipline. The emphasis is on
understanding the three marks of existence, which removes ignorance.
Understanding destroys the ten fetters and leads to Nibbana.
Theravฤdins
believe that every individual is personally responsible for achieving
his or her own self-awakening and liberation, each being responsible for
his or her own kamma (actions and consequences). Applying knowledge
acquired through direct experience and personal realization is more
heavily emphasized than beliefs about the nature of reality as revealed
by the Buddha.
Moral conduct
Giving
(Dana) is an important Buddhist virtue. The community of monastics is
seen as the most meritorious field of karmic fruitfulness.
Sฤซla,
meaning moral conduct, is mainly defined as right speech, right action,
and right livelihood. It is primarily understood through the doctrine
of kamma. In Theravฤda, one’s previous intentional actions strongly
influence one’s present experience. Whatever intended actions are
carried out will have future consequences, whether in this life or
subsequent lives. Intention is central to the idea of kamma. Actions
done with good intentions, even if they have bad results, will not have
negative kammic consequences.
Several
sets of precepts or moral trainings (sikkhฤpada) guide right action.
After taking Refuge in the Triple Gems, lay Theravฤdin Buddhists
traditionally take the Five precepts (whether for life or for a limited
time) in the presence of Sangha. Laypeople also sometimes take an
extended set of Eight precepts, which includes chastity during sacred
days of observance such as Uposatha.
Performing
good deeds is another important feature of Theravฤdin Buddhist ethics.
Doing so is said to make “merit” (puรฑรฑa), which results in a better
rebirth. The “ten wholesome actions” is a common list of good deeds:
Generosity (Dฤna); This typically involves providing monks with “the
four requisites”; food, clothing, shelter, and medicine; however,
giving to charity and the needy is also considered dฤna.
Moral conduct (Sฤซla); Keeping the five precepts and generally refraining from doing harm.
Meditation (Bhฤvanฤ).
Dedication of merit; doing good deeds in the name of someone who has passed away or in the name of all sentient beings.
Rejoicing in merit of good deeds done by others, this is common in communal activities.
Rendering service to others; looking after others or needy.
Honoring others; showing appropriate deference, particularly to the
Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and to seniors and parents. Usually done by
placing the hands together in Aรฑjali Mudrฤ, and sometimes bowing.
Preaching or sharing the Dhamma; the gift of Dhamma is seen as a form of highest gift. (Dhammapada 354)
Listening to Dhamma
Having right view or Sammฤdiแนญแนญhi; mainly the Four Noble Truths and the three marks of existence.
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Meditation
Main article: Buddhist meditation
Theravฤdin monks meditating in Bodh Gaya (Bihar, India)
Meditation (Pฤli: Bhฤvanฤ, literally “causing to become” or cultivation) means the positive cultivation of one’s mind.
Forms
Theravฤda
Buddhist meditation practice varies considerably in technique and
objects. Currently, there are also various traditions of Theravฤda
meditation practice, such as the Burmese Vipassana tradition, the Thai
Forest Tradition, the esoteric Borฤn kammaแนญแนญhฤna (’ancient practices’),
the Burmese Weikza tradition, Dhammakaya meditation and the Western
Insight Meditation movement.
Theravฤda
Buddhist meditation practices or Bhavana (mental cultivation) are
categorized into two broad categories: Samatha bhavana (calming), and
Vipassanฤ bhavana (investigation, insight).[web 9] Originally these
referred to effects or qualities of meditation, but after the time of
Buddhaghosa, they also referred to two distinct meditation types or
paths (yฤna).
Samatha
(”calm”) consists of meditation techniques in which the mind is focused
on a single object, thought, or gatha, leading to Samฤdhi’. In
traditional Theravฤda it is considered to be the base for vipassanฤ
(”insght”). In the Theravฤda-tradition, as early as the Pฤli Nikayas,
the four jhฤnas are regarded as a samatha-practice. The eighth and final
step of the Eightfold Path, Right Samadhi, is often defined as the four
jhanas. In the Pฤli Nikayas, Jhฤnas are described as preceding the
awakening insight of the Buddha, which turned him into an awakened
being. Yet the interpretation of jhana as single-pointed concentration
and calm may be a later re-interpretation in which the original aim of
jhana was lost.
Vipassana
(”insight”, “clear seeing”) refers to practices that aim to develop an
inner understanding or knowledge of the nature of phenomena (dhammas),
especially the characteristics of dukkha, anatta and anicca, which are
seen as being universally applicable to all constructed phenomena
(sankhata-dhammas). Vipassana is also described as insight into
dependent origination, the five aggregates, the sense spheres and the
Four Noble Truths. It is the primary focus of the modernist Burmese
Vipassana movement. In western countries it is complemented with the
four divine abidings, the development of loving-kindness and compassion.
Vipassana
practice begins with the preparatory stage, the practice of sila,
morality, giving up worldly thoughts and desires. The practitioner then
engages in anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing, which is described in
the Satipatthana Sutta as going into the forest and sitting beneath a
tree and then simply to watch the breath. If the breath is long, to
notice that the breath is long, if the breath is short, to notice that
the breath is short. In the “New Burmese Method” the practitioner pays
attention to any arising mental or physical phenomenon, engaging in
vitaka, noting or naming physical and mental phenomena (”breathing,
breathing”), without engaging the phenomenon with conceptual thinking.
By noticing the arising of physical and mental phenomena the meditator
becomes aware of how sense impressions arise from the contact between
the senses and physical and mental phenomena, as described in the five
skandhas and paแนญiccasamuppฤda. The practitioner also becomes aware of
the perpetual changes involved in breathing, and the arising and passing
away of mindfulness. This noticing is accompanied by reflections on
causation and other Buddhist teachings, leading to insight into dukkha,
anatta, and anicca. When the three characteristics have been
comprehended, reflection subdues and the process of noticing
accelerates, noting phenomena in general without necessarily naming
them.
According
to Vajiranฤแน‡a Mahathera, writing from a traditional and text-based
point of view, in the Pฤli Canon whether one begins the practice by way
of samatha or by way of vipassanฤ is generally seen as depending on
one’s temperament. According to Vajiranฤแน‡a Mahathera, it is generally
held that there are two kinds of individuals. Those of a passionate
disposition (or those who enter the path by faith) attain Arahatship
through vipassanฤ preceded by samatha. Those of a skeptical disposition
(or those who enter by way of wisdom or the intellect) achieve it
through samatha preceded by vipassanฤ.

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Aims of meditation
Ajahn Mun, a key figure in the founding of the Thai Forest Tradition, is widely considered to have been an Arahant in Thailand.
Traditionally,
the ultimate goal of the practice is to achieve mundane and
supramundane wisdom. Mundane wisdom is the insight in the three marks of
existence. The development of this insight leads to four supramundane
paths and fruits, these experiences consist a direct apprehension of
Nibbana. Supramundane (lokuttara) wisdom refers to that which transcends
the world of samsara.
Apart
from nibbana, there are various reasons why traditional Theravฤda
Buddhism advocates meditation, including a good rebirth, supranormal
powers, combating fear and preventing danger. Recent modernist
Theravฤdins have tended to focus on the psychological benefits and
psychological well-being.
Historical development and sources
The
practice of Theravฤda meditation can be traced back to the 5th century
exegete Buddhaghosa, who systematized the classic Theravฤda meditation,
dividing them into samatha and vipassana types and listing 40 different
forms (known as “kammaแนญแนญhฤnas”, “workplaces”) in his magnum opus, the
Visuddhimagga. This text has remained central for the study and practice
of Theravฤda meditation. Buddhaghosa’s commentary on the Satipatthana
sutta (”Bases of mindfulness discourse”), as well as the source text
itself, are also another important source for meditation in this
tradition.Buddhaghosa’s work drew heavily on the Pali suttas as well as
the Pali Abhidhamma. Kate Crosby notes that Buddhaghosa’s work also
“explicitly refers to the contemporaneous existence of secret meditation
manuals but not to their content.”
Regarding post Visuddhimagga Theravฤda meditation, according to Kate Crosby,
In the period between the Visuddhimagga and the present, there have
been numerous meditation texts, both manuals and descriptive treatises.
Many of the texts found in manuscript collections relate to meditation,
some on a single, simple subject such as the recollection of the
qualities of the Buddha, others more complex. Little research has been
done to assess their variety. One difficulty is that meditation manuals
as such are often in a mixture of a classical language, that is, Pali,
and a vernacular that may or may not be a currently used language. Also,
actual manuals often contain prompts or reminders rather than an
in-depth explanation. In recent years it has emerged that there is still
extant a relatively high number of manuals and related texts pertaining
to a system of meditation called โ€“ among other things โ€“ borฤn
kammaแนญแนญhฤna or yogฤvacara. Its core text, the Mลซla-kammaแนญแนญhฤna
“original, fundamental or basic meditation practice,” circulated under a
number of different titles, or without a title, throughout the
Taiโ€“Laoโ€“Khmer and Sri Lankan Buddhist worlds. Some versions of this text
are simple lists of kammaแนญแนญhฤna and from that perspective look entirely
in accord with the Visuddhimagga or Theravada Abhidhamma texts. Other
versions contain extensive narratives, explanations of symbolism, and of
the somatic locations involved in the practice that make it clear that
we are dealing with techniques of practice not described in the Canon or
Visuddhimagga.
According
to Crosby, the esoteric borฤn kammaแนญแนญhฤna or yogฤvacara meditation
tradition was the dominant form of meditation in the Theravฤda world
during the 18th century, and may date as far back as the 16th century.
Crosby notes that this tradition of meditation involved a rich
collection of symbols, somatic methods and visualizations which included
“the physical internalisation or manifestation of aspects of the
Theravada path by incorporating them at points in the body between the
nostril and navel.” In spite of the novel elements in this meditation
tradition, close study of borฤn kammaแนญแนญhฤna texts reveals that they are
closely connected to Theravada Abhidhamma and the works of
Buddhaghosa.Modernist reforms which emphasized Pali Canon study, a shift
in state support to other traditions and modern wars in Indochina led
to this tradition’s decline, and it now only survives in a few Cambodian
and Thai temples.


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Ordination
Candidates for the Buddhist monkhood being ordained as monks in Thailand
The
minimum age for ordaining as a Buddhist monk is 20 years, reckoned from
conception. However, boys under that age are allowed to ordain as
novices (sฤmaแน‡era), performing a ceremony such as shinbyu in Myanmar.
Novices shave their heads, wear the yellow robes, and observe the Ten
Precepts. Although no specific minimum age for novices is mentioned in
the scriptures, traditionally boys as young as seven are accepted. This
tradition follows the story of the Buddha’s son, Rahula, who was allowed
to become a novice at the age of seven. Monks follow 227 rules of
discipline, while nuns follow 311 rules.
In
most Theravฤda countries, it is a common practice for young men to
ordain as monks for a fixed period of time. In Thailand and Myanmar,
young men typically ordain for the retreat during Vassa, the three-month
monsoon season, though shorter or longer periods of ordination are not
rare. Traditionally, temporary ordination was even more flexible among
Laotians. Once they had undergone their initial ordination as young men,
Laotian men were permitted to temporarily ordain again at any time,
though married men were expected to seek their wife’s permission.
Throughout Southeast Asia, there is little stigma attached to leaving
the monastic life. Monks regularly leave the robes after acquiring an
education, or when compelled by family obligations or ill health.
Ordaining
as a monk, even for a short period, is seen as having many virtues. In
many Southeast Asian cultures, it is seen as a means for a young man to
“repay his gratitude” to his parents for their work and effort in
raising him, because the merit from his ordination is dedicated for
their well-being. Thai men who have ordained as a monk may be seen as
more mature and suitable husbands by Thai women, who refer to men who
have served as monks with a colloquial term meaning “ripe” to indicate
that they are more mature and ready for marriage. Particularly in rural
areas, temporary ordination of boys and young men traditionally offered
peasant boys an opportunity to receive free education in temple schools
with sponsorship and accommodation.
In
Sri Lanka, temporary ordination is not practised, and a monk leaving
the order is frowned upon but not condemned. The continuing influence of
the caste system in Sri Lanka plays a role in the taboo against
temporary or permanent ordination as a bhikkhu in some orders. Though
Sri Lankan orders are often organized along caste lines, men who ordain
as monks temporarily pass outside of the conventional caste system, and
as such during their time as monks may act (or be treated) in a way that
would not be in line with the expected duties and privileges of their
caste.[citation needed]
If
men and women born in Western countries, who become Buddhists as
adults, wish to become monks or nuns, it is possible, and one can live
as a monk or nun in the country they were born in, seek monks or nuns
gathered in a different Western country, or move to a monastery in
countries like Sri Lanka or Thailand. It is thought as easier to live
life as a monk or nun in countries where people generally live by the
culture of Buddhism, since it is very challenging and required much
discipline to live by the rules of a monk or a nun in a Western country.
For instance, a Theravฤda monk or nun is not supposed to work, handle
money, listen to music, cook, etc. These are extremely difficult rules
to live by in cultures that do not embrace Buddhism.[citation needed]
Some
of the more well-known Theravฤdin monks are Ajahn Mun, Ajahn Chah, Ledi
Sayadaw, Webu Sayadaw, Narada Maha Thera, Ajahn Plien Panyapatipo,
Buddhadasa, Mahasi Sayadaw, Nyanatiloka Mahathera, Nyanaponika Thera,
Preah Maha Ghosananda, U Pandita, Ajahn Sumedho, Ajahn Khemadhammo,
Ajahn Brahm, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Ajahn Amaro, Ajahn Sucitto, Ajahn Jayasaro,
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Walpola Rahula Thero, Henepola Gunaratana, Bhaddanta
ฤ€ciแน‡แน‡a, Bhante Yogavacara Rahula, Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro, K. Sri
Dhammananda, Sayadaw U Tejaniya and Bhikkhu Analayo.

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Monastic practices
A Buddhist Monk chants evening prayers inside a monastery located near the town of Kantharalak, Thailand.
The
practices usually vary in different sub-schools and monasteries within
Theravฤda. But in the most orthodox forest monastery, the monk usually
models his practice and lifestyle on that of the Buddha and his first
generation of disciples by living close to nature in forest, mountains
and caves. Forest monasteries still keep alive the ancient traditions
through following the Buddhist monastic code of discipline in all its
detail and developing meditation in secluded forests.
In
a typical daily routine at the monastery during the 3-month vassa
period, the monk will wake up before dawn and will begin the day with
group chanting and meditation. At dawn the monks will go out to
surrounding villages bare-footed on alms-round and will have the only
meal of the day before noon by eating from the bowl by hand. Most of the
time is spent on Dhamma study and meditation. Sometimes the abbot or a
senior monk will give a Dhamma talk to the visitors. Laity who stay at
the monastery will have to abide by the traditional eight Buddhist
precepts.
The
life of the monk or nun in a community is much more complex than the
life of the forest monk. In the Buddhist society of Sri Lanka, most
monks spend hours every day in taking care of the needs of lay people
such as preaching bana,[204] accepting alms, officiating funerals,
teaching dhamma to adults and children in addition to providing social
services to the community.
After
the end of the Vassa period, many of the monks will go out far away
from the monastery to find a remote place (usually in the forest) where
they can hang their umbrella tents and where it is suitable for the work
of self-development. When they go wandering, they walk barefoot, and go
wherever they feel inclined. Only those requisites which are necessary
will be carried along. These generally consist of the bowl, the three
robes, a bathing cloth, an umbrella tent, a mosquito net, a kettle of
water, a water filter, razor, sandals, some small candles, and a candle
lantern.
The
monks do not fix their times for walking and sitting meditation, for as
soon as they are free they just start doing it; nor do they determine
for how long they will go on to meditate. Some of them sometimes walk
from dusk to dawn whereas at other times they may walk from between two
and seven hours. Some may decide to fast for days or stay at dangerous
places where ferocious animals live in order to aid their meditation.
Those
monks who have been able to achieve a high level of attainment will be
able to guide the junior monks and lay Buddhists toward the four degrees
of spiritual attainment.
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Monastic orders within Theravฤda
Thai monks blessing the King of Thailand in Wat Nong Wong, Amphoe Sawankhalok, Sukhothai, Thailand.
Theravฤda
monks typically belong to a particular nikaya, variously referred to as
monastic orders or fraternities. These different orders do not
typically develop separate doctrines, but may differ in the manner in
which they observe monastic rules. These monastic orders represent
lineages of ordination, typically tracing their origin to a particular
group of monks that established a new ordination tradition within a
particular country or geographic area.
In
Sri Lanka caste plays a major role in the division into nikayas. Some
Theravฤda Buddhist countries appoint or elect a sangharaja, or Supreme
Patriarch of the Sangha, as the highest ranking or seniormost monk in a
particular area, or from a particular nikaya. The demise of monarchies
has resulted in the suspension of these posts in some countries, but
patriarchs have continued to be appointed in Thailand. Myanmar and
Cambodia ended the practice of appointing a sangharaja for some time,
but the position was later restored, though in Cambodia it lapsed
again.[citation needed]
Bangladesh:
Mahasthabir Nikaya
Sangharaj Nikaya
Myanmar (Myanmar):
Dwara Nikaya
Hngettwin Nikaya
Shwekyin Nikaya
Thudhamma Nikaya
Sri Lanka:
Amarapura Nikaya has many Sub orders including
Dharmarakshitha
Kanduboda (or Swejin Nikaya)
Tapovana (or Kalyanavamsa)
Ramaรฑรฑa Nikaya
Delduwa
Sri Kalyani Yogasrama Samstha (or ‘Galduwa Tradition’)
Siam Nikaya
Asgiriya
Malwaththa
Rohana
Waturawila (or Mahavihara Vamshika Shyamopali Vanavasa Nikaya)
Thailand and Cambodia
Dhammayuttika Nikaya
Maha Nikaya
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