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𝓛𝓔𝓢𝓢𝓞𝓝 4319 Thu 20 Jan 2022 Do Good Purify Mind said the Awakened One So whoever — man or woman —is endowed with the virtues of the eight-factored Uposatha, having done meritorious deeds, productive of bliss, beyond reproach, goes to the heavenly state. Should we not start swimming 🏊‍♀️ pools every where and for the disabled people as suggested by our late Sri Jagadhale ji May be an image of text that says “DISABLED &proudtobe” and plant vegetables 🥗 and dwarf fruit 🍎 bearing plants like Ashoka the Great did and 🪴 in pots to overcome Hunger the greatest ill,the greatest suffering-conditionedness, said Awakened One knowing this reality at it is: Ultimate Happiness supreme that is the end of suffering. Earth the Spring of Nector (Amudha Surabhi,air,water,fire&space Combine to make this food. Numberless sentient and non sentient beings give their life & labor that we may eat. May we be nourished that we may nourish life! throughout the world for the benefit of all societies & for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal ? Let’s be calm, quiet, alert,attentive & have equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing. “Even fear is frightened by the bodhisattva’s fearlessness.” Then Awakened Universe is created.
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𝓛𝓔𝓢𝓢𝓞𝓝 4319 Thu  20 Jan 2022
Do Good Purify Mind said the Awakened One
So
whoever — man or woman —is endowed with the virtues of the
eight-factored Uposatha, having done meritorious deeds, productive of
bliss, beyond reproach, goes to the heavenly state.

Should we not start swimming 🏊‍♀️ pools every where and for the disabled people as suggested by our late Sri Jagadhale ji
May be an image of text that says
and plant vegetables 🥗 and dwarf fruit 🍎 bearing plants like Ashoka the Great did and 🪴 in pots to overcome Hunger the greatest ill,the greatest
suffering-conditionedness, said Awakened One knowing this reality at it
is:
Ultimate Happiness supreme that is the end of suffering.
Earth the Spring of Nector (Amudha Surabhi,air,water,fire&space
Combine to make this food.
Numberless sentient and non sentient beings give their life & labor that we may eat.
May we be nourished that we may nourish life! throughout the world for the benefit of all societies & for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final
Goal ?

Let’s be calm, quiet, alert,attentive & have equanimity mind
with a clear understanding that everything is changing.
“Even fear is frightened by the bodhisattva’s fearlessness.”
Then Awakened Universe is created.


Tree >> Sutta Piṭaka >> Aṅguttara Nikāya >> Tika Nipāta

AN 3.71 (A i 205)
Uposatha Sutta
— Practicing uposatha —
[uposatha]

English

In this sutta, the Buddha defines how lay people should practice Uposatha and describes the different types of devas.

So
whoever — man or woman —is endowed with the virtues of the
eight-factored Uposatha, having done meritorious deeds, productive of
bliss, beyond reproach, goes to the heavenly state.

I
have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi
at the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara’s mother. Now at that
time — it being the Uposatha day — Visakha, Migara’s mother, went to the
Blessed One in the middle of the day and, on arrival, having bowed down
to him, sat to one side. As she was sitting there the Blessed One said
to her:


— “Well now, Visakha, why are you coming in the middle of the day?”


— “Today I am observing the Uposatha, Lord.”
“And
what is the Uposatha of a cowherd? Just as when a cowherd returns the
cattle to their owners in the evening, he reflects: ‘Today the cattle
wandered to that spot and this, drank at this spot and that; tomorrow
they will wander to that spot and this, will drink at this spot and
that’; in the same way, there is the case where a certain person
observing the Uposatha reflects, ‘Today I ate this sort of non-staple
food and that sort of staple food. Tomorrow I will eat that sort of
non-staple food and this sort of staple food.’ He spends the day with an
awareness imbued with that covetousness, with that greed. Such is the
Uposatha of a cowherd, Visakha. When this Uposatha of a cowherd is
undertaken, it is not of great fruit or great benefit, not of great
glory or great radiance.


“And
what is the Uposatha of the Jains? There are the contemplatives called
the Niganthas (Jains). They get their disciple to undertake the
following practice: ‘Here, my good man. Lay down the rod with regard to
beings who live more than 100 leagues to the east… more than 100
leagues to the west… more than 100 leagues to the north… more than
100 leagues to the south.’ Thus they get the disciple to undertake
kindness & sympathy to some beings, but not to others.
“On
the Uposatha day, they get their disciple to undertake the following
practice: ‘Here, my good man. Having stripped off all your clothing, say
this: “I am nothing by anything or of anything. Thus there is nothing
by anything or of anything that is mine.”‘ Yet in spite of that, his
parents know of him that ‘This is our child.’ And he knows of them that
‘These are my parents.’ His wives & children know of him that ‘This
is our husband & father.’ And he knows of them that ‘These are my
wives & children.’ His workers & slaves know of him that ‘This
is our master.’ And he knows of them that ‘These are my workers &
slaves.’ Thus at a time when he should be persuaded to undertake
truthfulness, he is persuaded to undertake falsehood. At the end of the
night, he resumes the consumption of his belongings, even though they
aren’t given back to him. This counts as stealing, I tell you. Such is
the Uposatha of the Jains, Visakha. When this Uposatha of the Jains is
undertaken, it is not of great fruit or great benefit, not of great
glory or great radiance.
“And
what is the Uposatha of the Noble Ones? It is the cleansing of the
defiled mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind
cleansed through the proper technique?
“There
is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the
Tathagata, thus: ‘Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly
self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an
expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those
people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings,
awakened, blessed.’ As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is
calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just
as when the head is cleansed through the proper technique.

And
how is the head cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use
of cosmetic paste & clay & the appropriate human effort. This is
how the head is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way,
the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique.


And
how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is
the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Tathagata,
thus: ‘Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened,
consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard
to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed,
the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.’ As he is
recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the
defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of
the noble ones undertaking the Brahma-Uposatha. He lives with Brahma [=
the Buddha]. It is owing to Brahma that his mind is calmed, that joy
arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are
abandoned. This is how the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper
technique.

“[Again,
the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the defiled mind
through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed
through the proper technique?

“There
is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Dhamma,
thus: ‘The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here
& now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized
by the wise for themselves.’ As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind
is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned,
just as when the body is cleansed through the proper technique.


And
how is the body cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use
of scouring balls & bath powder & the appropriate human effort.
This is how the body is cleansed through the proper technique. In the
same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique.
And
how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is
the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Dhamma,
thus: ‘The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here
& now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by
the wise for themselves.’ As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is
cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He
is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the
Dhamma-Uposatha. He lives with Dhamma. It is owing to Dhamma that his
mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are
in his mind are abandoned. This is how the defiled mind is cleansed
through the proper technique.
“[Again,
the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the defiled mind
through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed
through the proper technique?

“There
is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sangha,
thus: ‘The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples who have practiced
well… who have practiced straight-forwardly… who have practiced
methodically… who have practiced masterfully — in other words, the
four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when
taken as individual types — they are the Sangha of the Blessed One’s
disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings,
worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world.’ As he
is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the
defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when clothing is cleansed
through the proper technique.


And
how is clothing cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use
of salt earth & lye & cow dung & the appropriate human
effort. This is how clothing is cleansed through the proper technique.
In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper
technique.And
how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique?

There is
the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sangha,
thus: ‘The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples who have practiced
well… who have practiced straight-forwardly… who have practiced
methodically… who have practiced masterfully — in other words, the
four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when
taken as individual types — they are the Sangha of the Blessed One’s
disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings,
worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world.’ As he
is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the
defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of
the noble ones undertaking the Sangha-Uposatha. He lives with the
Sangha. It is owing to the Sangha that his mind is calmed, that joy
arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are
abandoned. This is how the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper
technique.


“[Again,
the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the defiled mind
through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed
through the proper technique?

“There
is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own
virtues, thus: ‘[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered,
liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, conducive to
concentration.’ As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is calmed, and
joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a
mirror is cleansed through the proper technique.

And
how is a mirror cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use
of oil & ashes & chamois & the appropriate human effort.
This is how a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. In the
same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique.


And
how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is
the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own
virtues, thus: ‘[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered,
liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, conducive to
concentration.’ As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is cleansed, and
joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called
a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the virtue-Uposatha. He lives
with virtue. It is owing to virtue that his mind is calmed, that joy
arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are
abandoned. This is how the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper
technique.
“[Again,
the Uposatha of the Noble Ones] is the cleansing of the defiled mind
through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed
through the proper technique?

“There
is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas,
thus: ‘There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the
Thirty-three, the Yama Devas, the Contented Devas, the devas who delight
in creation, the devas who have power over the creations of others, the
devas of Brahma’s retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction
they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they
re-arose there, the same sort of conviction is present in me as well.
Whatever virtue they were endowed with that — when falling away from
this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of virtue is present in
me as well. Whatever learning they were endowed with that — when falling
away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is
present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that —
when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort
of generosity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were
endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose
there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well.’ As he is
recollecting the devas, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the
defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when gold is cleansed
through the proper technique.


And
how is gold cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of a
furnace, salt earth, red chalk, a blow-pipe, tongs, & the
appropriate human effort. This is how gold is cleansed through the
proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through
the proper technique.And
how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is
the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas,
thus: ‘There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the
Thirty-three, the Yama Devas, the Contented Devas, the devas who delight
in creation, the devas who have power over the creations of others, the
devas of Brahma’s retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction
they were endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they
re-arose there, the same sort of conviction is present in me as well.
Whatever virtue they were endowed with that — when falling away from
this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of virtue is present in
me as well. Whatever learning they were endowed with that — when falling
away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is
present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that —
when falling away from this life — they re-arose there, the same sort
of generosity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were
endowed with that — when falling away from this life — they re-arose
there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well.’ As he is
recollecting the devas, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the
defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of
the noble ones undertaking the Deva-Uposatha. He lives with the devas.
It is owing to the devas that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and
that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is
how the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique.


“Furthermore,
the disciple of the noble ones reflects thus: ‘As long as they live,
the arahants — abandoning the taking of life — abstain from the taking
of life. They dwell with their rod laid down, their knife laid down,
scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living
beings. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning the taking of
life — abstain from the taking of life. I dwell with my rod laid down,
my knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare
of all living beings. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants,
and my Uposatha will be observed.


“‘As
long as they live, the arahants — abandoning the taking of what is not
given — abstain from taking what is not given. They take only what is
given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a
self that has become pure. Today I too, for this day & night —
abandoning the taking of what is not given — abstain from taking what is
not given. I take only what is given, accept only what is given, live
not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. By means of
this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.

“‘As
long as they live, the arahants — abandoning uncelibacy — live a
celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the
villager’s way. Today I too, for this day & night — abandoning
uncelibacy — live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act
that is the villager’s way. By means of this factor I emulate the
arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.


“‘As
long as they live, the arahants — abandoning false speech — abstain
from false speech. They speak the truth, hold to the truth, are firm,
reliable, no deceivers of the world. Today I too, for this day &
night — abandoning false speech — abstain from false speech. I speak the
truth, hold to the truth, am firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.
By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be
observed.

“‘As
long as they live, the arahants — abandoning fermented & distilled
liquors that cause heedlessness — abstain from fermented & distilled
liquors that cause heedlessness. Today I too, for this day & night —
abandoning fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness —
abstain from fermented & distilled liquors that cause heedlessness.
By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha will be
observed.


“‘As
long as they live, the arahants live on one meal a day, abstaining from
food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of day [from noon
until dawn]. Today I too, for this day & night, live on one meal,
abstaining from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of
day. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my Uposatha
will be observed.

“‘As
long as they live, the arahants abstain from dancing, singing, music,
watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying themselves with perfumes
& cosmetics. Today I too, for this day & night, abstain from
dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying
myself with perfumes & cosmetics. By means of this factor I emulate
the arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.


“‘As
long as they live, the arahants — abandoning high & imposing seats
& beds — abstain from high & imposing seats & beds. They
make low beds, on a pallet or a spread of straw. Today I too, for this
day & night — abandoning high & imposing seats & beds —
abstain from high & imposing seats & beds. I make a low bed, on a
pallet or a spread of straw. By means of this factor I emulate the
arahants, and my Uposatha will be observed.’

“Such
is the Uposatha of the Noble Ones, Visakha. When this Uposatha of the
Noble Ones is undertaken, it is of great fruit & great benefit, of
great glory & great radiance. And how is it of great fruit &
great benefit, of great glory & great radiance?

“Suppose
that one were to exercise kingship, rule, & sovereignty over these
sixteen great lands replete with the seven treasures, i.e., over the
Angas, Maghadans, Kasis, Kosalans, Vajjians, Mallas, Cetis, Vansans,
Kurus, Pañcalas, Macchas, Surasenas, Assakas, Avantis, Gandharans, &
Kambojans: It would not be worth one-sixteenth of this Uposatha endowed
with eight factors. Why is that? Kingship over human beings is a meager
thing when compared with heavenly bliss.


Fifty
human years are equal to one day & night among the Devas of the
Four Great Kings. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve
such months make a year. Five hundred such heavenly years constitute the
life-span among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. Now, it is possible
that a certain man or woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed
with eight factors — on the break-up of the body, after death, might be
reborn among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. It was in reference to
this that it was said, ‘Kingship over human beings is a meager thing
when compared with heavenly bliss.
A
human century is equal to one day & night among the Devas of the
Thirty-Three. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve such
months make a year. One thousand such heavenly years constitute the
life-span among the Devas of the Thirty-Three. Now, it is possible that a
certain man or woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed with
eight factors — on the break-up of the body, after death, might be
reborn among the Devas of the Thirty-Three. It was in reference to this
that it was said, ‘Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when
compared with heavenly bliss.’


Two
human centuries are equal to one day & night among the Yama Devas.
Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve such months make a
year. Two thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span among
the Yama Devas. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman — from
having observed this Uposatha endowed with eight factors — on the
break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the Yama Devas.
It was in reference to this that it was said, ‘Kingship over human
beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.’


Four
human centuries are equal to one day & night among the Contented
Devas. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve such months
make a year. Four thousand such heavenly years constitute the life-span
among the Contented Devas. Now, it is possible that a certain man or
woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed with eight factors —
on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the
Contented Devas. It was in reference to this that it was said, ‘Kingship
over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.’



Eight
human centuries is equal to one day & night among the Devas who
delight in creation. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve
such months make a year. Eight thousand such heavenly years constitute
the life-span among the Devas who delight in creation. Now, it is
possible that a certain man or woman — from having observed this
Uposatha endowed with eight factors — on the break-up of the body, after
death, might be reborn among the Devas who delight in creation. It was
in reference to this that it was said, ‘Kingship over human beings is a
meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss.’
Sixteen
human centuries are equal to one day & night among the Devas who
have power over the creations of others. Thirty such days & nights
make a month. Twelve such months make a year. Sixteen thousand such
heavenly years constitute the life-span among the Devas who have power
over the creations of others. Now, it is possible that a certain man or
woman — from having observed this Uposatha endowed with eight factors —
on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the
Devas who have power over the creations of others. It was in reference
to this that it was said, ‘Kingship over human beings is a meager thing
when compared with heavenly bliss.’
One should not kill a being
or take what is not given;
should not tell a lie
or be a drinker of strong drink;
should abstain from uncelibacy, the sexual act;
should not eat at night, the wrong time of day;
should not wear a garland or use a scent;
should sleep on a pallet, a mat spread on the ground —
for this eight-factored Uposatha
has been proclaimed by the Awakened One
to lead to the end of suffering & stress.

The moon & sun, both fair to see,
shedding radiance wherever they go,
& scattering darkness as they move through space,
brighten the sky, illumining the quarters.
Within their range is found wealth:
pearl, crystal, beryl, lucky-gem, platinum, nugget-gold,
& the refined gold called ‘Hataka.’
Yet they — like the light of all stars
when compared with the moon —
aren’t worth one sixteenth
of the eight-factored Uposatha.

So whoever — man or woman —
is endowed with the virtues
of the eight-factored Uposatha,
having done meritorious deeds,
productive of bliss,
beyond reproach, goes
to the heavenly state.




Pāḷi

evaṃ
me sutaṃ: ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati pubbārāme
migāramātupāsāde. atha kho visākhā migāramātā tadahuposathe yena bhagavā
tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi.
ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho visākhaṃ migāramātaraṃ bhagavā etadavoca:

— “handa kuto nu tvaṃ, visākhe, āgacchasi divā divassā”ti?
— “uposathāhaṃ, bhante, ajja upavasāmī”ti.

“tayo khome, visākhe, uposathā. katame tayo? gopālakuposatho, nigaṇṭhuposatho, ariyuposatho.
“Visakha,
there are these three Uposathas. Which three? The Uposatha of a
cowherd, the Uposatha of the Jains, and the Uposatha of the Noble Ones.
kathañca,
visākhe, gopālakuposatho hoti? seyyathāpi, visākhe, gopālako
sāyanhasamaye sāmikānaṃ gāvo niyyātetvā iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ajja kho
gāvo amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese cariṃsu, amukasmiñca amukasmiñca
padese pānīyāni piviṃsu; sve dāni gāvo amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese
carissanti, amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese pānīyāni pivissantī’ti;
evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, idhekacco uposathiko iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ
khvajja idañcidañca khādanīyaṃ khādiṃ, idañcidañca bhojanīyaṃ bhuñjiṃ;
sve dānāhaṃ idañcidañca khādanīyaṃ khādissāmi, idaṃ cidañca bhojanīyaṃ
bhuñjissāmī’ti. so tena abhijjhāsahagatena cetasā divasaṃ atināmeti.
evaṃ kho visākhe, gopālakuposatho hoti. evaṃ upavuttho kho, visākhe,
gopālakuposatho na mahapphalo hoti na mahānisaṃso na mahājutiko na
mahāvipphāro.

“kathañca,
visākhe, nigaṇṭhuposatho hoti? atthi, visākhe, nigaṇṭhā nāma
samaṇajātikā. te sāvakaṃ evaṃ samādapenti — ‘ehi tvaṃ, ambho purisa, ye
puratthimāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi; ye
pacchimāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi; ye
uttarāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi; ye
dakkhiṇāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhī’ti. iti
ekaccānaṃ pāṇānaṃ anuddayāya anukampāya samādapenti, ekaccānaṃ pāṇānaṃ
nānuddayāya nānukampāya samādapenti.

te
tadahuposathe sāvakaṃ evaṃ samādapenti: ‘ehi tvaṃ, ambho purisa,
sabbacelāni nikkhipitvā evaṃ vadehi: nāhaṃ kvacani kassaci
kiñcanatasmiṃ, na ca mama kvacani katthaci kiñcanatatthī’ti. jānanti kho
panassa mātāpitaro: ‘ayaṃ amhākaṃ putto’ti; sopi jānāti: ‘ime mayhaṃ
mātāpitaro’ti. jānāti kho panassa puttadāro: ‘ayaṃ mayhaṃ bhattā’ti;
sopi jānāti: ‘ayaṃ mayhaṃ puttadāro’ti. jānanti kho panassa
dāsakammakaraporisā: ‘ayaṃ amhākaṃ ayyo’ti; sopi jānāti: ‘ime mayhaṃ
dāsakammakaraporisā’ti. iti yasmiṃ samaye sacce samādapetabbā musāvāde
tasmiṃ samaye samādapenti. idaṃ tassa musāvādasmiṃ vadāmi. so tassā
rattiyā accayena bhoge adinnaṃyeva paribhuñjati. idaṃ tassa
adinnādānasmiṃ vadāmi. evaṃ kho, visākhe, nigaṇṭhuposatho hoti. evaṃ
upavuttho kho, visākhe, nigaṇṭhuposatho na mahapphalo hoti na
mahānisaṃso na mahājutiko na mahāvipphāro.

“kathañca,
visākhe, ariyuposatho hoti? upakkiliṭṭhassa, visākhe, cittassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa
cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?

idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako tathāgataṃ anussarati: ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ
sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro
purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. tassa
tathāgataṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati. ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? kakkañca
paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca udakañca paṭicca purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ
paṭicca, evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa upakkamena
pariyodapanā hoti. evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako tathāgataṃ anussarati: ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ
sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro
purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. tassa
tathāgataṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti. ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe: ‘ariyasāvako
brahmuposathaṃ upavasati, brahmunā saddhiṃ saṃvasati, brahmañcassa
ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te
pahīyanti’. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena
pariyodapanā hoti.

“upakkiliṭṭhassa,
visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. kathañca, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?

idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako dhammaṃ anussarati: ‘svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo
sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo
viññūhī’ti. tassa dhammaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ
uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa kāyassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa kāyassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? sottiñca
paṭicca, cuṇṇañca paṭicca, udakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṃ
vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa kāyassa upakkamena
pariyodapanā hoti. evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako dhammaṃ anussarati: ‘svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo
sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo
viññūhī’ti. tassa dhammaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ
uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe,
‘ariyasāvako dhammuposathaṃ upavasati, dhammena saddhiṃ saṃvasati,
dhammañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“upakkiliṭṭhassa,
visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. kathañca, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?

idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako saṅghaṃ anussarati: ‘suppaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, yadidaṃ
cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho
āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ
lokassā’ti. tassa saṅghaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ
uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa vatthassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa vatthassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?
usmañca paṭicca, khārañca paṭicca, gomayañca paṭicca, udakañca paṭicca,
purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa
vatthassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. evamevaṃ kho, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako saṅghaṃ anussarati: ‘suppaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, yadidaṃ
cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho
āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ
lokassā’ti. tassa saṅghaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ
uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe,
‘ariyasāvako saṅghuposathaṃ upavasati, saṅghena saddhiṃ saṃvasati,
saṅghañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“upakkiliṭṭhassa,
visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. kathañca, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?
idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako attano sīlāni anussarati akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni
asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññuppasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni
samādhisaṃvattanikāni. tassa sīlaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ
uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa ādāsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa ādāsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? telañca
paṭicca, chārikañca paṭicca, vālaṇḍupakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca
tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa ādāsassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa
cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako attano sīlāni anussarati akhaṇḍāni … pe …
samādhisaṃvattanikāni. tassa sīlaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ
uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe,
‘ariyasāvako sīluposathaṃ upavasati, sīlena saddhiṃ saṃvasati,
sīlañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa
upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
.
“upakkiliṭṭhassa,
visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. kathañca, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?

idha
visākhe, ariyasāvako devatā anussarati: ‘santi devā cātumahārājikā,
santi devā tāvatiṃsā, santi devā yāmā, santi devā tusitā, santi devā
nimmānaratino, santi devā paranimmitavasavattino, santi devā
brahmakāyikā, santi devā tatuttari. yathārūpāya saddhāya samannāgatā tā
devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā saddhā saṃvijjati.
yathārūpena sīlena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā,
mayhampi tathārūpaṃ sīlaṃ saṃvijjati. yathārūpena sutena samannāgatā tā
devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpaṃ sutaṃ saṃvijjati.
yathārūpena cāgena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā,
mayhampi tathārūpo cāgo saṃvijjati. yathārūpāya paññāya samannāgatā tā
devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā paññā saṃvijjatī’ti.
tassa attano ca tāsañca devatānaṃ saddhañca sīlañca sutañca cāgañca
paññañca anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa
jātarūpassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa jātarūpassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti?
ukkañca paṭicca, loṇañca paṭicca, gerukañca paṭicca, nāḷikasaṇḍāsañca
paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. evaṃ kho, visākhe,
upakkiliṭṭhassa jātarūpassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. evamevaṃ kho,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.

“kathañca,
visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? idha,
visākhe, ariyasāvako devatā anussarati: ‘santi devā cātumahārājikā,
santi devā tāvatiṃsā, santi devā yāmā, santi devā tusitā, santi devā
nimmānaratino, santi devā paranimmitavasavattino, santi devā
brahmakāyikā, santi devā tatuttari. yathārūpāya saddhāya samannāgatā tā
devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā saddhā saṃvijjati.
yathārūpena sīlena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā,
mayhampi tathārūpaṃ sīlaṃ saṃvijjati. yathārūpena sutena samannāgatā tā
devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpaṃ sutaṃ saṃvijjati.
yathārūpena cāgena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā,
mayhampi tathārūpo cāgo saṃvijjati. yathārūpāya paññāya samannāgatā tā
devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā paññā saṃvijjatī’ti.
tassa attano ca tāsañca devatānaṃ saddhañca sīlañca sutañca cāgañca
paññañca anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa
upakkilesā te pahīyanti. ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe, ‘ariyasāvako
devatuposathaṃ upavasati, devatāhi saddhiṃ saṃvasati, devatā ārabbha
cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te
pahīyanti’. evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena
pariyodapanā hoti.

“sa
kho so, visākhe, ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati — ‘yāvajīvaṃ arahanto
pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭiviratā nihitadaṇḍā nihitasatthā lajjī
dayāpannā sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharanti; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ
imañca divasaṃ pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato nihitadaṇḍo
nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharāmi. imināpi
aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.

“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭiviratā dinnādāyī
dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharanti; ahampajja imañca
rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato
dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharāmi. imināpi
aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.

“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto abrahmacariyaṃ pahāya brahmacārī ārācārī viratā methunā
gāmadhammā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ abrahmacariyaṃ pahāya
brahmacārī ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ
anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.


“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭiviratā saccavādī saccasandhā
thetā paccayikā avisaṃvādakā lokassa; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca
divasaṃ musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato saccavādī saccasandho theto
paccayiko avisaṃvādako lokassa. imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi,
uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.

“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānaṃ pahāya
surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭiviratā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca
divasaṃ surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānaṃ pahāya surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā
paṭivirato. imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho
bhavissati.

“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto ekabhattikā rattūparatā viratā vikālabhojanā; ahampajja imañca
rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ ekabhattiko rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā.
imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.

“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto
nacca-gīta-vādita-visūka-dassana-mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūsanaṭṭhānā
paṭiviratā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ
nacca-gīta-vādita-visūka-dassana-mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūsanaṭṭhānā
paṭivirato. imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho
bhavissati.

“yāvajīvaṃ
arahanto uccāsayana-mahāsayanaṃ pahāya uccāsayana-mahāsayanā paṭiviratā
nīcaseyyaṃ kappenti mañcake vā tiṇasanthārake vā; ahampajja imañca
rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ uccāsayana-mahāsayanaṃ pahāya uccāsayanamahāsayanā
paṭivirato nīcaseyyaṃ kappemi mañcake vā tiṇasanthārake vā. imināpi
aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissatī”ti.

“evaṃ
kho, visākhe, ariyuposatho hoti. evaṃ upavuttho kho, visākhe,
ariyuposatho mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso mahājutiko mahāvipphāro.
kīvamahapphalo hoti kīvamahānisaṃso kīvamahājutiko kīvamahāvipphāro”?

“seyyathāpi,
visākhe, yo imesaṃ soḷasannaṃ mahājanapadānaṃ pahūtarattaratanānaṃ
issariyādhipaccaṃ rajjaṃ kāreyya, seyyathidaṃ aṅgānaṃ, magadhānaṃ,
kāsīnaṃ, kosalānaṃ, vajjīnaṃ, mallānaṃ, cetīnaṃ, vaṅgānaṃ, kurūnaṃ,
pañcālānaṃ, macchānaṃ, sūrasenānaṃ, assakānaṃ, avantīnaṃ, gandhārānaṃ,
kambojānaṃ, aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgatassa uposathassa etaṃ kalaṃ nāgghati
soḷasiṃ. taṃ kissa hetu? kapaṇaṃ, visākhe, mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ
sukhaṃ upanidhāya”.

Yāni,
visākhe, mānusakāni paññāsa vassāni, cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko
rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo
saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni pañca vassasatāni
cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe,
vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ
upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ
sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ:
‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’.

Yaṃ,
visākhe, mānusakaṃ vassasataṃ, tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo.
Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo.
Tena saṃvaccharena dibbaṃ vassasahassaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ
āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā
puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ
maraṇā tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ,
visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ: ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ
upanidhāya’.

Yāni,
visākhe, mānusakāni dve vassasatāni, yāmānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko
rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo
saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni dve vassasahassāni yāmānaṃ
devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco
itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa
bhedā paraṃ maraṇā yāmānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho
panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ: ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ
sukhaṃ upanidhāya’.

Yāni,
visākhe, mānusakāni cattāri vassasatāni, tusitānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko
rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo
saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni cattāri vassasahassāni tusitānaṃ
devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco
itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa
bhedā paraṃ maraṇā tusitānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho
panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ: ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ
sukhaṃ upanidhāya’.

Yāni,
visākhe, mānusakāni aṭṭha vassasatāni, nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ eso eko
rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo
saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni aṭṭha vassasahassāni
nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati
yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ
upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ
upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ: ‘kapaṇaṃ
mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’.

Yāni,
visākhe, mānusakāni soḷasa vassasatāni, paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ
eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena
dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni soḷasa
vassasahassāni paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho
panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā
aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā
paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho
panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ: ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ
sukhaṃ upanidhāyā’.

“pāṇaṃ na haññe na cadinnamādiye,
musā na bhāse na ca majjapo siyā.
abrahmacariyā virameyya methunā,
rattiṃ na bhuñjeyya vikālabhojanaṃ.
“mālaṃ na dhāre na ca gandhamācare,
mañce chamāyaṃ va sayetha santhate.
etañhi aṭṭhaṅgikamāhuposathaṃ,
buddhena dukkhantagunā pakāsitaṃ.

“cando ca sūriyo ca ubho sudassanā,
obhāsayaṃ anupariyanti yāvatā.
tamonudā te pana antalikkhagā,
nabhe pabhāsanti disāvirocanā.
“etasmiṃ yaṃ vijjati antare dhanaṃ,
muttā maṇi veḷuriyañca bhaddakaṃ.
siṅgī suvaṇṇaṃ atha vāpi kañcanaṃ,
yaṃ jātarūpaṃ haṭakanti vuccati.
“aṭṭhaṅgupetassa uposathassa,
kalampi te nānubhavanti soḷasiṃ.
candappabhā tāragaṇā ca sabbe.

“tasmā hi nārī ca naro ca sīlavā,
aṭṭhaṅgupetaṃ upavassuposathaṃ.
puññāni katvāna sukhudrayāni,
aninditā saggamupenti ṭhānan”ti.


youtube.com


Chanting Uposatha Day 17 Okt 2020



Buddhist
Ethics and the Noble 8-Fold Path (See links below for our video lectures in Ethics)



Top 10 Agriculture Universities in the World, Best List - AgriFarming
২৭
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Should we not start planting vegetables and dwarf fruit 🍎
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Hunger the greatest ill,the greatest suffering-conditionedness, said
Awakened One knowing this reality at it is:
Ultimate Happiness supreme that is the end of suffering.
Earth the Spring of Nector (Amudha Surabhi,air,water,fire&space
Combine to make this food.
Numberless sentient and non sentient beings give their life & labor that we may eat.
May
we be nourished that we may nourish life! throughout the world for the
benefit of all societies & for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their
Final
Goal ?
Let’s be calm, quiet, alert,attentive & have equanimity mind
with a clear understanding that everything is changing.
“Even fear is frightened by the bodhisattva’s fearlessness.”
Then Awakened Universe is created.
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need to consume a healthy diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables has
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The
Gardening Portal at NC State University provides access to a wealth of
information, events, and resources for gardeners in North Carolina.
Managed by the State Consumer and Community Horticulture Specialist and
Cooperative Extension Horticulture Agents throughout the state, it is
your doorway to guidance about successfully growing vegetables, herbs,
fruits, flowers, and ornamentals in your …
Search
domain cdss.ca.govhttps://www.cdss.ca.gov › agedblinddisabled › res ›
VPTC2 › 9 Food Nutrition and Preparation ›
Cultural_Consider_in_Nutrition_and_Food_Prep.pdf
At
the base of this pyramid are all of the plant based foods as the
foundation of the meal. Whole grains (including barley, bulgur, faro,
rice, polenta couscous, and pastas), fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts and
seeds, and legumes provide are healthy choices. Vegetables are normally
cooked and drizzled with olive oil.
Search domain files.eric.ed.govhttps://files.eric.ed.gov › fulltext › EJ1108430.pdf
Children
who grow their own food are more likely to eat fruits and vegetables
(Bell & Dyment, 2008) and to show higher levels of knowledge about
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& Zidenberg-Cherr, 2002).
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This
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All
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fruits and vegetables are examples of “warm season” plants, and can be
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Growing
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15
Mar 2016Good things to plant. Quick crops such as lettuce, rocket,
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May all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure!
May all live long!
May all have calm,quiet,alert,attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!
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All men&women
start growing vegetables&fruit bearing dwarf plants in pots to
overcome hunger the worst kind of illness&to save precious
lives.Share this with all Political leaders,religious
heads&universities
of the world.Then we create Awakened Universe.

Should we not start swimming 🏊‍♀️ pools every where and for the disabled people as suggested by our late Sri Jagadhale ji May be an image of text that says
and plant vegetables 🥗 and dwarf fruit 🍎 bearing plants like Ashoka the Great did and 🪴 in pots and throughout the world for the benefit of all societies & for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final
Goal ?
Let’s be calm, quiet, alert,attentive & have equanimity mind
with a clear understanding that everything is changing.

Fruits Pineapple GIF - Fruits Pineapple Banana GIFsFood Vegan GIF by GIPHY Studios Originals

All
men&women start growing vegetables,fruit bearing dwarf plants in
pots to overcome Hunger the greatest ill,the greatest
suffering-conditionedness,said Awakened One knowing this reality at it
is:
Ultimate Happiness supreme that is the end of suffering.
Earth the Spring of Nector Amudha Surabhi,air,water,fire&space
Combine to make this food.
Numberless sentient and non sentient beings give their life & labor that we may eat.
May we be nourished that we may nourish life!
“Even fear is frightened by the bodhisattva’s fearlessness.”
Then Awakened Universe is created.
1. Garlic
2. Chilli Pepper
3. Watermelon
4. Pomegranate
5. Citrus Fruits
6. Oysters
7. Beet Root
8. Blueberries
9. Dark Chocolate
10. Leafy greens
11. Pistachios
12. Ginger
13. Banana
14. Avocados
15. Oats
16. Brazil Nuts
17. Pumpkin Seeds
18. Strawberries
☕️ coffee
Hot Sauce
🍵 Green Tea
🍒 Cherries
🍯 Honey
Fortified Cereals
🧈 Peanut Butter
Goji Berries
Spinach
🍅 Tomatoes
🌰 Pine Nuts
🥔 Potatoes
Maca
🥕 Carrots
Serrano Chiles
Celery
Walnuts
🥦 Broccoli
🥒 Cucumber
Soybeans
Arugula
Pistachios
Almonds
Legumes
Whole Grains
Olive Oil
🍎 Apples

Swimming,
aqua aerobics and working out in water are ideal for older adults,
because water reduces stress and strain on the body’s joints. Find out
more in swimming for fitness.

Swimming
is a great form of all-round exercise. It’s ideal if you want to be
more active and stay healthy, whatever your age or ability.

Regular swimming can reduce the risk of chronic illnesses, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke.

It can also boost your mood and keep your weight under control.

If
you cannot swim, it’s never too late to learn. Most pools cater for a
variety of needs and abilities, such as women-only classes,
parent-and-toddler groups, and lessons for different age groups.

This guide is designed to make swimming fun and safe for beginners of all ages, and encourage them to stick with it.

Before you start

Do
not worry if you’re afraid of the water or panic when you think about
the deep end. Lessons for beginners focus on building confidence in the
water.

A
swimming costume or trunks are all you need. If you wish to cover up,
most pools allow you to wear whatever swimwear you like, within reason,
such as leggings or a close-fitting long-sleeved T-shirt, but it might
be a good idea to check with the pool first.

Wearing
a pair of goggles is a good idea to avoid the stinging sensation caused
by chlorine in the water and to see where you’re going under water.

For
most people, swimming is a safe and effective form of exercise. If
you’re worried about an existing health condition, see a GP before you
start swimming.
Starting out

The
best place to get started is at your local pool. You’ll find
information on classes for different age groups and levels, women-only
sessions, timetables and prices.
Find a pool near you or contact your local authority.

Most pools offer adult-only beginners’ lessons, which focus on building confidence in the water and improving your stroke.

If
you’re unsure about starting lessons, ask if you can watch a class or 2
to get a better idea if it’s for you, or ask to speak with 1 of the
teachers.

A
30-minute session of moderate to vigorous-intensity activity at the
pool on 1 or more days a week will count towards your recommended weekly
activity target.

But
any improvement on what you currently do is good. Even small changes
can make a big difference to your health and make you feel great.

Staying motivated

Make it a habit

Try to set aside time every week to go to the pool, before or after work or on weekends.

Write it in a diary so it becomes a permanent fixture in your weekly schedule.

Consider getting an annual swim pass. This may be more economical and encourage you to go more often.

Take the kids

Swimming
is a great way for families to get moving and have fun together. There
are so many things that can keep the kids interested, such as inflatable
toys.

Swim with a friend

It really helps to go swimming regularly with someone of about the same ability as you.

You’ll encourage each other when you’re not so keen to go to the pool.

You will not want to let your swimming partner down and this will help motivate you.

Mix it up

The swimming pool makes a great playground and a great gym, even for non-swimmers, with activities such as aquafit.

But learning to swim will introduce you to a whole new world of water-based activities in the pool and beyond.

Join a club

If you enjoy swimming and want to get more involved, consider joining a club.

Clubs are a great way to make new friends, improve your swimming and motivate you to exercise regularly.

Most clubs have a lively social scene away from the pool, with trips and nights out.

Find a swimming club near you

Open water swimming

For competent swimmers, there’s a world of swimming opportunities beyond the pool, such as rivers, lakes and the sea.

Open water swimming can be great fun as long as you take the necessary safety precautions.

Avoid
swimming alone. Plan your swim: check the water temperature, entry and
exit points, currents and tides (where relevant), weather conditions and
water cleanliness.
For more information, including a wild swim map, visit the Outdoor Swimming Society.

Get active your way
Ideas
for busy mums and dads, families, young people, office workers and
older adults to build exercise and fitness into their life.

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SEARCH FOR: Search
THE OUTDOOR SWIMMER’S CODE
How to respect the natural environment and be a responsible swimmer
READ MORE
FULL MOON CALENDAR
There’s only one thing for a swimmer to do, while wolves howl and fish turn back to swim upstream…
READ MORE
THE SEVEN FEARS OF SWIMMERS
Photographer Alexander Ward on his innovative project to find out and capture on film what swimmers fear most
READ MORE
UNDERSTANDING WIND AND RAIN
Stormy weather can make for exciting swims - but it can also lead to pollution, debris and fast flow
READ THE REVIEW
YOGA FOR WINTER SWIMMING
You have a thermal cap and boots, but could you also use some internal fire? These swimmers swear by yoga
READ MORE
WILD SWIM GROUPS: THE UK LIST
A list of local swim groups across the UK
READ MORE
OSS EVENTS 2022
Save the dates for the 2022 OSS Events
READ MORE
THE OUTDOOR SWIMMER’S CODE
How to respect the natural environment and be a responsible swimmer
READ MORE
FULL MOON CALENDAR
There’s only one thing for a swimmer to do, while wolves howl and fish turn back to swim upstream…
READ MORE
THE SEVEN FEARS OF SWIMMERS
Photographer Alexander Ward on his innovative project to find out and capture on film what swimmers fear most
READ MORE
UNDERSTANDING WIND AND RAIN
Stormy weather can make for exciting swims - but it can also lead to pollution, debris and fast flow
READ THE REVIEW
YOGA FOR WINTER SWIMMING
You have a thermal cap and boots, but could you also use some internal fire? These swimmers swear by yoga
READ MORE
WILD SWIM GROUPS: THE UK LIST
A list of local swim groups across the UK
READ MORE
OSS EVENTS 2022
Save the dates for the 2022 OSS Events
READ MORE
THE OUTDOOR SWIMMER’S CODE
How to respect the natural environment and be a responsible swimmer
READ MORE
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TOP 10 ISLAND SWIMS
Author and islandeer Lisa Drewe selects her top ten island swims in the UK
READ MORE
WEATHERPROOF YOUR SWIMMING: CHOP AND WIND
How to best prepare for choppy waters and head winds
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PLANNING A LONG RIVER SWIMMING ADVENTURE
READ MORE
SHARKS, SWELL… AND VEGEMITE
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SWIMMING WITHOUT A TRACE
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PLANNING A LONG RIVER SWIMMING ADVENTURE
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SHARKS, SWELL… AND VEGEMITE
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SWIMMING WITHOUT A TRACE
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PLANNING A LONG RIVER SWIMMING ADVENTURE
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Outdoor Swimming Society provides a space within which a community of
independent spirits can share the joy and adventure of swimming
outdoors. Join us! Sign up for Elsewhere, our free monthly journal, and
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the ways you can join in)


Protecting
our environment has never been more important, so what should we, as
swimmers, be aware of? Suzie Wheway, environmental consultant and
outdoor swimmer, shares the key environmental considerations when
swimming outdoors.

As
an inland outdoor swimmer in England there are very limited places we
can swim without the threat of being asked to leave. One of the reasons
that’s often used to exclude swimmers is the potential for negative
impacts on the natural environment, but if we’re aware of the
environment around us and how to protect it, we can swim responsibly
whilst enjoying rather than damaging the natural world. Our planet is a
delicate balanced system. Many people swim outdoors precisely because
they want to immerse in nature and there is growing evidence of the
benefits of being in nature for our physical and mental health. It is
also being shown that nature exposure makes people more willing to adapt
their lives to live more sustainably, when we have a connection to
nature we are more likely to want to look after it.

PURE JULIA

Those
beautiful natural environments swimmers love immersing in are also
habitats to many other organisms. Without due care and consideration
swimmers could cause damage to a sensitive ecosystem but this doesn’t
have to be the case. By learning about the habitat you are swimming in
it is possible to leave no trace and keep those habitats safe, not only
for the organisms within the habitat but also for other swimmers,
anglers, paddlers, the myriad of other people who may want to enjoy that
spot too.

So
why am I writing this? Do I have the knowledge of the environment to
talk about this? Actually, I do a bit. I have always had a passion for
the natural world. It has guided my travels, hobbies and subsequently my
career. I worked as an Environmental Consultant for over ten years.
Whilst my particular specialism within that role wasn’t ecology and
habitat protection, I worked with ecologists on a daily basis. I watched
their work patterns throughout the year change, integrated their work
into the projects I managed and more importantly they’re now good
friends. With their help I’ve pulled something together here that should
give swimmers the knowledge they need to be able to swim sensitively
with the environment in mind. Please note the information below relates
to freshwater habitats only as these are the places where environmental
impacts are often used as a means to restrict access for water users.

ADAM BOUSE

WHAT DO YOU NEED TO THINK ABOUT?


I
would love for this to be a quick guide on dos and don’ts but much like
most things in life it’s not that simple. Our natural world is complex.
It changes from site to site. What you might need to look out for in
one stretch of river may be completely different to what you need to
look out for in a stretch of the same river five miles downstream.
Assessing your environment and the potential impacts you could have is a
site by site activity. You need to learn about the spots you’re
visiting.

However, there are common things to consider:

WATER MARGINS

This
can be the bank directly by the water as well as extending as far as
your walk to your water access point. Are you eroding the bank where
you’re getting in? Not only could this alter habitats for mammals and
breeding birds but it could also wash in sediment which may affect
species within the water. Try and avoid muddy, easily damaged water
entry points.

Think
about where you’re walking. Are swimmer numbers severely eroding or
widening an existing footpath? Are you trampling vegetation by walking
through a wooded area to the water? Is there another way you could
access that water without causing harm to an existing habitat? If an
area is getting a lot of footfall that it just can’t cope with maybe
think about changing where you’re swimming or finding a new access point
and allowing the damaged area to recover.

Dry
stone walls and hedges around many water bodies can be important
habitats for small mammals, amphibians, birds and plant life. Try and
avoid damaging them by climbing over them unless there are well
established access points such as stiles.

SITES OF SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC INTEREST (SSSIS)

Site
of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). I’ve seen lots of debate about
these sites recently. Don’t swim in them, do swim in them. By and large
they’re poorly understood by the general public.

An
SSSI is a formal conservation designation determined by Natural
England. They can be applied to areas with scientific value relating to
wildlife, geology and landform. The designation sometimes restricts what
activities can take place within that area. However, it’s important to
note that these designations can be allocated for just one item, which
can be easily avoided, or to cover a whole habitat, which can be harder
to avoid any damage to. An SSSI designation doesn’t necessarily mean you
shouldn’t swim at that location but you should take due care based on
what the designation is for.

For
example, there are organised open water swimming venues which operate
on sites with SSSI designations. They operate there because they are
managed to ensure that any potential for impact to the SSSI is
minimised.
SSSI
designations are often not signed so you may find yourself swimming
somewhere that is an SSSI but be entirely unaware. You can check for
SSSI and other nature conservation designations on the DEFRA magic map
by ticking the “designations” box in the menu. Use the “i” icon at the
top to bring up information on individual locations. Take a look through
the citations and operations requiring Natural England’s consent to
give you an idea of what is and isn’t appropriate activity.

NATURE RESERVES

Like
SSSIs, national and local nature reserves are designated for a variety
of different reasons, including wildlife, geology and habitat. Unlike
SSSIs which can be on private land used for many other activities,
Nature Reserves are usually owned and managed specifically for wildlife.
There are often signs explaining this and you can look them up on the
MAGIC map, as for SSSIs, and research online or locally to find out more
about them, including asking relevant people or organisations, to avoid
any action that could harm the nature that is being protected.

In
a lot of cases this may mean not swimming in nature reserves however,
as with all swimming spots, this is something that you need to consider
on a site by site basis. For example in the East of England and in other
areas some reserves are designated for heathland, grassland or fen or
marshland, rather than any aspect of the rivers and water bodies. In
some large water bodies there are often zoned areas, for example some of
the bigger gravel pits in several parts of the country have areas
reserved for nature and areas with water sports and other activities.

DARREN WELSH

SEASONALITY

Much
as the water temperature changes with the seasons so too do the
habitats in our favourite swim locations. Winter tends to be a period of
quiet, Spring and Summer a time of activity. With each of the items
considered below there are certain times of year to be more conscious of
than others. Please note any timeframes below are for guidance only,
actual dates will vary by location, weather at the time (think April
2020 vs April 2021) and latitude (the south coast of England warms up
earlier than the north Coast of Scotland!).

FISH

As
a rule fish will be far more scared of a swimmer than a swimmer is of
them. They will swim away from you and hide, yes even the big Pike. The
really important thing to consider is the part of the fish life cycle
that isn’t mobile. Spawning fish and their subsequent eggs. Salmon,
trout and similar fish spawn from late autumn into winter. Laying their
eggs in cobble and gravel beds in well oxygenated, moving waters. Those
eggs will hatch in the spring into juvenile fish.

Coarse
fish such as Pike, Tench and Carp spawn from Spring into Summer with
eggs hatching from a few days to weeks later depending on the species.
Some coarse fish deposit their eggs in gravels, others on vegetation.
The juvenile fish may then shelter from predators in vegetation or
shallow waters. The rare and protected river lamprey lays eggs in clean
sandy gravels and juveniles live in silty mud at the margins of rivers.

For
any of these species to successfully complete their life cycle the area
where their eggs and juveniles live need to be disturbed as little as
possible. That doesn’t mean you can’t swim but should be mindful to
avoid disturbing gravel beds as much as possible on entry and avoid
stirring up silt as this can smother eggs. Ideally enter the water
gently and keep feet off the bed of the river, lake or reservoir as much
as possible.

CORINA RAINER

BIRDS

Birdlife
around the water is one of the many reasons I enjoy wild swimming. We
get substantial flocks of geese over winter at one of my regular spots
and in the spring and summer I’m often followed by an inquisitive pair
of great crested grebes. I occasionally spot the flash of a kingfisher
too.

We
need to respect our avian friends’ habitats. During bird breeding
season (generally March to August in the UK) it’s even more important to
respect their space and keep clear of potential nesting sites (yes, I
know it’s tempting to see a glimpse of newly hatched chicks but please
don’t). Water margins, fallen wood, sandy banks, trees, cliffs, islands,
dunes, shingle are all potential nesting sites.

Noise,
splashing and physical disturbance can all have an impact and may lead
to adults abandoning nests. Be mindful and keep eyes open for activity.
If birds are happy sharing the water they’ll happily bob along with you
as you swim but don’t approach them. The larger waterfowl (Geese and
Swans) can also be aggressive when they have young and may chase you
away.

INVERTEBRATES

A
wide range of species that live in and around the water, some spend all
of their life in water whilst others spend only a portion of their life
cycle submerged. These important creatures provide food to those higher
up the food chain and act as indicator species, their presence
signalling the health or not of our waterways. They are so varied there
are no particular seasons to be cautious of, though the emergence of
mayflies is quite a sight to behold. Their preferred habitats are varied
though many use vegetation to lay eggs and take shelter amongst.
Avoiding disturbance to vegetation, rocks and the bed of the waterway
you are swimming in will help support invertebrate species.

AMPHIBIANS

Many
amphibians only spend large amounts of time in water during breeding
season. Look out for frog and toad spawn and tadpoles anytime from March
to June. Their presence is highly influenced by temperature so will
vary from year to year in the same locations. Avoid touching any spawn
you come across.

KATIE BUKHART

MAMMALS

There
are a number of mammals to be found around the waters edge, water voles
and otters to name just two. Water voles are a protected species and
live in sandy and muddy banks by the water’s edge. Bank erosion and
disturbance is a key contributing factor to their decline. If you spot
small burrows in the banks where you’re entering the water please try
and find somewhere else to enter and make others aware of the activity.
Avoid disturbing any other wild animals or livestock as well, and keep
your distance from them.

PLANTS

Important
in their own right, plants support good water quality, provide nesting
areas and shelter for many fish and invertebrates and some provide
forage for pollinators. Sediments stirred up from excessive movement on a
river or lake bed can smother plant life. Keep well away from plants if
you can, try not to disturb them and once you’re in the water try and
keep your feet off the bottom to prevent stirring up excess sediment.

Protect woodland around swim spots, the dead vegetation and wood as well as the living. It all provides important habitats.

See Winter Wildlife for Swimmers for more detail on the flora and fauna to respect in winter and early spring.

MUHAMMED ZAFER YAHSI

A CHECKLIST

So,
with the above in mind, what are the best ways you can enjoy your
natural surroundings on a swim whilst still protecting the environment?

Look
for existing, established water access points. Man made structures such
as concrete slipways and steps or bare rock are great places to access
the water as you are unlikely to be damaging habitats. Just make sure
that you take care or keep away from potential danger points such as
weirs, sluices and any man made structures such as weirs and water
offtakes. This is one of the many reasons why better access to
reservoirs is much needed.
Ask
the locals. Local swimmers and water users are often the best source of
information on what’s going on in and around a waterway, where
potentially sensitive sites are or where the nearest pair of nesting
birds are that you need to avoid.

Avoid areas where birds could be breeding.

If
you’re new to a site consider establishing a single access point but
consider moving that if the site starts to become particularly damaged
for example due to significant bank erosion.

Use existing, established footpaths. Avoid creating new paths across habitats where possible.

Encourage
others to behave the same way. Spread information on good practice. If
someone’s asking where to get in at a local spot, explain where and why
you enter in a certain place.

Leave
no trace. Take away everything you’ve taken with you. If you plan to
barbecue or have a fire only do this in a designated area, ensure there
is no risk of sparks spreading and use a purpose made barbeque or fire
pit. Carry in fuel with you, as dead wood by the water offers important
habitats too

Litter
pick. Not everyone is as conscientious as you’ll hopefully be. The more
swimmers can demonstrate that we can be a force for good the more we
can argue our case for wider access to water.

Protect
the sensitive sites. Think about whether you need to tell the world
about a favourite place if it can’t cope with more visitor numbers. It’s
safe to say we all want to share the swim love but we also need to
protect our environment too.

Consider
toilet options. We all get caught short sometimes and most wild
swimming spots won’t have a toilet on the shore, so it’s important to
know what to do. The Lake District National Park have produced a really
good guide.
Be bio-security aware.

Be
chemical aware. Consider what lotions and potions you put on your skin
prior to entering the water. Cover up to protect from the sun with long
sleeves, swim at times when the sun is less powerful or choose a reef
safe sunscreen.

Follow the Outdoor Swimmers Code and be a conscientious swimmer all round.
Suzie Wheway
Swimming Without a Trace – Outdoor Swimming Society

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