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1273 LESSON 23914 TUESDAY “Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.” ~Buddha There are 83 languages in https://translate.google.com/ Please render exact translation in you mother tongue for these translations! That will become a practice of Mediation as taught by the Buddha! And become a Stream Enterer Sotapanna! Towards Nibbana the Eternal Bliss as Final Goal! http: sarvajan.ambedkar.org run FREE ONLINE E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Tipitaka em POLONÊS Clássica Tipitaka na Clássica Português The History of Computers in a Nutshell
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1273 LESSON 23914 TUESDAY

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”


~Buddha


There are 83 languages in 
https://translate.google.com/Please render exact translation in you mother tongue for these translations!That will become a practice of Mediation as taught by the Buddha!And become a Stream Enterer Sotapanna!Towards Nibbana the Eternal Bliss as Final Goal!http: sarvajan.ambedkar.orgrun
FREE ONLINE E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITYTipitaka em POLONÊS Clássica
Tipitaka na Clássica Português
The History of Computers in a Nutshell

Dear Friends,

23rd September 2014, Tuesday at 9.00 amat Mahabodhi Lokashanti Buddha Vihara, Gandhingar, Bangalore -9 Triratna puja, Dhammadesana and Punyanumodana led byMost Ven. Gunavanta Maha Thera Munglang Sayadaw,Ledo, Assam  Inauguration of Museum in memory ofMost Ven. Dr. Acharya Buddharakkhita Maha TheraByVenerable Acharya Karuna Shastry Maha Thera,Founder, International Brotherhood Mission, Dibrugarh  Release of BookAt the Lotus Feet of the Buddha - Venerable Dr.Acharya Buddharakkhita(Written by Mr.Jeik Hyun, South Korea)By Maha Upasaka Wg.Cdr.S.Rangaswamy Removal of Hindrances(Written by Maha Upasaka Wg.Cdr. S.Ranghaswamy)By Venerable Kassapa Maha TheraPresident, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru 11.15 AM -  Sanghadana12:00 – Lunch for Devotees 1 PM – General Body Meeting At 4 pmHospital Dana Service and unveiling of Lord Buddha paintingat Mahabodhi Burns Centre, Victoria Hospital, Bangalore.  At 6 pmInauguration of 2-Day Seminar byMost Ven. Gunavanta Maha Thera Munglang SayadawMessages byVen. Bhikkhu Panyarakkhita, Ven.Bhikkhu Panyaloka, Ven.Bhikkhu Revata    

61) Classical Polish


http://www.beaconforfreedom.org/liste.html?tid=415&art_id=475

61) Polski Klasyczny

1273 LEKCJA 23914 wtorek

Istnieje 83 językach w

https://translate.google.com/

Proszę uczynić dokładnego tłumaczenia w języku ojczystym dla Ciebie tych tłumaczeń!

Że stanie się praktyka mediacji jak nauczał Budda!

I stać się Stream Wchodzący Sotapanna!

Ku Nibbanie wiecznego szczęścia jako ostateczny cel!

http: sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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Tipitaki w klasycznej polskiej TITPITAKA w klasycznym angielskim

Praktyki medytacyjnej jak nauczał Budda

Mahasatipatthana Sutta

(Lustro Dhammy)

Ten Sutta gromadzi różne instrukcje Budda dał ze względu na jego zwolenników po jego odejściu, co sprawia, że ​​jest bardzo ważne, zestaw instrukcji dla nas dzisiaj.

Będę tłumaczyć dyskurs na Dhammy, które nazywa Dhammādāsa, z których posiadał ariyasāvaka, jeśli tego pragnie, może oświadczyć o sobie: Dla mnie nie ma więcej niraya, nie więcej tiracchāna-Yoni, nie więcej pettivisaya, nie więcej stan nieszczęścia, nieszczęścia, cierpienia, jestem sotāpanna, przez wolny od stanów nędzy, pewne jest przeznaczona do sambodhi natury.

A co, Ananda, jest to, że dyskurs na Dhammy, które nazywa Dhammādāsa, z których posiadał ariyasāvaka, jeśli tego pragnie, może oświadczyć o sobie: Dla mnie nie ma więcej niraya, nie więcej tiracchāna-Yoni, nie więcej pettivisaya, nie więcej stan nieszczęścia, nieszczęścia, cierpienia, jestem sotāpanna, z natury wolny od stanów nędzy, niektóre przeznaczone do sambodhi?

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahasatipatthana Sutta
- Obecność na wiedzy -
[Maha + satipatthana]

Ten Sutta jest powszechnie uważany za główny punkt odniesienia dla praktyki medytacyjnej.

Uwaga: infobubbles Pali na wszystkich słów

Pali

Uddesa

I. Kayanupassana
    A. Anapana Pabba
    B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
    C. Sampajāna Pabba
    D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
    E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
    F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

angielski

Wprowadzenie

I. Obserwacja Kaya
    A. Sekcja na Anapana
    B. Sekcja na pozycjach
    C. Sekcja na sampajannę
    D. Sekcja na obrzydliwości
    E. Sekcja na elementach
    F. Sekcja na terenie dziewięciu Charnel

II. Obserwacja vedana

Wprowadzenie

Tak słyszałem:

W jednym przypadku, Bhagavā przebywał wśród Kurów w Kammāsadhamma, na rynku miasta Kurów. Tam zwrócił się do mnichów:

- Mnisi.

- Bhaddante odpowiedział mnichów.Bhagavā powiedział:

- To, mnisi, jest droga, która prowadzi do niczego, ale oczyszczania istot, przezwyciężenie smutku i rozpaczy, zanik dukkha-domanassa, osiągnięcie właściwej drodze, realizacja Nibbāny, czyli na cztery satipaṭṭhānas.

Których cztery? Oto, mnisi, mnich przebywa w obserwacji Kaya Kaya, ATAPI sampajāno, satimā, porzuciwszy abhijjhā-domanassa do świata. On mieszka obserwując vedana w vedana, ATAPI sampajāno, satimā, porzuciwszy abhijjhā-domanassa do świata. On mieszka w obserwacji citta citta, ATAPI sampajāno, satimā, porzuciwszy abhijjhā-domanassa do świata. On mieszka obserwowanie Dhammy · s w dhammy · s, ATAPI sampajāno, satimā, porzuciwszy abhijjhā-domanassa do świata.

I. Kayanupassana

A. Sekcja na Anapana

I jak, mnisi, mnich nie zamieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya? Oto, mnisi, mnich, udała się do lasu lub po przejściu na korzeń drzewa i udała się do pustego pokoju, siada na krzyż składane nogi, ustawienie Kaya pionowo i ustawiania sati parimukhaṃ. Będąc więc Sato on oddycha, jest więc Sato oddycha się. Wdychając długo rozumie on: “Jestem w oddychaniu w długi”; wydech długo rozumie on: “Jestem wydech długi”; krótki wdech rozumie on: “Jestem w oddychaniu w skrócie; krótki wydech rozumie on: “Jestem krótki wydech; Ćwiczy się: “uczucie cały Kaya, będę oddychać w ‘; Ćwiczy się: “uczucie cały Kaya, będę oddychać; Ćwiczy się: “uspokojenie Kaya-sankhary będę oddychać; Ćwiczy się: “uspokojenie Kaya-sankhary będę oddychać.

Tak jak mnisi, umiejętne tokarz lub uczniem Turnera, co długi zakręt, rozumie: “Robię długi zakręt; czyni krótki obrót, rozumie: “Robię krótki obrót; w ten sam sposób, mnisi, mnich, długi wdech, rozumie: “Jestem w oddychaniu w długi”; wydech długo rozumie on: “Jestem wydech długi”; krótki wdech rozumie on: “Jestem w oddychaniu w skrócie; krótki wydech rozumie on: “Jestem krótki wydech; Ćwiczy się: “uczucie cały Kaya, będę oddychać w ‘; Ćwiczy się: “uczucie cały Kaya, będę oddychać; Ćwiczy się: “uspokojenie Kaya-sankhary będę oddychać; Ćwiczy się: “uspokojenie Kaya-sankhary będę oddychać.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

B. Sekcja na pozycjach

Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, podczas spaceru, rozumie: “idę, albo stojąc rozumie on: “stoję, lub siedząc rozumie on: “siedzę, lub leżąc rozumie on: “leżę w dół “. Lub inny, w zależności od tego, stanowisko jego Kaya jest umieszczony, że rozumie go odpowiednio.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

C. Sekcja na sampajannę

Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, zbliżając się podczas wychodzenia, działa z sampajannę, patrząc przed siebie i patrząc wokół, działa on z sampajannę podczas zginania i podczas rozciągania, działa on z sampajannę nosząc szaty i górną szatę i niosąc miskę, działa on z sampajannę, jedząc, pijąc, podczas żucia, podczas degustacji, działa on z sampajannę uczestnicząc w działalności kału i oddawanie moczu, działa on z sampajannę idąc, stojąc, siedząc , podczas snu, a jednocześnie obudzić, podczas rozmowy, a jednocześnie jest cichy, działa on z sampajannę.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

D. Sekcja na obrzydliwości

Ponadto, mnisi, mnich uważa tego ciała, od podeszew stóp w górę i od włosów na głowie w dół, która jest ograniczona przez jego skórę i pełne różnych rodzajów zanieczyszczeń: W tym Kaya, są włosy głowy, włosy ciała, paznokcie, zęby, skóra, mięśnie, ścięgna, kości, szpiku kostnego, nerek, serca, wątroby, opłucna, śledziony, płuca, jelita, krezki żołądka z jego zawartości, kał, żółć, flegma , ropa, krew, pot, tłuszcz, łzy, tłuszcz, ślina, śluz z nosa, płyn stawowy i moczu.

Podobnie jak w przypadku, mnisi, był worek ma dwa otwory i wypełniona różnego rodzaju ziarna, takich jak wzgórza Paddy, Paddy, fasoli mung, Cow-groszek, nasiona sezamu i ryżu łuskanego.Człowiek o dobrym wzroku, które rozpiął to, by rozważyć [jego zawartość]: To jest górka-ryżowego, to niełuskany, fasoli mung te, to są krowy-groszek, to są nasiona sezamu i to jest łuskany ryż; w ten sam sposób, mnisi, mnich uważa tego ciała, od podeszew stóp w górę i od włosów na głowie w dół, która jest ograniczona przez jego skórę i pełne różnych rodzajów zanieczyszczeń: W tym Kaya, nie włosy głowy, włosy ciała, paznokcie, zęby, skóra, ciało, ścięgien, kości, szpik kostny, nerki, serca, wątroby, opłucnej, śledziony, płuc, jelit, okrężnicy, żołądka z jego treścią, kału, żółć, flegma, ropa, krew, pot, tłuszcz, łzy, tłuszcz, ślina, śluz z nosa, płyn stawowy i moczu.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

E. Sekcja na elementach

Ponadto, mnisi, mnich odpowiada na to bardzo Kaya, jednak jest on umieszczony, jednak jest umieszczony: . W tym Kaya, jest element ziemi, element wody, element ognia i element powietrza

Tak jak mnisi, umiejętne rzeźnik lub uczeń rzeźnika, zabiwszy krowę, by siedzieć na rozdrożu cięcia na kawałki; w ten sam sposób, mnisi, bhikku odzwierciedla to bardzo Kaya jednak jest umieszczone, jednakże umieszczony jest W Kaya jest element ziemi, element wody, element ognia i element wentylacyjny.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

F. Sekcja na terenie dziewięciu Charnel

(1) Co więcej, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, jeden dzień zmarłych, albo po dwóch dniach martwe lub trzy dni martwy, obrzęk, niebieskawe i bolesne, że uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest takiej natury, że stanie się tak, a nie jest wolny od takiego warunku.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(2) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, zjedzone przez wrony, zjedzone przez jastrzębie, zjedzone przez sępy, zjedzone przez czaple, zjedzone przez psy, zjedzone przez tygrysy, zjedzone przez pantery, zjedzone przez różnego rodzaju istoty, on uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest takiej natury, że stanie się tak, a nie jest wolny od takichStan “.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(3) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, squeleton z krwi i kości, organizowane wspólnie przez ścięgien, on uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest również takiego rodzaju, że stanie się tak, nie jest wolny od takiego stanu.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(4) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, squeleton bez ciała i rozmazany krwią, utrzymywane razem przez ścięgna, uzna to bardzo Kaya: “To Kaya również jest takiej natury, że stanie się tak, nie jest wolny od takiego stanu.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(5) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, squeleton bez ciała ani krwi, utrzymywane razem przez ścięgna, on uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest również takiego rodzaju, że stanie się tak, nie jest wolny od takiego stanu.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(6) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, odłączone kości rozrzucone tu i tam, tu kość ręki, tam kość stopy, tu kości stawu skokowego, niekości piszczelowej, tu kość udowa, tam kości biodra, tu żebro, tam z powrotem kości, tu kość kręgosłupa, tam kość szyi, tu kość szczęki, nie kości zęba, albo tam czaszka, uzna to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest takiej natury, że stanie się tak, a nie jest wolny od takiego warunku.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(7) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, kości bielone jak muszla, on uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest również taki charakter, że stanie się tak, a nie jest wolny od takiego warunku.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(8) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, nagromadził kości ponad rok, on uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest również taki charakter , to stanie się tak, a nie jest wolny od takiego warunku.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

(9) Ponadto, mnisi, mnich, tak jakby widział trupa, Cast Away w kostnicy ziemi, zgniłe kości zmniejsza się do proszku, on uważa to bardzo Kaya: Ten Kaya jest takiej natury, że stanie się tak, a nie jest wolny od takiego warunku.

Tak więc On mieszka w obserwacji Kaya Kaya wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka w Kaya Kaya obserwacji z zewnątrz, lub On mieszka obserwując Kaya w kāyainternally i na zewnątrz; On mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując przemija ofphenomena w Kaya, czy on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w Kaya; lub innego, [realizacji:] “to jest Kaya! satiis występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując Kaya w Kaya.

II. Obserwacja vedana

I jak teraz, mnisi, mnich nie zamieszka obserwując vedana w vedana?

Oto, mnisi, mnich, przeżywa vedana SUKHA, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa vedana SUKHA; przeżywa vedana Dukkha, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa vedana Dukkha; przeżywa vedana adukkham-asukhā, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa aadukkham-asukhā vedana; przeżywa SUKHA vedana sāmisa, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa sukha vedanā sāmisa; przeżywa SUKHA vedana nirāmisa, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa sukha vedanā nirāmisa; przeżywa Dukkha vedana sāmisa, undersands: “Jestem doświadcza cierpieniem vedanā sāmisa; przeżywa Dukkha vedana nirāmisa, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa vedanānirāmisa Dukkha; przeżywa adukkham-asukhā vedana sāmisa, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa; przeżywa adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “Jestem przeżywa adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa.

Tak więc On mieszka obserwując vedana w vedana wewnętrznie, lub On mieszka obserwując vedanā w vedana zewnętrznie, albo on mieszka obserwując vedanāin vedanā wewnętrznie i zewnętrznie; on mieszka obserwując samudaya zjawisk w vedana, albo on mieszka obserwując przemijanie zjawisk w vedana, albo on mieszka obserwując samudaya i przemijania zjawisk w vedana; lub innego, [realizacji:] to isvedanā! sati występuje w nim tylko do wysokości zaledwie Nana i zwykłe paṭissati, on mieszka indywidualny, a nie trzymać się niczego w świecie. Zatem, mnisi, mnich mieszka obserwując vedana w vedana.

Uwaga

1. “atthi Kayo ti va pan · ASSA sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva Nana · mattāya paṭissati · mattāya: to jest chyba najtrudniejsza część Sutta. Jest to bardzo ważne, ponieważ będzie powtarzane 20 razy, a także dlatego, że część środkowa jest wyjaśnienie, jak zawar faktycznie jest obecny. Oto kilka alternatywnych wizualizacje:

VRI: Teraz jego świadomość jest ustanowiona:” To jest ciało W ten sposób rozwija swoją świadomość do tego stopnia, że nie jest samo rozumienie wraz ze zwykłej świadomości.!

Bhante Analayo: Albo uważność, że” to jest ciało ma siedzibę w nim do tego stopnia, nagie wiedzy i pamięci o nim

Thanissaro Bhikkhu: Uważność, że” to jest ciało jest utrzymywana w obszarze jego wiedzy i pamięci

Mnich Nanamoli & Bhikkhu Bodhi . Albo Uważność, że” nie ma ciała jest po prostu założona w nim, w zakresie niezbędnym do gołej wiedzy i uważności

Nyanasatta Thera: Uważność jest założona z myślą:” ciało istnieje, w zakresie niezbędnym dla wiedzy i uważności.

Soma Thera: Czy rzeczywiście jego uważność jest założona z myślą:” ciało istnieje, w zakresie niezbędnym dla wiedzy i pamięci

Maurice Walshe: Albo, uważność, że” jest ciało jest obecna na nim tylko w zakresie niezbędnym do wiedzy i świadomości.

Tłumaczenie zaproponowane przez webmastera,
przy wsparciu tłumaczenia Thanissaro mnich jest.

OOo
Opublikowano jako dar Dhammy, być rozprowadzany bezpłatnie.
Wszelkie kopie lub pochodne tej pracy musi cytować ich oryginalne źródło.

Odwiedź również:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wV0nJtlswqg
Maha Sathipattana Suthraya - මහා සතිපට්ඨාන සුත්රය -1: 09: 59 Hr

Przesłane dnia 13 sierpnia 2011

Maha Sathipattana Sutta skandowali przez Ven. Dr Omalpe Sobhita Thero

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixu4Kd5R1DI&list=PL_hbXduIzfZbVhHr8nQEMCsceg0mHsxJa
Vipassana Meditation i ciała Sensacja: Eilona Ariel w TEDxJaffa 2013

Eilona Ariel jest twórcą filmów dokumentalnych, których praca została głęboko zainspirowany jej życia w Azji i jej praktyce starożytnej techniki medytacji zwanej Vipassana.

Przeniosła się do Nowego Jorku w 1978 roku i spędził dziewięć lat na badanie i pracuje jako muzyk i fotograf. W 1980 roku otrzymała dyplom z Germain Szkole Fotografii. Wyjechała do USA w 1987 roku, aby spędzić kilka lat życia w Azji. W 1995 roku powrócił do Izraela i ustanowił Karuna Films Production Company wraz z Ayelet Menahemi.

W duchu idei wartych rozprzestrzeniania, TEDx to program lokalnych, samodzielnie organizowanych wydarzeń, które łączy ludzi dzielić TED-jak doświadczenie. Na imprezie TEDx, video i głośniki TEDTalks żywe łączenie iskra głęboką dyskusję i połączenie w małej grupie. Te lokalne, samoorganizujące wydarzenia są markowe TEDx, gdzie x = niezależnie zorganizowana wydarzenie TED.Konferencja TED zawiera ogólne wytyczne dla programu TEDx, ale poszczególne wydarzenia TEDx samoorganizujące. * (* Z zastrzeżeniem pewnych zasad i przepisów)

Aby uzyskać więcej informacji na temat Vipassana, patrz http://www.dhamma.org

Zobacz więcej na Doing Time, Doing Vipassany i Karuna Films w http://www.karunafilms.com

Więcej rozmów z tego wydarzenia, przejdź do http://www.tedxjaffa.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Ii9vjW9BwU&index=6&list=PL_hbXduIzfZbVhHr8nQEMCsceg0mHsxJa
Vipassana Meditation S. N. Goenka - 1 dzień

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFrp9ROB44c&feature=pyv&ad=4869139754&kw=meditation%20mindfulness

Potęga podświadomości jest osiągnąć jakikolwiek cel (www.MindMaster.TV)
Wypróbuj za darmo http://mindmaster.tv/success.html wykorzystać moc twojego umysłu jest osiągnąć jakikolwiek cel. Historie sukcesu na całym świecie i sprawdzonych wyników. Stosowane przez lekarzy i góra Trenerzy rozwoju osobistego. Dziękujemy Deepak Chopra Doctor dla lubić nasz fan page:



62)  Classical Portuguese

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62) Classical Português

Tipitaka na Clássica Português

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Isso se tornará uma prática da mediação como ensinada pelo Buda!

E tornar-se um fluxo entrante sotapanna!

Rumo a Nibbana a Felicidade Eterna como Meta Final!

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Tipitaka em TITPITAKA polonês clássico em Inglês Clássica

A prática da meditação como ensinada pelo Buda

Mahasatipatthana Sutta

(O Espelho da Dhamma)

Este sutta reúne várias instruções do Buddha deu por causa de seus seguidores depois de seu falecimento, o que torna ser um conjunto muito importante de instruções para nós hoje em dia.

Vou expor o discurso sobre o Dhamma que é chamado Dhammadasa, possuidor de que o ariyasāvaka, se ele assim o desejar, pode declarar de si mesmo: Para mim, não há mais niraya, não mais tiracchāna-yoni, não mais pettivisaya, não mais estado de infelicidade, da desgraça, da miséria, eu sou um sotapanna, por natureza, livre de estados de miséria, certos de serem destinados a sambhodi.

E o que, Ananda, é que o discurso do Dhamma que é chamado Dhammadasa, possuidor de que o ariyasāvaka, se ele assim o desejar, pode declarar de si mesmo: Para mim, não há mais niraya, não mais tiracchāna-yoni, não mais pettivisaya, não mais do estado de infelicidade, da desgraça, da miséria, eu sou um sotapanna, por natureza, livre de estados de miséria, certo de ser destinado a sambhodi?

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahasatipatthana Sutta
- Participação na consciência -
[Mahā + Satipatthana]

Este sutta é amplamente considerado como um a principal referência para a prática da meditação.

Nota: infobubbles em todas as palavras em Pali

Pali

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
    A. anapana Pabba
    B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
    C. Sampajāna Pabba
    D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
    E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
    F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

Inglês

introdução

I. Observação de Kaya
    A. Seção sobre anapana
    B. Seção de posturas
    C. Seção de sampajañña
    D. Seção de repulsa
    E. Seção no Elements
    F. Seção sobre os nove cemitérios

II. Observação de Vedana

introdução

Assim eu ouvi:

Em uma ocasião, o bhagava estava entre os Kurus em Kammāsadhamma, uma cidade do kurus mercado. Lá, ele se dirigiu aos monges:

- Bhikkhus.

- Bhaddante respondeu o bhikkhus. O bhagava disse:

- Esse, bhikkhus, é o caminho que leva a nada, mas a purificação dos seres, a superação da tristeza e lamentação, o desaparecimento de dukkha-domanassa, a realização do caminho certo, a realização de Nibbana, isto é, os quatro satipaṭṭhānas.

Quais quatro? Aqui, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya, ATAPI sampajāno, Satima, tendo desistido abhijjhā-domanassa para o mundo. Ele permanece observando Vedana em Vedana, ATAPI sampajāno, Satima, tendo desistido abhijjhā-domanassa para o mundo. Ele permanece observando citta em citta, ATAPI sampajāno, Satima, tendo desistido abhijjhā-domanassa para o mundo. Ele permanece observando Dhamma · s em Dhamma · s, ATAPI sampajāno, Satima, tendo desistido abhijjhā-domanassa para o mundo.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Seção sobre anapana

E como, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habitar observando kāya em kāya? Aqui, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, tendo ido para a floresta ou ter passado na raiz de uma árvore ou de ter ido para uma sala vazia, senta-se dobrando as pernas em cruz, estabelecendo kāya na posição vertical, e definindo parimukhaṃ sati. Sendo assim sato ele inspira, sendo assim sato ele expira. Inspirando longo, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou respirando longo’; expirando longo, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou expirando longo‘; Inspirando curto, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou respirando curto’; expirando curto, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou expirando curto‘; Ele treina: “sentir-se toda a kāya, vou respirar ‘; Ele treina: “sentir-se toda a kāya, vou respirar fora ‘; Ele treina: acalmar os Kaya-Sankharas, vou respirar em ‘; Ele treina: acalmar os Kaya-Sankharas, vou respirar fora”.

Assim como, bhikkhus, um torneiro habilidoso ou um aprendiz de torneiro, faz uma volta longa, compreende: ‘Eu estou fazendo uma volta longa‘; faz uma volta curta, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou fazendo uma volta curta‘; da mesma forma, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, inspirando longo, compreende: ‘Eu estou respirando longo’; expirando longo, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou expirando longo‘; Inspirando curto, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou respirando curto’; expirando curto, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou expirando curto‘; Ele treina: “sentir-se toda a kāya, vou respirar ‘; Ele treina: “sentir-se toda a kāya, vou respirar fora ‘; Ele treina: acalmar os Kaya-Sankharas, vou respirar em ‘; Ele treina: acalmar os Kaya-Sankharas, vou respirar fora”.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

B. Seção de posturas

Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, enquanto caminhava, compreende: ‘Eu estou andando, ou em pé, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou em pé, ou enquanto está sentado, ele compreende: ‘Eu estou sentado “, ou deitado, ele compreende:’ Eu estou deitado . Ou então, em qualquer posição de sua kāya é descartado, ele entende-lo adequadamente.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

C. Seção de sampajañña

Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, enquanto se aproxima e, enquanto partia, age com sampajañña, ao olhar em frente e ao olhar ao redor, ele age com sampajañña, enquanto dobra e durante o alongamento, ele age com sampajañña, enquanto vestindo as vestes eo manto superior e enquanto carregava a taça, ele age com sampajañña, ao comer, ao beber, ao mastigar, ao provar, ele age com sampajañña, enquanto assistia ao negócio de defecar e urinar, ele age com sampajañña, durante a caminhada, em pé, sentado , ao dormir, ao ser acordado, ao falar e ao mesmo tempo estar em silêncio, ele age com sampajañña.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

D. Seção de repulsa

Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu considera este mesmo corpo, desde as solas dos pés para cima e para o cabelo na cabeça para baixo, que é delimitada por sua pele e cheia de vários tipos de impurezas: “Neste kāya, existem os cabelos da cabeça, cabelos do corpo, unhas, dentes, pele, carne, tendões, ossos, medula óssea, rins, coração, fígado, pleura, baço, pulmões, intestinos, mesentério, estômago com o seu conteúdo, fezes, bílis, fleuma , pus, sangue, suor, gordura, lágrimas, graxa, saliva, muco nasal, líquido sinovial e urina.

É como se, bhikkhus, havia um saco com duas aberturas e preenchido com vários tipos de grãos, como a colina-almofada, almofada, feijão verde, vaca-de-bico, sementes de gergelim e arroz descascado. Um homem com boa visão, tendo desprendeu-lo, considero [o conteúdo]: “Este é hill-paddy, este é paddy, essas são feijão verde, esses são vaca-de-bico, essas são as sementes de gergelim e isso é arroz descascado; da mesma forma, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu considera este mesmo corpo, desde as solas dos pés para cima e para o cabelo na cabeça para baixo, que é delimitada por sua pele e cheia de vários tipos de impurezas: “Neste kāya, não são os cabelos da cabeça, cabelos do corpo, unhas, dentes, pele, carne, tendões, ossos, medula óssea, rins, coração, fígado, pleura, baço, pulmões, intestinos, mesentério, estômago com o seu conteúdo, fezes, bílis, fleuma, pus, sangue, suor, gordura, lágrimas, graxa, saliva, muco nasal, líquido sinovial e urina.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

E. Seção no Elements

Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu reflecte sobre este mesmo kāya, no entanto, é colocado, no entanto, está disposta: . Neste kāya, não é o elemento de terra, o elemento de água, o elemento de fogo e o elemento de ar

Assim como, bhikkhus, um açougueiro habilidoso ou um aprendiz de açougueiro, ter matado uma vaca, sentava-se em uma encruzilhada de corte-o em pedaços; da mesma forma, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu reflecte sobre este mesmo kāya, no entanto, é colocado, no entanto, está disposta: Neste kāya, existe o elemento de terra, o elemento de água, o elemento de fogo e o elemento de ar.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

F. Seção sobre os nove cemitérios

(1) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se ele estava vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora num cemitério, um dia morto, ou dois dias mortos ou três dias mortos, inchados, azulados e dolorosas, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(2) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se ele estava vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, sendo comidos pelos corvos, sendo comido por falcões, ser comido por abutres, sendo comido por garças, sendo comido por cães, sendo comido por tigres, sendo comido por panteras, sendo comido por vários tipos de seres, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal uma condição.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(3) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se ele estava vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, um squeleton com carne e sangue, realizada em conjunto pelos tendões, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição .

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(4) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se ele estava vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, um squeleton sem carne e manchada de sangue, realizada em conjunto pelos tendões, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(5) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, um squeleton sem carne nem sangue, realizada em conjunto pelos tendões, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição .

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(6) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, ossos desconectados espalhados aqui e ali, aqui um osso lado, há um osso do pé, aqui um osso do tornozelo, não um osso da canela, aqui um osso da coxa, há um osso do quadril, aqui uma costela, há um osso de volta, aqui um osso da coluna, há um osso do pescoço, aqui um osso da mandíbula, há um osso de dente, ou o crânio, ele considera esta muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(7) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, os ossos embranquecidos como uma concha, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza, ele vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição .

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(8) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se ele estava vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, amontoou ossos mais de um ano de idade, ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza , ele vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição .

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

(9) Além disso, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, jogar fora em um cemitério, ossos podres reduzida a , ele considera isso muito Kaya: “Este kāya também é de tal natureza, que vai tornar-se assim, e não está livre de tal condição.

Assim, ele permanece observando kāya em kāya internamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāya externamente, ou ele permanece observando kāya em kāyainternally e externamente; ele permanece observando o samudaya de fenômenos em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento ofphenomena em kāya, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em kāya; ou então, [perceber]: “este é kāya! satiis presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando kāya em kāya.

II. Observação de Vedana

E como agora, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habitar observando Vedana em Vedana?

Aqui, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, experimentando uma Vedana sukha, undersands: “Estou passando por um Vedana sukha“; experimentando um Vedana dukkha, undersands: “Estou passando por um Vedana dukkha“; experimentando um Vedana adukkham-asukhā, undersands: “Eu estou experimentando aadukkham-asukhā Vedana“; experimentando um sukha Vedana sāmisa, undersands: “Estou passando por um sukha Vedana sāmisa“; experimentando um sukha Vedana nirāmisa, undersands: “Estou passando por um sukha Vedana nirāmisa“; experimentando um Vedana sāmisa dukkha, undersands: “Estou passando por uma dukkha Vedana sāmisa“; experimentando um Vedana nirāmisa dukkha, undersands: “Estou passando por um vedanānirāmisa dukkha“; experimentando um adukkham-asukhā Vedana sāmisa, undersands: “Estou passando por um adukkham-asukhā Vedana sāmisa“; experimentando um adukkham-asukhā Vedana nirāmisa, undersands: “Estou passando por um adukkham-asukhā Vedana nirāmisa.

Assim, ele permanece observando Vedana em Vedana internamente, ou ele permanece observando Vedana em Vedana externamente, ou ele permanece observando vedanāin Vedana interna e externamente; Ele habita observando o samudaya de fenômenos em Vedana, ou ele permanece observando o falecimento de fenômenos em Vedana, ou ele permanece observando o samudaya e desaparecimento dos fenômenos em Vedana; ou então, [perceber]: “este isvedanā! sati está presente nele, apenas na medida de mera Nana e mera paṭissati, ele habita individual, e não se apegue a nada no mundo. Assim, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu habita observando Vedana em Vedana.

Nota

1 atthi Kayo ti pan · assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā Hoti, yāvadeva Nana · mattāya paṭissati · mattāya: esta é provavelmente a parte mais complicada do sutta. É muito importante, porque vai ser repetido mais de 20 vezes, e também porque é a parte central explicando como sati realmente se faz presente. Aqui estão algumas interpretações alternativas:

VRI: Agora, sua consciência se estabelece:” Este é o corpo Assim, ele desenvolve sua consciência, de tal forma que não é mera compreensão juntamente com a mera consciência.!

Bhante Analayo: Ou então consciência de que” Há um corpo é estabelecida nele para a extensão do conhecimento nua e lembrança dele

Thanissaro Bhikkhu: Ou a sua consciência de que” Há um corpo é mantido para o âmbito do conhecimento e lembrança

Bhikkhu Nanamoli & Bhikkhu Bodhi . Ou então consciência de que” há um corpo ’se estabelece nele e na medida necessária para o conhecimento nua e mindfulness

Nyanasatta Thera: Ou a sua consciência é estabelecida com o pensamento: Existe a corpo “, na medida do necessário apenas para o conhecimento e consciência.

Soma Thera: Ou mesmo sua atenção plena está estabelecida com o pensamento: Existe a corpo “, na medida do necessário apenas para o conhecimento e lembrança

Maurice Walshe: Ou então, a atenção plena de que” há um corpo está presente a ele apenas na medida necessária para o conhecimento e consciência.

A tradução sugerida pelo webmaster,
com o apoio da tradução de Thanissaro Bhikkhu.

OOo
Publicado como um presente do Dhamma, a ser distribuído gratuitamente.
Todas as cópias ou derivados deste trabalho deve citar a sua fonte original.

Visite:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wV0nJtlswqg
Maha Sathipattana Suthraya - මහා සතිපට්ඨාන සුත්රය -1: 09: 59 Hr

Enviado em 13 de agosto de 2011

Maha Sathipattana Sutta cantado pelo Ven. Dr. Omalpe Sobhita Thero

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixu4Kd5R1DI&list=PL_hbXduIzfZbVhHr8nQEMCsceg0mHsxJa
Meditação Vipassana e Corpo Sensation: Eilona Ariel em TEDxJaffa 2013

Eilona Ariel é um documentarista cujo trabalho foi profundamente inspirado por sua vida na Ásia e na sua prática da técnica de meditação Vipassana antigo chamado.

Ela se mudou para Nova York em 1978 e passou nove anos estudando e trabalhando como músico e um fotógrafo. Em 1980, ela recebeu um diploma da Escola de Fotografia Germain. Ela deixou os EUA em 1987, para passar vários anos vivendo na Ásia. Em 1995, ela voltou para Israel e estabeleceu o Karuna Films Companhia de Produção, juntamente com Ayelet Menahemi.

No espírito das ideias que merecem ser espalhadas, o TEDx é um programa de eventos, auto-organizados locais que reúnem pessoas para compartilhar uma experiência TED-like. Em um evento TEDx, TEDTalks vídeo e alto-falantes ao vivo combinam-se para acender profunda discussão e conexão em um pequeno grupo. Estes, eventos auto-organizados locais são de marca TEDx, onde x = evento TED organizado de forma independente. As conferências TED fornecem guias de procedimentos para o programa TEDx, mas cada evento TEDx são auto-organizados. * (* Sujeito a certas regras e regulamentos)

Para mais informações sobre Vipassana, ver http://www.dhamma.org

Veja mais sobre Doing Time, Doing Vipassana & Karuna Films em http://www.karunafilms.com

Para mais fala deste evento, vá para http://www.tedxjaffa.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Ii9vjW9BwU&index=6&list=PL_hbXduIzfZbVhHr8nQEMCsceg0mHsxJa
Meditação Vipassana S. N. Goenka - 1 dia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFrp9ROB44c&feature=pyv&ad=4869139754&kw=meditation%20mindfulness

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The History of Computers in a Nutshell

History,
of the computing is very interesting in many ways. It has shaped the
present of humanity and will definitely shape its future in significant
ways.

Although
we hardly have a distance of 60 years with the birth of the modern
computing, the astounding pace of changes therein has
created a great history within this short timeframe. In computing, history has created a history for itself.

Nicholas Negroponte said, “Computing is not about computers any more. It is about living.”

In
the early days of the computing it was not so, since they were
considered (and for good reasons) highly sophisticated machines that
only
trained professionals could work with for high tech or scientific (or military) purposes.

It
required many historic developments before we had a computer in every
home and a computer that will do everything, from complex mathematics to
buying groceries and sending mails to playing songs or video.

Computers have evolved to become a significant part of our lives.

Two
things apart from the power of the computing technology itself that
contributed to their acceptance in everyday lives are the intuitive user
interface (often referred as Graphical User Interface or GUI) and the
devices attached to the computer that lets users interact with it.

Each of these has their own story to tell.

Hear the story of the computers-

The GUI and some of these devices that enable us to use the computers.

The story is not only fascinating but also some of us have lived through it.

Brief History and Timeline of the Computers

Computers
or no computers, we were always in dire need of making calculations
(remember we came out of the cave and have to pay the tax!).

People
have used marking the wall to making knots in the rope for doing the
counting. Abacus was in use until recently. Interestingly the digital
calculators that we use now days are a new development and share a
common historical period with modern computers.

Here is a snapshot of the devices that became popular with the different generations of the computers.

• The First Generation (1950s): Punch card and magnetic tapes for inputs, supervisory typewriter for control
• The Second Generation (early 1960s): Punched cards for input, printers, tape storage, and disk storage
• The Third Generation (mid-1960s to mid-1970s): Minicomputers (smaller), simple monitors, keyboard
• The Fourth Generation (1975 to the present): GUI, mouse, color monitors, touch screens, gesture and voice recognition

It
has been long since people were counting on their thumbs and making
complex calculations on their abacus. It was inefficient and boring. The
giant machines developed until 60s were just big calculators. Apart
from being oversized and overfed (they consumed terrible amount of
electricity and had frequent breakdowns) they couldn’t play
videos and send emails.

They needed someone to do something about it.

Young
entrepreneur, Steve Jobs, who were looking for more interesting things
than the schools (seems schools were not popular even in the historical period) thought of this
problem.
He left the school, sold his Volkswagen and calculator (to raise a
fund) and established a company that later became famous as Apple
Computer, Inc.

The company launched its first product, the Apple
I in the year 1976 and discontinued it next year. It was assembled by
hand and encased in a wooden box.

Now these machines are collectors’ items.

He learnt from this experience and released another version Apple II in the same year.

Apple II was a huge success and soon it became the most selling personal computer and established Apple as a successful commercial company.

In
1980, IBM understanding the potential of the rapidly increasing
personal computers market asked Microsoft Corporation to develop a new
operating system for the microcomputers.

What Microsoft came up with was named MS-DOS, a command line interface for the microcomputers. And thus the race was already picking up.

Graphics
that Changed the Graph of Computers Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto
Research Center (PARC), was established in 1970 as a division of Xerox
Corporation. It has a legacy of gifting the world of computing and
information systems with their innovations. The scientists at PARC  were
working on a project that allowed computer users running programs in
their own sizeable windows. A window that was capable of holding symbols
for the programs (called icons) and documents that were clickable. They also developed
the
concept of showing the documents that looked like as they would appear
when printed (we say it print preview now) and also a printer to
actually print the documents. They called it a WIMP system (Windows,
Icons, Menus, and a Pointing device), and later the concept became
famous as the Graphical User Interface (GUI).

Like a really
adventurous movie script the pieces of the stories were moving fast.
While the scientists at PARC were working hard on their program, Steve
Jobs managed to get permission to have a look at what they were doing.
He wasted no time in realizing what their work meant for the personal
computers and started working on a totally new line
of minicomputers
that were leveraging all the features of the GUI. Apple released first
version of the Macintosh in 1984 having all the GUI features and
instantly became hit. Later on Microsoft launched its own line of
operating systems,Microsoft Windows, which implemented the concepts of
GUI, which is now the most widely used operating system for the personal computers worldwide.

The
concept of GUI has contributed the most in bringing the computers out
of the lab and making it a household item. It allowed the innovators to
think and develop applications that could be used by non-technical users
(word processors, spreadsheets, drawing programs and games etc.). It
made the learning computers so intuitive and fun that eventually
computers turned to be the most effective tools for self-learning.

A Mouse for Every Computer

Interestingly
historically mouse has its roots in devices that were being developed
for military purposes as part of a plotting device that could show the
trajectory of the aircraft.

Even more interestingly in early
days researchers have tried to build tracking devices that could have
been tied to your hand or even mounted on your head. The first mouse of
the kind we know was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1964, it has two
metal wheels packed into a wooden shell along with a circuit board.Most
of us might not have a chance to work with it. What many of us might
have seen was developed 8 years later in 1972 by Bill English and had a
ball that could rotate in any direction and was known as “Ball Mouse”.

The
kind of optical mouse we use now days has evolved from many of
predecessors that needed a specific surface (with specific marks to
detect the movements) to work with. It was not until 1999, when
Microsoft introduced optical mouse that was based on the technology developed by Hewlett-Packard.

And
now we have an assortment of mouse kinds: laser mouse (optical mouse
that usages laser light for better precision), ergonomic mouse
(especially designed for the hand comfort), tactile mouse (that provides
hepatic feedback on movements), inertial and gyroscopic mouse (that can
be made to work in the air).

Apart from that there are mouse designed for games having customized controls to suit the game.

As
an alternative we also had something called the touchpad that allows
controlling the computer functions (cursor movements, and selections
etc.) through finger movements on a designated surface.

Apart from a change in the internal workings of the mouse it has also evolved in functions it provides.

Most the mouse today has 2 to 3 buttons and a wheel. It has also evolved the way it is connected to the computer.

Nowadays,
we use the mouse that is often connected to a USB port either through a
wire of through a wireless connection whereas earlier they used to get connected with serial ports.

This
apparently simple down to earthsmall device simplified and improved the
efficiently of the tasks like drawings, selections and clicks,
scrolling and so on. It also made possible to develop applications that
were aware exactly where the user was pointing. Users were able to do
lot many things by simple hand and finger movements in a faster and
efficient way using it.

Where is My Monitor?

Reading
what the computer has to say was not as neat as reading this in early
days of computers. Early computers used to communicate using punched
cards. There was a typewriter like machine to punch holes patterns into
the paper cards. They were fed to the computer that punched the results
onto similar empty cards. The result was fed into another machine (often
called tabulators) that read the punchesand printed the results in
human readable format on paper.

Some other computers used long rolls of papers instead of cards.

CRTs
(Cathode Ray Tubes) that were used as memory in the computers gradually
were used for creating very primitive displays. Eventually CRT based
display evolved to show character based outputs on the screen.

All
this was not working well and fnally Lee Felsenstein, and Steve Wozniak
got on the idea of using the CCTV monitor for using the computer
display. And successfully did it in the year 1976.

As the computer market grew gradually computer manufacturers started building monitors with higher resolutions, both monochrome and color versions. Innovators and the
manufacturers
were always looking for the improvisations and concepts of plasma and
LCD based displays were evolving behind the scene. But these
technologies were too expensive then. The problem with these monitors
was that they were built on different standards and there were a lot of
them in the market. It was not until 1987 when IBM introduced the VGA
video standard that became the standard for most of the computer monitors built.

Apple
Macintosh II that was released in the same year started supporting
color videos.



Steve Jobs
Jobs smiling and holding an iPhone

Born Steven Paul Jobs
February 24, 1955

San Francisco, California, US
Died October 5, 2011 (aged 56)

Palo Alto, California, US
Cause of death
Metastatic Insulinoma
Residence Palo Alto, California, US
Alma mater Reed College
Occupation Co-founder, Chairman, and CEO,

Apple Inc.
Co-founder and CEO,

Pixar
Founder and CEO,

NeXT Inc.
Years active 1974–2011
Net worth US $8.3 billion (July 2010)
Board member of
The Walt Disney Company[1]

Apple Inc.
Religion Zen Buddhism

(previously Lutheran)[2]
Spouse(s) Laurene Powell
(m. 1991–2011; his death)
Partner(s) Chrisann Brennan
Children
Relatives Mona Simpson (sister)
Signature Steve Jobs signature.svg
Meanwhile, the LCD technology was being perfected and it
was in late 1990s that manufacturers started offering LCD based monitors
as they were less bulky and consumed lesser electricity.

As
computing technology evolved into different other areas like
manufacturing, point of sales, handheld devices, gaming consoles etc.
where the users have to repetitively make same or similar inputs for
longer periods, researchers were looking for smart ways to input using
the hand directly to the screen. Research work from academics to
industries evolved and multiple approaches were developed to make this
happen. Interestingly, the touch screens were widely used in the POS machines before they were adapted for
the phones.

The first touchscreen phone (IBM Simon) was released in 1993.

The popularity of smart phones has made the touch screens very popular. Advent of the tablets and “phablets” is only adding to the ever rising usages and popularity of
the
touch screens. The technology is quite mature now for the touch screens
and recently both the software and hardware vendors have launched the
computers products that are touch enabled.

Microsoft Windows 8
series of operating system has been specifically designed for touch
enabled devices including computers,laptops and hand held devices.

Due
to the technological innovations in the area of display it is now
possible to build larger still lighter screens that can display lot many
things and also high resolution video contents.

Touch enabled
screens have opened the possibilities that have just begun to get
explored. Since, users can use their fingers (or a stylus) for making
direct inputs there is no need of a mouse. The screen itself can open up
as a virtual keyboard and that removesthe need of a physical keyboard.
Taking it even further it opens the door for the technologies that allow
recognizing your handwriting to become commonplace and that will change
how the applications are built and used in significant ways.

A Peek into the Future

We
have seen how dramatically computers have changed themselves from a big
giant number crunching machines to little device that can fit into any
hand and can do amazing things.

This change both necessitated and has been fueled by the research in the areas of technologies that allow better human computer interactions.

Ok, so we have thin monitors with crystal clear display, cordless USB based fancy mouse, ergonomic keyboards and ultra slim laptops.

Where do we go from here
now?

We human beings spend more and more of our time with computers and depend more and more upon it for carrying out our day to day activities.

Researchers have started realizing that computers are becoming a natural part of our lives. And that demands a shift in the ways we interact with it.

Advancements
in the technologies like touch, sensors, gesture and voice recognition,
virtual reality etc. is paving way for a new era for the computing or rather the human computer interaction.

Current
gesture recognition technologies work in tandem with advanced cameras
having sensors and a possible device in the hand. But as the technology
advances further the cameras with sensors that don’t need any devices to
be worn on the hand are getting popular.

Gesture and voice
recognition will change the way we talk to the computer. Similarly
developments in the field of 3D and holographic display will revolutionize the way we look at things.

These
technologies taken together are all set to take the text and GUI based
interface to next level. It holds potential of not only making many of
the hardware components redundant but also revolutionizes the way we
interact with the computers.

For example, it will allow users to
interact from a distance with UI without being in touch with the
computer, and so even more than one people can work together on a big surface.

Technologies
that can project the display output to any surface and holographic
display etc. combined together with gesture recognition will remove the
requirement of a fixed sized monitor component and any surface of any
size could potentiallybecome a monitor.

Latest researches in the area of Biochips and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are the promises for the future of the computing.

Computers
developed in near future will be super speed biochip equipped, project
3D holographic display, understand our gestures and voice with
precision, would be brain controlled and who knows may be will
understand human emotions as well. Working with the computers will be
more direct, like working with a human being (and so with
little of the additional devices). We are really witnessing the history as it is taking place just in front of our eyes.

The History of Computers in a Nutshell


Computers have wedged themselves into every facet of our lives—they
are what we would use as the symbolic representation of the modern
world.


But did you know that the history of computers dates back to the 1800s?


Indeed, the history and evolution of computers is quite
extraordinary—and with many early computing technology innovations tied
to defense contracts, much of this information were kept secret from the
public for decades. In this article, we explore the development and
progression of computers.




Mid-1800s-1930s: Early Mechanical Computers


The first computers were designed by Charles Babbage in the
mid-1800s, and are sometimes collectively known as the Babbage Engines.
These include the Difference Engine No. 1, the Analytical Engine, and
the Difference Engine No. 2.


Difference Engine No. 2

The Difference Engine was constructed from designs by Charles Babbage. Photo by Allan J. Cronin


These early computers were never completed during Babbage’s lifetime, but their complete designs were preserved. Eventually, one was built in 2002.


While these early mechanical computers bore little resemblance to the
computers in use today, they paved the way for a number of technologies
that are used by modern computers, or were instrumental in their
development. These concepts include of the idea of separating storage
from processing, the logical structure of computers, and the way that
data and instructions are inputted and outputted.


Z1

Z1 was used to take the U.S. Census in 1890.


Other important mechanical computers are the Automatic Electrical
Tabulating Machine—which was used in the U.S. Census of 1890 to handle
data from more than 62 million Americans—and the first binary computer:
Konrad Zuse’s Z1, which was developed in 1938 and was the precursor to
the first electro-mechanical computer.



1930s: Electro-Mechanical Computers


Electro-mechanical computers generally worked with relays and/or vacuum tubes, which could be used as switches.


Some electro-mechanical computers—such as the Differential Analyzer built in 1930—used purely mechanical internals but employed electric motors to power them.


These early electro-mechanical computers were either analog or were
digital—such as the Model K and the Complex Number Calculator, both
produced by George Stibitz.


Stibitz, by the way, was also responsible for the first remote access computing,
done at a conference at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. He took a
teleprinter to the conference, leaving his computer in New York City,
and then proceeded to take problems posed by the audience. He then
entered the problems on the keypad of his teleprinter, which outputted
the answers afterward.


Z3

Z3 used floating-point numbers which improved the accuracy of calculations.


It was during the development of these early electro-mechanical
computers that many of the technologies and concepts still used today
were first developed. The Z3,
a descendent of the Z1 developed by Konrad Zuse, was one such
pioneering computer. The Z3 used floating-point numbers in computations
and was the first program-controlled digital computer.


Other electro-mechanical computers included Bombes, which were used during WWII to decrypt German codes.



1940s: Electronic Computers


Colossus

Colossus—whose name was fitting for its size—was developed during World War II.


The first electronic computers were developed during the World War II, with the earliest of those being the Colossus. The Colossus was developed to decrypt secret German codes during the war. It used vacuum tubes and paper tape and could perform a number of Boolean (e.g. true/false, yes/no) logical operations.


Williams Tube

Williams Tube used RAM for its computations.


Another notable early electronic computer was nicknamed “The Baby” (officially known as the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine).
While the computer itself wasn’t remarkable—it was the first computer
to use the Williams Tube, a type of random access memory (RAM) that used
a cathode-ray tube.


Some early electronic computers used decimal numeric systems (such as
the ENIAC and the Harvard Mark 1), while others—like the
Atanasoff-Berry Computer and the Colossus Mark 2—used binary systems.
With the exception of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, all the major models
were programmable, either using punch cards, patch cables and switches,
or through stored programs in memory.



1950s: The First Commercial Computers


The first commercially available computers came in the 1950s. While
computing up until this time had mainly focused on scientific,
mathematical, and defense capabilities, new computers were designed for
business functions, such as banking and accounting.


The J. Lyons Company, which was a British catering firm, invested heavily in some of these early computers. In 1951, LEO
(Lyons Electronic Office) became the first computer to run a regular
routine office job. By November of that year, they were using the LEO to
run a weekly bakery valuations job.


UNIVAC

The UNIVAC was the first mass-produced computer.


The UNIVAC was the
first commercial computer developed in the U.S.,
with its first unit delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau. It was the
first mass-produced computer, with more than 45 units eventually
produced and sold.


The IBM 701 was another notable development in early commercial
computing; it was the first mainframe computer produced by IBM. It was
around the same time that the Fortran programming language was being developed (for the 704).


IBM 650

The IBM 650 would cost you $4 million dollars if you bought it today.


A smaller IBM 650 was developed in the mid-1950s, and was popular due
to its smaller size and footprint (it still weighed over 900kg, with a
separate 1350kg power supply).


They cost the equivalent of almost $4 million today (adjusted for inflation).



Mid-1950s: Transistor Computers


The development of transistors led to the replacement of vacuum
tubes, and resulted in significantly smaller computers. In the
beginning, they were less reliable than the vacuum tubes they replaced,
but they also consumed significantly less power.


RAMAC

IBM 350 RAMAC used disk drives.


These transistors also led to developments in computer peripherals.
The first disk drive, the IBM 350 RAMAC, was the first of these
introduced in 1956. Remote terminals also became more common with these
second-generation computers.



1960s: The Microchip and the Microprocessor


The microchip (or integrated circuit) is one of the most important
advances in computing technology. Many overlaps in history existed
between microchip-based computers and transistor-based computers
throughout the 1960s, and even into the early 1970s.



Micochips allowed the manufacturing of smaller computers. Photo by Ioan Sameli


The microchip spurred the production of minicomputers and
microcomputers, which were small and inexpensive enough for small
businesses and even individuals to own. The microchip also led to the
microprocessor, another breakthrough technology that was important in
the development of the personal computer.


There were three microprocessor designs that came out at about the
same time. The first was produced by Intel (the 4004). Soon after,
models from Texas Instruments (the TMS 1000) and Garret AiResearch (the
Central Air Data Computer, or CADC) followed.


The first processors were 4-bit, but 8-bit models quickly followed by 1972.


16-bit models were produced in 1973, and 32-bit models soon followed.
AT&T Bell Labs created the first fully 32-bit single-chip
microprocessor, which used 32-bit buses, 32-bit data paths, and 32-bit
addresses, in 1980.


The first 64-bit microprocessors were in use in the early 1990s in
some markets, though they didn’t appear in the PC market until the early
2000s.



1970s: Personal Computers


The first personal computers were built in the early 1970s. Most of
these were limited-production runs, and worked based on small-scale
integrated circuits and multi-chip CPUs.



The Commodore PET was a personal computer in the 70s. Photo by Tomislav Medak


The Altair 8800 was the first popular computer using a single-chip
microprocessor. It was also sold in kit form to electronics hobbyists,
meaning purchasers had to assemble their own computers.


Clones of this machine quickly cropped up, and soon there was an
entire market based on the design and architecture of the 8800. It also
spawned a club based around hobbyist computer builders, the Homebrew Computer Club.


1977 saw the rise of the “Trinity” (based on a
reference in Byte magazine): the Commodore PET, the Apple II, and the
Tandy Corporation’s TRS-80. These three computer models eventually went
on to sell millions.


These early PCs had between 4kB and 48kB of RAM. The Apple II was the
only one with a full-color, graphics-capable display, and eventually
became the best-seller among the trinity, with more than 4 million units
sold.



1980s-1990s: The Early Notebooks and Laptops


One particularly notable development in the 1980s was the advent of the commercially available portable computer.



Osborne 1 was small and portable enough to transport. Photo by Tomislav Medak


The first of these was the Osborne 1, in 1981. It
had a tiny 5″ monitor and was large and heavy compared to modern laptops
(weighing in at 23.5 pounds). Portable computers continued to develop,
though, and eventually became streamlined and easily portable, as the
notebooks we have today are.


These early portable computers were portable only in the most
technical sense of the word. Generally, they were anywhere from the size
of a large electric typewriter to the size of a suitcase.



The Gavilan SC was the first PC to be sold as a “laptop”.


The first laptop
with a flip form factor, was produced in 1982, but the first portable
computer that was actually marketed as a “laptop” was the Gavilan SC in 1983.


Early models had monochrome displays, though there were color displays available starting in 1984 (the Commodore SX-64).


Laptops grew in popularity as they became smaller and lighter. By
1988, displays had reached VGA resolution, and by 1993 they had
256-color screens. From there, resolutions and colors progressed
quickly. Other hardware features added during the 1990s and early 2000s
included high-capacity hard drives and optical drives.



Laptops typically come in three categories, as shown by these Macbooks. Photo by Benjamin Nagel


Laptops are generally broken down into a three different categories:



Desktop replacements are usually larger, with displays of 15-17″ and performance comparable with some better desktop computers.


Standard notebooks usually have displays of 13-15″ and are a good compromise between performance and portability.


Subnotebooks, including netbooks, have displays smaller than 13″ and fewer features than standard notebooks.



2000s: The Rise of Mobile Computing


Mobile computing is one of the most recent major milestones in the history of computers.


Many smartphones today have higher processor speeds and more memory
than desktop PCs had even ten years ago. With phones like the iPhone and
the Motorola Droid, it’s becoming possible to perform most of the
functions once reserved for desktop PCs from anywhere.


2000s: The Rise of Mobile Computing

The Droid is a smartphone capable of basic computing tasks such as emailing and web browsing.


Mobile computing really got its start in the 1980s, with the pocket
PCs of the era. These were something like a cross between a calculator, a
small home computer and a PDA. They largely fell out of favor by the
1990s. During the 1990s, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) became
popular.


A number of manufacturers had models, including Apple and Palm. The
main feature PDAs had that not all pocket PCs had was a touchscreen
interface. PDAs are still manufactured and used today, though they’ve
largely been replaced by smartphones.


Smartphones have truly revolutionized mobile computing. Most basic
computing functions can now be done on a smartphone, such as email,
browsing the internet, and uploading photos and videos.



Late 2000s: Netbooks


Another recent progression in computing history is the development of
netbook computers. Netbooks are smaller and more portable than standard
laptops, while still being capable of performing most functions average
computer users need (using the Internet, managing email, and using
basic office programs). Some netbooks go as far as to have not only
built-in WiFi capabilities, but also built-in mobile broadband
connectivity options.


Netbooks

The Asus Eee PC 700 was the first netbook to enter mass production.


The first mass-produced netbook was the Asus Eee PC 700, released in
2007. They were originally released in Asia, but were released in the US
not long afterward.


Other manufacturers quickly followed suit, releasing additional models throughout 2008 and 2009.


One of the main advantages of netbooks is their lower cost (generally
ranging from around US$200-$600). Some mobile broadband providers have
even offered netbooks for free with an extended service contract.
Comcast also had a promotion in 2009 that offered a free netbook when
you signed up for their cable internet services.


Most netbooks now come with Windows or Linux installed, and soon,
there will be Android-based netbooks available from Asus and other
manufacturers.


The history of computing spans nearly two centuries at this point,
much longer than most people realize. From the mechanical computers of
the 1800s to the room-sized mainframes of the mid-20th century, all the
way up to the netbooks and smartphones of today, computers have evolved
radically throughout their history.


The past 100 years have brought technological leaps and bounds to
computing, and there’s no telling what the next 100 years might bring.



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