Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU)
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 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Punya Bhumi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -PRABUDDHA BHARAT

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Please send a sample Solar Airplane Educational Kit to
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage
Karnataka India
Will pay in equivalent Indian Rupees on receiving the parcel. Or tell us where to buy the same in Bangalore or your agency.
With kind regards
Navaneetham Chandrasekharan

Please watch:

Construction of Solar Impulse 2, the Round-The-World Solar Airplane- 6:46 mins

Published on Apr 9, 2014
solar airplane Solar Impulse 2 has been presented on April 9th. The
construction of the experimental solar aircraft didn’t happen in a day.
Watch this video about the construction of Solar Impulse 2 and
understand the steps that had to be taken when you’re looking towards
attempting the First #RTW Solar Flight!

Solar Impulse is the only airplane of perpetual endurance, able to fly day and night on solar power, without a drop of fuel.
Impulse challenge is to attempt the First Round-The-World Solar Flight
in 2015. A way for Bertrand Piccard, André Borschberg and their team to
demonstrate how pioneering spirit, innovation and clean technologies can
change the world.

Fly Across America with Solar Impulse: San Francisco to New-York - Best-Of-12:56 mins

Published on Jul 29, 2013

In 2013, Solar Impulse 1 crossed the United States of America from coast to coast, from San Francisco to New York City.
Here’s the best of it, in case you missed it!

Impulse has completed the historic crossing of the United States, west
to east, over a 2-month period in the summer of 2013. On the footsteps
of aviation pioneers like the Wright brothers and Charles Lindbergh,
Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg underwent the coast-to-coast
challenge to spread a message demonstrating what can be done with the
spirit of innovation and with clean technologies.

This year’s
mission was made possible thanks to the support of Solar Impulse
partners Solvay, Schindler, Bayer MaterialScience, Swiss Re Corporate
Solutions, SunPower, and the Swiss Confederation.

The “Across America” mission at a glance:

• 3-4 May 2013: First leg San Francisco/Moffett Airfield — Phoenix/Sky Harbor
• 22-23 May 2013: Second leg Phoenix/Sky Harbor — Dallas/Fort Worth
• 3-4 June 2013: Third leg Dallas/Fort Worth — St. Louis/Lambert Airport
• 14-15 June 2013: Fourth leg St. Louis/Lambert Airport — Washington DC/Dulles via Cincinnati
• 6 July 2013: Fifth and last leg Washington DC/Dulles — New York/JFK

The only airplane of perpetual endurance, able to fly day and night on solar power, without a drop of fuel.
challenge is to attempt the First Round-The-World Solar Flight in 2015.
A way for Bertrand Piccard, André Borschberg and their team to
demonstrate how pioneering spirit, innovation and clean technologies can
change the world.

Get more information about the project:

#DiscoverSi2 #SolarImpulse #RTW

Don’t miss any video, subscribe to our Youtube Channel:…

We developed a weekly 2-min video blog, the #Insider Series. Here is the link:…

More videos about Solar Impulse 2:
GoPro: Solar Impulse 2 Airplane Exclusive Shots…
Why Solar Impulse?…
The Construction of Si2:…
A 3D Animation of Si2:…

Links about Solar Impulse:

Andre Borschberg & Bertrand Piccard, “Around the World in a Solar Airplane” | Talks at Google-48:08 mins

Published on Sep 30, 2013

spring Solar Impulse—the world’s most advanced 100% solar powered
airplane—is flying coast to coast in the U.S. for the very first time.
It has the wingspan of a 747, the weight of a family car, the power of a
scooter— is a flying laboratory and modern example of the power of
innovation and the pioneering spirit.

Please join Google SVP Alan
Eustace in conversation with Piccard and Borschberg about the
extraordinary challenges faced in engineering and building HB-SIA.
Following the conversation, please join the Solar Impulse team at
Moffett Airfield for a tour and up close look at the plane’s
engineering. To participate in the tour, the form at http://go/solar-impulse-tour must be completed 48 hours prior to event.”


MIT Unified Engineering & Solar Impulse Hangout On Air-33:09 mins

Streamed live on May 14, 2014

the discussion between André Borschberg, CEO, Co-Founder & Pilot of
Solar Impulse and students from the MIT Aeronautics Astronautics
Unified Engineering class, led by Prof. Olivier de Weck.

topic of discussion will be to talk about the challenges to build a
solar airplane and focus on the Unified Engineering Flight Competition
that took place last week at the MIT.

The only airplane of perpetual endurance, able to fly day and night on solar power, without a drop of fuel.
challenge is to attempt the First Round-The-World Solar Flight in 2015.
A way for Bertrand Piccard, André Borschberg and their team to
demonstrate how pioneering spirit, innovation and clean technologies can
change the world.

Get more information about the project:

#DiscoverSi2 #SolarImpulse #RTW

To don’t miss any video, subscribe to our Youtube Channel:…

We developed a weekly 2-min video blog, the #Insider Serie. Here is the link:…

More videos about Solar Impulse 2:
Why Solar Impulse?…
The Construction of Si2:…
A 3D Animation of Si2:…

Links about Solar Impulse:

LIVE: Solar Impulse Airplane - Takeoff from Ahmedabad-2:30:33 hr

Streamed live on Mar 18, 2015

Borschberg took off with Si2 from Ahmedabad heading to Varanasi. The
departure was delayed due to customs leading to many encouraging
messages from the local and international community. Raymond, our
explains the complications that this situation could have led to. Follow
the flight live!

Get more information about the project:

#Solarimpulse #RTW #Si2

Subscribe to our Youtube Channel:…

Link to the #Insider Series:…

More videos about Solar Impulse 2:
GoPro: Solar Impulse 2 Airplane Exclusive Shots…
Why Solar Impulse?…
The Construction of Si2:…
First Flight Si2 Best-Of :…

Links about Solar Impulse:


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 TOP > Special > Yasuyuki Fukumuro, Practical Application of Space-Based Solar Power Generation

Practical Application of Space-Based Solar Power Generation

Yasuyuki Fukumuro Research and Planning, Space Solar Power SystemsSpace Solar Power Systems (SSPS) is a project to collect sunlight in geostationary orbit, convert it to electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or laser beams, and transmit the energy to a receiving facility on the ground or on the ocean, in order to generate electricity and hydrogen for use on Earth. With space-based solar power generation, there is no need to worry about depletion of resources; it is unaffected by time of the day or weather, and is available continuously, except for certain times at the spring and fall equinox. Most importantly, it is environmentally friendly, clean energy.

Clean Energy Supply from the Sun

Q. Could you explain the Space Solar Power Systems project.

Laser beam-type SSPS
Laser beam-type SSPS

The Space Solar Power Systems project is a space-based solar power plant
that generates energy by collecting sunlight in geostationary orbit.
The energy is then transmitted to the ground, and converted into
electricity and hydrogen for practical use. SSPS consists of a
space-based power generation/transmission facility that gathers
sunlight, converts it into microwaves or laser beams, and transmits
those to the ground; and a power receiving facility on the ground.
There are differences in characteristics and capability between
microwaves, which are used in microwave ovens and cellular phones, and
laser beams, which you commonly see in computer printers and
presentation pointers. We have not yet decided which of the two to use
with SSPS, or whether we will somehow combine them. We are currently
conducting ground-based experiments to find the most efficient way to
transmit energy.
Regardless of which transmission technology we use, when we collect
sunlight from outside the Earth’s atmosphere, we can get a continuous
supply of it, with almost no influence from the weather, the seasons, or
time of day, allowing very efficient collection of solar energy. And
since the energy source is the sun, it’s an endlessly renewable resource
- it won’t run out as long as the sun is there. Also, because the power
is generated in space and carbon dioxide is emitted only at the
receiving site, emissions within the Earth’s atmosphere can be greatly
reduced, which makes this technology very friendly to the environment.

Q. Where does the idea for SSPS come from?

The idea for space-based solar power generation was introduced by an
American, Dr. Peter Glaser, in 1968. His idea was to deploy large solar
panels in space for power generation, and convert the energy into
microwaves to transmit to the ground. NASA and the United States
Department of Energy looked into the implications of implementation. But
the project was so costly, it was shut down during the Reagan
administration in the 1980s. Meanwhile in Japan, probably reflecting our
nation’s shortage of energy resources, SSPS research was started early,
and has since been pursued by many universities and JAXA.

Japan Leads the World in SSPS Development

Q. What is the progress status of SSPS in Japan?

Microwave-type SSPS Microwave-type SSPS

There are many technological challenges to solve before SSPS can be
implemented. However, in principle, we are getting close to the stage
where it is feasible, and we have just moved from the study phase to the
technology demonstration phase. Researchers have started preparation
for the world’s first demonstration of 1kW-class wireless power
transmission technology, and are aiming for practical use in the 2030s.
At this point, you could say that Japan is leading the world in SSPS
research. I think that this is all thanks to JAXA’s long-term commitment
to this research.
Q. Could you describe the advantages of Japan’s SSPS technology.
When transmitting power by microwaves, a significant technological
challenge is how to control the direction, and transmit it with pinpoint
accuracy from a geostationary orbit to a receiving site on the ground.
Transmitting microwaves from an altitude of 36,000 kilometers to a flat
surface 3 km in diameter is like threading a needle. In my opinion,
Japan currently has the most advanced technology to do this.
With laser beams, as with microwaves, large reflectors will be used to
collect sunlight. But uniquely, the energy of the sunlight itself will
be used at the collection point as excitation energy for the laser
beams. This would allow us to keep the structure simple, and therefore
reduce the size and weight of the orbiting power plant.


1   2

© 2003 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

SSPS Technology Will Help Respond to Natural Disasters

Q. How would SSPS contribute to our daily life?

Laser beam-type SSPS
Laser beam-type SSPS

SSPS will provide a great boost to the world’s energy supply because
power can be generated as long as the sun is there. So, in that sense,
our daily life will directly benefit from the technology because SSPS
will satisfy the demand for electrical energy.
Also, I believe that this technology will be useful in disaster
situations. At the SSPS microwave receiving site, we use a flat-plane
antenna called a “rectenna” (rectifying antenna) to convert microwaves
into electrical energy. So, for example, if a blackout occurs due to a
natural disaster, a thin, portable rectenna can be unfolded and deployed
to receive microwaves from space, which can be converted into
electrical energy.
Finally, in order to construct a structure as large as the SSPS in
space, it will be essential to have a new space transport system and
sophisticated robots. I think the SSPS project will push forward R&D
in the rocketry and robotics fields, which will inevitably contribute
to the growth of both industries.

Q. Are there any safety concerns about electrical power transmission via microwave or laser beams?

We intend to make the intensity of the energy of the microwaves similar
to that of sunlight. However, it is necessary to take strong measures to
ensure the safety of living organisms on Earth in case they are exposed
to microwave beams that are misaligned with the receiving site on the
ground. For example, even with weak microwaves, the impact of prolonged
exposure on the human body has not yet been fully understood. So I think
it is essential to take operational measures to ensure the safety of
the surroundings of the receiving site.
Similarly, there must be strict safety measures for the use of laser
beams. For example, the SSPS station would transmit a laser beam aiming
at a navigation signal light on the ground. If the power transmission
facility shifts in space and the navigation signal is interrupted,
transmission should be stopped immediately.

Putting SSPS into Practical Use

Q. Is there any international research collaboration on SSPS?

Microwave-type SSPS Microwave-type SSPS

We have not really discussed it yet because SSPS is still under basic
study, and Japan is the only country that is proactively dedicating
itself to the research, by carrying out demonstration tests, for
instance. Having said that, though, in reality, the enormous costs will
make it very difficult for Japan to make the project happen
independently, so I think that we will eventually need to run the
project at an international level.
Q. Could you tell us what your goal is now.I
believe that Japan’s long-term, steady efforts in SSPS research have
made us the leading country in the field. I would like to carry on
technology demonstration, step by step, in order to put the technology
into practice in the future.
Although, Japan depends on imported energy resources today, if we can
establish SSPS technology, it may even become possible for us to become
an energy exporter. We would like to continue to lead the world in SSPS
technology development, so that Japan will be able to play a major role
as a contributor to the world’s energy supply.

Yasuyuki Fukumuro
Advanced Missions Research Group, Innovative Technology Research Center, JAXA
Mr. Fukumuro joined the National Space Development Agency of Japan
(NASDA, now part of JAXA) in 1981, and has since worked in project
planning and management, public information, and financial accounting
systems. He has been in charge of research planning for the Space Solar
Power Systems (SSPS) since 2007.

A Solar-Powered Plane Is About To Take A Flight Around The Worldwww.fastcoexist.com750 × 422Search by image

Everything You Need To Know About The First Solar-Powered Flight …

www.buzzfeed.com996 × 498Search by image

Everything You Need To Know About The First Solar-Powered Flight Around The World

Everything You Need To Know About The First Solar-Powered Flight …

www.buzzfeed.com940 × 443Search by image

Everything You Need To Know About The First Solar-Powered Flight Around The World
Solar Powered Plane Crosses Arabian Sea - Viral PirateViral Pirate

viralpirate.com500 × 375Search by image

The Solar Impulse 2 has a wingspan of 72m, which is wider than that of a 747 jumbo jet, but it’s much lighter at only 2.3 tons.

CHRONOS 3D FDTD simulation software - INTEGRATED

www.integratedsoft.com400 × 236Search by image

The H-field is animated on the whole surface of an airplane

How planes work | the science of flight - Explain that Stuff

www.explainthatstuff.com300 × 233Search by image

Animation showing how the angle of attack of a wing changes the lift it produces.

Flight Videos Deconstructed (GIF) : Science_Infographics

innovation | Raoul Pop | Page 6

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only the fancy of the show’s writers, but still, it’s a good standard
by which to judge the solar car’s progress within the last …

y Statement | Terms of Use

Earth Energy - Build Solar Panel for Home
www.greenplanet4energy.com400 × 265Search by image
power for homes is a renewable and much better energy source. Many
homeowners are going green these days because they want to save money
and the …

Photonics for a Better World: June 2015
photonicsforabetterworld.blogspot.com1600 × 1047Search by image

the people who work with them have brought tangible social,
environmental, health, and economic gains to humanity. A prime example
is the solar cooker, …

Harilo: Latest Deals
www.harilo.com500 × 270Search by image
All Season Solar Cooker and Trivet

Do It Yourself Survival Projects

survivalbarracks.com150 × 150Search by image

D.I.Y. Fresnel Solar Cooker and how to use solar to cook

Solar societies and the reform of land use, water, and energy use

myweb.rollins.edu296 × 253Search by image

Heat from the sun is an obvious form of energy, called solar thermal technology.

Cooks- next generation on Pinterest | Kid Cooking, Cooking and …
www.pinterest.com236 × 305Search by image
Worksheets: Pizza Box Solar Oven


How to Turn a Pizza Box into a Solar Oven- 2.58 mins

Learn here how to REALLY use your new iPhone

Watch more Cooking Equipment videos:…

Save that last slice of pizza! You can reheat it in its own container, using the sun’s power.

Step 1: Draw a square

Using the ruler and black marker, draw a
square on your pizza-box lid, leaving a 1-inch border from the edge of
the box to each side of the square.

Step 2: Form the flap
With the box cutter or utility knife, cut
through three sides of the square you just drew, leaving the line at the
rear of the box attached. Fold the flap back so that it
stands up when the pizza-box lid is closed.

Step 3: Cover the flap with foil
Cover the underside of the flap
with heavy-duty aluminum foil, which will reflect sunlight into the
oven. Glue the foil to the flap, smooth out wrinkles, and cut off any excess.

Step 4: Tape plastic sheet
With the scissors, cut two square
pieces of clear plastic wrap, each 1 square inch larger than the flap
opening. Open the pizza box, and tape one piece of plastic to the
underside of the hole so that the plastic covers it.

Step 5: Tape second plastic sheet
Close the lid, and tape the
second plastic sheet over the top of the hole, creating a window that
helps keep the sun’s heat in the box. Pull both sheets taut as you tape them.

Maintaining an airtight box is crucial in keeping the oven hot.

Step 6: Layer the bottom with foil
Glue or tape a layer of aluminum foil to the inside bottom of your pizza box for insulation.

Step 7: Cover with black paper
Cover the foil layer in the box
with sheets of black construction paper and glue them into place. The
black base will absorb light and generate more heat inside your oven.

Step 8: Find best angle
Close the lid, and you’re ready to start
cooking! On a bright day, place your solar oven outside in direct
sunlight. Adjust the foil flap to find the best ray-reflecting angle,
and use the ruler, a stick, or a hard-plastic straw to keep the flap propped in place.

If you want to test the reflective angles of your oven before
you head outside, shine a laser pointer onto the foil flap to simulate
rays of sunlight.

Step 9: Preheat
Preheat your oven by leaving it in direct
sunlight for 30 minutes. The box’s temperature will reach about 200
degrees, so while you won’t be able to cook a roast, you can reheat
cooked food, melt cheese or chocolate, or—if you have all day—prepare a veggie stew.

Step 10: Cook
Whatever you decide to cook, place it—on its own,
or in a heat-safe container—in the center of the oven, so that it is
directly under the plastic-wrap window. Close the lid, leaving the flap
propped open, and check on your food every 15 to 30 minutes.

Did You Know?
Earth receives more energy from the sun in one hour than our entire planet uses in a year.

Solar Cooker Oven Pizza Box - School Project-18.00 mins
Published on Oct 18, 2014

Cooker Oven Pizza Box - School Project - Jonathan’s School Science
Project. Science project for using solar energy for cooking. This
project was allot of fun and educational to do so we decided to record
it in stop motion as well, this way you can see how the egg gets cooked.

We had a lot of fun doing it, hope you enjoy it as much as we did.

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Solar Tech
7 New Solar Innovations That Could Change The World
    •    By Jacob Sandry
    •    June 20, 2013

It’s a tough time for solar innovation.
Heightened global solar PV production, especially in China where
production has multiplied 17 times over the last few years, has created
such an oversupply of panels that prices have dropped 80% in the last
four years. Plummeting prices is exciting news for the distribution of solar energy, but threatens to
stymie innovation of new clean energy products. Solar technology
startups that are attempting to break into the PV market are finding it
challenging to make even the most innovative products cost effective
when the cost of traditional solar panels is so low. The disappointing
buyout of MiaSole and crash of Solyndra are cacophonous illustrations of
the difficulty of this new landscape. But fret not, Mosaic is here to
remind you that there are still opportunities for innovative new
technologies to transform our clean energy future. Here are seven.

1. Bringing Light to Developing Countries

There are 1.2 billion people in the world who live without access to
electricity. In order to provide nighttime light, many of households in
developing countries use kerosene lamps. Breathing the fumes from
kerosene lamps poses numerous health hazards and the lamps cause
frequent fatal accidents. Moreover, kerosene lamps add an estimated 200
million tons of GHGs to the atmosphere annually. Bringing even small
amounts of light and electricity can have enormous impacts on economic
possibilities for workers and scholastic performance for children.

like D.Light, Greenlight Planet and Angaza Design have developed small,
durable, solar charging lamps and appliances that can cheaply replace
kerosene lamps.

Over the last few years, these companies have
begun to distribute their products on wider networks. On a slightly
larger scale, companies like OMC, Powerhive, and Mera Gao Power are
developing clean energy “microgrids”. A few solar panels provide
electricity (to power 2-4 LED lights and a cell phone charger) for up to
100 households. These
innovative companies face many challenges in distributing their
technologies in difficult to access regions of developing countries, but
exciting progress has already been demonstrated. (Photo courtesy Social
Venture Network)

2. Infrared Solar Energy

Only about 60% of the light that hits the earth’s surface is visible
light. The rest lies in the infrared (think night vision goggles) and
ultraviolet (think sunburn) spectrums. Our traditional silicon-based
solar photo voltaics can only convert visible light into energy, leaving
huge amounts of potential energy untapped. A group of MIT
researchers have pioneered a new carbon-based solar panel that can
harness the light in the infrared range. Luckily, the new carbon cells
are transparent, meaning they could be transposed on top of
silicon-based cells to gather both infrared and visible sunlight. The
cells are made of carbon nanotubes which are highly absorptive while
needing very little material. So they shouldn’t cost much. According to
MIT, a peer reviewer of the paper called this discovery “a dream for the
field.” The downside is that with many kinks to be worked out, they’re
nowhere near ready for commercial production. (Photo courtesy Co.Exist)

3. Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPVs) are thin-film solar panels
built smoothly into building materials like roof shingles, curtain
walls, facades, or windows (yes, you can spray solar panels onto your
windows). BIPVs have actually been around for over 20 years, but have
largely been relegated to the realms of R&D and showcase works and
currently account for only 1% of global solar PV output. These products
are now emerging on the commercial marketplace due to the technological
leadership of a number of producers and attractive feed-in tariff
programs in numerous European countries. The global overproduction of
solar panels means that installation is now taking up an increasingly
large percentage of the total cost per watt of solar.

BIPVs are an
enticing alternative because they cut out many installation costs (they
don’t require racking, laborers don’t necessarily need to be trained in
solar installations) especially on new buildings. A report from the
National Renewable Energy Lab demonstrates that BIPVs could economically
compete with traditional rack-mounted Solar installations, even in the
short term. Moreover, BIPVs are aesthetically appealing for many
customers who may not be pleased with a large rack mounted system on
their roof. (Photo courtesy Marathon Roof)

4. Solar Leaf

Daniel Nocera and his research team at MIT have developed the first
“artificial leaf.”  Made from a thin silicon solar cell, the leaf is
dropped into water where it separates hydrogen and oxygen molecules that
are collected and connected to fuel cells that produce electricity. The
leaves can’t collect energy as efficiently as traditional solar PVs,
but are incredibly cheap to make. Nocera and his team believe the leaf
could bring electricity cost effectively, especially in developing
countries, to households that aren’t connected to energy grids.
(Photocourtesy National Geographic)

5. Solar Powered Mobile Gadgets

Solar power on mobile gadgets is still in its novelty phase, but
expect to see more innovations in the next few years. There are
currently over 1 billion smartphones in use around the world. While the
energy usage of charging a smartphone is small for each individual,
collectively we are contributing 10 trillion pounds of CO2 each year.
There are a few
innovations that could begin to offset that enormous amount. Solar
Focus’s new SolarKindle is a Kindle cover integrated with a thin solar
panel. With just one hour of sunlight, the SolarKindle gathers enough
charge to run your device for three days. This means you can take your
Kindle with you on your next trip without having to bring a cable.

listening to reading? Rukus Solar by eton is a portable speaker system
that streams music via bluetooth. Fully charged in 6 hours, the rukus
can play music for 8 more hours out of the sunlight. Eton also sells
portable charging stations that can charge phones and tablets using
solar energy. SunPartner Group’s new Wysip Crystal panels are
transparent screens that can be implemented on mobile devices to charge
devices and will be available for sale next year. (Photo courtesy
SunPartner Group)

6. Solar Powered Transportation

With the 100% solar powered Solar Impulse airplane completing its
across the country voyage, new terrritories are opening in the realm of
clean energy transport. While we’re far from hopping on commercial solar
flights, electric cars are making exciting new strides. A major barrier
to electric cars making a dent in the transportation market is their
prohibitive upfront costs. However, a recent Greentech Media report
demonstrates that many electric car models have reached cost parity with
traditional vehicles over their lifetime. In fact, the Nissan Leaf, is
10% cheaper than an avearge conventional car over a 60 month lifespan.

fastest growing electric car company, Tesla Motors, has been making
exciting progress recently as they posted their first quarterly profit
in 2013 Q1 and repaid their Department of Energy loan nine years early
in May. And finally someone made environmentally friendly cars look
good. New innovations in solar fueled charging could complete the solar
to transportation chain.  In 2012 CSU Fullerton flipped the switch on
three 1.16 megawatt solar parking canopies that had integrated car
charging stations (See our Top 15 California Solar Schools). (Photo

7. New Solar Manufacturing Processes

While not as flashy as fuel-cell leaves or solar airplanes, new
innovations in the manufacturing process of the silicon solar panels
that currently permeate the market could have the biggest impact in
bringing production costs low enough to compete with fossil fuels.
Here’s where it gets technical. The conventional process of creating the
silicon in a solar
panel involves sawing a block of crystalline silicon into what are
called “wafers” that are traditionally 180 micrometers thick (your hair
is 50-180 micrometers thick). Unfortunately, about half of the original
block is wasted as sawdust during this process.

A few companies
are working on ways to reduce the amount of waste (and therefore cutting
costs) by creating thinner, but equivalently efficient, slices of
silicon. Astrowatt is developing a process that involves peeling apart
thin sheets of silicon. 1366 Technologies has developed a machine that
creates wafers straight from molten silicon, removing some manufacturing
processes to cut costs. Crystal Solar developed epitaxial growth
methods, used for decades by the chip industry, to deposit silicon films
straight from gases, skipping the wafer stage altogether. None of these
processes have been proven on an industrial scale and companies need to
develop methods to safely handle thinner silicon films (one suggestion
is to magnetically float them!), but they provide exciting glimpses of
our solar manufacturing future. (Photo courtesy Inc. Magazine)
Learn More:
    •    Mosaic President Billy Parish on the fastest way to 100% clean energy.
    •    The 5 Reason Solar is Already Beating Fossil Fuels
    •    How to find good investments.
Jacob Sandry is an Energy Studies scholar at Yale University and a fellow at
Mosaic. He has worked in Colorado to protect endangered waterways and in
Bolivia to protect animals rescued from the black market. Jacob has
been to 5 continents, but originally hails from Minnesota where he
developed his appreciation for the environment by camping, hiking and
running. Follow him on twitter @yaakovsandry.

Get our exclusive guide to community solar.

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AddThis Sharing

Applications For Solar Energy

Solar Power

Nikkei Business knows Solar Power. Find the Latest Solar News Here!

Solar energy which is a combination of light and heat is
produced by sun. This energy moves from sun and reaches the earth where
human collects it through solar collectors and convert it into any
desirable form of energy. According to an assumption this renewable
source of energy is powerful enough to replace the need of electricity
that we get from 650 barrels of oil per year.

Below read some practical applications of solar energy

applications of solar energy

Some of Applications of solar energy

  1. Power plants:  In conventional power plants
    non-renewable energy sources are used to boil water and form stream so
    that turbines can rotate and water to produce electricity. But with
    application of solar energy heat of sun can boil that water to create
    steam and rotate turbines. To convert sunlight into electricity solar
    panels, photoelectric technologies and thermoelectric technologies etc
    are used.
  2. Homes: Use of solar energy is increasing in homes
    as well. Residential appliances can easily use electricity generated
    through solar power. Besides this solar energy is running solar heater
    to supply hot water in homes. Through photovoltaic cell installed on the
    roof of the house energy is captured and stored on batteries to use
    throughout the day at homes for different purposes. In this ways
    expenditure on energy is cutting down by home users.
  3. Commercial use: on roofs of different buildings we
    can find glass PV modules or any other kind of solar panel. These panels
    are used there to supply electricity to different offices or other
    parts of building in a reliable manner. These panels collect solar
    energy from sun, convert it into electricity and allow offices to use
    their own electrical power for different purposes.
  4. Ventilation system: at many places solar energy is
    used for ventilation purposes. It helps in running bath fans, floor
    fans, and ceiling fans in buildings. Fans run almost every time in a
    building to control moisture, and smell and in homes to take heat out of
    the kitchen. It can add heavy amount on the utility bills, to cut down
    these bills solar energy is used for ventilation purposes.
  5. Power pump: solar power not just help in improving
    ventilation system at your homes but with that it can also help in
    circulating water in any building. You can connect power pump with solar
    power supply unit but you must run it on DC current so that water
    circulate throughout your home.
  6. Swimming pools: swimming pools are great joy for
    kids and adults in all seasons. But during winters it is tough to keep
    water hot in these pools with minimum power usage. Solar energy can help
    many in this matter as well. You can add a solar blanket in the pool
    that will keep the water hot with energy generated from sunlight.
    Besides this you can install a solar hot water heating system with solar
    hot water heating panels.
  7. Solar Lighting: these lights are also known as day
    lighting, and work with help of solar power. These lights store natural
    energy of sun in day time and then convert this energy into electricity
    to light up in night time. Use of this system is reducing load form
    local power plants.
  8. Solar Cars: it is an electrical vehicle which is
    recharged form solar energy or sunlight. Solar panels are used on this
    car that absorb light and then convert it into electrical energy. This
    electrical energy is stored in batteries used with the car, so that in
    night time as well we can drive these vehicles.
  9. Remote applications: Remote buildings are taking
    benefit of solar energy at vast scale. Remote schools, community halls,
    and clinics can take solar panel and batteries with them anywhere to
    produce and use electric power.

These are most common applications of solar energy that we get to see in our daily lives. As solar industry grows more diversified applications are expected to be seen in future.

practical applications of solar power

You’ve got some money saved and going solar crossed your mind. But you’d
rather have new floors or walls, or invest in the little addition you
always wanted. Why not do both?


Solar energy is making strides in many a home, but most homeowners
still think it’s beyond them. Up-front costs in the tens of thousands
loom large, and not every state’s got an encouraging rebate program to
speak of. Then there’s the technology. Take the confusing reports of
building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), for instance. BIPV products
are made from thin film solar cells, reportedly growing in efficiency,
but still far behind the productivity of traditional silicon panels.
Are they worth the investment? Issues such as this create a mental block
that prevents a lot of homeowners from getting started.

Kipp and Zonen

However, solar energy isn’t just a scientific novelty for
big laboratories and power plants. And when it comes to residential
applications, it does not begin and end with expensive PV panels.
Several options are readily available for harvesting sunlight toward a
more energy-efficient home, and, moreover, for a practical price. For
many of us, the real challenge lies in getting the information,
making some room alongside time-tested, traditional values, and finally,
getting over the disbelief. Let these very real possibilities help

1.) Upgrade your water-heating system using solar thermal power.

Solar thermal is finally gaining ground, making a name for
itself alongside its more publicized “cousin” – photovoltaics. Solar
electricity, however, entails a more expensive, less efficient use of
renewable energy. You can use 70% of the sun’s energy with a solar
thermal collector, compared to a 12% conversion rate with PV panels.
You do the math.

If you want to let the sun help you warm your water, you don’t even need to buy a new tank. Solar thermal systems can be retrofitted into existing water heating systems. Using this method, you would only spend $3,000 to $6,000.

2.)  Start with a small PV system and work your way up.

Back to photovoltaics for a moment. After all, the point
isn’t to dismiss them altogether. The neat thing about these systems
is you can choose the amount of energy you want to produce and the
size of the system you want to start with. Paul Smith of Sunstream USA advises the following for homeowners on a budget:

“In most cases, a customer can attain a rebate that will
cover approximately 40% of the cost of an array. When that sum is added
to the state and federal tax credits, nearly 50% of the cost of an
array can be covered. In most cases, residential customers can
purchase up to a 10 Kilowatt system and receive a rebate. There is no
reason why a customer couldn’t buy a smaller array (Perhaps a 4
Kilowatt system) and then enlarge it at a later date. The customer
would still be eligible for the remaining 6 Kilowatts of rebate money
whenever they might decide to add to their existing array.”

When it comes to recouping your money, keep savings in electricity costs in mind, as well as an increase in property value.

3.) Combine an existing remodeling project with passive solar methods.

You’ve got some money saved and going solar crossed your
mind. But you’d rather have new floors or walls, or invest in the
little addition you always wanted. Why not do both?

Passive solar homes have come to be known as “smarter”
homes. Long before the solar panel was invented, our ancestors built
their abodes in conjunction with the position of the sun. If you build
your walls or floors with materials high in thermal mass, the house
itself works for you, effectually absorbing, storing, and even
distributing heat from the sun into your living spaces. All without
mechanical devices or operational costs.

Concrete, brick, and water all have high thermal mass. Before
we get too caught up in design, let’s get back to that addition. Why
not make it a sunspace? If you’re strategic with placement, window
installation, and the set up of your walls, your new addition can help
collect heat when you need it, distributing it to the rest of your
home and lowering your energy bills in the process.

4.) Forget CFLs, think LEDs.

Do you have any idea how long these little gizmos last?
We’re not talking 25 hours – more like 25 years. LEDs are perfect for
the garden. They bask in the sun all day long, transferring energy
into a battery, which then powers the lighting device at night. They
don’t even need to be plugged in. And they’re made for the indoors,
too. The cost? A Cypress Solar Powered Metal Garden Accent, 2 Light
Kit by Brinkmann is $69.95. Solar security lights by Silicon Solar range in price from $39.95 to $229.95.

5.) Take the burden off your AC.

For as low as $400, you can purchase a solar powered fan
for your attic. As you know, heat rises, and poorly ventilated attic
spaces are culprits to your air conditioning system and your
electricity bill. Like other solar-powered solutions, solar attic fan
draws power from the sun. Requiring no additional power, it’s
absolutely free to run and keeps the air flowing freely through your

Thinking carefully about the way you use residential power,
you’ll find that solar solutions fit in where you may never have
expected them to. Remember, solar power solutions require, light,
not heat, to run. So even if it gets downright cold where you live,
most regions in the U.S. receive enough sunlight to make solar power
viable. Even the small steps, taken collectively, will reduce our
country’s dependence on foreign oil and protect our global resources
from further damage caused by processing nonrenewable resources.

Technology For Life

A Dialog About Clean Technologies Between Spain and the United States

Solar power applications

 by Barbara M. Drazga

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP):
Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are utility-scale generators
that produce electricity using mirrors or lenses to efficiently
concentrate the sun’s energy. The four principal CSP technologies are
parabolic troughs, dish-Stirling engine systems, central receivers, and
concentrating photovoltaic systems (CPV). 

Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants:
Solar thermal energy involves harnessing solar power for practical
applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. Solar
thermal collectors, such as solar hot water panels, are commonly used to
generate solar hot water for domestic and light industrial
applications. This energy system is also used in architecture and
building design to control heating and ventilation in both active solar
and passive solar designs.

Photovoltaic or PV technology employs solar cells or solar photovoltaic
arrays to convert energy from the sun into electricity. Solar cells
produce direct current electricity from the sun’s rays, which can be
used to power equipment or to recharge batteries. Many pocket
calculators incorporate a single solar cell, but for larger
applications, cells are generally grouped together to form PV modules
that are in turn arranged in solar arrays. Solar arrays can be used to
power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, and in remote areas as a
source of power for roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, and
cathodic protection of pipelines.

Solar Heating Systems:
Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. The systems are
composed of solar thermal collectors and a storage tank, and they may be
active, passive or batch systems.


Passive Solar Energy: 
It concerns building design to maintain its environment at a
comfortable temperature through the sun’s daily and annual cycles.  It
can be done by (1) Direct gain or the positioning of windows, skylights,
and shutters to control the amount of direct solar radiation reaching
the interior and warming the air and surfaces within a building; (2)
Indirect gain in which solar radiation is captured by a part of the
building envelope and then transmitted indirectly to the building
through conduction and convection; and (3) Isolated gain which involves
passively capturing solar heat and then moving it passively into or out
of the building via a liquid or air directly or using a thermal store.
Sunspaces, greenhouses, and solar closets are alternative ways of
capturing isolated heat gain from which warmed air can be taken.

Solar Lighting:
Also known as daylighting, this is the use of natural light to provide
illumination to offset energy use in electric lighting systems and
reduce the cooling load on HVAC systems. Daylighting features include
building orientation, window orientation, exterior shading, saw tooth
roofs, clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights, and light tubes.
Architectural trends increasingly recognize daylighting as a cornerstone
of sustainable design.

Solar Cars:
A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by energy obtained from
solar panels on the surface of the car which convert the sun’s energy
directly into electrical energy. Solar cars are not currently a
practical form of transportation. Although they can operate for limited
distances without sun, the solar cells are generally very fragile.
Development teams have focused their efforts on optimizing the
efficiency of the vehicle, but many have only enough room for one or two

Solar Power Satellite:
A solar power satellite (SPS) is a proposed satellite built in high
Earth orbit that uses microwave power transmission to beam solar power
to a very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of
conventional power sources. The advantage of placing the solar
collectors in space is the unobstructed view of the sun, unaffected by
the day/night cycle, weather, or seasons. However, the costs of
construction are very high, and SPSs will not be able to compete with
conventional sources unless low launch costs can be achieved or unless a
space-based manufacturing industry develops and they can be built in
orbit from off-earth materials.

Solar Updraft Tower:
A solar updraft tower is a proposed type of renewable-energy power
plant. Air is heated in a very large circular greenhouse-like structure,
and the resulting convection causes the air to rise and escape through a
tall tower. The moving air drives turbines, which produce electricity.
There are no solar updraft towers in operation at present. A research
prototype operated in Spain in the 1980s, and EnviroMission is proposing
to construct a full-scale power station using this technology in

Renewable Solar Power Systems with Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems:
NASA has long recognized the unique advantages of regenerative fuel
cell (RFC) systems to provide energy storage for solar power systems in
space. RFC systems are uniquely qualified to provide the necessary
energy storage for solar surface power systems on the moon or Mars
during long periods of darkness, i.e. during the 14-day lunar night or
the12-hour Martian night. The nature of the RFC and its inherent design
flexibility enables it to effectively meet the requirements of space
missions. And in the course of implementing the NASA RFC Program,
researchers recognized that there are numerous applications in
government, industry, transportation, and the military for RFC systems
as well.

From article about “Solar Power Commercial Market Applications” Energy Industry Business Reports


CleanTechnica logo

Clean Energy Intro: Top 10 Alternative Solar Uses

February 25th, 2008 by  

Powering your home with big solar panels is expensive. Despite the
long-term benefits, not all of us can fork over the cash for the initial
investment. Fortunately, since the sun is such a tantalizing and
constant source of energy, innovative minds have made lots of ways to
harness sol’s rays. Here’s a top-10 list (and introduction) to other
forms of solar power that might fit your budget and your practical
needs. For less practical needs, a few are just plain cool.

#1: Solar Water Heater

Solar water heaters come in a variety of types and designs
which means they’re a versatile and practical option for everyone who
enjoys a hot shower. How do they work? Most use the heat of the sun to
warm water, which means your hot water tank expends less natural gas or
electricity to do the same job. The benefits of this technology: price,
investment return, and size. You can upgrade an existing water heater
into a solar water heater for $4,000-$6,000. Typically you’ll spend less
if you’re building a new home. According to the U.S. Department of Energy,
“your water heating bills should drop 50%–80%” after installation. That
means you’ll regain your investment in savings more quickly than other
solar systems. And let’s not forget size – these are smaller systems
that won’t clutter your roof. Check out this site for diagrams about regional climate, maintenance fees, and more.

a solar tube#2: Skylights and Tubular Daylighting Devices (Solatube Daylighting Devices)

Most homes were not built with windows in the ceiling and installing a
skylight can be expensive. Instead, consider installing a tubular
daylighting device (aka Solatube Daylighting
System) – a clever reflective tube that directs sunlight into interior
windowless spaces. Solatube Daylighting Devices provide natural light
without electricity, are versatile and inexpensive, and they don’t have
to take up any more space than a normal light fixture. Accessories like dimmer switches and lightbulb fixtures allow you to control the brightness and use the tube at night. You can DIY for a few hundred dollars or hire a professionalFiber optic solar lighting uses the same idea, but it’s more complex (and expensive).

#3: Solar Battery Chargers
is my personal favorite, and the source of much envy: Portable solar
panels that charge your cell phone, ipod, or even your laptop. They tend
to appear as messenger bags, backpacks or roll-outs
and are perfect for
outdoor excursions, off-grid applications, or
emergencies. Your GPS or
cell phone don’t do you much good if their
batteries die, and you could
take all those pictures on your next
vacation with a fully charged
camera. This is definitely a luxury item,
but we’ve all known the
frustration of a dead battery in one or more
#4: Solar Lights
are perhaps the most recognizable and accessible solar products on the
market. We’ve all seen the little garden lights
poking up out of the
ground, their little solar-tops staring back up at
us. But these garden
lights, in their endless varieties, do not
represent the end of solar
lighting. There are also portable solar lights and lanterns for camping
or emergencies. On a larger scale, some cities have invested in solar
street lights or solar trees. If you need to illuminate something but
can’t plug it in, solar lights are the perfect solution.
#5: Solar Screens (also known as curtains)
I can just see you rolling your eyes, but let’s face it – as much
as we
love the sun, sometimes we need a break in the shade. “Passive solar
is a fancy way of saying “sunshine warm, shade cool”. Put
principle to work in your home by regulating when and where you let
sun in. If you let the southern sun shine during the winter it will
keep your house warm. (Just remember that sunshine can’t compete
with a
cold draft from poorly-insulated windows.) Conversely, if you
lower the
shades during the summer it will lighten your air
conditioner’s burden,
especially during the hottest part of the day.
Putting passive solar
energy to your advantage can reduce your energy
bills. If you have the
opportunity to build, “incorporating passive
solar design elements into buildings and homes can reduce heating bills
by as much as 50%.”
#6: Solar Oven
If you’ve ever ignited anything
with a magnifying glass, you know the
heat potential of the sun. Put
this idea to work for your next cooking
adventure – solar ovens!
technology directs sunlight towards a focal point to raise
temperature and cook whatever finds itself in the way. Designs
from the most basic tin-foil box to complex permanent appliances.
These ovens easily reach temperatures high enough to cook meat or boil
water and come in many designs.
They’re great for outdoor cooking,
especially in areas without fuel to
burn or where burn-bans are in
effect; it’s also safe (no burnt food),
making an easy educational
activity for kids. Cool factor: in many
designs you can watch the food
cook before your very eyes!
#7: Solar-Heated Pool or Pond
This one
borrows the same principles of the Solar Water Heater, but
at a much
larger scale and with different equipment. If you’re dead set
on owning
and heating a swimming pool you’ll save a lot of oil by using a
pool cover and/or a solar pool heater
to regulate the temperature. The
pool cover isn’t a floating solar
panel. It’s an insulated pool sheet
designed to keep in the heat, thus
reducing the amount of energy
required to maintain water temperature.
The solar pool heater acts like a
radiator in reverse: water is pumped
out into a lattice of tubes where
it’s heated by solar panels, then it’s
pumped back into the pool.
Circulating water through this system keeps
it warm, even in cold
climates. And just so you know, water has a “large heat capacity, high
thermal conductivity“.
That means it takes a lot of energy to heat up
water and it will
transfer that heat into other materials, like the
ground. Lots of energy
means lots of money, even if you harness free and
abundant sunlight.
#8: Solar Decor
There are a plethora of garden
and home ornaments that make the most out of solar power. Solar
fountains and bird baths are just the beginning. While these may seem a
bit frivolous, I think it just goes to show that you don’t have to give
up everything you own to go green. You can indulge a little and find
gifts for the least eco-inclined people in your life. There are even
educational kits that you assemble into trinkets or toys. Who doesn’t
want a solar-powered frog?
#9: Solar Signs
This is a practical
solar panel application that we tend to overlook,
but is already
widespread. Use the sun to power signs along the road. Billboards aside,
real estate, traffic, and construction signs are hot solar sites. Let’s
not forget the urge to stand out
from the crowd! This usage of solar
power expands our ability to
communicate, whether to warn motorists of
construction or an accident
ahead or to broadcast a product. Whatever
your message, lighting a sign
with solar makes more than a statement –
it expands the application of a
powerful modern tool.
#10: Solar Gadgets
you just find something so cool or different that you
wonder how
someone could even imagine it. Solar gadgets are no
exception. Here are a
few that tickled my wallet or just made me laugh: solar tents for your
next camping adventure, solar lighters to impress your friends, solar
“personal massage” for someone special, solar tombstones for the dearly
departed, and more! How about the “9 most unusual solar gadgets“?
just goes to show that you don’t have to buy big solar panels for
home to benefit from the energy of the sun. Some techniques,
passive solar energy, don’t require any money at all. Solar means
than silicon wafers or fancy gadgets – it’s any application that
our nearest star to work. Many of these applications can save you
and all of them encourage a powerful and practical energy
Images courtesy of:
    1.    Solatube – solar tube


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June 1992
Energy Efficiency & Environmental News:
Practical Uses of Solar Energy
Florida Energy Extension Service and Mike West

put solar energy to work for you and save energy and money.
to solar helps protect Florida’s beautiful and delicate
environment, and
reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Today, there are
three practical
uses of solar energy for the homeowner: pool heating,
hot water, and
electricity for remote locations.
Less use of
electric power
generated from fossil fuels means less greenhouse gas and
acid rain
emissions. Every kWh saved eliminates 1.5 pounds of carbon
dioxide, 0.2
pounds of sulfur dioxide, 0.25 pounds of carbon monoxide,
and 0.01
pounds of nitrogen oxide emissions.
To purchase solar
consult a local contractor. Many communities are served by an
conservation or solar contractor. Check the yellow pages under
Energy Systems.”
Follow up on each potential contractor’s list of references.
Solar Pool Heating
practical and popular use of solar energy for the homeowner is
pool heating. A solar pool heater extends the swimming season from
through October to February through November (in Central Florida,
temperature at least 75 degrees). This amount of heating is
to $1500 worth of electricity (heat pump) or natural gas for a
24’ by
20’ pool.
A solar system for a 24’ by 20’ pool costs
$3200 to $4200.
The installed cost of a solar system is about the same
as a heat pump,
or about twice the cost of a natural gas heater ($1500
to $7000,
depending on the desired pool temperature and the size of the
Solar heater maintenance costs are much less than either type
conventional heater. An additional advantage of solar is
quiet —
solar pool heaters are almost silent.
best type of pool heater
collectors are the rubber mat type, according
to FEES specialist Gary
Cook. The mats are virtually indestructible, and
if damaged, are easily
repaired. Gary has had this type of collector on
his roof for over 12
years. The mats heat his 700 gallon hot tub from
75°F to over 100°F in
less than one hour (two hours in winter). His
swimming season is
extended three months (Gary lives in Gainesville).
Solar Water Heating
are thousands of solar water heating systems installed in
Florida. They
put the sun to work heating water for showers, hot tubs,
and dish
Reliable solar water heating systems are
economical where
natural gas is unavailable. Modern systems can supply
at least 70% and
up to 90% of a family’s hot water needs. This can cut the
Florida home electric bill by 10% to 13%. In this sense, a solar
hot water heater is a good economic investment.
return on
investment is the cash saved on utility bills. This
corresponds to an
annual rate of return of 7-9%, very respectable for
such a safe
investment. Quality systems last as long as the home they
are installed
in. The Florida Solar Energy Center can provide their
ratings of solar
collectors and systems (see References).
water heating systems
range in price from $1600 for a small system
serving two people,

$5000 for a system that serves a family of eight. A quality
sized for a family of 4 costs $3000 to $3500. A solar water
heater could
save the average Florida family around $300 per year, and
help protect
the environment by reducing the pollution caused by
electricity from fossil fuels.
Be aware of a few
details when selecting a solar water heating system. A system
sized for a
typical Florida family uses two 4’ by 8’ collectors. Look
for a system
that uses a solar powered pump. According to Tom Lane of
Conservation Services, most Floridians should select closed-loop
that use antifreeze to protect the system from freezing.
systems are another option. (Open-loop systems are suitable
in South
Florida and the Keys).
The storage tank should hold at least
gallons of water per family member. Extra storage capacity
recommended, and is inexpensive.
Licensed solar contractor,
Gainesville FL.(904)373-3220. FEES does not endorse brands
Solar Electric Power Generation
photovoltaic (PV) systems are at work converting the suns
directly to electricity. PV generated power has three main
over all other types of remote power generation:
Power Simplicity Low Maintenance PVs provide electricity
to rural
homeowners, ranchers, and farmers for TV, VCR, stereo,
landscape and
security lighting, pumps, electric fences, and livestock
without connection to the power company. Some farmers use PV
pumps for watering of livestock on remote grazing areas. PV
power street, billboard, bus stop, and highway sign lights,
buoys, and emergency telephones throughout Florida. Small
PV systems
provide portable power for camping equipment, computers,
fans, pumps,
and test equipment. PV cells are used in calculators and
Photovoltaic power is practical where access to utility company
lines is
costly, and for low power/portable needs.
improvements have
reduced the cost of PV systems to 25-50¢ per kWh. This
is still
considerably more than the 7-10¢ per kWh of utility power. The
Department of Energy (DOE) goal is PV power at 12¢ to 20¢ per kWh
To take advantage of the economies of large scale
the DOE announced a new strategy to accelerate the use of PV
power. The
DOE Solar 2000 plan calls for an increase in PV use by a
factor of ten
by the year 2000. Use of PV power is increasing by over
25% each year,
and has been for the past few years.
PV power
systems range in price
from $75 to $40,000 depending on how much
electricity the user needs.
The box below shows how system cost varies.
PV systems are a poor economic investment if power is readily available: the annual rate of return is around 1%.
in outlying or isolated locations, connecting to faraway power lines
can cost more than a complete PV power station!
Table 1.
Comparison. High Capacity Solar
PV Systems Cost Considerably More Than
Capacity Systems.
Appliances Powered By Solar
Outdoor/Path lighting
DC power for computer or TV
TV, VCR, stereo, lights, computer
– above plus
– above plus well pump (home)
– above plus
ventilation fans
– above plus central A/C

As Table 1 shows, even modest increases in electrical capacity increases the price considerably.

using PV power, it is especially cost effective to replace
inefficient appliances with modern energy efficient ones —
allowing selection of a less costly PV system. Since PV cells
produce DC voltage, the use of DC (instead of conventional
AC) pumps, fans, refrigerators, lights, etc. makes sense.
Use of DC appliances reduces the cost of the PV system since they
are typically more efficient and require no invertor capacity. (
The invertor is the part of the PV system that changes the PV cells DC
voltage to AC.) In most cases, it is not yet economical to power
cooling and heating equipment with PV power since these are seasonal

Heating and cooling accounts for over half the residential energy use of a typical Florida family.

power systems are modular, so they easily grow with the users budget
and electricity needs. PV system size is measured in watt-hours per
day (WH/D). Typical system cost is around $3 per WH/D of system

smallest systems (around 200 WH/D) can cost up to $5 per WH/D, while
very large systems (10,000 WH/D) cost less than $3 per WH/D.

are required for power at night and on overcast days. The
required size
and cost of a PV system can be estimated using the
Sizing Worksheet given in Table 2.

bills can be used to determine the WH/D of electricity currently
consumed. Most bills give “average kWh used per day,” simply
multiply this number by 1000 to obtain WH/D. Or, (1) take the total
kWh on the bill, (2) divide by the number of days in the
billing period, and (3) multiply by 1000 to obtain WH/D. Using
this method, one can see that a conventional small home, with a $65
monthly electric bill, would require 25,000 WH/D of PV capacity
to go completely solar using the same appliances and lighting. The
great cost of such a system emphasizes the importance of using
efficient lighting and appliances, natural gas for cookingand heating,
and fans for cooling.


Solar Photovoltaics: Out of the Lab and onto the Production Line. Mechanical Engineering
, January
1992 by Steven Ashley.
Solar Equipment Standards: some Questions and
Answers. Florida Solar Energy Center #GP-9.
Directory #421. Contact the
Center at 407-783-0300.
Simplified Sizing Procedure for Solar Domestic Hot
Water Systems. Florida Solar Energy Center #GP-
10. ERD #417.
Thermal Performance Ratings of Solar Collectors.
Florida Solar Energy Center #’s GP-14 and GP-16.
FSEC Approved Solar Energy Systems: Domestic Hot
Water and Pool Heating. Florida Solar Energy
Center #GP-15.
Measurement of Solar Radiation. IFAS publication
#CIR-827, ERD# 214.
Solar Water Heating: A Question and Answer Primer.
Florida Solar Energy Center #EN-5. ERD #426.
Solar Heating of Swimming Pools: A Question and
Answer Primer. Florida Solar Energy Center #EN-6.
ERD #422.
Solar Swimming Pool Heating in Florida: Collector
Sizing and Economics. Florida Solar Energy Center
#GP-13. ERD #423.
Solar Water Heating Options in Florida. FSEC #EN-9.
ERD #425.
Sources of Solar Consumer Protection. Florida Solar
Energy Center #FS-29. ERD #428.
Global Climatic Change Primer. Florida Energy
Extension Service # EES 72.
The Greenhouse Effect. FSEC #EN-16. ERD #431.
The worksheet in Table 2 will aid in estimating the
required size of a solar photovoltaic electric power
system. In the first block, list all the appliances which
are to be powered by the PV system. Check the
appliance label or nameplate for its rated wattage. Next,
estimate the number of hours per day each appliance is
“on”. Then, follow the calculation instructions in lines
to arrive at the estimated cost of a
complete PV power system.

Table 2.
PV Sizing Worksheet. Check Appliance Labels For Wattage. For Ratings in AMPS, Multiply AMPS x
VOLTS (120 or 240) to Obtain WATTS. HOURS/DAY is Hours Used Per Day.
List All Appliances to be PV Powered
A. Load: Sum of all WH/D above LOAD WH/D =
B. Battery and Invertor Losses: 25% of line A. LOSSES WH/D =
C. Net energy needed per day: Add lines A and B. NET WH/D =
D. Desired number of days of storage capacity. STORAGE DAYS =
E. Total required system size: Multiply line C by line D. TOTAL WH/D =
F. System unit cost. (typically $3 to $5) $ per WH/D =
G. Total system cost. Multiply line E by line F. TOTAL COST =
When using PV power, it is especially cost effective to
replace inefficient appliances with modern energy
efficient ones.


Energy Efficient
Environmentally Sound

Practical Uses of Solar Energy

can put solar energy to work for you and save energy and money.
Switching to solar helps protect Florida’s beautiful and delicate
environment, and reduceour dependence on fossil fuels. Less use
of electric power generated using fossil fuels means less greenhouse
gas and acid rain emissions.

Solar Pool Heating

most practical and popular use of solar energy for the homeowner is
solar pool heating. A solar pool heater extends the usable
swimming season from May through October to February through
November (in Central Florida, water temperature at least 75 degrees).

This amount of heating is equivalent to $1500 worth of electricity (heat pump) or natural gas for a 24’ by 20’pool.

Solar Water Heating

there are thousands of solar water heating systems installed in
Florida. They put the sun to work heating water for showers, hot
tubs, laundry, and dish washing. Reliable solar water
heating systems are practical where natural gas is unavailable.
Modern systems can supply at least 70% and up to 90% of a
family’s hot water needs. This can cut the typical Floridians home electric bill by 10% to 13%.

water heating systems range in price from $1600 for a small
system serving two people up to $5000 for a system that will serve a
family of eight. A quality system sized for a family of 4 will cost
$3000 to $3500. A solar water heater will save the average
Florida family around $300 per year, and help protect our
environment by reducing greenhouse gas and acid rain emissions
from electric power generating plants.

Solar Electric Power Generation

solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are at work converting the suns
radiation directly to electricity. They provide electricity to rural
homeowners, ranchers, and farmers for TV, VCR, stereo, lighting,
pumps, electric fences, and livestock
feeders, without connection to the power company.
farmers use PV powered pumps for watering of livestock on
remote grazing areas. PV systems power street, billboard, bus
stop, and highway sign lights, navigational buoys, and
emergency telephones throughout Florida. Small PV systems provide
portable power for camping equipment, computers, fans, pumps, and test
equipment. PV cells power calculators, watches,and battery chargers.
power is practical where access to utility company lines
is costly, and for low power/portable needs. PV power
systems range in price from $75 to $40,000 depending on how much
electricity the user needs.

1. This document is the June 1992
issue of Energy Efficiency and Environmental News, the newsletter of
the Florida Energy Extension Service, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: June 1992.
Florida Energy Extension Service, University of Florida, P.O. Box
110940, Gainesville, FL 32611-0940; Mike West, Mechanical Engineering
237, UF, Gainesville, FL 32611, phone 904-392-5886, suncom
622-5886, fax 904-392-1071, vax GNV::MKW, Cooperative Extension Service,
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.
Florida Energy Extension Service receives funding from the Florida
Energy Office, Department of Community Affairs and is operated by the
of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
through the Cooperative Extension Service. The information contained
herein is the product of the
Florida Energy Extension Service and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Florida Energy Office.

Solar power

Lighting up lives

For many people in developing countries, modern energy is completely
inaccessible, and yet the problems they face daily are unsolvable
without it.

The most powerful natural energy resource is the Sun. Solar technology
uses this to provide communities with the electrical energy that they
need. Practical Action are using solar power to operate simple
technologies which are changing the lives of so many people for the

Water pumps

In drought-stricken areas, women must walk miles to find water, risking
rape, animal attack or even death at the hands of militia, in order to
sustain their families and animals. They do this with the sickening
knowledge that the water they have collected may well make their
children very ill.

Working with community members, Practical Action developed a solar
powered water pump capable of pumping up to 10,000 litres of clean water
per hour.

Using the overabundance of sunshine, the solar pump draws water from a
100 metre deep well, providing families with the water that they
desperately need and rendering cases of water-related diseases a thing
of the past.

More about solar-powered water pumps
Solar photovoltaic technology
When night falls and natural light fades, there is no electrical supply
to light up homes, streets and classrooms. Children cannot see to learn
and adults cannot see to work. Practical Action’s solution is solar
power - solar lanterns, solar flashlights and solar street lights can
charge through the day using the sun’s rays and provide hours of light
after dark.
The lights are connected to solar panels which then sit on an open and
un-shaded spot such as a roof. These panels then convert sunlight to
energy which charges the battery built into the equipment.
Solar power can also be used to run other pieces of equipment such as computers and refrigerators.

What are some practical uses for solar energy?

solar charger

This early solar charger device uses energy from the sun to recharge portable electronic devices.

AP Photo/Elise Amendola

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Sunlight is a great source of energy — if you’re a typical plant.
Plants use the energy from sunlight to create sugars. The energy from
photons becomes chemical energy. Animals eat plants — or eat animals
that in turn eat plants — and in this way most living things on Earth get their energy.

Converting sunlight into electricity
has been a challenging problem for decades. Scientists first discovered
the connection between sunlight and electricity in the 19th century.
But those early photovoltaics, the fancy name for solar cells, were inefficient. They converted less than 1 percent of the energy they received from the sun into electricity.

decades of research and engineering, we can now build solar cells that
are more than 30 percent efficient. That has opened up opportunities to
use solar energy in applications that wouldn’t have been possible a few
years ago. But just because something is possible doesn’t make it
practical. And solar panels are still relatively expensive compared to
other ways to generate electricity. Some applications just aren’t
practical from a financial perspective.

Take cars, for example. A
solar-powered car would be a useful tool. Imagine never having to pull
up to a gas pump or plug into an electrical socket. The energy you
needed would be free, courtesy of the sun. But cars are heavy and they
need a lot of energy to move. Solar-powered cars tend to be lightweight,
single-rider vehicles. They’re flat and wide to maximize surface area.
They aren’t very fast and they have a limited range — they won’t go far
in cloudy conditions or after it gets dark. So while it’s possible to
power a car with the sun it’s still not practical.

That doesn’t
mean solar power is useless or that we should abandon it. There are
several applications that make sense. Some require a hefty investment up
front but have the potential to pay off financially in the long run.
And there’s no denying that solar power is more environmentally friendly
than systems that emit greenhouse gases.

Up next, let’s look at ways you can use solar energy.

Top 10 Solar Energy Uses

December 16, 2014.

Solar energy, solar power derived from the sun through the use of solar panels,
is just one of the newest initiatives the “Going Green” movement has
presented to us, in an effort to build and maintain renewable and
sustainable power sources. As with any new addition to your home, there
is always the initial cost of the components and installation cost to
get it up and running.

Home with solar panels on roof. - Peter Starman/Photographer's Choice RF/Getty Images

Peter Starman/Photographer’s Choice RF/Getty Images

Solar Powered Ventilation

How would you like the sun’s power to run bath fans, floor fans, and ceiling fans
in your home.  Fans are widely used throughout the home to move air
around for comfort, moisture, and smell control.  Think ae heating and
coling within your home and cut down on the utility bills.bout how many ceiling fans
run in your home each day.  Now, think about how many bath fans run
throughout the day,   How about floor fans and fans above the stove?  I
think you’ll agree, we all use fans to either keep us cool, circulate
theair or disguard unwanted air.  With solar powered fans, you can

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Heat Your Swimming Pool With Solar Energy

Swimming pools
are one of the greatest joys of summer for children and parents alike. 
Everyone is excited the first day the pool is opened, except when the
pool is just to cold to jump into it.  To fix that problem, youcan add a
solar blanket that will warm the water, much to everyone’s delight. 
This heating works directly through the blanket and no other
installations are needed.  However, if you’d like to get a little more
high tech, simply install a solar hot water heating system
This utilizes solar hot water heating panles that are munted onyour
roof to collect the sun’s heat and then is circulated to the pool.  As
the water is slowly pumped from the pool, heated and then returned from
the panels, the pool temperature is increased.

Solar Energy Can Heat Your Water

Have you considered the possibility of solar energy heating your water instead of using gas or conventional electric water heaters?
I know you may say that you’ll have to buy all of these pieces to get
this option to work. There will installation that you may or may not be
able to do. And the cost, well maybe you should just stick to the one
you have now, right?

Not so fast! If you think about it, it’s no
different than changing out an outdated furnace, water heater, or air
conditioning unit. You may increase the efficiency by 15-30% by
replacing the unit, but there is an up-front cost associated with that
change as well. Although, the change will save you money over the years,
so that should be considered over a period of time.

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Solar Energy Can Heat Your Home

Solar heating is referred to as passive space heating and in this example, I’m going to try and explain how this works. One way is to use hot water heat in your home that can be created by using sun-heated tubes of water on your roof and pumping it into your water heater.

the addition of a sun room, we’ll refer to it as a solar room, for
example, the all glass room allows the daylight hour sunshine to filter
in and warm the room through a collector called a transparent covering
in the glass. Now, if we add plants and rocks for a nice visual, the
rocks will actually store the heat of the sun and that energy can be
used when the sun goes down to heat the room. Stored energy is great and
has a lot of uses, like batteries for instance.

Power Pumps With Solar Energy

In the two illustrations previous, water was used for heating water
and your home. To accomplish that task, you’ll need to have a pump to
circulate the water around. This pump would normally connect to your
home’s power supply, but let me give you this nice tip. You can use solar energy
to run a DC motor that will slowly circulate the water throughout your
home or in and out of your water heater. This way, the cost of the
system is minimized further. Now, the skeptics will say that’s great,
but what do we do when there is no sun?

Good question! One way is
to have normal power run a pump when there is no sun. You can also have a
battery backup system that can run the pump and the battery could be
connected to a solar battery charger.

Solar Energy For Battery Charging

Have you considered solar energy for charging batteries? These could be used to power sump pumps,
hot water pumps, ceiling fans in your home, or lighting that id of DC
nature. battery chargers are used in homes to charge all of those
batteries used for video games and such as well. But most likely, if you
have a reserve battery bank that is charged through the day while
sunlight is present and is used through the nighttime hours, you can see
the benefits of that, right?

Power Your Home With Solar Energy

Yes, you heard me right, you can power your home with solar energy.
The system needed isn’t that complex when you examine the devices
needed. Simply add solar panels to collect sunlight and convert it into
electricity. DC power (direct current) is then sent to an inverter,
which converts DC power into Ac power, which now runs your home. Through
the use of transfer switches and other safety devices, your clean,
renewable power source is capable of powering your home, camper, cabin,
tool shed, or any other building for that matter.

Solar Energy For Cooking

Oh yes, we can all relate to this one. After all, we all have
to eat. When you consider the energy and resources that are used to cook
alone, the utility bills may surprise you. Cooking with the use of solar energy
is much easier than you think. We call it thinking outside the box, or
in this case, cooking within a box. Imagine cooking inside a solar oven
instead of your conventional one at home. Building one of these is a
recipe for successful cooking on sunny days! With a box, pan, aluminum
foil, a cooking bag, duct tape (man’s best friend), styrofoam insulation, and a thermometer, you’ll be cooking in no time at all.

Solar Energy for Indoor Lighting

Lighting in your home is something we all use. With the invention of LEDs (light emitting diodes)
lighting, your home can now have optimal lighting with minimal power
consumption. These small, electronic light or set of lights can be
connected through a battery-charged system that is powered by sunlight
through the day and batteries through the night. When the sun is
available, the battery charger charges the backup battery and runs the lighting. Then at night, the batteries kick in and supply the lighting while the sun is not visible.

Solar Energy Used For Outdoor Lighting

if you’re like me, you like to come home at night to some sort
of security light and walkway lighting present. Not only does it aid in
a clear view of the walkway area, a clear view of keys and the entrance
door, but also it serves as a deterrent to unwanted guests. As in the
case of a pole light, your whole yard can be lit and best of all for
free! Yes, with the use of solar lighting,
the solar panel charges the batteries during the day and the batteries
run the light at night. You can also have the landscape lit through
landscape lighting that works the same way. Wow, after the initial cost,
the lighting is free!

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