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2-10-2021 Gītassara Sutta - [aka Kālāmā] Sutta - Admiration of Self-Seekers - The Path To The Deathless
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
Posted by: site admin @ 3:49 am

2-10-2021

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/wbw.html

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/05/an05-209.html

AN 5.209 (A iii 251)
Gītassara Sutta
— A melodic intonation —
[gīta+sara]
This sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions: the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any melodic chanting.

Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word

Pāḷi
English

Pañc·ime, bhikkhave, ādīnavā āyatakena gīta·s·sarena dhammaṃ bhaṇantassa. Katame pañca?

There are, bhikkhus, these five drawbacks of reciting the Dhamma with a sustained melodic intonation. Which five?

Attanā·pi tasmiṃ sare sārajjati, pare·pi tasmiṃ sare sārajjanti, gahapati·kā·pi ujjhāyanti: ‘yath·eva mayaṃ gāyāma, evam·evaṃ kho samaṇā sakyaputtiyā gāyantī’ti, sarakuttim·pi nikāmayamānassa samādhissa bhaṅgo hoti, pacchimā janatā diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjati.

Oneself gets attached to that intonation, others get attached to that intonation, householders get angry: ‘Those ascetics who are followers of the Sakyans’ son sing in the same way that we do!’,{1} there is a break in concentration for those striving [to produce] musicality, and the upcoming generations imitate what they see.

Ime kho, bhikkhave, pañca ādīnavā āyatakena gīta·s·sarena dhammaṃ bhaṇantassā·ti.

These, bhikkhus, are the five drawbacks of reciting the Dhamma with a sustained melodic intonation.

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/majjhima/mn152.html

MN 152 (M iii 298)
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta
— Development of the sense faculties —
[indriya+bhāvana]
This sutta offers three approaches to the practice of sense restraint, that contain additional instructions complementing the Indriyesu Guttadvāratā formulae.

Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word

Pāḷi
English

evaṃ me sutaṃ:

Thus have I heard:

ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kajaṅgalāyaṃ viharati suveḷuvane. atha kho uttaro māṇavo pārāsivi·y·antevāsī yena bhagavā ten·upasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekam·antaṃ nisīdi; ekam·antaṃ nisinnaṃ kho uttaraṃ māṇavaṃ pārāsivi·y·antevāsiṃ bhagavā etad·avoca:
On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kajaṅgalas in the Bamboo Grove. Then the young brahman Uttara, a pupil of Pārāsivi, approached the Bhagavā; having approached, he rejoiced together with the Bhagavā; having exchanged the rejoicement to be shared and the words to be exchanged, he sat to one side; as he was sitting to one side, the Bhagavā told the young brahman Uttara, the pupil of Pārāsivi:
– deseti, uttara, pārāsiviyo brāhmaṇo sāvakānaṃ indriya·bhāvanan·ti?
– Uttara, does the brahman Pārāsivi teach his disciples the development of the (sense) faculties?
– deseti, bho gotama, pārāsiviyo brāhmaṇo sāvakānaṃ indriya·bhāvanan·ti.

– The brahman Pārāsivi does teach, fellow Gotama, the development of the (sense) faculties.

– yathā kathaṃ pana, uttara, deseti pārāsiviyo brāhmaṇo sāvakānaṃ indriya·bhāvanan·ti?
– But how, Uttara, does the brahman Pārāsivi teach his disciples the development of the (sense) faculties?
– idha, bho gotama, cakkhunā rūpaṃ na passati, sotena saddaṃ na suṇāti: evaṃ kho, bho gotama, deseti pārāsiviyo brāhmaṇo sāvakānaṃ indriya·bhāvanan·ti.
– Here, fellow Gotama, one does not see a visible form with the eye, one does not hear a sound with the hear: this is how, fellow Gotama, the brahman Pārāsivi teaches his disciples the development of the (sense) faculties.
– evaṃ sante kho, uttara, andho bhāvit·indriyo bhavissati, badhiro bhāvit·indriyo bhavissati; yathā pārāsiviyassa brāhmaṇassa vacanaṃ. andho hi, uttara, cakkhunā rūpaṃ na passati, badhiro sotena saddaṃ na suṇātī ti.

– If it were so, Uttara, then a blind man would have developed faculties, and a deaf man would have developed faculties, according to the words of the brahman Pārāsivi. Indeed, Uttara, a blind man does not see forms and a deaf man does not hear sounds.

evaṃ vutte, uttaro māṇavo pārāsivi·y·antevāsī tuṇhībhūto maṅkubhūto pattakkhandho adhomukho pajjhāyanto appaṭibhāno nisīdi. atha kho bhagavā uttaraṃ māṇavaṃ pārāsivi·y·antevāsiṃ tuṇhībhūtaṃ maṅkubhūtaṃ pattakkhandhaṃ adhomukhaṃ pajjhāyantaṃ appaṭibhānaṃ viditvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi:

When this had been said, the young brahman Uttara, the disciple of Pārāsivi, sat silent, confused, with drooping shoulders, the head down, grieved, unable to answer. Then the Bhagavā, seeing that the young brahman Uttara, the disciple of Pārāsivi, was sitting silent, confused, with drooping shoulders, the head down, grieved, unable to answer, said to āyasma Ānanda:{1}

– aññathā kho, ānanda, deseti pārāsiviyo brāhmaṇo sāvakānaṃ indriya·bhāvanaṃ, aññathā ca pan·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā hotī ti.
– It is one thing, Ānanda, that the development of the faculties that the brahman Pārāsivi teaches his disciples, and it is something different that the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya.
– etassa, bhagavā, kālo, etassa, sugata, kālo yaṃ bhagavā ariyassa vinaye anuttaraṃ indriya·bhāvanaṃ deseyya. bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī ti.
– This is the time, Bhagavā, this is the time, Sugata, for the Bhagavā to teach the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya. Having heard it from the Bhagavā, the bhikkhus will bear it in mind.
– tena·h·ānanda, suṇāhi, sādhukaṃ manasi karohi; bhāsissāmī ti.
– Listen to that, Ānanda, and pay close attention; I will speak.
– evaṃ, bhante ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. bhagavā etad·avoca:

– Yes, Bhante, answered āyasma Ānanda to the Bhagavā. The Bhagavā said:

– kathañ·c·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā hoti? idh·ānanda, bhikkhuno cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. tañ·ca kho saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭicca·samuppannaṃ. etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ: upekkhā ti. tassa taṃ uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti. seyyathāpi, ānanda, cakkhumā puriso ummīletvā vā nimīleyya, nimīletvā vā ummīleyya; evameva kho, ānanda, yassa kassaci evaṃ·sīghaṃ evaṃ·tuvaṭaṃ evaṃ·appa·kasirena uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti: ayaṃ vuccat·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā cakkhu·viññeyyesu rūpesu.

– And how, Ānanda, is there the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya? Here, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having seen a form with the eye, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He understands thus: ‘What is pleasant has arisen in me, what is unpleasant has arisen, what is pleasant and unpleasant has arisen. And that is conditioned, gross, dependently arisen. This is peaceful, this is excellent, that is to say: upekkhā. In him, that arisen pleasant [thing], that arisen unpleasant [thing], that arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established. Just as, Ānanda, a man with good eyes, having open them would shut them, or having shut them would open them; just so, Ānanda, whatever it is, thus quickly, thus rapidly, thus easily, the arisen pleasant [thing], the arisen unpleasant [thing], the arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established: this is called, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya, as regards to forms cognizable by the eye.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno sotena saddaṃ sutvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. tañ·ca kho saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭicca·samuppannaṃ. etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ: upekkhā ti. tassa taṃ uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati; upekkhā saṇṭhāti. seyyathāpi, ānanda, balavā puriso appa·kasiren·eva accharaṃ pahareyya; evameva kho, ānanda, yassa kassaci evaṃ·sīghaṃ evaṃ·tuvaṭaṃ evaṃ·appa·kasirena uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti: ayaṃ vuccat·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā sota·viññeyyesu saddesu.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having heard a sound with the ear, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He understands thus: ‘What is pleasant has arisen in me, what is unpleasant has arisen, what is pleasant and unpleasant has arisen. And that is conditioned, gross, dependently arisen. This is peaceful, this is excellent, that is to say: upekkhā. In him, that arisen pleasant [thing], that arisen unpleasant [thing], that arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established. Just as, Ānanda, a strong man would easily snap the fingers; just so, Ānanda, whatever it is, thus quickly, thus rapidly, thus easily, the arisen pleasant [thing], the arisen unpleasant [thing], the arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established: this is called, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya, as regards to sounds cognizable by the ear.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. tañ·ca kho saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭicca·samuppannaṃ. etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ: upekkhā ti. tassa taṃ uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati; upekkhā saṇṭhāti. seyyathāpi, ānanda, īsakaṃ·poṇe padumini·patte udaka·phusitāni pavattanti, na saṇṭhanti; evameva kho, ānanda, yassa kassaci evaṃ·sīghaṃ evaṃ·tuvaṭaṃ evaṃ·appa·kasirena uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti: ayaṃ vuccat·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā ghānaviññeyyesu gandhesu.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having smelt an odor with the nose, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He understands thus: ‘What is pleasant has arisen in me, what is unpleasant has arisen, what is pleasant and unpleasant has arisen. And that is conditioned, gross, dependently arisen. This is peaceful, this is excellent, that is to say: upekkhā. In him, that arisen pleasant [thing], that arisen unpleasant [thing], that arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established. Just as, Ānanda, on a gently sloping lotus leaf, drops of water roll off and do not remain there; just so, Ānanda, whatever it is, thus quickly, thus rapidly, thus easily, the arisen pleasant [thing], the arisen unpleasant [thing], the arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established: this is called, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya, as regards to odors cognizable by the nose.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. tañ·ca kho saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭicca·samuppannaṃ. etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ: upekkhā ti. tassa taṃ uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati; upekkhā saṇṭhāti. seyyathāpi, ānanda, balavā puriso jivhagge kheḷa·piṇḍaṃ saṃyūhitvā appa·kasirena vameyya; evameva kho, ānanda, yassa kassaci evaṃ·sīghaṃ evaṃ·tuvaṭaṃ evaṃ·appa·kasirena uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti: ayaṃ vuccat·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā jivhāviññeyyesu rasesu.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having tasted an flavor with the tongue, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He understands thus: ‘What is pleasant has arisen in me, what is unpleasant has arisen, what is pleasant and unpleasant has arisen. And that is conditioned, gross, dependently arisen. This is peaceful, this is excellent, that is to say: upekkhā. In him, that arisen pleasant [thing], that arisen unpleasant [thing], that arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established. Just as, Ānanda, a strong man having gathered a ball of saliva on the tip of the tongue would easily spit it; just so, Ānanda, whatever it is, thus quickly, thus rapidly, thus easily, the arisen pleasant [thing], the arisen unpleasant [thing], the arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established: this is called, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya, as regards to flavors cognizable by the tongue.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. tañ·ca kho saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭicca·samuppannaṃ. etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ: upekkhā ti. tassa taṃ uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati; upekkhā saṇṭhāti. seyyathāpi, ānanda, balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya; evameva kho, ānanda, yassa kassaci evaṃ·sīghaṃ evaṃ·tuvaṭaṃ evaṃ·appa·kasirena uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti: ayaṃ vuccat·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā kāyaviññeyyesu phoṭṭhabbesu.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having felt a bodily phenomenon with the body, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He understands thus: ‘What is pleasant has arisen in me, what is unpleasant has arisen, what is pleasant and unpleasant has arisen. And that is conditioned, gross, dependently arisen. This is peaceful, this is excellent, that is to say: upekkhā. In him, that arisen pleasant [thing], that arisen unpleasant [thing], that arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established. Just as, Ānanda, a strong man would easily flex his extended arm or extend his flexed arm; just so, Ānanda, whatever it is, thus quickly, thus rapidly, thus easily, the arisen pleasant [thing], the arisen unpleasant [thing], the arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established: this is called, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya, as regards to bodily phenomena cognizable by the body.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno manasā dhammaṃ viññāya uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ, uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. tañ·ca kho saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭicca·samuppannaṃ. etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ: upekkhā ti. tassa taṃ uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati; upekkhā saṇṭhāti. seyyathāpi, ānanda, balavā puriso divasaṃ·santatte ayo·kaṭāhe dve vā tīṇi vā udaka·phusitāni nipāteyya: dandho, ānanda, udaka·phusitānaṃ nipāto, atha kho naṃ khippam·eva parikkhayaṃ pariyādānaṃ gaccheyya; evameva kho, ānanda, yassa kassaci evaṃ·sīghaṃ evaṃ·tuvaṭaṃ evaṃ·appa·kasirena uppannaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ a·manāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāp·ā·manāpaṃ nirujjhati, upekkhā saṇṭhāti: ayaṃ vuccat·ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā manoviññeyyesu dhammesu. evaṃ kho, ānanda, ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā hoti.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He understands thus: ‘What is pleasant has arisen in me, what is unpleasant has arisen, what is pleasant and unpleasant has arisen. And that is conditioned, gross, dependently arisen. This is peaceful, this is excellent, that is to say: upekkhā. In him, that arisen pleasant [thing], that arisen unpleasant [thing], that arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established. Just as, Ānanda, a strong man would let two or three drops of water fall onto an iron pan heated all day: slow, Ānanda, would be the falling the drops of water, but then they would quickly vanish and disappear; just so, Ānanda, whatever it is, thus quickly, thus rapidly, thus easily, the arisen pleasant [thing], the arisen unpleasant [thing], the arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing] ceases, and upekkhā is established: this is called, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya, as regards to mental phenomena cognizable by the mind. Such, Ānanda, is the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya.

kathañ·c·ānanda, sekho hoti pāṭipado? idh·ānanda, bhikkhuno cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so tena uppannena manāpena uppannena a·manāpena uppannena manāp·ā·manāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

And how, Ānanda, is one under training, on the path? Here, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having seen a form with the eye, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He is ashamed, humiliated and disgusted by this arisen pleasant [thing, this] arisen unpleasant [thing, this] arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing].

sotena saddaṃ sutvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so tena uppannena manāpena uppannena a·manāpena uppannena manāp·ā·manāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

Having heard a sound with the ear, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He is ashamed, humiliated and disgusted by this arisen pleasant [thing, this] arisen unpleasant [thing, this] arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing].

ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so tena uppannena manāpena uppannena a·manāpena uppannena manāp·ā·manāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

Having smelt an odor with the nose, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He is ashamed, humiliated and disgusted by this arisen pleasant [thing, this] arisen unpleasant [thing, this] arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing].

jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so tena uppannena manāpena uppannena a·manāpena uppannena manāp·ā·manāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

Having tasted a flavor with the tongue, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He is ashamed, humiliated and disgusted by this arisen pleasant [thing, this] arisen unpleasant [thing, this] arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing].

kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so tena uppannena manāpena uppannena a·manāpena uppannena manāp·ā·manāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati.

Having felt a bodily phenomenon with the body, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He is ashamed, humiliated and disgusted by this arisen pleasant [thing, this] arisen unpleasant [thing, this] arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing].

manasā dhammaṃ viññāya uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so tena uppannena manāpena uppannena a·manāpena uppannena manāp·ā·manāpena aṭṭīyati harāyati jigucchati. evaṃ kho, ānanda, sekho hoti pāṭipado.

Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. He is ashamed, humiliated and disgusted by this arisen pleasant [thing, this] arisen unpleasant [thing, this] arisen pleasant and unpleasant [thing]. Thus, Ānanda, is one under training on the path.

kathañ·c·ānanda, ariyo hoti bhāvit·indriyo? idh·ānanda, bhikkhuno cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle ca paṭikūle ca paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūlañ·ca a·ppaṭikūlañ·ca ta·dubhayaṃ abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṃ sato sampajāno’ ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajāno.

And how, Ānanda, is one a noble one developing the faculties? Here, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having seen a form with the eye, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I, getting rid of both what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive, remain upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna’, he remains there upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno sotena saddaṃ sutvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle ca paṭikūle ca paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūlañ·ca a·ppaṭikūlañ·ca ta·dubhayampmppi abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṃ sato sampajāno ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajāno.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having heard a sound with the ear, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I, getting rid of both what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive, remain upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna’, he remains there upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle ca paṭikūle ca paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūlañ·ca a·ppaṭikūlañ·ca ta·dubhayampmppi abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṃ sato sampajāno ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajāno.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having smelt an odor with the nose, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I, getting rid of both what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive, remain upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna’, he remains there upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle ca paṭikūle ca paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūlañ·ca a·ppaṭikūlañ·ca ta·dubhayampmppi abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṃ sato sampajāno ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajāno.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having tasted an flavor with the tongue, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I, getting rid of both what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive, remain upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna’, he remains there upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle ca paṭikūle ca paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūlañ·ca a·ppaṭikūlañ·ca ta·dubhayampmppi abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṃ sato sampajāno ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajāno.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having felt a bodily phenomenon with the body, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I, getting rid of both what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive, remain upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna’, he remains there upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna.

puna ca·paraṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno manasā dhammaṃ viññāya uppajjati manāpaṃ, uppajjati a·manāpaṃ, uppajjati manāp·ā·manāpaṃ. so sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūle ca a·ppaṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, a·ppaṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘appaṭikūle ca paṭikūle ca paṭikūla·saññī vihareyyan’ti, paṭikūla·saññī tattha viharati. sace ākaṅkhati: ‘paṭikūlañ·ca a·ppaṭikūlañ·ca ta·dubhayampmppi abhinivajjetvā upekkhako vihareyyaṃ sato sampajāno ti, upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajāno. evaṃ kho, ānanda, ariyo hoti bhāvit·indriyo.

Furthermore, Ānanda, in a bhikkhu having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, there arises what is pleasant, there arises what is unpleasant, there arises what is pleasant and unpleasant. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the unrepulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the unrepulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I remain perceiving the repulsive in what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive’, he remains there perceiving the repulsive. If he should wish: ‘May I, getting rid of both what is repulsive and what is unrepulsive, remain upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna’, he remains there upekkhaka, sata and sampajāna. Such, Ānanda, is a noble one developing the faculties.

iti kho, ānanda, desitā mayā ariyassa vinaye anuttarā indriya·bhāvanā, desito sekho pāṭipado, desito ariyo bhāvit·indriyo. yaṃ kho, ānanda, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya, kataṃ vo taṃ mayā. etāni, ānanda, rukkha·mūlāni, etāni suññ·āgārāni. jhāyath·ānanda, mā pamādattha, mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti.

Thus, Ānanda, the unsurpassed development of the faculties in a noble one’s vinaya has been explained by me, the path for one under training has been explained, the noble one developing the faculties has been explained. What should be done by a teacher desiring the welfare of his disciples, with a kind heart, out of compassion, that I have done for you. These, Ānanda, are the roots of trees, those are empty dwellings. Meditate, Ānanda, don’t be heedless, don’t later fall into regret. This is our instruction to you.

idam·avoca bhagavā. attamano āyasmā ānando bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandī·ti.

This is what the Bhagavā said. Satisfied, āyasmā Ānanda delighted in the Bhagavā’s words.

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/03/an03-066.html

AN 3.66 -
Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta
— To the Kālāmas of Kesamutti —
In this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others, even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.

Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word

Pāḷi
English

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:

Thus have I heard:

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaṃ caramāno mahatā bhikkhu·saṅghena saddhiṃ yena kesamuttaṃ nāma kālāmānaṃ nigamo tad·avasari. Assosuṃ kho kesamuttiyā kālāmā: ‘samaṇo khalu, bho, gotamo sakya·putto sakya·kulā pabbajito kosalesu cārikaṃ caramāno mahatā bhikkhu·saṅghena saddhiṃ kesamuttaṃ anuppatto. Taṃ kho pana bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ evaṃ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: ‘itipi so Bhagavā arahaṃ sammā·sambuddho, vijjā·caraṇa·sampanno, sugato, loka·vidū, anuttaro purisa·damma·sārathi, satthā deva·manussānaṃ, Buddho Bhagavā·ti. So imaṃ lokaṃ sa·deva·kaṃ sa·māra·kaṃ sa·brahma·kaṃ sa·s·samaṇa·brāhmaṇiṃ pajaṃ sa·deva·manussaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṃ deseti ādi·kalyāṇaṃ majjhe·kalyāṇaṃ pariyosāna·kalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sa·byañjanaṃ; kevala·paripuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti’. Sādhu kho pana tathārūpānaṃ arahataṃ dassanaṃ hotī’ti.

On one occasion, the Bhagavā, traveling on tour among the Kosalans with a large saṅgha of bhikkhus, arrived at a town of the Kālāmas named Kesamutti. So the Kālāmas of Kesamutti heard: ‘The samaṇa Gotama, bho, the son of the Sakyas who has gone forth from the Sakyan family, traveling on tour among the Kosalans with a large saṅgha of bhikkhus, has reached Kesamutti. And it is that venerable Gotama, about whom such a good reputation has spread: “surely, he is a Bhagavā, an arahant, rightly and fully awakened, accomplished in vijjā and [good] conduct, faring well, knowing the world, the unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas and humans, a Buddha, a Bhagavā. He makes known this world with its devas, with its Māras, with its Brahmas, with the samaṇas and brahmins, [this] generation with rulers and peoples, having experienced himself abhiññā. He teaches the Dhamma which is advantageous in the beginning, advantageous in the middle, advantageous in the end, with the [right] meaning and with the [right] phrasing; he reveals the brahmacariya which is completely perfect and pure.” And seeing such an arahant would be profitable.’

Atha kho kesamuttiyā kālāmā yena bhagavā ten·upasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā app·ekacce bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekam·antaṃ nisīdiṃsu; app·ekacce bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodiṃsu, sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekam·antaṃ nisīdiṃsu; app·ekacce yena bhagavā ten·añjaliṃ paṇāmetvā ekam·antaṃ nisīdiṃsu; app·ekacce nāma·gottaṃ sāvetvā ekam·antaṃ nisīdiṃsu; app·ekacce tuṇhībhūtā ekam·antaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekam·antaṃ nisinnā kho te kesamuttiyā kālāmā bhagavantaṃ etad·avocuṃ:

So the Kālāmas of Kesamutti approached the Bhagavā; having approached, some of them paid respect to the Bhagavā and sat down to one side; some of them exchanged friendly greetings with the Bhagavā and, having exchanged friendly greetings and a cordial talk, sat down to one side; some of them raised their joined hands in salutation to the Bhagavā and sat down to one side; some of them announced their name and clan and sat down to one side. Sitting to one side, the Kālāmas of Kesamutti said to the Bhagavā:

– Santi, bhante, eke samaṇa·brāhmaṇā kesamuttaṃ āgacchanti. Te sakaṃ·yeva vādaṃ dīpenti jotenti, para·ppavādaṃ pana khuṃsenti vambhenti paribhavanti opapakkhiṃ karonti. Apare·pi, bhante, eke samaṇa·brāhmaṇā kesamuttaṃ āgacchanti. Te·pi sakaṃ·yeva vādaṃ dīpenti jotenti, para·ppavādaṃ pana khuṃsenti vambhenti paribhavanti opapakkhiṃ karonti. Tesaṃ no, bhante, amhākaṃ hot·eva kaṅkhā hoti vicikicchā: ‘ko su nāma imesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇa·brāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ āha, ko musā’ti?

– There are, bhante, samaṇas and brahmans who come to Kesamutti. They expound and extol their own doctrine, but they disparage, despise, treat with contempt and debunk the doctrines of others. Then, bhante, some other samaṇas and brahmans come to Kesamutti. They too expound and extol their own doctrine, and they disparage, despise, treat with contempt and debunk the doctrines of others. On account of that, bhante, there is for us perplexity and vicikicchā: ‘Which then, of these venerable samaṇas and brahmans say the truth, and which speak falsely?’

– Alañ·hi vo, kālāmā, kaṅkhituṃ alaṃ vicikicchituṃ. Kaṅkhanīy·eva pana vo ṭhāne vicikicchā uppannā. Etha tumhe kālāmā mā anussavena,{1} mā param·parāya,{2} mā iti·kirāya,{3} mā piṭaka·sampadānena,{4} mā takka·hetu,{5} mā naya·hetu,{6} mā ākāra·parivitakkena,{7} mā diṭṭhi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā,{8} mā bhabba·rūpatāya,{9} mā ‘samaṇo no garū’ti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanā·va jāneyyātha: ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā viññu·garahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyātha.

– Of course, Kālāmas, you are perplexed, of course you are doubting. Vicikicchā has arisen in you on account of a perplexing matter. Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaṇa is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are akusala, these dhammas are sāvajja, these dhammas are censured by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to harm and dukkha’, then, Kālāmas, you should abandon them.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, lobho purisassa ajjhattaṃ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?
– What do you think, Kālāmas, when lobha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?
– Ahitāya, bhante.

– For his harm, bhante.

– Luddho pan·āyaṃ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo lobhena abhibhūto pariyādinna·citto pāṇam·pi hanati, adinnam·pi ādiyati, para·dāram·pi gacchati, musā·pi bhaṇati, param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaṃ sa hoti dīgha·rattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāyā ti.
– And this greedy person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered by lobha, destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of another, speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for his long term harm and dukkha.
– Evaṃ, bhante.

– Indeed, bhante.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, doso purisassa ajjhattaṃ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?
– What do you think, Kālāmas, when dosa arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?
– Ahitāya, bhante.

– For his harm, bhante.

– Duṭṭho pan·āyaṃ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo dosena abhibhūto pariyādinna·citto pāṇam·pi hanati, adinnam·pi ādiyati, para·dāram·pi gacchati, musā·pi bhaṇati, param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaṃ sa hoti dīgha·rattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāyā ti.
– And this aversive person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered by dosa, destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of another, speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for his long term harm and dukkha.
– Evaṃ, bhante.

– Indeed, bhante.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, moho purisassa ajjhattaṃ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?
– What do you think, Kālāmas, when moha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?
– Ahitāya, bhante.

– For his harm, bhante.

– Mūḷho pan·āyaṃ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo mohena abhibhūto pariyādinna·citto pāṇam·pi hanati, adinnam·pi ādiyati, para·dāram·pi gacchati, musā·pi bhaṇati, param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaṃ sa hoti dīgha·rattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāyā ti.
– And this deluded person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered by dosa, destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of another, speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for his long term harm and dukkha.
– Evaṃ, bhante.

– Indeed, bhante.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā ti?
– So what do you think, Kālāmas, are these dhammas kusala or akusala?
– Akusalā, bhante.

– Akusala, bhante.

– Sāvajjā vā anavajjā vā ti?
– Sāvajja or anavajja?
– Sāvajjā, bhante.

– Sāvajja, bhante.

– Viññu·garahitā vā viññu·ppasatthā vā ti?
– Censured by the wise or commended by the wise?
– Viññu·garahitā, bhante.

– Censured by the wise, bhante.

– Samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattanti, no vā? Kathaṃ vā ettha hotī ti?
– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and dukkha, or not? How is it in this case?
– Samattā, bhante, samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattanti. Evaṃ no ettha hotī ti.

– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and dukkha. Thus it is in this case.

– Iti kho, kālāmā, yaṃ taṃ avocumha: ‘etha tumhe, kālāmā mā anussavena, mā param·parāya, mā iti·kirāya, mā piṭaka·sampadānena, mā takka·hetu, mā naya·hetu, mā ākāra·parivitakkena, mā diṭṭhi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā, mā bhabba·rūpatāya, mā ‘samaṇo no garū’ti. Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanā·va jāneyyātha: ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā viññu·garahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyāthā’ti. Iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idam·etaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.

– This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaṇa is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are akusala, these dhammas are sāvajja, these dhammas are censured by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to harm and dukkha’, then, Kālāmas, you should abandon them.” Thus has it been said, it has been said considering this.

Etha tumhe, kālāmā, mā anussavena, mā param·parāya, mā iti·kirāya, mā piṭaka·sampadānena, mā takka·hetu, mā naya·hetu, mā ākāra·parivitakkena, mā diṭṭhi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā, mā bhabba·rūpatāya, mā ‘samaṇo no garū’ti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanā·va jāneyyātha: ‘ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā viññu·ppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyātha.

Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaṇa is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are kusala, these dhammas are anavajja, these dhammas are commended by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to welfare and sukha’, then, Kālāmas, having reached them, you should dwell in them.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, a·lobho purisassa ajjhattaṃ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?
– What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·lobha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?
– Hitāya, bhante.

– For his welfare, bhante.

– A·luddho pan·āyaṃ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo lobhena an·abhibhūto a·pariyādinna·citto neva pāṇaṃ hanati, na adinnaṃ ādiyati, na para·dāraṃ gacchati, na musā bhaṇati, na param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaṃ sa hoti dīgha·rattaṃ hitāya sukhāyā ti.
– And this ungreedy person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not overpowered by lobha, does not destroy life, does not take what is not given, does not go to the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and does not prompt others to do the same, which is for his long term welfare and sukha.
– Evaṃ, bhante.

– Indeed, bhante.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, adoso purisassa ajjhattaṃ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?
– What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·dosa arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?
– Hitāya, bhante.

– For his welfare, bhante.

– A·duṭṭho pan·āyaṃ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo dosena an·abhibhūto a·pariyādinna·citto neva pāṇaṃ hanati, na adinnaṃ ādiyati, na para·dāraṃ gacchati, na musā bhaṇati, na param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaṃ sa hoti dīgha·rattaṃ hitāya sukhāyā ti.
– And this unaversive person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not overpowered by lobha, does not destroy life, does not take what is not given, does not go to the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and does not prompt others to do the same, which is for his long term welfare and sukha.
– Evaṃ, bhante.

– Indeed, bhante.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, amoho purisassa ajjhattaṃ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?
– What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·moha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?
– Hitāya, bhante.

– For his welfare, bhante.

– A·mūḷho pan·āyaṃ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo mohena an·abhibhūto a·pariyādinna·citto neva pāṇaṃ hanati, na adinnaṃ ādiyati, na para·dāraṃ gacchati, na musā bhaṇati, na param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaṃ sa hoti dīgha·rattaṃ hitāya sukhāyā ti.
– And this undeluded person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not overpowered by lobha, does not destroy life, does not take what is not given, does not go to the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and does not prompt others to do the same, which is for his long term welfare and sukha.
– Evaṃ, bhante.

– Indeed, bhante.

– Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, kālāmā, ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā ti?
– So what do you think, Kālāmas, are these dhammas kusala or akusala?
– Kusalā, bhante.

– Kusala, bhante.

– Sāvajjā vā anavajjā vā ti?
– Sāvajja or anavajja?
– Anavajjā, bhante.

– Anavajja, bhante.

– Viññu·garahitā vā viññu·ppasatthā vā ti?
– Censured by the wise or commended by the wise?
– Viññu·ppasatthā, bhante.

– Commended by the wise, bhante.

– Samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saṃvattanti, no vā? Kathaṃ vā ettha hotī ti?
– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and sukha, or not? How is it in this case?
– Samattā, bhante, samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saṃvattanti. Evaṃ no ettha hotī ti.

– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to welfare and sukha. Thus it is in this case.

– Iti kho, kālāmā, yaṃ taṃ avocumhā: ‘etha tumhe, kālāmā mā anussavena, mā param·parāya, mā iti·kirāya, mā piṭaka·sampadānena, mā takka·hetu, mā naya·hetu, mā ākāra·parivitakkena, mā diṭṭhi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā, mā bhabba·rūpatāya, mā ‘samaṇo no garū’ti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanā·va jāneyyātha – ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā viññu·ppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyāthā’ti. Iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idam·etaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.

– This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaṇa is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are kusala, these dhammas are anavajja, these dhammas are commended by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to welfare and sukha’, then, Kālāmas, having reached them, you should dwell in them.” Thus has it been said, it has been said considering this.

Sa kho so kālāmā ariya·sāvako evaṃ vigat·ābhijjho vigatā·byāpādo a·sammūḷho sampajāno patissato mettā·sahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ tathā tatiyaṃ tathā catutthaṃ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, thus devoid of abhijjhā, devoid of byāpāda, undeluded, sampajāna, (consistently) sata, dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with mettā, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with mettā, abundant, extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Karuṇā·sahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ tathā tatiyaṃ tathā catutthaṃ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ karuṇā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

He dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with karuṇā, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with karuṇā, abundant, extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Muditā·sahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ tathā tatiyaṃ tathā catutthaṃ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ muditā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

He dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with muditā, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with muditā, abundant, extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Upekkhā·sahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ tathā tatiyaṃ tathā catutthaṃ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ upekkhā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

He dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with upekkhā, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with upekkhā, abundant, extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Sa kho so, kālāmā, ariya·sāvako evaṃ avera·citto evaṃ a·byāpajjha·citto evaṃ a·saṃkiliṭṭha·citto evaṃ visuddha·citto, tassa diṭṭheva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti:

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained four confidences in the visible order of phenomena:

‘Sace kho pana atthi paro loko, atthi sukaṭa·dukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, ath·āhaṃ kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissāmī’ti: ayam·assa paṭhamo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘If there is another world, there is a fruit and result of kamma rightly and wrongly performed, then at the breakup of the body, after death, I will re-arise in a good destination, a state of happiness’: this is the first confidence he has gained.

‘Sace kho pana n·atthi paro loko, n·atthi sukaṭa·dukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, idh·āhaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme averaṃ a·byāpajjhaṃ anīghaṃ sukhiṃ attānaṃ pariharāmī’ti: ayam·assa dutiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if there is no another world, there is no fruit nor result of kamma rightly and wrongly performed, then in the visible order of phenomena I look after myself without hostility, without ill-will, without trouble, happy’: this is the second confidence he has gained.

‘Sace kho pana karoto karīyati pāpaṃ, na kho pan·āhaṃ kassaci pāpaṃ cetemi. A·karontaṃ kho pana maṃ pāpa·kammaṃ kuto dukkhaṃ phusissatī’ti: ayam·assa tatiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa befalls its doer, I do not intend any pāpa. Not having done pāpa kamma, how would dukkha touch me?’: this is the third confidence he has gained.

‘Sace kho pana karoto na karīyati pāpaṃ, ath·āhaṃ ubhayen·eva visuddhaṃ attānaṃ samanupassāmī’ti: ayam·assa catuttho assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa does not befall its doer, then I see myself pure in both respects’: this is the fourth confidence he has gained.

Sa kho so, kālāmā, ariya·sāvako evaṃ avera·citto evaṃ a·byāpajjha·citto evaṃ a·saṃkiliṭṭha·citto evaṃ visuddha·citto, tassa diṭṭheva dhamme ime cattāro assāsā adhigatā hontī·ti.

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained these four confidences in the visible order of phenomena.

– Evam·etaṃ, bhagavā, evam·etaṃ, sugata! Sa kho so, bhante, ariya·sāvako evaṃ avera·citto evaṃ a·byāpajjha·citto evaṃ a·saṃkiliṭṭha·citto evaṃ visuddha·citto, tassa diṭṭheva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti.

– So it is, Bhagavā, so it is, sugata! Such an ariya·sāvaka, Bhante, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained four confidences in the visible order of phenomena:

‘Sace kho pana atthi paro loko, atthi sukaṭa·dukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, ath·āhaṃ kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissāmī’ti: ayam·assa paṭhamo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘If there is another world, there is a fruit and result of kamma rightly and wrongly performed, then at the breakup of the body, after death, I will re-arise in a good destination, a state of happiness’: this is the first confidence he has gained.

‘Sace kho pana n·atthi paro loko, n·atthi sukaṭa·dukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, ath·āhaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme averaṃ a·byāpajjhaṃ anīghaṃ sukhiṃ attānaṃ pariharāmī’ti: ayam·assa dutiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if there is no another world, there is no fruit nor result of kamma rightly and wrongly performed, then in the visible order of phenomena I look after myself without hostility, without ill-will, without trouble, happy’: this is the second confidence he has gained.

‘Sace kho pana karoto karīyati pāpaṃ, na kho pan·āhaṃ – kassaci pāpaṃ cetemi. A·karontaṃ kho pana maṃ pāpa·kammaṃ kuto dukkhaṃ phusissatī’ti: ayam·assa tatiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa befalls its doer, I do not intend any pāpa. Not having done pāpa kamma, how would dukkha touch me?’: this is the third confidence he has gained.

‘Sace kho pana karoto na karīyati pāpaṃ, ath·āhaṃ ubhayen·eva visuddhaṃ attānaṃ samanupassāmī’ti: ayam·assa catuttho assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa does not befall its doer, then I consider myself pure in both respects’: this is the fourth confidence he has gained.

Sa kho so, bhante, ariya·sāvako evaṃ avera·citto evaṃ a·byāpajjha·citto evaṃ a·saṃkiliṭṭha·citto evaṃ visuddha·citto, tassa diṭṭheva dhamme ime cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti.

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Bhante, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained these four confidences in the visible order of phenomena.

Abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante! Seyyathāpi bhante nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā tela·pajjotaṃ dhāreyya: ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evam·evaṃ bhagavatā aneka·pariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Ete mayaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāma dhammañca bhikkhu·saṅghañca. Upāsake no, bhante, bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupete saraṇaṃ gate ti.

Excellent, Bhante, excellent, Bhante! Just as, Bhante, if one were to set upright what was overturned, or to uncover what was hidden, or to show the way to one who was erring, or to hold an oil lamp in the darkness, [thinking:] ‘Those who have eyes will see visible forms’; in the same way, the Dhamma has been revealed by the Bhagavā in various ways. So we, Bhante, go for refuge to the Bhagavā, to the Dhamma and to the saṅgha of bhikkhus. Let the Bhagavā, Bhante, admit us as upāsakas having gone for refuge from today on, for life.

Bodhi leaf

Notes

1. anussava: [anu+sava] (lit: what is heard/learned along, what is in conformity with what has been heard/learned) - ‘oral tradition’ (B. Bodhi) - ‘reports’ (Than. B.) - ‘what has been acquired by repeated hearing’ (Soma Thera). B. Bodhi writes about it: “generally understood to refer to the Vedic tradition, which, according to the Brahmins, had originated with the Primal Deity and had been handed down orally through successive generations.”

The term is clearly used with the meaning of ‘report’ at MN 68:
Idhānuruddhā, bhikkhu suṇāti: ‘Itthannāmo bhikkhu kālakato; so bhagavatā byākato aññāya saṇṭhahī’ti. So kho panassa āyasmā sāmaṃ diṭṭho vā hoti anussava·ssuto vā: ‘evaṃ·sīlo so āyasmā ahosi
Here, Anuruddha, a bhikkhu hears: ‘The bhikkhu named so-and-so has died; it has been declared by the Bhagavā that he was established in (final) knowledge.’ And he has seen that venerable one himself or he has heard the report: ‘That venerable one’s virtue was thus

At MN 76 are given as synonyms itihitiha·parampara and piṭaka·sampada (’what has been transmitted dogmatically’, ‘what has been handed down in a collection of texts’), both of which refer to traditions (see following notes).

So it seems that the word anussava is rather used in this case in the sense of ‘lore/tradition’:
..idh·ekacco satthā anussaviko hoti anussava·sacco. So anussavena itihitiha-paramparāya piṭaka-sampadāya dhammaṃ deseti.
..a certain teacher is one who goes by a lore/tradition, who takes a lore/tradition for the truth. He teaches a dhamma in conformity with what he has heard, through what has been transmitted dogmatically, through what has been handed down in a collection of texts.

In the context of the Kālāma Sutta, given the fact that the listeners have been hearing mutually contradicting doctrines, it would be quite logical that the first expression would refer directly to it, so ‘what you have heard said’ seems to be a satisfying rendering.

2. paramparā: [para+para] (lit: ‘further-further’, or ‘another-another’ ie. one after the other, successive) - ‘lineage of teaching’ (B. Bodhi) - legends (Than. B.) - tradition (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: “‘lineage’, signifies tradition in general, an unbroken succession of teachings or teachers.” However, it may not be that simple.

It is obviously an idiomatic expression, which is not precisely self-explanatory, which seems to be quite loose in meaning and to accept a relatively large panel of contexts. As an example, we find bāhā·paramparāya in the Pārājika of the Vinaya Pitaka, and it means ‘arm in arm’ (Pr 282):
sambahulā itthiyo aññataraṃ bhikkhuṃ sampīḷetvā bāhāparamparāya ānesuṃ.
many women, having tightly surrounded a certain bhikkhu, drove him along arm in arm.

Parampara·bhojana·sikkhāpada is one of the Pātimokkha rules and refers to an ‘out-of-turn/extra meal’, which Than B. sums up as follows: “The term out-of-turn meal covers two sorts of situations: A bhikkhu has been invited to a meal consisting of any of the five staple foods but then either (1) goes elsewhere and eats another meal consisting of any of the five staple foods at the same time as the meal to which he was originally invited; or (2) eats a staple food prior to going to the meal.”

In the Parivāra of the Vinaya, the word ācariya·paramparā means obviously ‘lineage of teachers’, but this may belong to relatively late literature.

At MN 83 ‘paramparā caturāsītirājasahassāni’ means ‘84000 successive kings’ (even though this sutta seems to be of relatively late origin too).

And at MN 95 and 99, regarding the vedic hymns, it is said:
yepi te brāhmaṇānaṃ pubbakā isayo mantānaṃ kattāro mantānaṃ pavattāro yesamidaṃ etarahi brāhmaṇā porāṇaṃ mantapadaṃ gītaṃ pavuttaṃ samihitaṃ tadanugāyanti tadanubhāsanti bhāsitamanubhāsanti vācitamanuvācenti seyyathidaṃ..
among the brahman seers of the past, the creators of the hymns, the composers of the hymns, those ancient hymns, sung, repeated, & collected, which brahmans at present still sing, still chant, repeating what was said, repeating what was spoken, ie..

And then, as a commentary to this situation:
Seyyathāpi (..) andhaveṇi paramparā·saṃsattā purimopi na passati majjhimopi na passati pacchimopi na passati.
Just as if (..) there would be a file of blind men attached one to another: the first one does not see, the middle one does not see, and the last one does not see.

So the word is clearly used here with a reference to an oral tradition of blind repetition. This proves that there is indeed some ground for the above mentioned assertion of B. Bodhi, and the interpretation of paramparā as a teaching that comes through a ‘lineage’.

We find as well (as at MN 76) the compound itihitiha·parampara, which is also usually associated with anussava and piṭaka·sampada (’what has been transmitted dofmatically’, ‘what has been handed down in a collection of texts’), and it seems that the simple parampara we have here is a shortening of this term.

The reduplication itih·itiha (’thus-thus’) seems to refer to dogmatism (’thus indeed it is!’), which would be consistent with early exegesis: in the Cūḷaniddesa of the Khuddaka Nikāya (Nc 106), in an explanation of the expression ’sabbaṃ taṃ itihītiha’ (everything that is itihītiha) all the terms of this passage are cited (itikirāya paramparāya etc.), and the following explanation is added: ‘na sāmaṃ sayamabhiññātaṃ na attapaccakkhaṃ dhammaṃ yaṃ kathayiṃsū’ (they expounded the teaching without having experienced it themselves, without having ascertained it personally).

So according to the early exegesis, and keeping in mind the examples found at MN 95 and 99, itih·itiha·param·para could mean ‘what has been transmitted dogmatically’. And since the reduplication param·para seems to emphasize the idea of transmission, it would make sense in our case to render it as ‘what has been transmitted [by a tradition]’.

3. iti·kira: [iti+kira] (lit: ‘thus surely/one would expect’) - ‘hearsay’ (B. Bodhi) - tradition (Than. B.) - rumor (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: ‘“Hearsay” (or “report”; itikarā) may mean popular opinion or general consensus’, but we may note the misspelling of the word that might be a source of confusion. This word does not appear in any other context, so we are left with a semantical analysis and guesses. ‘General consensus’ seems to make sense.

4. piṭakasampadāna: [piṭaka+sampadāna] - ‘a collection of scriptures’ (B. Bodhi) - scripture (Than. B.) - ‘what is in a scripture’ (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: “‘a collection of scriptures’ (piṭaka-sampadā) signifies any collection of religious texts regarded as infallible.” The term is quite self-explanatory. However, given the order of the words in this compound, the emphasis seems to be rather on the last one. And given the fact that at that time the knowledge was transmitted orally (so ’scripture’ doesn’t seem quite appropriate), the rendering ‘what has been handed down in a collection of texts’ seems more satisfying.

5. takka·hetu: logical reasoning (B. Bodhi) - logical conjecture (Than. B.) - surmise (Soma Th.). The compound itself does not appear in any other context, so we are again left with a semantic analysis. Takka means ‘thought, reflection, reasoning, logic or butter-milk’. At DN 1 and MN 76, the words takkī, and thereby takka, are explained as follows:

..idh·ekacco satthā takkī hoti vīmaṃsī. So takka·pariyāhataṃ vīmaṃs·ānucaritaṃ sayaṃ·paṭibhānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti.
..a certain [individual] is a reasoner, an investigator. He teaches a dhamma hammered out by reasoning/logical thinking, following lines of investigation as they occur to him.

So takka seems to be satisfyingly rendered by ‘reasoning/logical thinking’. Hetu, in compounds, may mean ‘on account of–, for the sake of–, by reason of–, in consequence of–’ etc. So finally takka·hetu could be rendered by ‘on the basis of logical reasoning’.

6. naya·hetu: inferential reasoning (B. Bodhi) - inference (Than. B.) - axiom (Soma Th.). Once again, the compound itself does not appear in any other context. Naya comes from nayati (=neti), which means ‘to lead, guide, conduct, to take, carry (away)’, or ‘to draw (a conclusion), to understand, to take as’. The expression ‘nayaṃ neti’ means ‘to draw a conclusion’. Naya·hetu seems to be satisfyingly rendered by ‘on the basis of inference’.

7. ākāra·parivitakka: reflection on reasons, reasoned reflection (B. Bodhi) - analogies (Than. B.) - specious reasoning (Soma Th.). Ākāra has quite a large panel of meanings: ’state, condition, property, quality, attribute, sign, appearance, form, way, mode, manner, reason, ground, account’. ‘Appearance’ seems to fit the context better than ‘reasons’. In that case, ākāra·parivitakka would mean ‘reflection on appearances’, and would refer to theories such as the big bang theory, which is based on observations of the seeming evolution of the apparent universe.

8. diṭṭhi·nijjhāna·kkhanti: acceptance of a view after pondering it (B. Bodhi) - agreement through pondering views (Than. B.) - bias toward a notion that has been pondered over [doesn’t seem quite appropriate] (Soma Th.). Nijjhāna·kkhanti is a substantivation of the expression ‘nijjhānaṃ khamati’. The best way to understand it is to see in which contexts it appears elsewhere:
SN 25.1
Cakkhuṃ.. mano anicco vipariṇāmī aññathā·bhāvī. (…) Yassa kho, bhikkhave, ime dhammā evaṃ paññāya mattaso nijjhānaṃ khamanti, ayaṃ vuccati: ‘dhamm·ānusārī..’
The eye.. the mind is inconstant, changeable, alterable. (…) One who, after pondering with a modicum of discernment, has accepted that these phenomena are this way is called a Dhamma-follower..

SN 55.24
Tathāgata·ppaveditā cassa dhammā paññāya mattaso nijjhānaṃ khamanti.
The dhammas proclaimed by the Tathāgata are approved by him after examination with a modicum of discernment.

So it is clear that nijjhāna·kkhanti refers to an intellectual acceptation that involves some moderate application of paññā, but which is not enough yet to come to a definite conclusion. See the example of the elephant footprints given at MN 27. Therefore, ‘agreement after pondering views’ seems to be an appropriate rendering for diṭṭhi·nijjhāna·kkhanti.

9. bhabba·rūpatā: the seeming competence of a speaker (B. Bodhi) - probability (Than. B.) - another’s seeming ability (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi and Soma Th. simply follow the Aṭṭhakathā (older commentary). The Aṭṭhakathā, mentions a speaker as being a bhikkhu, but that doesn’t fit the context of the Kālāmas (who have been seeing ascetics of different origin), and there is no mention of any speaker in this expression. The term appears only once at Ud 70, in a very obscure verse (’mohasambandhano loko, bhabbarūpova dissati’) out of which it is difficult to draw any clear conclusion, all the more that the Aṭṭhakathā seems to take it rather as ‘bhavarūpova’.

Bhabba means ‘able, capable, fit for, possible’, and is mostly used in the latter sense. Rūpatā means ‘appearance, accordance, conformity’. Two renderings seem to fit the context: ‘what seems possible’, ‘what seems probable’. That might refer for example to choosing the most adequate rendering for a translation.

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.

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Verse 209. Admiration of Self-Seekers

One makes an effort where none’s due
with nothing done where effort’s due,
one grasps the dear, gives up the Quest
envying those who exert themselves.

Explanation: Being devoted to what is wrong, not being devoted to what is right, abandoning one’s welfare, one goes after pleasures of the senses. Having done so, one envies those who develop themselves.

Verse 210. Not Seeing The Liked And Seeing The Unliked Are Both Painful

Don’t consort with dear ones
at any time, nor those not dear,
‘is dukkha not to see the dear,
‘tis dukkha seeing those not dear.

Explanation: Never associate with those whom you like, as well as with those whom you dislike. It is painful to part company from those whom you like. It is equally painful to be with those you dislike.

Verse 211. Not Bound By Ties Of Defilements

Others then do not make dear
for hard’s the parting from them.
For whom there is no dear, undear
in them no bonds are found.

Explanation: Therefore, one must not have endearments; because separation is painful. For those who are free of bonds there are no endearments or non-endearments.

Verse 212. The Outcome Of Endearment

From endearment grief is born,
from endearment fear,
one who is endearment-free
has no grief - how fear.

Explanation: From endearment arises sorrow. From endearment fear arises. For one free of endearment, there is no sorrow. Therefore, how can there be fear for such a person?

Verse 213. Sorrow And Fear Arise Due To Loved Ones

From affection grief is born,
from affection fear,
one who is affection-free
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From affection sorrow arises. From affection fear arises. To one free of affection there is no sorrow. Therefore, how can there be fear for such a person?

Verse 214. The Outcome Of Passion

From lustfulness arises grief,
from lustfulness springs fear,
one wholly free of lustfulness
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From passion arises sorrow. From passion fear arises. To one free of passion there is no sorrow, In such a person how can there be fear?

Verse 215. The Outcome Of Lust

From attachment grief is born,
from attachment fear,
one who is attachment-free
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From desire arises sorrow. From desire fear arises. To one free of desire there is no sorrow. For such a person how can there be fear?

Verse 216. Sorrow And Fear Arise Due To Miserliness

Out of craving grief is born,
out of craving fear,
one fully freed of craving
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From craving arises sorrow. From craving fear arises. To one free of craving there is no sorrow. For such a person how can there be fear?

Verse 217. Beloved Of The Masses

Perfect in virtue and insight,
firm in Dhamma, knower of Truth,
dear to the people’s such a one
who does what should be done.

Explanation: He is endowed with discipline and insight. He is firmly established on the laws of righteousness. He speaks the truth. He looks after his worldly and spiritual responsibilities. The masses adore that kind of person.

Verse 218. The Person With Higher Urges

One with a wish for the Undeclared,
with mind so well-pervaded,
a mind not bound in pleasures of sense,
an ‘upstream-goer’s’ called.

Explanation: In that person a deep yearning for the undefined - for Nibbana - has arisen. He has already touched it mentally. He is called a swimmer against the current - an upstream-bound person. He has already started the process towards Nibbana.

Verse 219. The Fruits Of Good Action

One who’s long away from home
returns in safety from afar,
then friends, well-wishers, kinsmen too
are overjoyed at his return.

Explanation: When a person, who has lived away from home for a long while, returns home safely, his friends, relations and well-wishers welcome him back.

Verse 220. Good Actions Lead To Good Results

In the same way, with merit done
when from this world to another gone
those merits then receive one there
as relatives a dear one come.

Explanation: In the same way, when those who have done meritorious deeds in this world go to the next world, their meritorious actions welcome them, like relatives welcoming back relatives returning from a long journey.

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Verse 221. He Who Is Not Assaulted By Sorrow

Anger and pride should one forsake,
all fetters cast aside,
dukkha’s none where no desire,
no binding to body or mind.

Explanation: Abandon anger. Give up pride fully. Get rid of all clingings. To that person, who is not attracted to name and form, and is free of appendages, no suffering befalls.

Verse 222. The Efficient Charioteer

Who checks arising anger
as with chariot away,
that one I call a charioteer,
others merely grip the reins.

Explanation: That person who is capable of curbing sudden anger is like the expert charioteer who restrains a chariot rushing out of control. That person I describe as a true charioteer. The other charioteer is a mere holder of the reins.

Verse 223. Four Forms Of Victories

Anger conquer by amity,
evil conquer with good,
by giving conquer miserly,
with truth the speaker of falsity.

Explanation: Let anger be conquered by love. Let bad be conquered by good. Let miserliness be overcome be generosity. Let the liar by conquered by the truth.

Verse 224. Three Factors Leading To Heaven

Speak truth and be not angry,
from little give to one who asks,
by these conditions three to go
unto the presence of the gods.

Explanation: Speak the truth. Do not get angry. When asked, give even a little. These three factors will ensure that you will reach the deities.

Verse 225. Those Harmless One Reach The Deathless

Those sages inoffensive
in body e’er restrained
go unto the Deathless State
where gone they grieve no more.

Explanation: Those harmless sages, perpetually restrained in body, reach the place of deathlessness, where they do not grieve.

Verse 226. Yearning For Nibbana

For the ever-vigilant
who train by day and night
upon Nibbana e’er intent
pollutions fade away.

Explanation: Of those who are perpetually wakeful - alert, mindful and vigilant - who are given to discipline themselves and studying day and night, intent upon the attainment of Nibbana, the taints and cankers get extinguished.

Verse 227. There Is No One Who Is Not Blamed

An ancient saying, Atula,
not only said today -
‘They are blamed who silent sit,
who often speak they too are blamed,
and blamed are they of measured speech’ -
there’s none in the world unblamed.

Explanation: O’ Atula, This has been said in the olden days too - it is not just for today. They blame the person who remains silent. They find fault with the person who talks too much. Even with the individual who speaks in moderation, they find fault. In this world there is no one who is not blamed.

Verse 228. No One Is Exclusively Blamed Or Praised

There never was, there’ll never be
nor now is ever found
a person blamed perpetually
or one who’s wholly praised.

Explanation: There was never a person who was wholly, totally and exclusively blamed. Nor was there any time a person who was wholly, totally and exclusively praised. And, there will never will be such a person. Even today one cannot find such a person.

Verse 229. Person Who Is Always Praise-Worthy

But those who are intelligent
praise one of flawless conduct, sage,
in wisdom and virtue well-composed,
having observed him day by day.

Explanation: But those whom the wise praise, after a daily scrutiny, are persons whose conduct is blameless, who are intelligent, well endowed with insight and discipline.

Verse 230. Person Who Is Like Solid Gold

Who’s to blame that one so fine
as gem from Jambu stream?
Even the devas that one praise,
by Brahma too is praised.

Explanation: A person of distinction is beyond blame or praise and fault finding - like a coin of pure gold - no one can find fault with such a person. Deities praise him.

Verse 231. The Person Of Bodily Discipline

Rough action one should guard against,
be with body well-restrained,
bad bodily conduct having shed
train oneself in good.

Explanation: Guard against the physical expression of emotions. Be restraint in physical behaviour. Give up physical misconduct. Practice wholesome physical behaviour.

Verse 232. Virtuous Verbal Behaviour

Rough speaking one should guard against,
be in speaking well-restrained,
bad verbal conduct having shed
train oneself in good.

Explanation: Guard against the verbal expression of emotions. Be restrained in your speech behaviour. Give up speech misconduct. Practice wholesome speech behaviour.

Verse 233. Discipline Your Mind

Rough thinking one should guard against,
be in thinking well-restrained,
bad mental conduct having shed
train oneself in good.

Explanation: Guard against the mental expression of emotions. Be restrained in the behaviour of your mind. Give up mental misconduct. Practice wholesome mental behaviour.

Verse 234. Safeguard The Three Doors

Restrained in body are the wise,
in speech as well they are restrained,
likewise are they restrained in mind,
they’re perfectly restrained.

Explanation: The wise are restrained in body. They are restrained in speech as well. They are also well disciplined in mind. They, who have safe-guarded the three doors - body, speech and mind - are supremely restrained.

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Verse 235. Man At The Door Of Death

Now a withered leaf are you
and now Death’s men draw near,
now you stand at the parting gates
but waybread you have none.

Explanation: Now you are like a withered, yellowed dried leaf. The first breath of wind will make you fall. Forces of death have come for you. You are now are death’s door. You do not have any provision for the road.

Verse 236. Get Immediate Help

Make an island of yourself,
quickly strive and wise become,
freed from stain and passionless
to go to the pure Abodes.

Explanation: As things are, be a lamp, an island, a refuge unto yourself. Strive earnestly and diligently and become a wise person. Bereft of blemishes, devoid of defilements reach the heavenly realm of the noble ones.

Verse 237. In The Presence Of King Of Death

Even now the end draws near,
to the presence of death you’ve fared.
Along the path’s no place for rest
and waybread you have none.

Explanation: Now, your allotted life span is spent. You have reached the presence of the king of death (Yama). You do not have a resting place in between. You do not seem to have provisions for the road either.

Verse 238. Avoid The Cycle Of Existence

Make an island of yourself,
quickly strive and wise become,
freed from stain and passionless
you’ll not return, take flesh, decay.

Explanation: Therefore, become a lamp, an island, a refuge to your own self. Strive earnestly and become a wise person. Bereft of blemishes, devoid of defilements, you will not enter the cycle of birth and decay any more.

Verse 239. Purify Yourself Gradually

Little by little, time after time,
successively then let the sage
blow away all blemishes
just as a smith with silver.

Explanation: Wise persons, moment by moment, little by little, remove the blemishes off their own selves, just like the smiths removing impurities off silver.

Verse 240. One’s Evil Ruins One’s Own Self

As rust arisen out of iron
itself that iron eats away,
so kammas done beyond what’s wise
lead to a state of woe.

Explanation: The rust springing from iron, consumes the iron itself. In the same way, bad actions springing out of an individual, destroys the individual himself.

Verse 241. Causes Of Stain

For oral tradition, non-recitation,
in household life, non-exertion,
the fair of form when slovenly,
a sentry’s sloth: all blemishes.

Explanation: For formulas that have to be memorized, non repetition is the rust. For houses the neglect of the inmates is the rust. For complexion non-caring is the rust. For a guard heedlessness is the rust.

Verse 242. Ignorance Is The Greatest Taint

In mankind, conduct culpable,
with givers, avariciousness,
all blemishes these evil things
in this world or the next.

Explanation: For mankind, misconduct is the blemish. For charitable persons, miserliness is the stain. Evil actions are a blemish both here and in the here-after.

Verse 243. Ignorance The Worst Taint

More basic than these blemishes
is ignorance, the worst of all.
Abandoning this blemish then,
be free of blemish, monks!

Explanation: Monks, there is a worst blemish than all these stains. The worst stain is ignorance. Getting rid of this stain become stainless.

Verse 244. The Shameless Life Is Easy

Easy the life for a shameless one
who bold and forward as a crow,
is slanderer and braggart too:
this one’s completely stained.

Explanation: If an individual possesses no sense of shame, life seems easy for him since he can live whatever way he wants with no thought whatsoever for public opinion. He can do any destruction he wishes to do with the skill of a crow. Just as that of the crow, the shameless person’s life, too, is unclean. He is boastful and goes ahead utterly careless of others.

Verse 245. For A Modest Person Life Is Hard

But hard the life of a modest one
who always seeks for purity,
who’s cheerful though no braggart,
clean-living and discerning.

Explanation: The life is hard for a person who is modest, sensitive and inhibited, constantly pursuing what is pure, not attached, who is not slick and impudent, who is leading a pure life and is full of insight.

Verse 246. Wrong Deeds To Avoid

In the world who life destroys,
who words of falsity speaks,
who takes what is not freely given
or to another’s partner goes.

Explanation: One day a group of lay disciples who only kept one precept each, fell into dispute, each of them saying, “It’s a hard thing I have to do; it’s a hard precept I have to keep. Going to the Buddha to settle the dispute, the Buddha listened to what they had to say, and then, without naming a single precept as of lesser importance, said, “All precepts are hard to keep”.

Verse 247. Precepts The Lay Person Should Follow

Or has distilled, fermented drinks:
Who with abandon follows these
extirpates the root of self
even here in this very world.

Explanation: A man who is given to taking intoxicating drinks, uproots himself in this world itself.

Verse 248. These Precepts Prevent Suffering

Therefore friend remember this;
Hard to restrain are evil acts,
don’t let greed and wickedness
down drag you long in dukkha.

Explanation: Evil actions do not have restraint or discipline. This way, you must appreciate that greed and the evil action of anger should not be allowed to inflict suffering on you for a long while.

Verse 249. The Envious Are Not At Peace

People give as they have faith,
as they are bright with joyfulness.
Who’s troubled over gifts received,
the food and drink that others get,
neither in daytime nor by night
will come to a collected mind.

Explanation: The people give in terms of the faith they have in the recipient. They give in terms of their pleasure. If one were to be jealous when they receive, food and drink, he will never attain tranquillity of mind day or night.

Verse 250. The Unenvious Are At Peace

But who has severed envy’s mind,
uprooted it, destroyed entire,
indeed in daytime and by night
will come to a collected mind.

Explanation: If someone were to utterly uproot and totally eradicate this jealousy, and if it is absolutely destroyed, he will, without any doubt, attain tranquillity day and night.

Verse 251. Craving Is The Worst Flood

There is no fire like lust,
nought seizes like aversion,
unequalled is delusion’s net,
no river’s like to craving.

Explanation: There is no fire life passion. There is no grip like hatred. There is no net like ignorance. There is no torrent like craving.

Verse 252. Easy To See Are The Faults Of Others

Other’s faults are easy to see
yet hard it is to see one’s own,
and so one winnows just like chaff
the faults of other people, while
hiding away those of one’s own
as crafty cheat the losing throw.

Explanation: The faults of others are clearly observed. But one’s own faults are difficult to see. A person winnows the fault of others into prominence, like chaff. He hides his own like the bird-hunter who conceals himself with leaves and twigs.

Verse 253. Seeing Others’ Faults

Who’s always seeing other’s faults,
taking offence, censorious,
pollutions spread for such a one
who’s far from their exhaustion.

Explanation: There are those who are given to the habit of observing the fault of others. They deride others constantly. Their taints keep on thriving, and far away from the state of taintlessness.

Verse 254. Nothing Is Eternal Other Than Nibbana

In skies above there is no path,
no peaceful one’s without,
in manifoldness do folk delight,
Tathagatas are manifold-free.

Explanation: In the skies, there are no footsteps that can be discerned. In the same way, outside the Buddha-Dhamma there are no persons who have realized the four Paths and the four Fruits. The ordinary masses are assailed by worldly hindrances. The Buddhas (Tathagatas) are not affected by those hindrances.

Verse 255. The Buddha Has No Anxiety

In skies above there is no path,
no peaceful one’s without,
nothing conditioned ever lasts,
no Buddha’s ever shaken.

Explanation: In the skies, there is no footsteps that can be discerned. In the same way, outside the Buddha-Dhamma there are no persons who could be described as Samana-bhikkhus. No component thing is eternal. The Buddha has no agitation or anxiety.

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Verse 256. The Just And The Impartial Judge Best

Whoever judges hastily
does Dhamma not uphold,
a wise one should investigate
truth and untruth both.

Explanation: If for some reason someone were to judge what is right or wrong, arbitrarily, that judgment is not established on righteousness. But, the wise person judges what is right and what is wrong discriminately, without prejudice.

Verse 257. Firmly Rooted In The Law

Who others guides impartially
with carefulness, with Dhamma,
that wise one Dhamma guards,
a ‘Dhamma-holder’s’ called.

Explanation: That wise person, who dispenses justice and judges others, impartially, without bias, non-arbitrarily, is guarded by and is in accordance with the Law of Righteousness. Such a person is described as well established in the Dhamma.

Verse 258. Who Speaks A Lot Is Not Necessarily Wise

Just because articulate
one’s not thereby wise,
hateless, fearless and secure,
a ‘wise one’ thus is called.

Explanation: A person cannot be described as learned simply because he speaks quite a lot. He who is liberated and secure, non-hating and fearless is described as a learned person.

Verse 259. Those Who Know Speak Little

Just because articulate
one’s not skilled in Dhamma;
but one who’s heard even little
and Dhamma in the body sees,
that one is skilled indeed,
not heedless of the Dhamma.

Explanation: One does not become an upholder of the Law of Righteousness merely because one talks quite a lot. Even if one, though he has heard only a little, experiences the Dhamma by his body and is diligent, he is the true upholder of the Dhamma.

Verse 260. Grey Hair Alone Does Not Make An Elder

A man is not an Elder
though his head be grey,
he’s just fully ripe in years,
‘aged-in-vain’ he’s called.

Explanation: One does not become an elder merely because one’s hair has turned grey. One, who is only old in years, has grown ripe uselessly.

Verse 261. The Person Full Of Effort Is The True Elder

In whom is truth and Dhamma too,
harmlessness, restraint, control,
he’s steadfast, rid of blemishes,
an ‘Elder’ he is called.

Explanation: All things that men do arise out of the mind. The words and deeds of men spring from their minds. Sometimes, their mind are blemished - evil. If they speak or act with an evil mind, the inevitable result is suffering. Wherever they go, this suffering will follow them. They cannot shake off this suffering. This is very much like the wheel of the cart that follows the steps of a draught bull yoked to the cart. The bull is perpetually bound to it.

Verse 262. Who Gives Up Jealousy Is Good-Natured

Not by eloquence alone
or by lovely countenance
is a person beautiful
if jealous, boastful, mean.

Explanation: Merely because of one’s verbal flourishes, impressive style of speaking, or the charming presence, a person who is greedy, envious and deceitful, does not become an acceptable individual.

Verse 263. Who Uproots Evil Is The Virtuous One

But ‘beautiful’ is called that one
in whom these are completely shed,
uprooted, utterly destroyed,
a wise one purged of hate.

Explanation: If an individual has uprooted and eradicated all these evils and has got rid of blemishes, such a person is truly an acceptable person.

Verse 264. Shaven Head Alone Does Not Make A Monk

By shave head no samana
if with deceit, no discipline.
Engrossed in greed and selfishness
how shall he be a samana?

Explanation: Can an individual who does not practice religion, speaks untruth, and is filled with desire and greed, become an ascetic, merely because he is shaven-headed?

Verse 265. Who Give Up Evil Is True Monk

All evils altogether he
subdues both fine and gross.
Having subdued al evil he
indeed is called a ‘Samana’.

Explanation: If an individual were to quell all defilements, big and small, he is described as an ascetic - a samana.

Verse 266. One Is Not A Monk Merely By Begging Alms Food

Though one begs from others
by this alone’s no bhikkhu.
Not just by this a bhikkhu
but from all Dhamma doing.

Explanation: No one becomes a monk merely because he begs others. An individual, though begging , does not become a monk if he embraces vicious and repulsive beliefs.

Verse 267. The Holy Life Makes a Monk

Who both good and evil deeds
has gone beyond with holy life,
having discerned the world he fares
and ‘Bhikkhu’ he is called.

Explanation: Who rises above both good and evil and treads the path of higher discipline, reflecting wisely , that person, indeed, deserves to be described as a monk.

Verse 268. Silence Alone Does Not Make A Sage

By silence one is not a sage
if confused and foolish,
but one who’s wise, as if with scales
weighs, adopts what’s good.

Explanation: The ignorant person, possessing foolish ways and seemingly bewildered, may practice silence - the austerities of the munis. But this does not make him a sage. But the wise person, like someone holding scales, weighs good and bad and selects what is noble.

Verse 269. Only True Wisdom Makes a Sage

Shunning evil utterly
one is a sage, by that a sage.
Whoever both worlds knows
for that one’s called a ‘Sage’.

Explanation: Weighing what is right and wrong, he shuns evil. For he is a sage (muni). He is capable of weighing both worlds through his sagely wisdom.

Verse 270. True Ariyas Are Harmless

By harming living beings
one is not a ‘Noble’ man,
by lack of harm to all that live
one is called a ‘Noble One’.

Explanation: A person who hurts living beings is not a noble human being. The wise person, who does not hurt any living being is called ariya, a noble individual.

Verse 271. A Monk Should Destroy All Passions

Not by vows and rituals
or again by learning much
or by meditative calm
or by life in solitude.

Explanation: These two stanzas are an admonition to the monks making an effort to reach the state of blemishlessness - Nibbana. They are asked not to slacken their effort to win liberation by being content with some achievement which only pave the way to the final goal.

Verse 272. Blemishes Should Be Given Up To Reach Release

Should you, O bhikkhu, be content,
“I’ve touched the bliss of letting go
not enjoyed by common folk”,
though you’ve not gained pollution’s end.

Explanation: Monks, do not rest content by precepts and rites. Do not be content with extensive learning, Nor should you feel satisfied by achieving states of mental trance. Do not rest content with seclusion, assuring yourself “I have experienced the joy of renunciation not possible for the ordinary.” Do not slacken your effort until you have attained Nibbana.

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Verse 273. The Eight-fold Path Is Best

Of paths the Eight-fold is the best,
of truths the statement four,
the passionless of teachings best,
of humankind the Seer.

Explanation: Off all paths, the eight-fold path is the greatest. Of the truths, the greatest are the four noble truths. Detachment is the greatest of all states. And, of all those who are two-footed ones, one who possesses eyes. The Buddha is the greatest.

Verse 274. The Only Path To Purity

This is the path, no other’s there
for purity of insight,
enter then upon this path
bemusing Mara utterly.

Explanation: This is the path. There is no other for the achievement of clarity of insight. You must follow this path to the total bewilderment of mara.

Verse 275. The Path To End Suffering

Entered then upon this path
you’ll make an end of dukkha.
Freed in knowledge from suffering’s stings
the Path’s proclaimed by me.

Explanation: If you follow this path, you will reach the termination of suffering. This path has been revealed by me, after the extraction of arrows.

Verse 276. Buddhas Only Shows The Way

Buddhas just proclaim the Path
but you’re the ones to strive.
Contemplatives who tread the Path
are freed from Mara’s bonds.

Explanation: The effort must be made by yourself. The Buddhas (the Teachers) only show the way and direct you.Those contemplative meditators, who follow the path, fully and totally escape the snares of death.

Verse 277. Conditioned Things Are Transient

When with wisdom one discerns
transience of conditioned things
one wearily from dukkha turns
treading the path to purity.

Explanation: All component things, all things that have been put together, all created things are transient, impermanent, non-constant. When this realized through insight, one achieves detachment form suffering. This is the path to total freedom from blemishes.

Verse 278. All Component Things Are Sorrow

When with wisdom one discerns
the dukkha of conditioned things
one wearily from dukkha turns
treading the path to purity.

Explanation: All component things - all things that have been put together - all created things are sorrow-fraught. When this is realized through insight, one achieves detachment from suffering. This is the path to total freedom from suffering.

Verse 279. Everything Is Soul-less

When with wisdom one discerns
all knowables are not a self
one wearily from dukkha turns
treading the path to purity.

Explanation: All states of being are without a self. When this is realized through insight, one achieves detachment from suffering. This is the path of total freedom from suffering.

Verse 280. The Lazy Miss The Path

Though time to strive, not striving,
while young and strong yet indeed,
weak-minded and irresolute:
one finds not wisdom’s way.

Explanation: If an individual does not make an effort even at a time when exertion is due, if a person is lethargic even when he is young and strong; if a person suppresses the wholesome thoughts that arise in his mind, if he is lazy, he will not find the path to wisdom.

Verse 281. Purify Your Thoughts, Words And Deeds

In speech ever watchful with mind well-restrained
never with body do unwholesomeness.
So should one purify these three kamma-paths
winning to the Way made known by the Seers.

Explanation: If one is well-guarded in speech, well-restrained in mind, and if one refrains from physical misdeeds, that person will certainly attain the noble eight-fold path realized by the sages.

Verse 282. Way To Increase Wisdom

From endeavour wisdom springs,
lacking effort wisdom wanes:
having known this two-fold path
either to progress or decline
so should one exhort oneself
that wisdom may increase.

Explanation: From reflection and concentrated meditation refined wisdom arises. Through the non-practice of concentrated wisdom erodes. Once these two paths - one leading to progress and the other to decline - are recognized, one must conduct one’s self to increased wisdom.

Verse 283. Shun Passion

The wood cut down but not a tree
since it’s from wood that fear is born.
Having cut wood and woodedness
O bhikkhus be without a wood.

Explanation: Monks, cut down the forest of defilements. But, do not cut down the trees. Fear comes from the forests of defilements. Clear both the forest and the undergrowth. Having done this achieve the state of Nibbana.

Verse 284. Attachment To Women

As long indeed as woodedness
of man to women is not cut
so long in bondage is one’s mind
as milch-calf to the mother cow.

Explanation: As long as a man’s mind is attached to women, even minutely, like a little undergrowth that has not been cut down, so long will his mind be attached like a suckling calf to its mother cow.

Verse 285. Path To Peace

Cut off affection for oneself
as a hand a lily in the Fall.
Cultivate this peaceful path,
Nibbana by the Buddha taught.

Explanation: Just like a person plucking out a lily with one’s own hand, pluck out your self-attachment. Cultivate the path to Nibbana, as advocated by the Buddha.

Verse 286. The Fear Of Death

Here shall I spend the Rains,
here the Winter, here the Summer.
Thus speculates the fool,
the danger he knows not.

Explanation: In the four months during retreat, winter or summer in a chosen place, the ignorant plans unaware of the threat of death.

Verse 287. Death Takes Away The Attached

For one who has a clinging mind
and finds delight in babes and herds
Death does seize and carry away
as great flood a sleeping village.

Explanation: Men are proud that they process children, cattle and other forms of wealth. They tend to be proud that way because their minds are overcome with blemishes. Floods sweep away a sleeping village, taking along all its people and their possessions. In the same way, death comes unaware and sweeps along the people however proud they are of their possessions.

Verse 288. No Protection When Needed

No sons are there for shelter
nor father nor related folk,
one by the Death-king seized upon
in kin no shelter finds.

Explanation: When and individual is gripped by death, sons cannot protect one. Not even one’s father can shield a person from the grip of death. Nor can one’s relations come to the rescue.

Verse 289. The Path To The Deathless

Having understood this fact
the wise by virtue well-restrained
swiftly then should clear the path
leading to Nibbana.

Explanation: Being aware that no one can rescue you from death, the wise person, who is restrained and disciplined, should clear the path to Nibbana, without any loss of time.

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