The Agricultural Revolution: Crash Course World History #1
Published on Jan 26, 2012
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In which John
Green investigates the dawn of human civilization. John looks into how
people gave up hunting and gathering to become agriculturalists, and how
that change has influenced the world we live in today. Also, there are
some jokes about cheeseburgers.
NIsa by Marjorie Shostak: https://goo.gl/hAPr5H
First Farmers by Peter Bellwood: https://goo.gl/JqgHLW
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Caption authors (French)
Caption authors (Croatian)
Caption author (Serbian)
Caption author (Norwegian)
Caption author (Dutch)
Martijn van der Horst
Caption author (Vietnamese)
Caption author (Portuguese (Brazil))
Caption author (Esperanto)
Caption author (Hungarian)
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Top 10 Chinese Cartoon Characters
by Peter Wang · September 18, 2012
There are lots of Chinese animation characters. Some of them have left
deep impressions on all Chinese teenagers and kids. Here Chinawhisper
picks the top 10 classic Chinese cartoon characters. Now let’s take a
look at these colourful cartoon images:
1. Nasreddin 阿凡提
In China almost every person knows Afanti or 阿凡提, the Uyghur name of
Nasreddin. The Uyghurs do not believe Afanti lived in Anatolia but was
from Eastern Turkistan. Nasreddin 14-episode animation series named The
Story of Afanti was produced by Shanghai Animation Film Studio from 1979
to 1989; it became one of the most popular animations in China. The
leading role Afanti is a humorous man who has a strong hatred of evil
practices, he uses his wisdom to uphold justice for the poor people and
punish the greedy and stupid rich man Bayi and the king.
2. The Calabash Brothers 葫芦兄弟
The calabash brothers were the leading role of the popular 13-episod
animation Balabash Brothers during the 1980s. The seven calabash
brothers have superior abilities; they fight against the demons one
after another in order to save their loved ones. Balabash Brothers is
one of the country’s original classic works. Since its broadcast in
1986, it has been popular among children.
3. Nezha 哪吒,
According to the Chinese fantasy novel Fengshen Bang, Nezha was a
student of the immortal Taiyi Zhenren who reconstructed his body with
lotus leaves and blossoms and trained him into a warrior deity. In
another classic Chinese novel Journey to the West, he fought together
with his faster against the Monkey King and later helped him defeat
demons on the Road to the West. His great popularity came with the
popular 1979 animated film Prince Nezha Conquers the Dragon King. The
plot centres on Nezha’s fight against Ao Guang, the Dragon King of the
Eastern China Sea.
4. Pi Pilu and Lu Xixi 皮皮鲁、鲁西西
and Luxixi are twin brother and sister from Pi Pilu’s Story Series,
written by renowned Chinese fairy tale writer Zheng Yuanjie. They are
known among the children for many interesting things they experienced.
They have two good friends, Shuke and Beita, who are perhaps the two
most popular rats in China. Shuke and Beita are extremely smart and they
know the language of human being … …
5. The Monkey King 美猴王
Monkey King, is a leading character in the classical Chinese fantasy
novel Journey to the West. He is born from a stone with super power. He
was trapped under a mountain by the Buddha for his rebelling against
heaven court, and later was saved by the monk Xuanzang on a journey to
retrieve Buddhist sutras from India. There are many TV and films about
the Monkey King. Havoc in Heaven produced in the 1960s is the most
6. Chen Xiang 沉香
Chen Xiang is a cartoon
character in Chinese ancient folklore, he becomes widely known to
Chinese in animated feature film Lotus Lantern . Chen Xiang was the son
of a fairy who was imprisoned by Erlang Shen beneath Mount Hua for
falling in love with an ordinary person. Chen Xiang then descended to
the mortal world carrying his mother’s lotus lantern. With his
perseverance and courage, he finally defeated Erlang Shen and saved his
7. Sergeant Black Cat 黑猫警长
Sergeant Black Cat is a
famous cartoon character in animated TV series of the same title. In
the animation, the witty, brave and handsome Sergeant Black Cat led his
sergeants to crack a series of cases which threatened the forest safety,
helping various animals in the forest live a peaceful life. It was very
popular among post-80s Chinese children.
8. Sanmao 三毛
Mao is the main character of Chinese animation TV series Wanderings of.
San Mao. He was a very poor orphan and wandered and begged in old
Shanghai in the 1930s. The story depicts his rough fate and various
sufferings, and his humour wandering experiences in the process of
looking for happiness and warmth in this metropolis city.
9. Ma Liang 马良
Maliang is a legendary character in a Chinese folklore story. He lived a
village and could not go to school due to the poor status of his
family. But he loved painting very much. One day, he got a brush with
magical power and can turn anything he drew into reality under his hand.
This info soon reached the emperor who imprisoned Ma Liang and forced
him to draw a Money Tree. He followed his order but he also drew a giant
ocean around it. After the emperor sailed across the sea with his
followers, Ma Liang soon wielded his brush and drew lots of winds; soon
the emperor’s ships sank into the water. This story was adapted into a
Chinese animated stop-motion film called Ma Liang and his Magic Brush
(Chinese: 神笔马良) in 1954.
10. Pleasant Goat and Grey Wolf 喜羊羊与灰太狼
Pleasant Goat and Grey Wolf are perhaps the most popular cartoon
characters in today’s China. They are the main characters in the carton
TV series Pleasant Goat And Big Big Wolf , which tells about how a group
of goats living on the grassland fight against a clumsy wolf with
various clever methods.
INDONESIA: Was the most Muslim country on earth once Hindu and Buddhist?
The Nomadic Professor
Published on Feb 18, 2017
By 1800, the vast majority of what is today Indonesia professed
Islam–and much of Indonesia’s ancient Hindu and Buddhist history had
been all but forgotten, its monumental architecture in ruins in the
‘No force can stop me from becoming PM’
After her surprise
anointment as the UNPA’s prime ministerial candidate, BSP supremo
Mayawati’s confidence levels havereached a new high. She told Editor Prabhu Chawla that she is destined to become the country’s prime minister. An exclusive interview:
Q. Finally a Original
Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is
one of the top most communities of the world’s daughter’s name has been
finalised for prime minister. How did this happen?
A. Apart from
being a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha
Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the world ’s
daughter, I am also the daughter of this country. Don’t forget that Prabuddha Bharat’s
highest populated state has given me four chances to be CM. I have
worked not just for the Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the
Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the
world but for all sections of the society. I am born in Prabuddha Bharath so I am not just Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the world ki beti but also Prabuddha Bharath ki beti.
Q. You said there was a
conspiracy against a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the
Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the
world ’s daughter becoming PM.
A. Everyone saw
it. And they (my political rivals) have seen what a good government I
have given in UP, so they are scared that if the BSP forms a government
at the Centre and Mayawati becomes PM, they will have to wait for a long
time to come back to power at the Centre.
That is why they
thought it is better we don’t let her come to power at all. Moreover,
the BJP and the Congress I think are alike—whether at the Centre or at
the state, their governments have economic policies that make rich
industrialists richer and the poor poorer. So they know that once they
are removed from power, all their rich industrialist friends will suffer
while the poor, the farmers and small industrialists will benefit,
and they don’t want that. Therefore they tampered the fraud EVMs to
gobble the Master Key just to stop me from becoming the PM. These EVMs
software and its source code are kept secret from the voters in this
country to negated the Universal Adult Franchise. The ex CJI Sathasivam
had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs could
be replaced in a phased manner which itself is a clear proof that the
EVMs could be tampered. The ex CEC Sampath suggested for replacement of
the EVMs in a phased manner as it cost Rs 1600 crore at that time and
now it is more than a lakh crore while the Ballot papers are very much
cheaper. After dissolving the Central government that gobbled the
Mastery Key by tampering the fraud EVMs and go for fresh polls with
Ballot papers, the BJP will just get 0.1% votes.
Q. So they won’t let you become the PM?
A. This kind of
question was raised even when the BSP was improving in UP and there was a
chance that I could become chief minister. But I did become UP chief
minister, and I think a day will come when the wishes of the oppressed,
the poor, the downtrodden and beloved Dr Ambedkar will come true. One
day, this section will get political power. If I can become UP chief
minister, then I think a day will surely come when the dreams of our
people will come true.
Q. Will the dream be realised through Mayawati?
A. Definitely, it will come true.
Q. So you think that your becoming PM is only a matter of time. Nothing can stop you now.
A. A movement has begun. When the time comes, no one can stop. No one could stop me from becoming the chief minister of UP.
Q. Will you be able to run the government? Can you rule Prabuddha Bharath?
A. This question was also raised in UP before I became chief minister. But from Independence till today, if you compare all the sarkars to my government and ask the aam janta of UP, they will tell you that Mayawati is the best. So if I can give UP-which is Prabuddha Bharath’s largest state—the best sarkar, why can’t I do the same at the Centre?
Q. Do you have an agenda for governance?
A. Of course I have.
Q. But until now you were limited to UP and you didn’t even meet leaders of other parties.
A. I did meet other leaders, but I also had to run my party. I did both.
Q. If you do become the
PM, what is your agenda for governance? What are your views on
privatisation and economic reforms that Manmohan Singh started?
A. Our sarkar’s economic agenda will benefit the country’s poor and weaker sections. It will benefit all sections of the society.
Q. You are talking like Indira Gandhi, “Gareebi hatao, desh bachao“.
A. My party is
not against privatisation. Like we have done in UP, at the Centre too we
will see that the country’s Scheduled Castes have the benefits of
reservations. When a government office is privatised, reservation rights
should be protected as I have done in UP. Apart from the Scheduled
Castes, we will take care of the minorities, Backward Classes and also
the economically poor among the upper castes. I have written to the
Centre about reservation in government jobs for the economically poor
among upper castes.
Q. Should there be foreign investment in retail?
A. There are different castes and religions in India, lots of poor and jobless, so we will take all this into account.
Q. Should there be FDI in retail?
A. The interests of the small shopkeepers must be protected.
Q. So you are not against FDI in retail?
A. No I am not.
Q. What about the nuclear deal?
A. The Congress
is claiming that because of this deal we will get cheap electricity.
This is wrong. Whatever electricity we get will be much more expensive
and it will take 10-15 years to get it. And the output will be
only 8-10 per cent more than what we are getting. It will be so
expensive that neither the poor nor the small industrialists will be
able to use it.
Q. So will you cancel the nuclear deal?
A. When my government is formed, we will rethink this deal and examine if it’s in the nation’s interests or not. We are told that America has put conditions on India, like if they attack Iran, India will have to offer support. Such conditions are meant to make Prabuddha Bharath a slave.
Q. Before opposing this deal, you must have read it.
A. We do not agree with this deal. We will rethink it.
Q. But the Left is totally opposed to America and they are supporting you.
A. Whenever we
do a deal with any country, we must first take into account the
country’s interests. When my party comes to power at the Centre, we will
take into account all sections of the society while making
Q. Opposition parties claim that your politics is caste-based. Does this suit a prime minister?
A. The people who make such allegations are the ones who areindulging in caste politics. The BSP has finished jaativaad in this country and wants to bring together all sections of the society. The charge
that the BSP is jaativaadi is false.
Q. Maybe this is because you are now being promoted as the leader of UNPA.
A. I am the leader of BSP. The UNPA is different, the Left is separate. They all have their own leaders.
Q. But they are promoting you as the PM, no one else.
A. I welcome this suggestion and I am grateful.
Q. But other leaders of the UNPA like Chandrababu Naidu and Chautala belong to forward castes. How does behen Mayawati fit into all this?
A. The Left
parties and other members of the UNPA have realised that Mayawati in UP
has included all sections of the society in the BSP’s way of thinking.
Along with the backward sections and the minorities, it
has also sent upper castes to Parliament and the state assembly and given them posts in the ministry. They don’t see her as jaativaadi but as one who takes all sections of the society together.
Q. Well you do have the
slogan. But these leaders first went to Mulayam. When that did not work
out, they came after you in the hope that by sailing in your boat they
too will get somewhere. And then, they will leave you too?
A. The names
that you have mentioned did at first go to Mulayam, and you say that
they will leave me too. But in the UPA and NDA too, there are many
allies who are attracted to the BSP. And there will be a time
when they too will join us.
Q. So there will be some attempt to break parties.
A. I am against breaking any party, but those who come on their own are welcome.
Q. But you will still
need the Congress or the BJP to become PM. How will a Original
Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that isthe Great Prabuddha Bharath which is
one of the top most communities of the world ki beti become PM without their help?
A. With Lok
Sabha elections a few months away, I am sure that the BJP and Congress,
along with their allies, will not get more than 200 seats together. The
rest will be 340. So I will not need the BJP or the Congress.
Q. Their company will come to you?
A. No, I will not need their company. They will come to me on their own.
Q. On one side is the
“Note Gate” and on the other side there is terrorism. But there seems to
be ittle desire to fight terrorism.
A. I think the way wads of money were placed in Parliament and MPs are being bought over, this should be condemned.
Q. What about terrorism?
The state governments should get together and plan and strategise to
counter it. The borders of our country are not strengthened.
Q. Who do you blame for the rise in terrorism? Is it minority appeasement, weak governance or the lack of a strong law?
A. We should not link terrorism with politics, but the states and the Centre should sit and strategise how to contain it.
Q. For this we need a strong law. But POTA has been removed. Even you are against POTA.
A. No. I think that central and state governments should make strict laws. Not POTA, but there can be other strict laws.
Q. Like MCOCA in Maharashtra? Gujarat wanted to make a strong law but was not allowed.
A. In UP too we have passed a law but the Centre has not okayed it.
Q. So would you say the Centre is weak in formulating laws?
A. Yes. Also,
our borders are weak. After all, the terrorists enter our country from
across the borders. So it’s up to the central government to make the
borders strong and make a law along with the states.
Q. A law like POTA?
A. Not necessarily but a strong law.
Q. Our Muslim brothers
say they are against terrorism as much as the rest of us, yet they say
that to appease the Muslim vote we won’t make a strong law.
A. If a person commits a wrong, you should not punish the entire community.
Q. Should Mohd Afzal be hanged? The Supreme Court has said he should be.
A. This is for the courts and the government to decide.
Q. But in the name of terrorism, politics is being played.
A. That’s not good.
Q. Will you do anything to stop this?
A. When I become PM, we will try and create such a situation that there will be no terror incidents.
Q. How will you ensure this? Will you make a strong law?
A. Maybe there will be no need to make a strong law. There will be such an environment that there will be no need for it.
Q. The terrorists will feel scared of you and not come out?
Q. The word supremo is
often used for you. It evokes dictatorship more than democracy. It is
used for Bal Thackeray and Jayalalithaa.
A. That title I didn’t give myself. You keep calling me that, so ask yourself.
Q. But do you work like a dictator?
A. No, I believe in democracy and take everyone’s views into account.
Q. It is often said
that how a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great
Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the world ki beti could collect so much money and have so many houses.
A. The CBI has given a false affidavit to the court. When my lawyer presents my case, the truth will come out.
Q. But charges are being laid against you
A. This is all because of political pressure, whether it is the UPA or the NDA. It is all politics.
Q. There was so much
bonhomie between you and Sonia. She came and wished you on your
birthday. What happened between the two sisters suddenly?
A. Milna julna alag cheez hai and politics is separate.
Q. And now Amar Singh is in the central government indirectly. Are you feeling threatened?
I am not but I can say for sure that the Congress will be feeling
threatened that if not today then tomorrow he will do something against
Q. Have you gone soft on Amar Singh?
A. No I have
not. The UP assembly results threw them out of the government and
installed me. So if the people of UP have already killed them then why
should I bother to do anything? Mare huey ko kyon maarna?
Q. You had earlier made charges of corruption against them and said you will send them to jail. Have you forgiven them?
Q. Or is it that you did not find anything?
A. Whatever the
charges of corruption against them, the cases are going on in the
Supreme Court. Why should I come in the middle of that? And why should I
feel scared of weak people?
Q. But Amar Singh and Mulayam have been reborn. They have become more powerful.
A. They are now more dead than ever.
Q. They sit and eat with the PM and meet Sonia every day.
A. Dining is not everything. The way this government has been saved, they will get no political gains out of this.
Q. There is talk of pressing ahead with the cases against you. Don’t you think they must have made some sort of a deal?
A. Whenever there has been a political attack against me, via the CBI or others, I have emerged stronger.
Q. So you are ready to fight?
Q. So how do you keep so fit? Do you exercise?
A. I don’t. I just keep busy with my work.
Q. No gym or personal trainer?
A. I don’t get the time for exercise, I just do my work.
Q. Do you control your diet?
A. I eat what I get.
Q. I have seen you for
the last 15 years and there is an image makeover. Was this part of a
plan to ready yourself for chief ministership and prime ministership?
A. I have done nothing. All this has happened naturally. I keep busy with my work and that is my exercise.
Q. What hobbies do you have?
A. All 24 hours
of the day, I think about the movement I am associated with and how to
take my party forward. How to help the backward and weaker sections of
our country. I keep making plans for them and that keeps me busy.
Q. Weaving conspiracies?
A. No, plans.
Q. But politics is like conspiracy. How to get to power etc
A. No, I don’t need to. My party is different from others; it is both a mission and a movement.
Q. In the end, it is politics only-how to get power.
A. I agree with
Babasaheb Dr Ambedkar, who said that if any section of the society wants
to solve its problems, it has to get political power.
Q. So to fulfill
Babasaheb’s dream, this Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the
Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the
world ki beti is readying her political arsenal.
A. Not just Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the world ki beti but Prabuddha Bharath ki beti. I will fulfill Babasaheb’s dream, and those who believe in Babasaheb are working to make this possible.
Q. I will ask you five
questions and you must answer them in one line. Who do you think is your
biggest enemy? I am not taking Amar Singh or Mulayam’s name.
A. I am against discrimination and untouchability and jaativaad.
Q. And your best friend? The one who will put you in power?
A. The day our society that is divided on caste lines becomes one.
Q. I am asking about individuals. There have been 14 prime ministers in India. Who do you like the best?
A. If I liked any one then I would not have felt the need to form my own party.
Q. The worst?
A. They are all the same.
Q. Do you watch films?
A. No, I don’t. I barely get the time. I do watch the news though.
Q. Do you have a favourite heroine?
A. Well, I don’t watch movies, so how will I have a favourite heroine?
Q. Your favourite food? You do eat, right?
A. (laughs) Yes, otherwise how will I stay alive. Green vegetables, daal…
Q. Which is your favourite tourist spot?
A. Whenever I travel, I am so busy that I don’t have the time to do any sightseeing.
Q. If you got a chance, where would you like to go? After all, even Jawaharlal Nehru took a holiday sometimes.
A. I like natural surroundings. I am very fond of nature.
Q. Whom do you see as a political villain in the country today?
Q. Is it Amar Singh or anyone other?
A. There is no shortage of such people in the country today.
Q. You don’t want to take a name?
A. Well you have taken the name yourself, so I don’t need to.