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 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
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2642 Tue 5 Jun LESSON Now Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
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 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā is an Online NEWS CHANNEL Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. Chronology of Pali Canon in 23) Classical English,10)Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,34) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાત, 39) Classical Hindi-शास्त्रीय हिंदी,2642 Tue 5 Jun LESSON -Jhaanas-Arahant [Fourth jhana]- in 23) Classical English,10)Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,34) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાત,39) Classical Hindi-शास्त्रीय हिंदी,49) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,63) Classical Maslayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മസാലലം,66) Classical Marathi- शास्त्रीय मराठी,75) Classical Punjabi- ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, 84) Classical Sindhi,,94) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,95) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,99) Classical Urdu-کلاسیکی تیلگو
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Posted by: @ 9:51 pm

2642 Tue 5 Jun  LESSON

Now
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice
University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in

105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya
Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
is an Online NEWS CHANNEL
Catering to more than 3000 Emails:
200 WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter.
Chronology of Pali Canon

in 23) Classical English,10)Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,34) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાત,39) Classical Hindi-शास्त्रीय हिंदी,49) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
63) Classical Maslayalam
ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മസാലലം,
66) Classical Marathi- शास्त्रीय मराठी,75) Classical Punjabi- ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ84) Classical Sindhi,94) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,
95) Classical Telugu-
క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
99) Classical Urdu-کلاسیکی تیلگو





2642 Tue 5 Jun  LESSON  -Jhaanas-Arahant [Fourth jhana]






Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)








https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
1-10 early to recent Chronology of Pali Canon

Thomas William Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India (p. 188) has given a
chronological table of Buddhist literature from the time of the Buddha
to the time of Ashoka which is as follows:

1. The simple statements of Buddhist doctrine now found, in identical
words, in paragraphs or verses recurring in all the books.

2. Episodes found, in identical words, in two or more of the existing books.

3. The Silas, the Parayana, the Octades, the Patimokkha.

4. The Digha, Majjhima, Anguttara, and Samyutta Nikayas.

5. The Sutta Nipata, the Thera and Theri Gathas, the Udanas, and the Khuddaka Patha.

6. The Sutta Vibhanga, and Khandhkas.

7. The Jatakas and the Dhammapadas.

8. The Niddesa, the Itivuttakas and the Patisambbhida.

9. The Peta and Vimana-Vatthus, the Apadana, the Cariya-Pitaka, and the Buddhavamsa.

10. The Abhidhamma books; the last of which is the Katha-Vatthu, and the earliest probably the Puggala-Pannatti.

Those listed at the top or near the top, such as numbers one to five,
are considered the earliest, oldest texts and the most likely to be
authentic and the exact words of the Buddha. The later texts and the
commentaries and the Visuddhimagga, are held in very high esteem by
Classical Theravada, whereas, the Modern Theravada focuses on the
earliest teachings of the Buddha.
Modern Theravada

Main article: Modern Theravada

Bhikkhu Bodhi, Dhammavuddho Thera and others have their doubts, as do
modern scholars about the later texts and if they are Buddhavacana
(exact words of Buddha) or not. Modern Theravadins probably hold a
slight variety of opinions but probably take one of the following:

1. The first four Nikayas in their entirety are Buddhavacana, plus the
following books from the Khuddaka Nikaya: Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka,
Sutta Nipata, Theragatha, and Therigatha; and the Patimokkha from the
Vinaya. (That would still make the Buddhavacana portion of the Tipitaka
roughly 30 out of 40 volumes.)

2. All of the above, plus the
other books of the Khuddaka Nikaya, plus the other Vinaya books, plus
the Abhidhamma, but see them as written by later disciples of the
Buddha, who may have been arahants and thus, still worthy to be included
in the Canon, although not likely part of Original Buddhism.

The
scholar monks Ajahn Sujato and Ajahn Brahmali have written the book The
Authenticity of Early Buddhist Texts and they are in agreement with
number one above, consisting of the first 4 Nikayas and some of the
Khuddaka Nikaya as Buddhavacana.

See also: Original Buddhism
References

The Complete Book of Buddha’s Lists — Explained. David N. Snyder, Ph.D., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
The Authenticity of Early Buddhist Texts Buddhist Publication Society, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/


dhammawiki.com
Thomas
William Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India (p. 188) has given a
chronological table of Buddhist literature from the time of the Buddha
to the time of Ashoka which is as follows:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Nn5uqE3C9w
Buddha and Ashoka: Crash Course World History #6
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Published on Mar 1, 2012
In which John relates a condensed history of India, post-Indus Valley
Civilization. John explores Hinduism and the origins of Buddhism. He
also gets into the reign of Ashoka, the Buddhist emperor who, in spite
of Buddhism’s structural disapproval of violence, managed to win a bunch
of battles.

Resources:

Awesome comic book about Ashoka by Anant Pai: http://dft.ba/-ashoka He did a huge series of comics about Indian history and religion: http://dft.ba/-AnantPai

India: A History by John Keay: http://dft.ba/-IndiaHistory

The Bhagavad Gita: http://dft.ba/-gita

The Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads, and Rig Veda, all-in-one edition: http://dft.ba/-India

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Photos:

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youtube.com
In which John relates a condensed history of India, post-Indus Valley Civilization. John explores Hinduism…
10)Classical Bengali
10) ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা

264২ 5 জুন পাঠ

এখন

বিশ্লেষণাত্মক
অন্তর্দৃষ্টি নেট - বিনামূল্যে অনলাইন টিপিকা রিসার্চ এবং প্র্যাকটিস
ইউনিভার্সিটি এবং সংশ্লিষ্ট সংবাদ মাধ্যমের মাধ্যমে
http://svvajan.ambedkar.org 105 টি ক্লাসিক্যাল ল্যাঙ্গুয়েজ

পঁসাঁঝিদা
জলা-আধাঁ প্যারিফ্যান্ট টিপিকাঠ অনুভানা সা পারাইয়াখা নিখিলভিজালায়া
স্রত্হহুৎ পভতী নিসায়য়া http://svajan.ambedkar.org anto 105
শিব্যাগথ্য্যাত্ ভাসা

একটি অনলাইন সংবাদ চ্যানেল
3000 এর বেশি ইমেলের ব্যবস্থা করা:
200 হোয়াটসঅ্যাপ, ফেসবুক এবং টুইটার।

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
সাম্প্রতিককালের দিকে পালি ক্যাননের সাম্প্রতিক কালপঞ্জি

বৌদ্ধ
ভারতে টমাস উইলিয়াম রাইস ডেভিডস (পৃঃ 188) বুদ্ধের সময় থেকে বৌদ্ধ
সাহিত্যের একটি কালানুক্রমিক টেবিলে অশোকের সময় দেওয়া হয়েছে।

1. বৌদ্ধ মতবাদ সহজ বিবরণ এখন পাওয়া যায়, একক শব্দের মধ্যে, অনুচ্ছেদ বা আয়াত সব বই মধ্যে পুনরাবৃত্তি মধ্যে, পাওয়া যায়।

২. বিদ্যমান বইগুলির দুই বা ততোধিক এপিসোড একক শব্দের মধ্যে পাওয়া যায়।

3. সিলাস, পারয়না, অষ্টাদশ, পতিমোকখা

4. দীঘা, মজাজিমা, আঙ্গুটার, এবং সাময়তা নিকায়াস।

5. সুচিত্রা নিপতা, থেরা ও থ্রি গাথ, উদ্যান ও খদ্দক পাথা।

6. সুত্র বিভাজন ও খণ্ডকাজ।

7. জিতক এবং ধামপাদাস

8. নিদিষ, ইথুভক্তক এবং পতিসম্বাবদ্দা।

9. পেটা এবং Vimana-Vatthus, Apadana, Cariya-Pitaka, এবং Buddhavamsa।

10. অভিধর্ম বই; যা শেষ কথায়- Vaththu, এবং সম্ভবত সম্ভবত Puggala-Pannatti

উপরে
বা কাছাকাছি শীর্ষে তালিকাভুক্ত, যেমন নম্বর এক থেকে পাঁচ, প্রাচীনতম,
প্রাচীনতম গ্রন্থে এবং সম্ভবত সর্বাধিক এবং বুদ্ধের সঠিক শব্দ হতে পারে বলে
মনে করা হয়।
পরবর্তী
গ্রন্থে এবং ভাষ্য এবং বিষ্ণুবিজ্ঞাগণ, শাস্ত্রীয় ত্রিভাদের দ্বারা
অত্যন্ত উচ্চ সম্মানিত হয়, তবে, আধুনিক থেরবাদে বুদ্ধের প্রাথমিক শিক্ষার
উপর দৃষ্টি নিবদ্ধ করে।
আধুনিক থেরবাদ

মূল নিবন্ধ: আধুনিক থেরবাদ

ভিক্ষু
বোথী, ধম্মুুুুদ্দু থেরা এবং অন্যান্যরা তাদের সন্দেহের কথা বলে, যেমন
পরবর্তী গ্রন্থে আধুনিক পণ্ডিতরা এবং যদি তারা বৌদ্ধকানার (বুদ্ধের সঠিক
শব্দ) বা না হয়।
আধুনিক থেরবিডিন সম্ভবত বেশ কিছু মতামত নিয়েছেন কিন্তু সম্ভবত নিম্নলিখিতগুলির মধ্যে একটি গ্রহণ করুন:

1.
তাদের সম্পূর্ণতার প্রথম চারটি Nikayas বৌদ্ধকণা, পাশাপাশি Khuddaka
Nikaya থেকে নিম্নলিখিত বই: ধমপাঠ, Udana, Itivuttaka, সুচিত্রা Nipata,
Theragatha, এবং Therigatha;
এবং বিনয় থেকে পতিমোখা। (এটি এখনও ত্রিপুটের বৌদ্ধাকৃতির অংশটি প্রায় 40 ভলিউমের মধ্যে 30 টি।)

2.
উপরোক্ত সমস্ত, পাশাপাশি Khuddaka Nikaya অন্যান্য বই, পাশাপাশি অন্যান্য
Vinaya বই, এছাড়াও Abhidhamma, কিন্তু বুদ্ধ এর পরবর্তী শিষ্যদের দ্বারা
লিখিত তাদের দেখুন, যারা arrahants ছিল এবং এইভাবে, এখনও হতে যোগ্য
ক্যানন অন্তর্ভুক্ত, যদিও মূল বৌদ্ধের সম্ভবত অংশ না।

পণ্ডিত
সন্ন্যাসী আজাহন সুজাতো এবং অজান ব্রহ্মলি বইটি প্রামাণিক বৌদ্ধ গ্রন্থে
সত্যিকারের গ্রন্থটি লিখেছেন এবং তারা উপরের সংখ্যাটির সাথে একমত, প্রথম 4
টি Nikaya এবং কিছু Khuddaka Nikaya হিসাবে বুদ্ধভ্যাকন গঠিত।

আরও দেখুন: মৌলিক বৌদ্ধ ধর্ম
তথ্যসূত্র

বুদ্ধের তালিকা পূর্ণাঙ্গ বই - ব্যাখ্যা ডেভিড এন স্নেইডার, পিএইচডি, ২006।
http://www.thedhamma.com/
বৌদ্ধ প্রকাশনী সোসাইটি, ২014 এর প্রারম্ভিক বৌদ্ধ গ্রন্থের সত্যতা।
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 প্রথম দিকে সাম্প্রতিককালের পালি ক্যানন-এর কালপঞ্জি - ধম্ম উইকি
বৌদ্ধ
ভারতে টমাস উইলিয়াম রাইস ডেভিডস (পৃঃ 188) বুদ্ধের সময় থেকে বৌদ্ধ
সাহিত্যের একটি কালানুক্রমিক টেবিলে অশোকের সময় দেওয়া হয়েছে।




34) Classical Gujarati
34) ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી

2642 મંગળ 5 જૂન દાન

હવે

વિશ્લેષણાત્મક
ઇનસાઇટ નેટ - મફત ઓનલાઇન ટીપિકાક સંશોધન અને પ્રેક્ટિસ યુનિવર્સિટી અને
સંબંધિત સમાચાર, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ની 105 શાસ્ત્રીય ભાષાઓમાં

પૅસિમભીદા
જલા-અપ્ઢા પેરપંતી ટીપિકાક અવેન્સા સીએ પરિિકાયા નિખિલવિજજાલયા કા
નાસ્તુહુત પવિટ્ટી નિસિયા http://sarajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 સંયોગાતાત
ભાસ

એક ઓનલાઇન સમાચાર ચેનલ છે
3000 કરતાં વધુ ઇમેઇલ્સ માટે કેટરિંગ:
200 વૉઇસ, ફેસબુક અને ટ્વિટર

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_hronology_of…
પાલી કેનનની તાજેતરના વૃત્તાંતમાં શરૂઆતમાં 1-10

તેમના
બૌદ્ધ ભારત (પાનું 188) માં થોમસ વિલિયમ રિસ ડેવિડ્સે બુદ્ધના સમયથી
અશોકના સમય સુધી બૌદ્ધ સાહિત્યના કાલક્રમના કોષ્ટક આપ્યા છે, જે નીચે મુજબ
છે:

1. બૌદ્ધ સિદ્ધાંતના સરળ નિવેદનો હવે મળી, એક જ શબ્દોમાં, બધા પુસ્તકોમાં પુનરાવર્તિત ફકરા અથવા છંદો માં.

2. એપિસોડ્સ મળી, સમાન શબ્દોમાં, હાલના બે અથવા વધુ પુસ્તકોમાં.

3. સિલાસ, પરાયન, ઓક્ટોડે, પાટીમોક્ખા.

4. દિઘા, મેજિહિમા, અંગુતરા, અને સમૂતા નિકાયસ.

5. સુત્ત નિપતા, ધ થેરા અને થેરી ગઠાસ, ઉદદાસ અને ખડકા પાઠ.

6. સુત્ત વિભંગ અને ખાંડકા

7. જતાકા અને ધમપાપાસ.

8. નિદેસ, ઇતિવુટકાસ અને પતસાંભભ્ઢા.

9. પેટા અને વમાના-વત્થસ, અપાદના, કરિયા-પિતાકા અને બુદ્ધવંશ.

10. અભિંધમ્ પુસ્તકો; જેમાંથી છેલ્લું કથા-વથતુ છે, અને કદાચ સૌથી પહેલાં કદાચ પુગ્લાલા-પેનાટ્ટી

ટોચની
અથવા ટોચની ટોચ પર યાદી થયેલ, જેમ કે એકથી પાંચ જેટલા નંબરો, સૌથી પહેલા,
સૌથી જૂના ગ્રંથો અને પ્રમાણભૂત અને બુદ્ધના ચોક્કસ શબ્દો હોવાનું મોટે
ભાગે ગણવામાં આવે છે.
પછીના
પાઠો અને ભાષ્યો અને વિશુદ્ધિમાગ, ક્લાસિકલ થરવાડા દ્વારા ખૂબ જ ઊંચી
સન્માનમાં રાખવામાં આવે છે, જ્યારે, આધુનિક થેરાદાદા બુદ્ધના પ્રારંભિક
ઉપદેશો પર ધ્યાન કેન્દ્રિત કરે છે.
આધુનિક થરવાડા

વધુ માહિતી માટે જુઓ મૂળ લેખ: Modern Theravada

ભીખુ
બોધી, ધમમવુધ્ધ થેરા અને અન્યોના શંકા છે, જેમ કે પછીના ગ્રંથો વિશે
આધુનિક વિદ્વાનો અને જો તેઓ બુદ્ધવકન (બુદ્ધના ચોક્કસ શબ્દો) છે કે નહીં.
મોર્ડન થેરાવિડેન્સ કદાચ અભિપ્રાયની થોડી વિવિધતા ધરાવે છે પરંતુ કદાચ નીચેનામાંથી એક લે છે:

1.
તેમના પ્રથમ તબક્કામાં નિકાયા બધા બુદ્ધવકાના છે, ઉપરાંત ખડકા નિકાયાના
નીચેના પુસ્તકો: ધમ્મપદ, ઉદના, ઇતિવતકાક, સુત્ત નિપાટા, થ્રગાથા અને
થિરાગાથા;
અને વિનયથી પાટીમોક્ષ. (તે હજુ પણ 40 વિતરણમાંથી આશરે 30 માંથી ટિપ્ટકાકના બુદ્ધવકન ભાગને બનાવે છે.)

2.
ઉપરોક્ત તમામ, વત્તા ખડકા નિકાયાના અન્ય પુસ્તકો, ઉપરાંત અન્ય વિનય
પુસ્તકો, અભિધમ્મ, પણ તેમને બુદ્ધના પછીના અનુયાયીઓ દ્વારા લખાયેલા છે, જેઓ
અરાહંત હતા અને આમ, હજુ પણ લાયક છે.
કેનનમાં શામેલ છે, તેમ છતાં મૂળ બૌદ્ધવાદના સંભવિત ભાગનો ભાગ નથી.

વિદ્વાન
સાધુઓએ અજહ્ન સુજોટો અને અજહ્ન બ્રહ્માલીએ ‘ધી ઓથેન્ટિકિટી ઓફ અર્લી બૌદ્ધ
ટેક્સ્ટ્સ’ પુસ્તક લખ્યું છે અને તેઓ ઉપરોક્ત નંબર એક સાથે કરારમાં છે,
જેમાં પ્રથમ 4 નિકાયા અને કેટલાક ખુદકાક નિકાયા બૌધવકન તરીકે સમાવેશ થાય
છે.

આ પણ જુઓ: મૂળ બૌદ્ધવાદ
સંદર્ભ

બુદ્ધની સૂચિની પૂર્ણ ચોપડે - સમજાવાયેલ ડેવિડ એન. સ્નાઇડર, પીએચ.ડી., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
બૌદ્ધ પ્રકાશન સોસાયટી, 2014 ના પ્રારંભિક બૌદ્ધ ટેક્સ્ટ્સની અધિકૃતતા.
https://suttacentral.net/
ધામવુકી.કોમ
1-10 તાજેતરના પાલી કેનનની શરૂઆત - ધમમ વિકી
તેમના
બૌદ્ધ ભારત (પાનું 188) માં થોમસ વિલિયમ રિસ ડેવિડ્સે બુદ્ધના સમયથી
અશોકના સમય સુધી બૌદ્ધ સાહિત્યના કાલક્રમના કોષ્ટક આપ્યા છે, જે નીચે મુજબ
છે:


39) Classical Hindi
3 9) शास्त्रीय हिंदी

2642 मंगल 5 जून लेसन

अभी व

विश्लेषणात्मक
अंतर्दृष्टि नेट - नि: शुल्क ऑनलाइन Tipiṭaka अनुसंधान और अभ्यास
विश्वविद्यालय और 105 क्लासिकल भाषाओं में http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org के
माध्यम से संबंधित समाचार

पायिसंबिधा
जाला-अभधा परििपतिति टिपियाका अंवेना सी पारिकाया निखिलविजजला सी एनतिभाता
पावती निशाया http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org से 105 सेहगंथ्यता भासा

एक ऑनलाइन समाचार चैनल है
3000 से अधिक ईमेल के लिए खानपान:
200 व्हाट्सएप, फेसबुक और ट्विटर।

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
1-10 हाल ही में पाली कैनन के क्रोनोलॉजी

अपने
बौद्ध भारत (पी। 188) में थॉमस विलियम राइड्स डेविड ने बुद्ध के समय से
अशोक के समय तक बौद्ध साहित्य की कालक्रम तालिका दी है, जो निम्नानुसार है:

1. बौद्ध सिद्धांत के सरल बयान अब समान शब्दों में, सभी पुस्तकों में अनुच्छेदों या छंदों में पाए जाते हैं।

2. एपिसोड, समान शब्दों में, दो या अधिक मौजूदा पुस्तकों में पाया गया।

3. सीलास, परयाण, अक्टूबर, पतिमोखा।

4. दीघा, मजजिमा, अंगुटारा, और सम्यता निकयस।

5. सुट्टा निपाता, थेरा और थेरी गठ, उदना, और खुदाका पथ।

6. सुट्टा विभांगा, और खांडकस।

7. जाटक और धम्मपदास।

8. निदेसा, इतिवत्तकस और पतिसंबभाडा।

9। पेटा और विमन-वाथथस, अपडाना, करिया-पितका, और बौद्धवम्सा।

10. अभिमम्मा किताबें; जिनमें से आखिरी कथ-वाथू है, और शायद सबसे पुराना पुगला-पन्नट्टी।

शीर्ष
पर या शीर्ष पर सूचीबद्ध, जैसे संख्या एक से पांच, को सबसे पुराने, सबसे
पुराने ग्रंथों और सबसे प्रामाणिक और बुद्ध के सटीक शब्दों के रूप में माना
जाता है।
बाद
के ग्रंथों और टिप्पणियों और विशुद्धिमगगा, शास्त्रीय थेरावाड़ा द्वारा
बहुत अधिक सम्मान में आयोजित किए जाते हैं, जबकि आधुनिक थेरवाड़ा बुद्ध की
सबसे पुरानी शिक्षाओं पर केंद्रित है।
आधुनिक थेरावाड़ा

मुख्य लेख: आधुनिक थेरावाड़ा

भिक्कू
बोधी, धम्मवुधो थेरा और दूसरों के पास उनके संदेह हैं, जैसे कि बाद के
ग्रंथों के बारे में आधुनिक विद्वानों और यदि वे बुद्धवचन (बुद्ध के सटीक
शब्द) हैं या नहीं।
आधुनिक थेरावाडिन शायद थोड़ी सी राय मानते हैं लेकिन शायद निम्न में से कोई एक लेते हैं:

1.
पूरी तरह से पहले चार निकयस बुद्धवकान हैं, साथ ही खुदाका निकया से
निम्नलिखित पुस्तकें: धामपाडा, उडाना, इतिवत्तका, सुट्टा निपाता, थेरागथा,
और थेरिगथा;
और विनय से पतिमोखा। (यह अभी भी टिपितका के बुद्धवाकण हिस्से को 40 खंडों में से लगभग 30 में बना देगा।)

2.
उपर्युक्त सभी, साथ ही खुदाका निकया की अन्य पुस्तकें, साथ ही अन्य विनय
किताबें, साथ ही अभिमम्मा, लेकिन उन्हें बुद्ध के बाद के शिष्यों द्वारा
लिखी गई, जो अराहंत हो सकते हैं और इस प्रकार, अभी भी योग्य होने के योग्य
हैं
कैनन में शामिल, हालांकि मूल बौद्ध धर्म की संभावना नहीं है।

विद्वान
भिक्षु अजहन सुजाटो और अजहन ब्रह्माली ने प्रारंभिक बौद्ध ग्रंथों की
प्रामाणिकता पुस्तक लिखी है और वे उपरोक्त नंबर एक के साथ समझौते में हैं,
जिसमें पहले 4 निकयस और कुछ खुदाका निकया बुद्धवाकन के रूप में शामिल हैं।

यह भी देखें: मूल बौद्ध धर्म
संदर्भ

बुद्ध की सूची की पूरी किताब - समझाया गया। डेविड एन। स्नाइडर, पीएचडी, 2006।
http://www.thedhamma.com/
प्रारंभिक बौद्ध ग्रंथों की प्रामाणिकता बौद्ध प्रकाशन समाज, 2014।
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 हाल ही में पाली कैनन का इतिहास विज्ञान - धामा विकी
अपने
बौद्ध भारत (पी। 188) में थॉमस विलियम राइड्स डेविड ने बुद्ध के समय से
अशोक के समय तक बौद्ध साहित्य की कालक्रम तालिका दी है, जो निम्नानुसार है:



49) Classical Kannada
49) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ

2642 ಟು 5 ಜೂನ್ ಲೆಸನ್

ಈಗ

ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣಾತ್ಮಕ
ಒಳನೋಟ ನೆಟ್ - ಉಚಿತ ಆನ್ಲೈನ್ ​​ಟಿಪಿತಾಕಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಕ್ಟೀಸ್
ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಬಂಧಿತ ನ್ಯೂಸ್ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ಮೂಲಕ 105
ಕ್ಲಾಸ್ಷಲ್ ಭಾಷೆಗಳು

ಪಾಟಿಂಬಾಹಿಯಾ
ಜಾಲಾ-ಅಬಾಧ ಪಾರಿಪಂತಿ ಟಿಪ್ಪತ್ತಕ ಅನ್ವೆನಾನಾ ಕಾ ಪರಿಕಯಾ ನಿಖಿವಿವಿಜಲೈಯಾ ಕಾ
ನಾನ್ತಿಭುತಾ ಪವತ್ತಿ ನಿಸ್ಸಾಯ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ಆಂಟೋ 105
ಸೀಠಗಾಂಧ್ಯತ್ತ ಭಾಸ

ಇದು ಆನ್ಲೈನ್ ​​ನ್ಯೂಸ್ ಚಾನಲ್ ಆಗಿದೆ
3000 ಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಇಮೇಲ್ಗಳಿಗೆ ಅಡುಗೆ:
200 WhatsApp, ಫೇಸ್ಬುಕ್ ಮತ್ತು ಟ್ವಿಟರ್.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
ಪಾಲಿ ಕ್ಯಾನನ್ ನ ಕ್ರೊನೊಲಾಜಿ ಆಫ್ 1-10 ಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ

ಬೌದ್ಧ
ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ (ಪುಟ 188) ಥಾಮಸ್ ವಿಲಿಯಮ್ ರೈಸ್ ಡೇವಿಡ್ಸ್ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಕಾಲದಿಂದ ಬೌದ್ಧ
ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಕಾಲಗಣನಾ ಕೋಷ್ಟಕವನ್ನು ಅಶೋಕನ ಸಮಯಕ್ಕೆ ಇಟ್ಟಿದ್ದಾರೆ:

1. ಬೌದ್ಧ ಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತದ ಸರಳ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಗಳು ಒಂದೇ ರೀತಿಯ ಪದಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಪುನರಾವರ್ತಿತವಾದ ಪ್ಯಾರಾಗಳು ಅಥವಾ ಶ್ಲೋಕಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕಂಡುಬರುತ್ತವೆ.

2. ಎರಡು ಅಥವಾ ಅದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದೇ ರೀತಿಯ ಪದಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಎಪಿಸೋಡ್ಗಳು ಕಂಡುಬಂದಿವೆ.

3. ಸಿಲಾಸ್, ಪಾರಾಯಣ, ಆಕ್ಟಡ್ಸ್, ಪಟಿಮೋಖಾ.

4. ದಿಘಾ, ಮಜ್ಜಿಮಾ, ಅಂಗುಟ್ಟರಾ, ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಯುತ ನಿಕಾಯಸ್.

5. ಸುಟ್ಟ ನಿಪಾಟಾ, ಥೇರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಥೆರಿ ಗಥಾಸ್, ಉಡಾನಾಗಳು, ಮತ್ತು ಖುಡ್ಡಕ ಪಥಾ.

6. ಸುಟ್ಟ ವಿಭಾಂಗ, ಮತ್ತು ಖಂದಖಾಸ್.

7. ಜಾತಕರು ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮಪದರು.

8. ನಿಡ್ಡೆಸ, ಇತಿವುಟ್ಟಕರು ಮತ್ತು ಪಟಿಶಾಂಬೀದಾ.

9. ಪೆಟಾ ಮತ್ತು ವಿಮಾ-ವತ್ಥಸ್, ಅಪಾದಣ, ಕಾರಿಯಾ-ಪಿಟಾಕ ಮತ್ತು ಬುದ್ಧವಂಶ.

10. ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು; ಕೊನೆಯದು ಕಥಾ-ವಾತು, ಮತ್ತು ಮುಂಚಿನ ಪಾಗಲ-ಪನ್ನಟ್ಟಿ.

ಒಂದರಿಂದ
ಐದು ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯಂತಹ ಮೇಲ್ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಥವಾ ಮೇಲ್ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಪಟ್ಟಿಮಾಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವುಗಳು
ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಪ್ರಾಚೀನ, ಹಳೆಯ ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಬುದ್ಧನ ನಿಖರವಾದ ಪದಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಅಧಿಕೃತ
ಪದಗಳು ಎಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.
ನಂತರದ
ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ವ್ಯಾಖ್ಯಾನಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ವಿಶುದ್ಧಿಮಾಗ್ಗಾಗಳು ಕ್ಲಾಸಿಕಲ್
ಥೆರಾವಾಡರಿಂದ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಮಹತ್ವ ಪಡೆದವು, ಆದರೆ ಆಧುನಿಕ ಥೇರವಾಡಾವು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಆರಂಭಿಕ
ಬೋಧನೆಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರೀಕರಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.
ಆಧುನಿಕ ಥೇರವಾಡಾ

ಮುಖ್ಯ ಲೇಖನ: ಆಧುನಿಕ ಥೇರವಾಡಾ

ಭಿಕ್ಕು
ಬೋಧಿ, ಧಮವದ್ದೋ ಥೇರ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರರು ತಮ್ಮ ಅನುಮಾನಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದಾರೆ, ನಂತರ
ಆಧುನಿಕ ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳನ್ನು ಆಧುನಿಕ ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರು ಬುದ್ಧವಾಕಾನಾ (ಬುದ್ಧನ
ನಿಖರ ಪದಗಳು) ಅಥವಾ ಇಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೆ.
ಆಧುನಿಕ ಥೆರಾವಾಡಿನ್ಸ್ ಬಹುಶಃ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ವಿಭಿನ್ನವಾದ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರಬಹುದು ಆದರೆ ಬಹುಶಃ ಈ ಕೆಳಗಿನವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು:

1.
ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ನಾಲ್ಕು ನಿಕಯಾಗಳು ಬುದ್ಧವಾಕಾನಾ, ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಖಡ್ಡಕ ನಿಕಾಯದ ಕೆಳಗಿನ
ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು: ಧಮ್ಮಪದ, ಉದನ, ಇತಿವತ್ತಕ, ಸುಟ್ಟ ನಿಪಾಟಾ, ತೆರಗತ, ಮತ್ತು ಥರಿಗತ;
ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯಿಂದ ಬಂದ ಪತಿಮೋಖಾ. (ಇದು ಇನ್ನೂ ಟಿಪಿಟಾಕದ ಬುಡವಾಕನ ಭಾಗವನ್ನು ಸುಮಾರು 40 ಸಂಪುಟಗಳಲ್ಲಿ 30 ರಷ್ಟಿದೆ.)

2.
ಮೇಲಿನ ಎಲ್ಲಾ, ಖುಡ್ಡಕ ನಿಕಾಯದ ಇತರ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ವಿನ್ಯಾ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು,
ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮ, ಆದರೆ ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಬುದ್ಧನ ನಂತರದ ಶಿಷ್ಯರು ಬರೆದಿರುವಂತೆ ನೋಡಿ,
ಅವರು ಅರಾಹಂತರಾಗಿದ್ದರು ಮತ್ತು ಹೀಗಾಗಿ ಅವರು ಇನ್ನೂ ಯೋಗ್ಯರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ
ಮೂಲ ಬೌದ್ಧಧರ್ಮದ ಸಂಭಾವ್ಯ ಭಾಗವಾಗಿರದಿದ್ದರೂ, ಕ್ಯಾನನ್ ನಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ.

ವಿದ್ವಾಂಸ
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಅಜಾಹ್ನ್ ಸುಜಾಟೊ ಮತ್ತು ಅಜಹನ್ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಲಿ ಅವರು ಆರಂಭಿಕ ಬೌದ್ಧ
ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳ ಅಥೆಂಟಿಸಿಟಿ ಪುಸ್ತಕವನ್ನು ಬರೆದಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರು ಮೊದಲ 4 ನಿಕಾಯಸ್
ಮತ್ತು ಕೆಲವು ಖುಡ್ಡಕ ನಿಕಾಯಾ ಬುದ್ಧವಾಕಾನಾವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಂತೆ ಮೊದಲನೆಯ
ಸ್ಥಾನದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಂದ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಇದನ್ನೂ ನೋಡಿ: ಮೂಲ ಬೌದ್ಧ ಧರ್ಮ
ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗಳು

ಬುದ್ಧನ ಪಟ್ಟಿಗಳ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ಪುಸ್ತಕ - ವಿವರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಡೇವಿಡ್ ಎನ್. ಸ್ನೈಡರ್, ಪಿಎಚ್ಡಿ, 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
ಆರಂಭಿಕ ಬೌದ್ಧ ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳ ಅಥೆಂಟಿಸಿಟಿ ಬೌದ್ಧ ಪಬ್ಲಿಕೇಶನ್ ಸೊಸೈಟಿ, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 ಇತ್ತೀಚಿನವರೆಗೆ ಪಾಲಿ ಕ್ರೋನಾಲಜಿ ಕ್ಯಾನನ್ - ಧಮ್ಮ ವಿಕಿ
ಬೌದ್ಧ
ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ (ಪುಟ 188) ಥಾಮಸ್ ವಿಲಿಯಮ್ ರೈಸ್ ಡೇವಿಡ್ಸ್ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಕಾಲದಿಂದ ಬೌದ್ಧ
ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಕಾಲಗಣನಾ ಕೋಷ್ಟಕವನ್ನು ಅಶೋಕನ ಸಮಯಕ್ಕೆ ಇಟ್ಟಿದ್ದಾರೆ:




63) Classical Maslayalam
63. ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മസാലലം

2642 Tue 5 ജൂൺ LESSON

ഇപ്പോൾ

അനലിറ്റിക്കൽ
ഇൻസൈറ്റ് നെറ്റ് - സൗജന്യ ഓൺലൈൻ ടിപിറ്റാക്കാ റിസർച്ച് ആൻഡ് പ്രാക്ടീസ്
യൂണിവേഴ്സിറ്റിയും ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട വാർത്തകളും http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ൽ
105 ക്ലാസിക്കൽ ഭാഷകളിലായി

പാട്ടിസ്
ഭീദ ജാലാ -അബ്ദ പാരിപന്തിന്തി ടിപ്പിറ്റക്കാ അൻസാനാന കാ പാരിസയ
നിഖിലവിജജായായ സി നന്തിബി പാവട്ടി നിസ്സിയ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
anto 105 Seṭṭagaganthāyata Bhāsā

ഒരു ഓൺലൈൻ ന്യൂസ് ചാനൽ ആണ്
3000-ൽ കൂടുതൽ ഇമെയിലുകൾക്ക് കാറ്ററിംഗ്
200 ആപ്പ്, ഫെയ്സ്ബുക്ക്, ട്വിറ്റർ.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
പാലി നിയമത്തിലെ സമീപകാല ക്രോണോളജിയിൽ നിന്ന് 1-10 ആരംഭിക്കുന്നു

തോമസ് വില്യം ഡേവിഡ്സ് ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥത്തിൽ (188) ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥത്തിന്റെ കാലം മുതൽ അശോകന്റെ കാലം വരെയുള്ള കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ,

1.
ബുദ്ധമത ഉപദേശത്തിന്റെ ലളിതമായ പ്രസ്താവനകൾ ഇപ്പോൾ, സമാനമായ വാക്കുകളിൽ,
എല്ലാ പുസ്തകങ്ങളിലും ഖണ്ഡികകളിലോ വാക്യങ്ങളിലോ വീണ്ടും കണ്ടെത്തി.

2. നിലവിലുള്ള ഒന്നോ രണ്ടോ അതിലധികമോ പുസ്തകങ്ങളിൽ ഒരേപോലുള്ള വാക്കുകളിൽ എപ്പിസോഡുകൾ കണ്ടെത്തി.

3. ശിലകൾ, പയ്യനാ, ഒക്റ്റേഡ്സ്, പടികോക്ക്.

4. ദിഘ, മജജീമ, അങ്കുട്ടാര, സംയുക്ത നികയാസ്.

5. സുട്ടാ നിപാല, തേര, തേരി ഗീത, ഉധനസ്, ഖുദുകപാഥ.

6. സുത്ത വൈഭംഗ, ഖണ്ഡഖാസ്.

7. ജടകാസ്, ധമ്മപദാസ്.

8. നിദേസേ, ഐതിവട്ടക്കാർ, പാട്ടിസാംബിബി.

9. പീറ്റ, വൈമാന, വാത്തൂസ്, അഡദാന, കരിയപ്പാട, ബുദ്ധമതം.

10. അദിധാമ പുസ്തകങ്ങൾ; ഇതിൽ അവസാനത്തെ കഥ-വാതുവും, ഏറ്റവും പ്രാചീനമായ പഗാല-പന്നത്തിയും ആണ്.

മുകളിൽ
നിന്ന് ഒന്നോ അതിലധികമോ നമ്പറുകളോ പട്ടികയിൽപ്പെട്ടവയോ ഒന്നു മുതൽ
അഞ്ചുവരെ വരെ പഴക്കമുള്ളതും ഏറ്റവും പഴക്കമുള്ളതും ഏറ്റവും പഴക്കമുള്ളതും
ബുദ്ധിയുള്ളതും കൃത്യമായതുമായ വാക്കുകളാണ്.
പിന്നീടുള്ള
രചനകളും വ്യാഖ്യാനങ്ങളും, വിഴുധുമാഗയും, ശാസ്ത്രീയ തെരേവഡയുടെ
ബഹുമാനാർത്ഥമാണ്. അതേസമയം, ആധുനിക തേരാവദ ബുദ്ധന്റെ ആദ്യകാല പഠനങ്ങളിൽ
ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കുന്നു.
ആധുനിക ത്രവാഡ

പ്രധാന ലേഖനം: മോഡേൺ തെറാഡ

ഭീഖു
ബോധി, ധമ്മവുദോഹോ തേറ എന്നിവരും മറ്റുള്ളവരും സംശയാലുക്കളാണ്. അടുത്ത
പണ്ഡിതന്മാരെക്കുറിച്ച് പണ്ഡിതന്മാരും, അവർ ബുലവാകാന (ബുദ്ധന്റെ കൃത്യമായ
പദങ്ങൾ) ആണെങ്കിൽപ്പോലും.
ആധുനിക ഥേർവാദിനുകൾ ഒരുപക്ഷേ, വ്യത്യസ്തമായ അഭിപ്രായങ്ങളടങ്ങിയതായിരിക്കാം, പക്ഷേ താഴെപ്പറയുന്നതിൽ ഒന്ന് എടുക്കുക:

1. ബുധവകാന, തമാപദ, ഉദ്ദന, ഇട്ടിവട്ടക്ക, സുത്ത നിപാല, തേരാഘാഥ, ൃരി രാഗഥ എന്നീ ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങൾ അടങ്ങുന്ന ആദ്യ നാലു നികകൾ. വിനയയിൽ നിന്നുള്ള പടിമൂക്ക. (അത് ഇപ്പോഴും ടിപ്പിതകയിലെ ബുദ്ധ സാക്യയിലാണത് ഏതാണ്ട് 40 വാല്യങ്ങളിൽ 30 എണ്ണത്തിൽ ഉണ്ടാക്കും).

ഖുദുക
നികായുടെ മറ്റു ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളും മറ്റ് വിനയ പുസ്തകങ്ങളും അബിധിമമ്മയും
മറ്റുപലതും ബുദ്ധന്റെ പിൽക്കാല ശിഷ്യന്മാരാലും, അബ്രഹാംസ്
ആയിരുന്നതുകൊണ്ടും ഇന്നും
കാനോനിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയിരിക്കണം, പക്ഷേ ആദ്യ ബുദ്ധമതത്തിന്റെ ഭാഗമായിരിക്കില്ല.

പണ്ഡിതനായ
സന്യാസിമാരായ അജാൻ സുജാതയും അജാൻ ബ്രഹ്മലിയും ആധികാരികതയെക്കുറിച്ച്
ആദ്യകാല ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളുടെ രചയിതാവ് രചിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഇവയിൽ ആദ്യത്തേത്
ഒൻപതാം സ്ഥാനത്തുമാണ്. ഇതിൽ ആദ്യത്തെ 4 നികിയന്മാരും, ഖുദുക്ക നികായയിൽ
ബുദ്ധസ്വകാണയും ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു.

ഇതും കാണുക: ആദ്യ ബുദ്ധമതം
റെഫറൻസുകൾ

ബുദ്ധന്റെ ലിസ്റ്റുകളുടെ സമ്പൂർണ്ണ പുസ്തകം - വിശദീകരിക്കപ്പെട്ടു. ഡേവിഡ് എൻ. സ്നിഡർ, പിഎച്ച്ഡി, 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
ആദ്യകാല ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളുടെ ആധികാരികത ബുദ്ധമത പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണ സൊസൈറ്റി, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
പാലി കാനോൺ - ധമ്മ വിക്കിയുടെ സമീപകാല ക്രോണോളജിയിൽ നിന്ന് 1-10 ആരംഭിക്കുന്നു
തോമസ് വില്യം ഡേവിഡ്സ് ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥത്തിൽ (188) ബുദ്ധമത ഗ്രന്ഥത്തിന്റെ കാലം മുതൽ അശോകന്റെ കാലം വരെയുള്ള കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ,



66) Classical Marathi
66) शास्त्रीय मराठी

2642 मंगळ 5 जून मजकूर

आता

अॅनालिटिक
इनसाइट नेट - विनामूल्य ऑनलाइन टिपिका रिसर्च अँड प्रॅक्टिस युनिव्हर्सिटी
आणि संबंधित न्यूज: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org वर 105 क्लासिक
भाषांमध्ये

पिसिम्भदा
जाल-अबपा पिपंती टिपिका अवेसाणा सीए परिकया निखिलविजलया सी एन टीभुवत
पवत्ती निसाया http://svajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 संथागत्य भासा

एक ऑनलाईन वृत्तपत्र आहे
3000 पेक्षा जास्त ईमेल्ससाठी कॅटरिंग:
200 व्हाट्सएप, फेसबुक आणि ट्विटर

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
पाली कॅननच्या कालखंडातील

आपल्या
बौद्ध भारत (थॉमस 188) मध्ये थॉमस विल्यम राईस डेव्हिड्स यांनी बुद्धकालीन
काळापासून अशोकच्या काळातील बौद्ध साहित्याचा कालानुक्रमिक तक्ता दिला
आहे:

बौद्ध सिद्धांतातील साध्या विधाने आता सर्व पुस्तकात पुनरावृत्त परिच्छेद किंवा अध्याय मध्ये समान शब्दांत आढळतात.

2. एपिसोडचे दोन किंवा त्यापेक्षा जास्त पुस्तके एकसारखे शब्द आहेत.

3. सिलास, परिण, ऑक्टेट्स, पाटीमोक

दिघा, माजजिमा, अंगुत्तारा आणि समुत निकय्या.

5. सुत्ता निपत, थेरा आणि थेरथ, आठवत, आणि खुडका पथ.

6. सुत्त विभंगा व खांडके.

7. जटाका आणि धम्मपदास.

8. निदेशे, इतिवत्तकास आणि पतिसंबभड्डा

9. पेटा आणि विमन-वत्थस, अपदाना, करिया-पितका आणि बौद्धवंसा.

10. अभिनव पुस्तके; जे शेवटचे आहे ते कथा-वाथू, आणि सर्वात आधी कदाचित पुगल-पन्नट्टी.

शीर्षस्थानी
किंवा शीर्षस्थानी सूचीबद्ध केलेले, जसे की संख्या एक ते पाच, हे सर्वात
जुने, जुने ग्रंथ समजले जातात आणि ते प्रामाणिक असण्याची आणि बुद्धांची
अचूक शब्द म्हणून ओळखली जातात.
नंतरचे
ग्रंथ आणि टीपा आणि विसचिहिमग्गा हे प्राचीन थिवाडाने अतिशय आदराने ठेवले
आहेत, तर आधुनिक थिवाडांनी बुद्धांच्या सुरुवातीच्या शिकवणींवर लक्ष
केंद्रित केले आहे.
आधुनिक थेरवडा

मुख्य लेख: आधुनिक थेरवाद

नंतरच्या
ग्रंथांविषयी आधुनिक विद्वान म्हणून भिक्खु बोधी, धम्मुंदु थ्रा आणि
इतरांच्या मनात शंका आहेत आणि जर ते बुद्धवचन आहेत (बुद्धांच्या अचूक शब्द)
किंवा नाहीत तर
आधुनिक Theravadins कदाचित मते एक किंचित विविध धारण पण कदाचित खालील पैकी एक घेऊन:

1.
त्यांच्यातील पहिले चार नाकाय हे बुद्धवचन आहेत, तसेच खालील पुस्तके
खादुका निकियामा: धम्मपद, उदाना, इतिवत्तक, सुत्ता निपाता, थरगाथा, आणि
थेरिथा आहेत.
आणि विन्याकडून पाथीमक्षी. (तरीही 40 खंडांतील 30 पैकी तिप्पटकाचा बौद्धकानाचा भाग तयार होईल.)

2.
वरील पैकी सर्व, तसेच खुद्दका निकयच्या इतर पुस्तके, तसेच इतर विनय
पुस्तके, अभिधमम्, परंतु त्यांना बुद्धांच्या नंतरच्या अनुयायांनी लिहिलेली
पहात आहेत, जे अरहाण ठरले आहेत आणि अशा प्रकारे ते अद्याप योग्य आहेत
मूळ बौद्ध धर्माचा भाग नसला तरी तो कॅननमध्ये समाविष्ट झाला.

विद्वान
महासत्ता अजहन सुजातो आणि अजहन ब्रह्माली यांनी ‘द प्रामाणिकिटी ऑफ अर्ली
बौव्हिस्ट ग्रंथ्स’ हे पुस्तक लिहिलं आहे आणि ते पहिल्या क्रमांकावर
असलेल्या 4 निकेय आणि काही खुद्दाक निकशा यांच्याकडे बौद्धकन म्हणून
समाविष्ट आहेत.

हे देखील पहा: मूळ बौद्ध धर्म
संदर्भ

बुद्धांच्या सूचीची पूर्ण पुस्तक - स्पष्ट डेव्हिड एन. स्नायडर, पीएच.डी., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
बौद्ध प्रकाशन सोसायटी, 2014 मधील प्रारंभिक बौद्ध ग्रंथांचे सत्यत्व.
https://suttacentral.net/
धम्मॉमी. com
1 9 1-10 च्या सुरुवातीस अलीकडील कालवाली पाली कॅनन - धम्म विकी
आपल्या
बौद्ध भारत (थॉमस 188) मध्ये थॉमस विल्यम राईस डेव्हिड्स यांनी बुद्धकालीन
काळापासून अशोकच्या काळातील बौद्ध साहित्याचा कालानुक्रमिक तक्ता दिला
आहे:



75) Classical Punjabi
75) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ

2642 ਮੰਗਲਵਾਰ 5 ਜੂਨ ਪਾਠ

ਹੁਣ

ਐਨਾਲਟਿਕ
ਇਨਸਾਈਟ ਨੈਟ - ਮੁਫਤ ਆਨਲਾਈਨ ਟਾਇਕੂਕਾ ਰੀਸਰਚ ਐਂਡ ਪ੍ਰੈਕਟਿਸ ਯੂਨੀਵਰਸਿਟੀ ਅਤੇ
ਸਬੰਧਤ ਨਿਊਜ਼ ਦੁਆਰਾ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ਦੇ 105 ਸਰੀਰਕ ਭਾਸ਼ਾਵਾਂ ਵਿਚ

ਪਸੀਸੰਭਿਧਾ
ਜਲਾ-ਅੱਲ੍ਹਾ ਪਰਪੰਤੀ ਟਿਪਕਾਕ ਅਨਵੇਸਨਾ ਸੀਏ ਪਾਰਿਕਿਆ ਨਿਖਿਲਵਜਜਾਲਿਆ ਕੇ ਨਿਤਿਭੂਤਾ
ਪਾਵਤੀ ਨਿਵਾਸਿਆ http://svajan.ambedkar.org ਐਂਟੀ 105 ਸ਼ੁੱਭਾਂਤਿਆਤ ਭਾਸਾ

ਇੱਕ ਆਨਲਾਈਨ ਨਿਊਜ਼ ਚੈਨਲ ਹੈ
3000 ਤੋਂ ਵੱਧ ਈ-ਮੇਲ ਲਈ ਕੇਟਰਿੰਗ:
200 ਵ੍ਹਾਈਟਸ, ਫੇਸਬੁੱਕ ਅਤੇ ਟਵਿੱਟਰ.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_hronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_hronology_of…
ਪਾਲੀ ਕੈਨਨ ਦਾ ਇਤਿਹਾਸ

ਆਪਣੇ
ਬੋਧੀ ਭਾਰਤ (ਥ. 188) ਵਿੱਚ ਥਾਮਸ ਵਿਲੀਅਮ ਰਾਇਸ ਡੇਵਿਡ ਨੇ ਬੁੱਧ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੋਂ ਬੁੱਧ
ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੱਕ ਅਸ਼ੋਕਾ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਬੌਧ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਦੇ ਸਾਰਕ ਸਾਰਣੀ ਨੂੰ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਹੈ.

1. ਬੋਧੀ ਸਿਧਾਂਤ ਦੇ ਸਧਾਰਨ ਸਟੇਟਮੈਂਟਾਂ ਹੁਣ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ, ਇਕੋ ਜਿਹੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ, ਪੈਰਾਗ੍ਰਾਫ ਜਾਂ ਬਾਣੀ ਦੀਆਂ ਸਾਰੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਆਉਂਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ.

2. ਐਪੀਸੋਡ ਮਿਲਦੇ-ਜੁਲਦੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ, ਦੋ ਜਾਂ ਦੋ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਧ ਮੌਜੂਦਾ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪਾਏ ਗਏ ਹਨ.

3. ਸੀਲਾਸ, ਪਰਾਯਣ, ਅੱਠਵੇਂ, ਪਤੀਮੋਖਸ਼ਾ.

4. ਦਿਘਾ, ਮਜਜਿਮਾ, ਅੰਗਤੂਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਸਮਯੁਕਤ ਨਿਕੇਯਸ.

5. ਸੁਤ ਨਿਪਾਤਾ, ​​ਥਾਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਥ੍ਰੀ ਗਠਿਆਂ, ਉਦਨਾਸ ਅਤੇ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਪਠਾਣ.

6. ਸੁਤਭਾ ਵਿਭਾੰਗ ਅਤੇ ਖੰਧਕਾ.

7. ਜਤਕਾਵਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਧਮਾਪਾਪਦਸ.

8. ਨਿਧੀਸਾ, ਇਟਵੰਤਕਾ ਅਤੇ ਪਤੀਸੰਭਾਬਿਦਾ

9. ਪਟਕਾ ਅਤੇ ਵਮਨਾ-ਵਤਥੁਸ, ਅਪਦਾਨਾ, ਕਰਿਆ-ਪਿਤਾਕ ਅਤੇ ਬੁੱਧਵੰਸਾ.

10. ਅਭਿਧਾਮ ਪੁਸਤਕਾਂ; ਚੋਂ ਆਖਰੀ, ਕਥਾ-ਵਠੂ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਪੁਗਲਾ-ਪੰਨਾਤੀ.

ਸਿਖਰ
ਤੇ ਜਾਂ ਸਿਖਰ ਦੇ ਉੱਪਰ ਸੂਚੀਬੱਧ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ ਨੰਬਰ ਇੱਕ ਤੋਂ ਪੰਜ, ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਰਾਣੇ,
ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਰਾਣੇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਮਝੇ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਿਕ ​​ਅਤੇ ਸਹੀ ਸ਼ਬਦ
ਹੋਣ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾ ਸੰਭਾਵਨਾ ਹੈ.
ਬਾਅਦ
ਦੇ ਪਾਠ ਅਤੇ ਟਿੱਪਣੀਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਵਿਸੂਧਿਮਗਗਾ, ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਥਰੇਵੜਾ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਬਹੁਤ ਉੱਚੇ
ਸਨਮਾਨ ਵਿੱਚ ਰੱਖੇ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ, ਜਦੋਂ ਕਿ ਮਾਡਰਨ ਥਰੇਡਾ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੀ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਰਾਣੀ
ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ‘ਤੇ ਧਿਆਨ ਕੇਂਦਰਿਤ ਕਰਦਾ ਹੈ.
ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਥਰੇਵਡਾ

ਮੁੱਖ ਲੇਖ: ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਥਰੇਵਡਾ

ਭਿਖੁਕ
ਬੋਧੀ, ਧਮਮੁਵਧੂ ਥਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਹੋਰਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਸ਼ੱਕ ਹਨ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ ਬਾਅਦ ਦੇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥਾਂ ਦੇ
ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਵਿਦਵਾਨਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਜੇਕਰ ਉਹ ਬੁਧਵਕਾਸ (ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੇ ਸਹੀ ਸ਼ਬਦ) ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਹਨ
ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਥਰੇਵਡਿਨਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਵੱਖੋ-ਵੱਖਰੇ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਹਨ ਪਰ ਸੰਭਵ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਹੇਠ ਲਿਖਿਆਂ ਵਿੱਚੋਂ ਇੱਕ ਲਿਆਓ:

1.
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰਾਂ ਪਹਿਲੇ ਚਾਰ ਨਕਾਯੇ ਬੁੱਧਵਕਾਸ ਹਨ, ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਨਿਕਾਏ ਤੋਂ
ਹੇਠ ਲਿਖੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ: ਧਮਾਪਾਪਾ, ਉਦਾਨਾ, ਇਟਵੰਤਕਾ, ਸੁਤਾ ਨਿਪਾਤਾ, ​​ਥਰਗਾਥਾ, ਅਤੇ
ਤ੍ਰਿਪਤਾ;
ਅਤੇ ਵਿਨਾਇ ਤੋਂ ਪੈਟਮੋਖਚਾ. (ਇਹ ਹਾਲੇ ਵੀ 40 ਵਿਥੋਅ ਦੇ ਲਗਭਗ 30 ਵਿੱਚੋਂ ਟਿੱਪਟਕਾ ਦਾ ਬੁੱਧਵਕਨਾ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਬਣਾਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ.)

2.
ਉਪਰੋਕਤ ਸਾਰੇ, ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਨਿਕਾਏ ਦੀਆਂ ਹੋਰ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ, ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਹੋਰ ਵਿਨਾਇਕ
ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ, ਅਭਿਧਾਮ, ਪਰੰਤੂ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੇ ਬਾਅਦ ਦੇ ਚੇਲਿਆਂ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਗਿਆ
ਹੈ, ਜੋ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਅਰਹਿੰਦ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਹੋਣੇ ਚਾਹੀਦੇ ਹਨ
ਕੈਨਨ ਵਿਚ ਸ਼ਾਮਲ ਸਨ, ਹਾਲਾਂਕਿ ਮੂਲ ਬੋਧੀ ਧਰਮ ਦਾ ਸੰਭਾਵਨਾ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ.

ਵਿਦਵਾਨ
ਭਿਕਸ਼ੂ ਅਜਹਾਨ ਸੁਜਾਤੋ ਅਤੇ ਅਜਹਾਨ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾਲੀ ਨੇ ਲਿਖਤੀ ਕਿਤਾਬ ‘ਦ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਟੀਸੀਟੀ
ਆਫ ਅਰਲੀ ਬੌਡਸਟ ਟੈਕਸਟਸ’ ਲਿਖੀ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਹ ਉਪਰੋਕਤ ਨੰਬਰ ਇਕ ਨਾਲ ਸਹਿਮਤ ਹਨ,
ਜਿਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪਹਿਲੇ 4 ਨਿੱਕੇਯਿਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਕੁਝ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਨਿੱਕੇਆ ਨੂੰ ਬੁਧਵਕਾਂ ਵਜੋਂ
ਸ਼ਾਮਲ ਕੀਤਾ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ.

ਇਹ ਵੀ ਵੇਖੋ: ਮੂਲ ਬੌਧ ਧਰਮ
ਹਵਾਲੇ

ਬੁੱਧਾ ਦੀਆਂ ਸੂਚੀਆਂ ਦੀ ਪੂਰਨ ਪੁਸਤਕ - ਵਿਖਿਆਨ ਕੀਤਾ ਗਿਆ ਡੇਵਿਡ ਐਨ. ਸਨੀਡਰ, ਪੀਐਚ.ਡੀ., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
ਬੌਧੀ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ਨ ਸੁਸਾਇਟੀ, 2014 ਦੇ ਅਰਲੀ ਬੋਧੀ ਟੈਕਸਟਸ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਿਕਤਾ
https://suttacentral.net/
Dhhammawiki.com
1-10 ਤੋਂ ਲੈ ਕੇ ਹੁਣ ਤਕ ਹਾਲ ਹੀ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਪਾਲੀ ਕੈਨਨ ਦਾ ਇਤਿਹਾਸ - ਧਾਮ ਵਿਕੀ
ਆਪਣੇ
ਬੋਧੀ ਭਾਰਤ (ਥ. 188) ਵਿੱਚ ਥਾਮਸ ਵਿਲੀਅਮ ਰਾਇਸ ਡੇਵਿਡ ਨੇ ਬੁੱਧ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੋਂ ਬੁੱਧ
ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੱਕ ਅਸ਼ੋਕਾ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਬੌਧ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਦੇ ਸਾਰਕ ਸਾਰਣੀ ਨੂੰ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਹੈ.


84) Classical Sindhi
2642 ايمڙي 5 جون عاشق

هاڻي

تجزياتي
انوائٽ نيٽ - مفت آن لائن Tipiṭaka تحقيق ۽ پروسيس يونيورسٽي يونيورسٽي
سان لاڳاپيل 105 ڪلاس زبانن ۾ www.sarvajan.ambedkar.org ذريعي

Paṭisambhidā
Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya
ca ñātibhūta Nasyya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 seṭṭhaganthāyatta
Bhāsa

هڪ آن لائن نيوز چينل آهي
3000 کان وڌيڪ اي ميل تائين کاڌا:
200 WhatsApp، Facebook ۽ Twitter.

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1-10 پوالي ڪينون جي تازي ڪرسمس کي شروعات

سندس
هندوستان ۾ تومس وليم ريو ڊيوڊس (ص 188) ۾ مهاتما ٻڌ جي زماني کان بھوت
ادب جي هڪ تاريخي جدول کي اشارو ڪيو آهي جنهن ۾ هن ريت آهي:

1. بودھ جي نظريي جي سادي بيانن کي هاڻي، ھڪڙي لفظن ۾، سڀني ڪتابن ۾ ڏنل پيراگراف يا آيتون ۾.

2. ايجيسڊس مليو، ساڳي لفظن ۾، موجوده ڪتابن مان ٻه يا وڌيڪ.

3. سيلاب، پروائن، اڪيڊس، پتيموڪوخ.

4. ديگا، مججما، انگارا، ۽ ساميتا نيکايس.

5. سوت نپتا، ترا ۽ ٿري گٿس، اچان، ۽ خدوه پاٿا.

6. سوٽي Vibhanga ۽ خانڌا.

7. جتڪن ۽ دمامادا.

8- نيديسا، اسيوٽٽسڪ ۽ پتيسبباها.

9- پيتا ۽ وميانا-وٿسس، اپادانا، ڪاريا-پتاڪ، ۽ ٻڌواسا.

10. جنهن ۾ ابهامما ڪتابن؛ جنهن جي آخري ڪاٺ Katha-Vatthu آهي ۽ گهڻو ڪري شايد Puggala-Pannatti آهي.

جيڪي
مٿين مٿين يا مٿين ڪتابن ۾ درج ڪيا ويا آهن، جهڙوڪ انگن اکرن کي هر هڪ
قديم، قديم ترين لکت سمجهيو ويندو آهي ۽ بلڪل مستند هوندي آهي ۽ مهاتما جي
درست لفظن کي.
بعد
۾ لکت ۽ تبصرن ۽ ويهودمگگا، ڪاليج ويراواڊاا جي وڏي اعزاز ۾ تمام وڏا معزز
آهن، حالانڪه، جديد ٽراوا، ٻڌ ڌرم جي ابتدائي تعليمات تي ٻڌل آهي.
جديد ٽراواڊا

مکيه مضمون: جديد ٽراواڊا

Bhikkhu
Bodhi، Dhammavuddho Thera ۽ ٻيا سندن شڪايت ڪن ٿا، ڇاڪاڻ ته جديد عالمن
کان پوء انهن لکڻين بابت ڄاڻن ٿا ۽ جيڪڏهن اهي ٻڌاوه (اصلي عهدنامي جو
مهاتما) آهن يا نه.
جديد ٽراوزين شايد نظرئي سان معمولي قسم جو احوال رکون ٿا پر شايد شايد انهن مان هڪ هيٺيان وٺو:

1.
سندن مڪمل طور تي نيٺ چار ناهنا ٻڌاوا آهن، تنهن کان علاوه خدوڪ نيڪا جي
ڏنل ڪتابن: Dhammapada، Udana، Itivuttaka، سوٽا نيپتا، تھراگتا ۽ تھريگتا؛
۽ پتياڪڪا ونيا کان. (انهي ڳالهه تي اڃا تائين ٽپتيڪا جي ٻڌاوه وارو حصو تقريبا 30 جلدن مان 30 کان وڌيڪ آهن.)

2.
مٿيان سڀني کان سواء خدوڪا Nikaya جي ٻين ڪتابن سان گڏ وڌيڪ وننايا ڪتابن ۽
اوڀهماما آهن، پر ڏسندڙ اهي مهاتما ٻڌ شاگردن جي لکيل هئا.
کینن میں شامل، اگرچہ ممکن نہیں کہ اصل بودھ کا حصہ.

دانشور
فقير اجنهن سوجوٽ ۽ اجنن برهمڻالي جي شروعاتي بودڌي جي لکت جي ڪتاب لکيا
آهن ۽ اهي مٿي ڏنل هڪ نمبر سان گڏ آهن، پهرين 4 نايڪا ۽ ڪجهه ڪشادڪ ناڪيه
ٻڌ ٻڌ ڌرما آهن.

پڻ ڏسندا: اصلي ٻڌ
حوالا

مهاتما بوه جي فهرستن جو پورو ڪتاب - وضاحت ڪيل. David N. Snyder، پي. ڊي.، 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
Early Buddhist Texts of Authenticity، Buddhist Publication Society، 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 پوالي ڪنون جي تازي ڪرسمس کي شروعاتي - ڈھम्मा ويکي
سندس
هندوستان ۾ تومس وليم ريو ڊيوڊس (ص 188) ۾ مهاتما ٻڌ جي زماني کان بھوت
ادب جي هڪ تاريخي جدول کي اشارو ڪيو آهي جنهن ۾ هن ريت آهي:



94) Classical Tamil
94) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

2642 கூடும் 5 ஜூன் லெசன்

இப்போது

பகுப்பாய்வு
இன்சைட் நிகர - இலவச ஆன்லைன் Tipiṭaka ஆராய்ச்சி மற்றும் பயிற்சி
பல்கலைக்கழகம் மற்றும் தொடர்புடைய செய்திகள் மூலம்
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 கிளாசிக் மொழிகளில்

பாத்திசம்ப்டா
ஜலா-அப்தா பரபந்தி டிபிடிதானா அன்சாணா கே பாரிகா நிக்கிலவிஜஜயாயா கான்
னிதிபூவா பவட்டி நிஸ்யா http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105
Seṭṭhaganthāyata Bhāāā

ஒரு ஆன்லைன் செய்திகள் சேனல்
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பலி கேனான் சமீபத்திய காலவரிசை ஆரம்பத்தில் 1-10

பௌத்த
இந்தியாவில் உள்ள தாமஸ் வில்லியம் ரைஸ் டேவிட்ஸ் (பக் .188), புத்தரின்
காலத்திலிருந்து அஷோகாவின் காலம் வரையான காலப்பகுதியிலிருந்து பௌத்த
இலக்கியத்தின் காலவரிசை அட்டவணையை வழங்கியுள்ளார்:

1.
பௌத்தக் கோட்பாட்டின் எளிமையான அறிக்கைகள் இப்போது, ​​ஒரே வார்த்தைகளில்,
எல்லா புத்தகங்களிலும் மீண்டும் பத்திகள் அல்லது வசனங்களில்
காணப்படுகின்றன.

2. இரண்டு அல்லது அதற்கு மேற்பட்ட புத்தகங்களில் ஒரே மாதிரியான வசனங்களில் எபிசோட்கள் காணப்பட்டன.

3. சீலாஸ், பரணனா, ஒக்டேட்ஸ், பட்டிமோகா.

தி டிகா, மஜ்ஜிஹிமா, அங்கட்டுரா மற்றும் சம்யுத்த்த நிககாஸ்.

5. சுத்தா நிபதா, தேரா மற்றும் தெரி காத்ஸ், உதானஸ், மற்றும் குடக பாத்தா.

6. சுட்டா விபாங்கா மற்றும் கந்த்காஸ்.

7. ஜாதகாஸ் மற்றும் தம்பமாக்கள்.

8. நிதேசா, இடிவட்டுக்கஸ் மற்றும் பட்டிசம்பீதி.

9. பீடா மற்றும் வைமானிய வாத்துக்கள், அபதான, காரியா-பிடகா, மற்றும் புத்தமதம்.

10. அபிதாமா புத்தகங்கள்; இது கடைசியாக கத்தா-வதம், மற்றும் ஆரம்பத்தில் ஒருவேளை Puggala-Pannatti.

முதன்மையானது
அல்லது மேல்மட்டத்தில் பட்டியலிடப்பட்டவர்கள், ஒன்று முதல் ஐந்து வரையிலான
எண்கள், முந்தைய, பழமையான நூல்களாகக் கருதப்படுகின்றன, அவை பெரும்பாலும்
புத்தாயிரத்தின் உண்மையான வார்த்தைகளாகவும், சரியான வார்த்தைகளாகவும்
கருதப்படுகின்றன.
பின்னர்
வந்த நூல்களும், வர்ஷூதிகாவும், செவ்வியல் தேரராதாவின் மிக உயர்ந்த
மதிப்பீட்டில் நடத்தப்படுகின்றன. நவீன தேரராடா புத்தரின் முந்தைய
போதனைகளில் கவனம் செலுத்துகிறது.
நவீன தெரவாடா

முதன்மைக் கட்டுரை: Modern Theravada

பிக்ஹு
போதி, தாம்முவ்தோஹோ த்ரா மற்றும் பிறர் தங்கள் பின்னூட்டங்களைப் பற்றி
நவீன அறிஞர்களையும், அவர்கள் புத்தவங்கனா (புத்தரின் சரியான வார்த்தைகளா)
அல்லது இல்லாவிட்டாலும், சந்தேகம் கொண்டுள்ளனர்.
நவீன தேராவிடின்கள் அநேகமாக சற்று வித்தியாசமான கருத்துக்களை வைத்திருக்கலாம், ஆனால் பின்வருவனவற்றில் ஒன்றை எடுத்துக் கொள்ளலாம்:

1.புத்தவக்கன, மற்றும் துதாமணி, உதான, இடிவட்டுகா, சுத்தா நிபதா, தெரகதா மற்றும் திரிகாதா ஆகியவற்றின் முதல் நான்கு நிக்காக்கள்; மற்றும் வினாயாவிலிருந்து பட்டிமோகா. (அது இன்னமும் திபீடகாவின் புத்தவக்கனா பகுதியை 40 தொகுதிகளில் 30 க்குள் அமைக்கும்.)

2.
மேற்கூறப்பட்ட எல்லாவற்றையும், குடக நிக்காவின் மற்ற புத்தகங்களையும்,
மற்ற வினாயக் புத்தகங்கள், மற்றும் அபிதிஹாமா ஆகியவற்றையும் சேர்த்து,
புத்தர் பிற்பாடு சீடர்களால் எழுதப்பட்ட புத்தகங்கள், அவை அராஹந்த்கள்
என்றும்,
கேனனில் சேர்க்கப்பட்டிருக்கலாம், இருப்பினும் அசல் புத்தமதத்தின் பகுதியாக இல்லை.

அறிஞர்
துறவிகள் அஜஹன் சுஜாடோ மற்றும் அஜஹன் பிரம்மலி புத்தகம் தி
அன்டென்டிடிட்டி ஆஃப் எர்லி பௌஸ்டிஸ்ட் டெக்ஸ்ட்ஸை எழுதியுள்ளனர், மேலும்
முதல் நான்கு நிகேயாக்கள் மற்றும் குடகக நிகாயா ஆகியோருடன் புத்தவங்கனாவாக
இருப்பதைக் குறிக்கின்றன.

மேலும் காண்க: அசல் புத்தமதம்
குறிப்புகள்

புத்தரின் பட்டியலின் முழுமையான புத்தகம் - விவரிக்கப்பட்டது. டேவிட் என். ஸ்னேடர், பிஎச்டி., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
பௌத்த வெளியீட்டு சங்கத்தின் ஆரம்பகால புத்தகங்கள், 2014 ஆம் ஆண்டின் நம்பகத்தன்மை.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
பலி கேனனின் அண்மைய காலவரிசை முதல் ஆரம்பம் - தர்ம விக்கி
பௌத்த
இந்தியாவில் உள்ள தாமஸ் வில்லியம் ரைஸ் டேவிட்ஸ் (பக் .188), புத்தரின்
காலத்திலிருந்து அஷோகாவின் காலம் வரையான காலப்பகுதியிலிருந்து பௌத்த
இலக்கியத்தின் காலவரிசை அட்டவணையை வழங்கியுள்ளார்:


95) Classical Telugu
95) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు





2642 Tue 5 Jun లెసన్

ఇప్పుడు

విశ్లేషణాత్మక
ఇన్సైట్ నెట్ - ఉచిత ఆన్లైన్ Tipiṭaka రీసెర్చ్ అండ్ ప్రాక్టీస్
విశ్వవిద్యాలయం మరియు సంబంధిత న్యూస్ ద్వారా http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

పాతిసంభిదా
జాలా-అబ్ద్దా పరిపంటి టిపిటిచా అన్నన్సనా కా పారెయాయా నిఖిల్విజజలయ కా
నాట్టీభౌ పవట్టి నిసాయ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105
Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāāā

ఆన్లైన్ న్యూస్ ఛానల్
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1-10 ప్రారంభంలో పాలి కానన్ యొక్క క్రోనాలజీ

బౌద్ధ
భారతదేశంలో థామస్ విలియమ్ రైస్ డేవిడ్స్ (బుక్ 188) బుద్ధుడి కాలం నుంచి
బౌద్ధ సాహిత్యపు కాలక్రమానుసారం అశోకా కాలం వరకు ఇచ్చాడు:

1. బౌద్ధ సిద్ధాంతం యొక్క సాధారణ వాంగ్మూలాలు ఇప్పుడు ఒకే రకంగా, పేరాల్లో లేదా పద్యాలలో అన్ని పుస్తకాలలో పునరావృతమయ్యాయి.

2. సారూప్య పదాలలో, రెండు లేదా అంతకంటే ఎక్కువ పుస్తకాలలో ఎపిసోడ్లు కనిపించాయి.

3. సిలాస్, పారాయన, ఆక్టేడ్స్, పటిమోఖ.

4. దిఘ, మజ్జిహి, అంగుతార, మరియు సమయుత నికాయలు.

5. సుత్తా నిపట, తెరా మరియు తీరి గతస్, ఉడానాలు, మరియు ఖుదాక మార్గ.

6. సుత్త విభంగా, మరియు ఖంధాలు.

7. ది జటకాలు మరియు ధమపదాస్.

8. నిదేస, ఇట్టివట్టకాలు మరియు పటిసమ్భిదా.

9. పితా మరియు వైమానా-వాతుస్, అపాదనా, కారియా-పిటాకా, మరియు బుద్ధవాసం.

10. అబ్ధిమమా పుస్తకాలు; వీటిలో చివరి కధ-వత్తు, మరియు మొట్టమొదటిది బహుశా పూగాల-పన్నట్టి.

ఎగువ
లేదా ఎగువన ఉన్న జాబితాలో ఉన్నవాటిలో, ఒకటి నుండి ఐదు వరకు, పురాతన,
ప్రాచీన గ్రంథాలు మరియు బుద్ధుడి యొక్క ఖచ్చితమైన పదాలు ఎక్కువగా ఉండేవి.
తరువాతి
గ్రంథాలు మరియు వ్యాఖ్యానాలు మరియు విజుడిమగ్గ, క్లాసికల్ తెరవడ ద్వారా
చాలా గౌరవప్రదంగా ఉన్నాయి, అయితే, ఆధునిక తెరవాడ బుద్ధుడి యొక్క ప్రారంభ
బోధనలపై దృష్టి పెడుతుంది.
ఆధునిక తెరవాడ

ప్రధాన వ్యాసం: Modern Theravada

భిక్ఖు
బోధి, ధమవవుడ్హో థెరా మరియు ఇతరులు తమ సందేహాలను కలిగి ఉంటారు, తరువాతి
గ్రంథాల గురించి ఆధునిక విద్వాంసులు మరియు వారు బౌద్ధవాకనా (బుద్ధుని యొక్క
ఖచ్చితమైన పదాలు) గా ఉంటే.
ఆధునిక థెరావాడీన్లు కొంచెం వైవిధ్యభరితమైన అభిప్రాయాలను కలిగి ఉండవచ్చు, కానీ బహుశా ఈ క్రింది వాటిలో ఒకటి తీసుకోవాలి:

1.
మొదటి నాలుగు నికాయలు బుద్దువాకనా, ఖుద్దా నికాయ నుండి క్రింది పుస్తకాలు:
దుమ్మపద, ఉడాన, ఇట్టివట్టుకా, సుత్త నిపాత, థెరగత, మరియు తెరితథ;
వినాయకు చెందిన పాటిమోక్హా. (అది ఇప్పటికీ టిపిటకాలోని బుద్దువాకానా భాగాన్ని సుమారు 40 వాల్యూమ్లలో 30 గా చేస్తుంది.)

ఖుడకా
నికాయ యొక్క ఇతర పుస్తకాలు, ఇంకా ఇతర వినాయ గ్రంథాలు, అదనంగా అబ్ధిమమ్మ,
కానీ వాటిని బుద్ధుని తరువాత వచ్చిన శిష్యులచే వ్రాయబడినట్లుగా చూడవచ్చు,
వీరు అరాహంటులుగా ఉంటారు, అందుచేత ఇప్పటికీ అర్హులు
కానన్లో చేర్చారు, అయితే ఇది మొట్టమొదటి బౌద్ధమతంలో భాగం కాదు.

పండిత
సన్యాసులు అజహ్న్ సుజాటో మరియు అజాన్ బ్రహ్మాలి ఈ పుస్తకాన్ని ది
అథెంటిటీటీ ఆఫ్ ఎర్లీ బుద్దిస్ట్ టెక్స్ట్స్ ను వ్రాశారు మరియు పైన
పేర్కొన్న మొదటి నంబరుతో ఒప్పందం కుదుర్చుకున్నారు, ఇందులో మొదటి 4 నికాయలు
మరియు బుద్ధవాకానాగా ఖుదాక నికాయలో కొన్ని ఉన్నాయి.

ఇవి కూడా చూడండి: మొదటి బౌద్ధమతం
ప్రస్తావనలు

బుద్ధుల జాబితాల కంప్లీట్ బుక్ - ఎక్స్ప్లెయిన్డ్. డేవిడ్ ఎన్. స్నైడర్, Ph.D., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
ది అథెంటిటిటీ ఆఫ్ ఎర్లీ బౌద్ధ పాఠ్యాలు బౌద్ధ ప్రచురణ సంఘం, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
పాలి కానన్ యొక్క ఇటీవల క్రోనాలజీకి సంబంధించిన 1-10 ప్రారంభంలో - ధర్మ వికీ
బౌద్ధ
భారతదేశంలో థామస్ విలియమ్ రైస్ డేవిడ్స్ (బుక్ 188) బుద్ధుడి కాలం నుంచి
బౌద్ధ సాహిత్యపు కాలక్రమానుసారం అశోకా కాలం వరకు ఇచ్చాడు:


99) Classical Urdu

95) کلاسیکی تیلگو

2642 میاں 5 جون شعر

ابھی

تجزیاتی
انٹرویو نیٹ - مفت آن لائن ٹپتاٹاکا ریسرچ اینڈ پریکٹس یونیورسٹی اور
متعلقہ خبریں 105 کلاسیکی زبانوں میں http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org کے
ذریعے

پاٹیسبھیجا
جلا-آبھا پرپتی ٹپتاٹکا انیسانہ پیرایکیا نخیلویجلایا سی ںٹھٹاھ پاٹیٹی
نسیہ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 سے تعلق رکھتے ہیں.

آن لائن نیوز چینل ہے
3000 ای میل سے زیادہ کیٹرنگ:
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1-10 قبل پائل کینن کے حالیہ کنواندو

اس
کے بودھ بھارت (ص 188) میں تھامس ولیم ریو ڈیوڈ نے بودھ کے وقت سے بدھ کے
وقت سے بھوک ادب کی ایک تاریخی میز کو اشوک کے وقت دیا ہے جس میں مندرجہ
ذیل ھے:

1. بودی نظریے کے سادہ بیانات اب، ایک ہی الفاظ میں، تمام کتابوں میں دوبارہ پیراگراف یا آیات میں پایا.

2. ایسوسی ایڈ پایا، اسی الفاظ میں، موجودہ کتابوں میں سے دو یا اس سے زیادہ.

3. سلاس، پرایانا، اکتوبر، پٹموکھا.

4. دوگا، مججما، انگٹا، اور سامیوتا نیکی.

5. ستت نپتا، تھرا اور تیری گٹھاس، یودن، اور کھڈکا پٹا.

6. سوتا ویباگا اور خندھک.

7. جیٹاکس اور ڈھامپاڈاس.

8. ندیسا، اسیوتاکااس اور پتیسببھدا.

9. پیٹا اور ویمانہ - وٹوس، اپادانا، کاریا-پٹاکا، اور بدھاما.

10. الہیہما کتابیں؛ جس میں سے آخری کاٹا وٹھو، اور ابتدائی طور پر پیگلالا-پیننٹی ہے.

سب
سے اوپر یا سب سے اوپر کے اوپر درج کیے جانے والے افراد، جیسے کہ ایک سے
زائد نمبریں، سب سے قدیم ترین، قدیم ترین نصوص اور مستند اور بدھ کے عین
مطابق الفاظ کا تصور سب سے زیادہ سمجھا جاتا ہے.
بعد
میں نصوص اور تبصرا اور Visuddhimagga، کلاسیکی Theravada کی طرف سے بہت
زیادہ احترام میں منعقد کیا جاتا ہے، جبکہ، جدید Theravada بوہھا کے
ابتدائی تعلیمات پر توجہ مرکوز کرتا ہے.
جدید تھراواڈا

اہم مضمون: جدید تھراواڈا

بکیخو
بودھی، ڈھلمھودھو تھرا اور دوسروں کو ان کے شبہات ہیں، جیسا کہ بعد میں
نصوص کے بارے میں جدید علماء کرتے ہیں اور اگر وہ بودھاساانا (بدھ کے عین
مطابق الفاظ) ہیں یا نہیں.
جدید تھراڈینز شاید شاید ایک معمولی قسم کی رائے رکھتے رہیں لیکن شاید درج ذیل میں سے ایک لے جائیں.

1.
ان کی پوری حالت میں نیکایہ برہاوانا ہیں، علاوہ کھڈکا نکاہ کی مندرجہ ذیل
کتابیں: دھلمپا، اڈانا، ایوتکٹکا، سوٹ نپتا، تھراگاتھ، اور تھریگتا؛
اور ونیا سے پٹیموکھا. (یہ اب بھی ٹپٹکا کے تقریبا 500 سے زائد میں سے 30 سے ​​زیادہ بودھاوکا حصہ بنائے گا.)

2.
مندرجہ بالا سب سے اوپر، کھڈکا نکایا کی دوسری کتابیں، علاوہہ ونیا
کتابیں، علاوہہ ابھارہما، لیکن انھیں دیکھیں جیسے وہ بدھ کے بعد کے شاگردوں
کے ذریعہ لکھے گئے ہیں، جو اہل علم ہوسکتے ہیں اور اس طرح اب بھی قابل
کینن میں شامل، اگرچہ اصل بدھ مت کا حصہ نہیں.

اس
عالم عالم نے اجہن سوجوٹا اور اجھان برہمالی نے ابتدائی بدھ مت کی کتاب کی
مستندیت لکھی ہے اور وہ مندرجہ بالا نمبر ایک کے ساتھ معاہدے میں ہیں، جن
میں سے پہلے 4 نیکی اور کچھ کھڈکا نکایا بودھاسا کے طور پر شامل ہیں.

یہ بھی دیکھیں: اصل بدھ مت
حوالہ جات

بدھ کی فہرستوں کی مکمل کتاب - وضاحت کی. ڈیوڈ این. سنیڈر، پی ایچ ڈی، 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
ابتدائی بدھ مت کی بھوک اشاعت سوسائٹی، 2014 کی مستندیت.
https://suttacentral.net/
dammammiki.com
1-10 قبل ازاں پاللی کینن - دھرم ویکیپیڈیا کی تاریخی
اس
کے بودھ بھارت (ص 188) میں تھامس ولیم ریو ڈیوڈ نے بودھ کے وقت سے بدھ کے
وقت سے بھوک ادب کی ایک تاریخی میز کو اشوک کے وقت دیا ہے جس میں مندرجہ
ذیل ھے:


http://clckm.com-buddhistinformation.com-microsoft/ Internet Explorer

Jhaanas-Arahant
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Posted by: @ 10:50 pm

Jhaanas-Arahant



[Fourth jhana]


“And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as
with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and
remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure,
bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded
by pure, bright awareness.


Just as if a man were sitting
wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no
part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the
monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is
nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.”


What is the cause of anger
and how can one manage anger
so as not to harm others and oneself?
“Knowing that the other person is angry,
one who remains mindful and calm
acts for his own best interest
and for the other’s interest, too.
Samyutta Nikaya I, 162


Question - What is the cause of
anger? What can we do to ensure that we manage our anger so that we do
not hurt ourselves or others whilst working towards the total
elimination of anger?


Answer - The cause of anger is craving or grasping and our belief in
a self. On the surface this may not be very apparent. Most Buddhists
are aware that intense craving leads to attachment and greed. However,
intense craving also leads to ill-will, anger and hatred.

Just as strong attachment and greed arises because we seek our own
happiness, ill-will and anger arise because we seek our own happiness.
Just as we crave to hold on to happy sensations that form strong bonds
which lead to greed, we crave to set aside unhappy situations or
unpleasant sensations. And when we cannot set them aside or avoid them,
we feel ill-will, anger and hatred. We also feel ill-will and anger when
our happiness is taken away or thwarted. The stronger the craving, the
greater will be the suffering resulting from ill-will and anger.

Anger is a normal emotion that all human beings feel, like sorrow
and happiness. The emotion of anger is felt from the time one is born.
How many of you have seen a little baby turn red and cry with his little
face twisted with anger? How many have witnessed a two-year-old throw a
temper tantrum? They are too young to have learned this behaviour from
others. And yet it is obvious that they are experiencing intense anger.
It is also obvious that they have not learned to manage their anger.
Because of their young age they are often excused the temper tantrum.

Unfortunately, many adults too have never learned to manage their
anger. And so, just like the two-year-old, when they are angry they
throw a tantrum.

Maybe not in quite the same way as the two-year-old, but in a manner
that is not acceptable for an adult - in a manner that is harmful to
self and to others.
Reminding us that anger harms us more than it does those on whom anger is directed the Buddha advises against anger as follows:

“The person possessed of anger; discoloured,
Does not have sound sleep.
Even when experiencing the beneficial
He mistakes it as mischief.
Then he harms another
By thought, speech and deed
As result, he will suffer.
Loss of property (fines or punishment).
Crazed by wrath he behaves thus
That invites ill-repute.
His relatives, friends and acquaintance
Shun him, for his temper - hot.
Anger fathers misfortune
Anger maddens one’s mind
It is a danger that rises from within
But man realizes it not.
The angered knows not what is right
Nor does he see what really is
Surrounded by darkness he dwells
Who now does anger defeat?
Captivated and maddened by anger
He does what is unwholesome with ease
But in time when anger is spent
Regrets he, as one burnt by flames.”

Anguttara Nikaya

As the cause of anger is craving, one often finds that intense anger
is felt towards those we love the most. As such it is most important
that we learn how to manage our anger so as not to hurt the people we
love. One should not assume that those we love will accept and excuse
our inappropriate behaviour. Even if they do not tell us how they feel,
one can be sure that over time they will not love or respect us for such
behaviour.

What we are going to learn today are some techniques to help us
manage this anger, and over time, some techniques which will help us to
reduce and possibly eliminate anger. We will illustrate these concepts
with two stories that occurred at the time of the Buddha.

The first story is an incident that occurred with Visakha, the
Buddha’s chief female benefactor. One day she had come to the Buddha for
solace as she was angered at some unfair taxes that had been levied on a
gift she had mailed. Visakha had mailed a parcel to some relatives and
the border guards had charged an unreasonably high levy on the goods.
Visakha had complained to the king, but due to pressures of state
affairs, he had ignored her complaint. Annoyed and angry, Visakha
visited the Buddha for solace. The Buddha calmed her mind by saying:

“Painful is all subjection.
Blissful is complete control.
People are troubled by common concerns,
Hard to escape are the bonds (of craving).”

These words of wisdom from the Buddha helped Visakha put this minor
irritation in perspective. The Buddha’s advice is as valid today as it
was 2500 years ago. So strong are the bonds of craving and attachment
that often we are angered and affected by small issues, many of which
are outside our control and trivial when compared to other issues of
greater consequence that afflict mankind.

Visakha, as she was only a Sotapanna, felt anger. She managed her
anger by not lashing out and hurting anyone. She then went to the Buddha
for support. Listening to the Buddha she realized very quickly that
this was something outside her control and something that was not of
great consequence. This helped to calm her mind.

The second story is about Sariputta, the Buddha’s chief male
disciple. A group of men were praising the noble qualities of the elder
when a young Brahmin challenged them saying the reason Sariputta had
never shown anger was because he had never been provoked. To prove that
Sariputta, like others, would resort to anger, he walked up behind the
elder and dealt him a resounding blow. Sariputta said “what was that?”
and then, without even turning around to find who had hit him, continued
walking. The Brahmin was overcome with guilt and shame at his conduct.
Falling on his knees he begged pardon and told Sariputta how he had hit
him to provoke anger. Sariputta then forgave the Brahmin. The Brahmin,
not satisfied with a verbal pardon, asked Sariputta to come to his home
for the noonday meal to show that he bore no malice towards him.
Sariputta accepted the invitation.

After the meal, as Sariputta was leaving, he saw that a mob of angry
supporters had gathered with sticks and stones to punish the Brahmin.
They had witnessed the Brahmin’s treatment of the elder whom they loved
and respected. Sariputta asked them what the commotion was about. When
informed he asked, ‘Whom did the Brahmin strike, you or me?” On being
told that it was the Elder whom the Brahmin had struck, he dispersed the
angry crowd by saying, “I have pardoned him. What cause is there for
anger when I, whom he struck, feels none.”

Sariputta, being an Arahanth, had eradicated all craving and as such
felt no anger. The only way we cannot feel anger is by destroying
craving. As such it is only an Arahanth who will be completely free of
anger. Since none of us are Arahanths we should not put ourselves down
or feel guilty when we feel anger. We should, however, ensure that we
manage it so that we do not hurt others.

And so we have our long-term goal and our short-term goal. The
long-term goal of eliminating anger and the short-term goal of managing
anger. Our long-term goal will be reached only through the practice of
morality - infinite compassion to all living beings and meditation.
Meditation on loving kindness, awareness of breathing (Anapansati) and
insight (Vipassana). Over time, all of these will help reduce and
finally eliminate anger. As we are aware of the purpose of meditation in
relation to the Buddhist goal of Nibbana, we will concentrate on the
short-term goal of anger management whilst keeping in mind the
importance of eradicating the craving which leads to anger, which is the
Buddhist goal.

It must be stressed, however, that meditation also helps in the short- term goal of anger management, as meditation teaches you:

compassion and loving kindness,
to be more aware of your feeling,
to reflect before you speak or act.
The Buddha encourages anger management as follows:
“He abused me, he ill-treated me
He defeated me, he robbed me.
Releasing such thoughts
Banishes hatred for all times.”

Dhammapada 4

“Repay not the angry with anger
And you will win the battle hard to win.
He who acknowledges the other’s anger
While maintaining peace mindfully,
Has worked for the well-being of both
Himself and the other.”

Samyutta Nikaya

“Everybody loves himself
Life is dear to all
Feeling for others as for yourself
One should refrain from harming others.”
Udana
“By not retaliating in anger
At one who gets angry
One wins the battle
That is hard to win.”

Samyutta Nikaya

As meditation helps anger management, we will relate back to meditation periodically throughout this lesson.

When we are in a situation which causes us unhappiness or distress
we go through many different emotions. Especially if the incident is one
that is outside our control and of significant importance. According to
Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, when faced with grave personal loss we go
through five stages - denial, anger, depression, bargaining and finally
acceptance.

Denial because at first you don’t want to believe that this is true,
Anger because you feel hurt that this should happen to you,
Depression when you feel that nothing can be done about it,
Bargaining when you start to look for alternatives or opportunities to minimise or overcome the hurt and, finally,
Acceptance when you start to heal.

At times one may go through these very quickly. At times it may take
months. At times one may go to acceptance and then relapse back to
denial. These emotions are often felt when there is major personal loss.
It could be an unexpected death, a job loss or a sudden diagnosis of a
terminal illness. Academics say that it is normal for everybody to go
through these stages. These feelings are not just unique to you.
However, the anger felt at such times needs to be managed because if one
cannot get past this stage in a reasonable time it could lead to
hatred, long-term depression and emotional problems. If we can
understand that everybody goes through these stages and that this
situation is outside our control, we may, on our own, be able to manage
it with time through acceptance and support from good friends. Some,
however, may need professional help.

The majority of us, however, get angry because of day-to-day events
and day-to-day stresses. What can we do to manage anger in these
situations that occur daily? Anger manifests in two ways. Sometimes
anger arises spontaneously, flares up, and then is spent. Sometimes
anger flares up, then one holds the anger for days, weeks and maybe even
for months. This is very dangerous as anger that is not managed can
build to hatred. Both manifestations, which sometimes overlap, cause
suffering to self and others. How do we manage this anger that we all
feel so no one gets hurt? How do we ensure that anger does not escalate
to hatred?

First we try to identify where anger starts, and secondly we
identify where we hold anger. This may not be easy to do and at times
you may need help from a loved one. What is your first sign of anger? Is
it the clenching of your palms, the grinding of your teeth or is it
your flushed face? Secondly, where do you hold the anger? Whilst there
are some who blow over with anger, some retain it for days. Do you
retain anger in the head with migraine headaches and thoughts that go on
and on, in the chest with this consuming, burning heat, or in the
stomach where it manifests as ulcers?

We begin by observing how we first express anger. Is it by yelling
out hurtful words, throwing things, hitting, crying or running away? Or
do we suppress our anger and hold on to it? Examine yourself and try to
observe and know yourself.

In other words, with mindfulness we try to be aware of all our
feelings and sensations at times of anger. Once you have identified the
first external symptom of anger and consciously try to feel these
sensations you will be able to identify when anger arises. Over time you
will know and recognize the first signs of anger and suppressed anger.
Mindfulness and insight meditation will help you very quickly to
identify the first signs of anger. Being able to identify the first
signs of anger, you can now start strategies to cope with or manage
anger.

Anger that is held is more damaging in the long run as it can build
to hatred. Unchecked, it can lead to unwholesome thoughts, speech and
action, with grave consequences. As such, we will begin with some
strategies for anger that has been held onto. The following have helped
others:

Calm discussion with person (sometimes this may be through letters)
Exercise
Self care (do something special for yourself)
Deep breathing
Reading a book
Listening to soft music
Talking to a friend (support)
Reading or listening to the Dhamma
Daily meditation on compassion, mindfulness and insight
Add
to this list by reflecting on what works for you. Incidently, these
strategies also help to reduce spontaneous anger by reducing stress and
promoting general well-being so that trivial things don’t result in
anger.
Some strategies for dealing with spontaneous anger are:
Taking time out (walk out of the situation)
Practising deep listening
Reflecting before you speak
Developing compassion and kindness to other’s needs, frailties and differences .
Looking at the other point of view
Slowing down (cutting down on stressful commitments)
Daily meditation on compassion, mindfulness and insight
Add
to this list by reflecting on what works for you. The majority of us
express anger in words, and so we will concentrate on words that will
heal and reduce conflict as opposed to words that will hurt and escalate
conflict. The Buddha has advised us to speak words that instil
confidence and cause happiness, hope and joy. If we are mindful of our
precepts we can, over time, move towards refraining from words that
hurt, cause disharmony and suffering. With effort we can move towards
words that being hope, joy, peace and harmony.
Some words and action you should avoid using when you are angry are:

Words of accusation
Old history
Personal traits
Comparisons
Pointing fingers
Hurtful words such as:
You are stupid
You are dumb
You are selfish
You are vicious
You are cruel
and definitive words such as:
You always…
You never…
Instead,
learn to express anger by sharing how you feel and how the other
person’s actions or words affect you. The following expressions will
help to defuse anger without escalating anger. “I feel (insert specific
feeling) when you (insert specific act). Instead I would like/ prefer
(inserts specific preference).”
For example, the statements: “I feel
hurt when you accuse me of lying. I would prefer that you hear my side
of the story before you pass judgement”, defuses anger. Compare this
with “You always call me a liar. You never believe what I say. I might
as well lie to you. What is the use of telling the truth when you will
never believe me anyway?” The first approach defuses anger and helps the
situation, whereas the second escalates anger.
Reflect on the advice the Buddha gave Visaka. The following reflection when meditating on loving kindness may also be helpful.

“May I develop the equanimity
to accept things I cannot change,
The courage to change things I can
and the wisdom to know the difference.”

It is normal to feel annoyed when something unpleasant occurs.
First, reflect on the issue and the magnitude of the action that has
offended you. Is it really that important? If not, let it go. Do not let
it escalate to anger, especially if the offender is a loved one.
Instead, reflect on the positive things that the person has done for
you. Also reflect as to whether this action is within your control. What
is the use of getting angry and annoyed if you have lost your job and
if there is nothing you can do to get your job back? Instead, spend your
energy on changing or coping with the situation. Negotiate a severance
package, ask for retraining, or look for other opportunities.

Remember that anger is your worst enemy. Anger harms you more than
it does the person towards whom the anger is directed. The law of kamma
operates despite the ignorance of man. Intentional actions by thought,
word and deed will follow you and fruit at the opportune time. If you
are a person who acts on anger through hitting and becoming abusive you
need professional help. Spousal and child abuse is against the law. One
must recognize that abuse can be both physical and through continuous
harsh and threatening speech. Both leave scars. Often it is the mental
scars that are harder to heal. They leave long-term emotional problems.
Does your family love and respect you or are they afraid of you? One
needs to earn love and respect. It cannot be got through fear. In fact,
according to the Buddha’s teachings, continuous harsh words will result
in aversion and ill-will in the mind of the recipient. Unchecked,
aversion and ill-will in the mind of the recipient will lead to anger
and hatred. And while you can change yourself and manage your own anger,
you have no control over the minds of others:

The Buddha’s advice for anger management is boundless compassion and
loving kindness through mental development. The Buddha said:
“Anger is never appeased by anger
Anger is appeased by loving kindness.
This is an eternal truth.”


Dhammapada 5


The Buddha encouraged others to destroy anger and hatred through
loving kindness by describing the bliss of those who have conquered
anger. He said:
“Truly we dwell in happiness,
as we do not hate, while others hate.
Amidst those who are filled with hatred
we live appeased,
free of hatred.”

Dhammapada 197

Statistics show that often persons are angry and abusive with their
loved ones. The very same act performed by an acquaintance does not lead
to anger. Most people with effort manage their anger in the workplace
in order to appear professional, but vent at their loved ones. And yet
it is those we love that we should treat with most tenderness. The
damage done by anger cannot be measured. Reflecting on the following
story may help to motivate anger management.

There was a little boy who had a bad temper. His father gave him a
bag of nails and told him that every time he lost his temper, to hammer a
nail in the back fence. The first day the boy had driven 37 nails into
the fence. Then it gradually dwindled down. He discovered it was easier
to manage his temper than to drive those nails into the fence. Finally
the day came when the boy didn’t lose his temper at all. He told his
father about it and the father suggested that the boy now pull out one
nail for each day that he was able to manage his temper. The days passed
and the young boy was finally able to tell his father that all the
nails were gone. The father took his son by the hand and led him to the
fence. He said, “You have done well, my son, but look at the holes in
the fence. The fence will never be the same.”

When we say things in anger, we leave a scar just like this one. You
can put a knife in a man and draw it out. It won’t matter how many
times you say I’m sorry, the wound is still there. A verbal wound is as
bad as a physical one. In fact it can be worse, for mental abuse takes
longer to heal. Family and friends are like very rare jewels. They make
us smile and encourage us to succeed. They lend an ear, they share a
word of praise, and they always want to open their hearts to us to help
us when we are hurt. Don’t scar your family and friends. Learn to manage
your anger.








Map of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka's rule.

Map of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka’s rule.

The Sanchi stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh established by emperor Ashoka in the third century BC.

The Sanchi stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh established by emperor Ashoka in the third century BC.

Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BC), in Brahmi, sandstones. British Museum.

Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BC), in Brahmi, sandstones. British Museum.

The Ashoka Chakra, featured on the flag of the Republic of India

Silver punch-mark coins of the Mauryan empire, bear Buddhist symbols such as the Dharmacakra, the elephant (previous form of the Buddha), the tree under which enlightenment happened, and the burial mound where the Buddha died (obverse). 3rd century BC.

Silver punch-mark coins of the Mauryan empire, bear Buddhist symbols such as the Dharmacakra,
the elephant (previous form of the Buddha), the tree under which
enlightenment happened, and the burial mound where the Buddha died
(obverse). 3rd century BC.

Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka and Ashokan territorial limits.

Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka and Ashokan territorial limits.[7]
Greek Late Archaic style capital from Patna (Pataliputra), thought to correspond to the reign of Ashoka, 3rd century BC, Patna Museum (click image for references).

Greek Late Archaic style capital from Patna (Pataliputra), thought to correspond to the reign of Ashoka, 3rd century BC, Patna Museum (click image for references).

Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar - Afghan National Museum. (Click image for translation).

Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar - Afghan National Museum. (Click image for translation).

Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260-218 BC), according to his Edicts.

Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260-218 BC), according to his Edicts.

“The legend of King Asoka, A study and translation of the Asokavadana“, John Strong, Princeton Library of Asian translations.

Ashoka's Major Rock Edict inscription at Girnar

Ashokan Pillar at Vaishali

Ashokan Pillar at Vaishali

This is the famous original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum which was originally erected around 250 BCE atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath. The angle from which this picture has been taken, minus the inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, has been adopted as the National Emblem of India showing the Horse on the left and the Bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra in the circular base on which the four Indian lions are standing back to back. On the far side there is an Elephant and a Lion instead. The wheel

This is the famous original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum which was originally erected around 250 BCE atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath. The angle from which this picture has been taken, minus the inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, has been adopted as the National Emblem of India showing the Horse on the left and the Bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra in the circular base on which the four Indian lions
are standing back to back. On the far side there is an Elephant and a
Lion instead. The wheel “Ashoka Chakra” from its base has been placed
onto the center of the National Flag of India.


Those who practice the Dhamma will begin to know the Dhamma
or to gain a feel for the Dhamma in the area of meditation more markedly
than in other areas, and more extensively. For example, the
gratification that comes from being generous is moving in one way, the
gratification that comes from maintaining the precepts is moving in
another way, the feelings of gratification that come from the different
forms of goodness are moving in their own separate ways. This is called
finding gratification in skillfulness.




2642 Tue 5 Jun  LESSON

Those who practice the Dhamma will begin to know the Dhamma
or to gain a feel for the Dhamma in the area of meditation more markedly
than in other areas, and more extensively. For example, the
gratification that comes from being generous is moving in one way, the
gratification that comes from maintaining the precepts is moving in
another way, the feelings of gratification that come from the different
forms of goodness are moving in their own separate ways. This is called
finding gratification in skillfulness.

But all of these feelings of gratification converge in the
practice of meditation. We begin to feel moved from the moment the mind
begins to grow still, when the heart gathers its currents together to
stand solely on its own. Even though we may not yet obtain a great deal
of stillness from the inward gathering of the mind, we still find
ourselves gratified within, in a way we can clearly sense. If the mind
or the Dhamma were a material object, there wouldn’t be anyone in the
world who wouldn’t respect the religion, because the goodness, the
well-being, and the marvels that arise from the religion and from the
practicing in line with the teachings of the religion are things desired
the world over.


Goodness, well-being, marvels: These are things the world
has always desired from time immemorial — with a desire that has never
lost its taste — and they are things that will always be desired until
the world loses its meaning, or until people become extinct, having no
more sense of good and evil. That’s when the world will no longer aspire
for these great blessings. The well-being that comes from the marvels —
the Dhamma in the area of its results — is something to which all
living beings aspire, simply that their abilities differ, so that some
attain their aspirations, while others don’t.


But the Dhamma can’t be displayed for the world to perceive
with its senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch in the way
other things can. Even though there may be other immaterial phenomena
similar to the Dhamma — such as smells — still they aren’t like the true
Dhamma that is touched by the hearts of those who have practiced it. If
the Dhamma could be displayed like material objects, there is no doubt
but that the human world would have to respect the religion for the sake
of that Dhamma. This is because the Dhamma is something more marvelous
than anything else. In all the three levels of existence, there is no
greater marvel than in the Dhamma.


The Dhamma can appear as a marvel, conspicuous and clear in
the mind. The mind is what knows it — and only the mind. It can’t be
displayed in general like material objects, as when we take things out
to admire or to show off to others. The Dhamma can’t possibly be
displayed like material objects. This is what makes the world lack
interest — and lack the things that could be hoped from the Dhamma — in a
way that is really a shame.


Even those who want the marvel of the Dhamma don’t know what
the marvel is, or what the profundity of the Dhamma is, because the
mind has never had contact with that profundity. The eye has never had
contact with the marvel. The ear has never obtained any marvel from the
current of the Dhamma, because the Dhamma can’t be displayed as a
current of sound as other things can. This is one obstacle that prevents
people from becoming moved by the Dhamma, that prevents them from fully
believing and fully entrusting themselves to the Dhamma in a way
consistent with the world’s long-felt hunger for well-being and
prosperity.


Each of the Buddhas who has gained Awakening and taught the
Dhamma to the world has had to reflect to the full extent of his
intelligence and ability on the myriad ways of teaching the Dhamma to
the world so that the world could see it as a marvel, inasmuch as the
Dhamma can’t be put in shop windows or in public places. This is because
the true Dhamma lies in the heart and reveals itself only in words and
deeds, which doesn’t excite a gratifying sense of absorption in the same
way as touching the Dhamma directly with the heart.


Because there is no way to display the Dhamma directly, the
Buddhas display it indirectly through teaching. They point out the
causes — the Dhamma of conduct and practices leading to the Dhamma of
results at this or that point or this or that level; and at the same
time they proclaim the results — the excellence, the marvels of the
stages and levels of the Dhamma that can be touched with the heart, all
the way to the highest marvel, vimutti, the mental release called nibbana within the heart.


Every Buddha has to devise strategies in teaching the Dhamma
so as to bring that marvel out to the world by using various modes of
speech and conduct — for example, describing the Dhamma and showing the
conduct of the Dhamma as being like this and that — but the actual
Dhamma can’t be shown. It is something known exclusively in the heart,
in the way in which each Buddha and each arahant possesses this marvel.
None of the Buddhas, none of the arahants who possess this marvel are in
any way deficient in this regard.


The marvel lies in their hearts — simply that they can’t
take the marvel that appears there and display it in the full measure of
its wonder. Thus they devise strategies for displaying it in their
actions, which are simply attributes of the Dhamma, not the actual
Dhamma itself. For instance, the doctrine they teach in the texts is
simply an attribute of the Dhamma. Their act of teaching is also just an
attribute of the Dhamma. The actual Dhamma is when a meditator or a
person who listens to their teachings about the Dhamma follows the
Dhamma in practice and touches it stage by stage within his or her own
heart. This is called beginning to make contact with the actual Dhamma,
step by step. However much contact is made, it gives a sense of
gratification felt exclusively within the heart of the person who has
gained that contact through his or her own practice.


When it comes to ingenuity in teaching, no one excels the
Buddhas. Even so, they reveal only what they see as appropriate for
humanity. They can’t reveal the actual Dhamma — for example, by taking
out the true marvel in their hearts and unfolding it for the world to
see, saying, ‘This is the marvel of the Tathagata, of each Buddha. Do
you see it?’ This can’t be done, for here we’re talking about the marvel
of the purity of a heart that was previously swamped with defilement
like a heap of assorted excrement, but now has become a pure, unsullied
nature, or a pure, amazing nature because of the practice of constantly
and relentlessly cleansing it. They can’t show that Dhamma to the world,
saying, ‘Do you see this? Look at it. Look at it. Feast your eyes till
they’re full and then strive to make this treasure your own!’ So
instead, they teach by using various strategies for those who practice,
describing the path in full detail, in terms both of causes and of
results.


What they bring out to show is simply the current of their
voices, the breath of their mouths. That’s what they bring out to speak,
simply the breath of their mouths. They can’t bring out the real thing.
For example, when they say, ‘It’s marvelous like this,’ it’s just
sound. The marvelous nature itself can’t be brought out. All they can
bring out is the action of saying, ‘That nature is marvelous,’ so that
we can speculate for ourselves as to what that marvel is like. Even
though this doesn’t remove our doubts, it’s better than if we had never
heard about it at all.


But the basic principle in making us come to know and see
the marvel of the Dhamma is that first we have to speculate and then we
follow with practice. This qualifies as following the principles of the
Dhamma the Buddha taught, and this is fitting and proper. No matter what
the difficulties and hardships encountered in following the path, we
shouldn’t let them form barriers to our progress, because this is where
the path lies. There are no other byways that can take us easily to the
goal. If our practice is difficult, we have to stick with it. If it’s
painful, we have to bear it, because it’s a duty we have to perform, a
burden we have to carry while working so as to attain our aims.


The Dhamma of a pure mind is like this: The mind is the
Dhamma, the Dhamma is the mind. We call it a mind only as long as it is
still with the body and khandhas. Only then can we call it a pure mind, the mind of a Buddha, or the mind of an arahant. After it passes from the body and khandhas, there is no conventional reality to which it can be compared, and so we can’t call it anything at all.


No matter how marvelous that nature, no matter how much it
may be ours, there is no possible way we can use conventional realities
to describe it or to make comparisons, because that Dhamma, that realm
of release, has no conventions against which to measure things or make
comparisons. It’s the same as if we were in outer space: Which way is
north, which way is south, we don’t know. If we’re on Earth, we can say
‘east,’ ‘west,’ ‘north,’ and ’south’ because there are things that we
can observe and compare so as to tell which direction lies which way. We
take the Earth as our standard. ‘High’ and ‘low’ depend on the Earth as
their frame of reference. How much higher than this, lower than this,
north of this, south of this: These things we can say.


But if we’re out in outer space, there is no standard by
which we can measure things, and so we can’t say. Or as when we go up in
an airplane: We can’t tell how fast or how slow we’re going. When we
pass a cloud, we can tell that we’re going fast, but if we depend simply
on our eyesight, we’re sure to think that the speed of the airplane is
nowhere near the speed of a car. We can clearly see how deceptive our
eyesight is in just this way. When we ride in a car, the trees on both
sides of the road look as if they were falling in together down on the
road behind us. Actually, they stay their separate selves. It’s simply
that the car runs past them. Since there are things that we sense, that
lie close enough for comparison, it seems as if the car were going
really fast.


As for the airplane, there’s nothing to make comparisons
with, so it looks as if the plane were dawdling along, as if it were
going slower than a car, even though it’s actually many times faster.


This is how it is when we compare the mind of an ordinary run-of-the-mill person with the mind of the Buddha. Whatever the Buddha says is good and excellent, we ordinary people tend to say that it’s not.
Whatever we like, no matter how vile, we say that it’s good. We don’t
admit the truth, in the same way as thinking that a car goes faster than
an airplane.


The practice of attending to the mind is something very important. Try to develop mindfulness (sati)
and discernment so that they can keep up with the things that come and
entangle the mind. By and large, the heart itself is the instigator,
creating trouble continually, relentlessly. We then fall for the
preoccupations the heart turns out — and this makes us agitated, upset,
and saddened, all because of the thoughts formed by the heart.


These come from the heart itself, and the heart itself is
what falls for them, saying that this is this, and that is that, even
though the things it names ‘this’ and ‘that’ merely exist in line with
their nature. They have no meaning in and of themselves, that they are
like ‘’this’ or ‘that.’ The mind simply gives them meanings, and then
falls for its own meanings, making itself glad or sad over those things
without end. Thus the stress and suffering that result from
thought-formations have no end, no point of resolution, just as if we
were floating adrift in the middle of the sea waiting to breathe our
last breath.


The Buddhas all reached Awakening here in this human world
because the human world is rich in the Noble Truths. It’s where they are
plain to see. The Noble Truth of stress (dukkha) lies in the
human body. Human beings know about stress — because they’re smarter
than common animals. The Noble Truth of the origin of stress: This lies
in the human heart. The Noble Truth of the path — the path of practice
to cure defilement (kilesa), craving (tanha), and mental effluents (asava),
which are the things that produce stress: This, human beings also know.
What is the path? To put it briefly: virtue, concentration, and
discernment. These things human beings know and can put into practice.
The Noble Truth of the cessation of stress: This, human beings also
know. No matter which of these truths, all human beings know them —
although they may not know how to behave toward them or take interest in
behaving in line with them, in which case there is no way the Dhamma
can help them at all.


The Buddhas thus taught the Dhamma in the human world,
because the human world lies in the center of all the levels of
existence. We have been born in the center of existence, in the midst of
the religion. We should conform correctly to the central point of the
religion, so as to comprehend the religion’s teachings that lie in the
center of our heart.


The superlative Dhamma lies right here. It doesn’t lie
anywhere else. The mind is what can reach the Dhamma. The mind is what
knows all dhammas. The affairs of the Dhamma, then, do not lie beyond
the mind, which is a fitting vessel for them. Good, evil, pleasure,
pain: The mind knows these things before anything else knows them, so we
should develop mindfulness and discernment to be resourceful, to keep
up with the events that are always becoming involved with the mind in
the course of each day.


If we’re intent on investigating the origin of stress, which
fans out from our various thought-formations, we will find that it
arises without stop. It arises right here in the mind. It’s fashioned
right here. Even though we try to make it quiet, it won’t be still. Why?
Because of the ‘unquietness’, the thoughts with which the mind disturbs
itself, which it forms and sends out towards its preoccupations (arammana)
all the time. Once the mind sends out its thoughts, it then gathers in
stress for itself. It keeps at it, in and out like this. What goes out is the origin of stress, and what comes back in is stress.
In other words, thoughts form and go out as the origin of stress, and
when the results come back to the heart, they’re stressful. These things
are constantly being manufactured like this all the time.


When we want the mind to have even just a little bit of
calm, we really have to force it; and even then these things still
manage to drive the mind into forming thoughts whenever we let down our
guard. This is how it is with the origin of stress, which is constantly
producing suffering. It lies in the heart and is always arising. For
this reason, we must use mindfulness and discernment to diagnose and
remedy the origin of stress, to keep an eye out for it, and to snuff it
out right there, without being negligent. Wherever we sit or stand —
whatever our activity — we keep watch over this point, with mindfulness
alert to it, and discernment unraveling it so as to know it constantly
for what it truly is.


All those who practice to remove defilement practice in this
way. In particular, those who are ordained practice by going into the
forest to look for a place conducive to their striving in order to wipe
out this very enemy. Even when they stay in inhabited areas, or wherever
they go, wherever they stay, they keep their attention focused
continually, step by step, on the persistent effort to remove and
demolish the origin of stress, which is a splinter, a thorn in the
heart. Such people are bound to develop more and more ease and
well-being, step by step, in proportion to the persistence of their
striving.


We can see clearly when the mind is still and settles down:
Thought-formations are still, or don’t exist. Turmoil and disturbances
don’t occur. The stress that would otherwise result doesn’t appear. When
the mind is quiet, stress is also quiet. When thought-formations are
quiet, the origin of stress is also quiet. Stress is also quiet. All
that remains at that moment is a feeling of peace and ease.


The war between the mind and the defilements causing stress
is like this. We have to keep fighting with persistence. We have to use
mindfulness and discernment, conviction and persistence to contend with
the war that disturbs and ravages the mind, making it stagger and reel
within. The disturbances will then gradually be suppressed. Even when
there is only a moment of quiet, we will come to see the harm of the
thought-formations that are constantly disturbing us. At the same time,
we will see the benefits of mental stillness — that it’s a genuine
pleasure. Whether there is a lot of stillness or a little, pleasure
arises in proportion to the foundation of stillness or the strength of
the stillness, which in the texts is called samadhi, or concentration.


A mind centered and still is called a mind in concentration,
or a mind gathered in concentration. This is what genuine concentration
is like inside the heart. The names of the various stages of
concentration are everywhere, but actual concentration is inside the
heart. The heart is what gives rise to concentration. It produces it,
makes it on its own. When concentration is still, the mind experiences
cool respite and pleasure. It has its own foundation set firmly and
solidly within.


It’s as if we were under an eave or under the cooling shade
of a tree. We’re comfortable when it rains, we’re comfortable when the
sun is out, because we don’t have to be exposed to the sun and rain. The
same holds true with a mind that has an inner foundation of stillness:
It’s not affected by this preoccupation or that, which would otherwise
disturb and entangle it repeatedly, without respite. This is because
stillness is the heart’s dwelling — ‘concentration,’ which is one level
of home for the heart.


Discernment (pañña) is ingenuity, sound judgment,
evaluating causes and effects within and without; above, below, and in
between — inside the body — all the way to the currents of the mind that
send out thoughts from various angles. Mindfulness and discernment keep
track of these things, investigating and evaluating them so as to know
causes and effects in terms of the heart’s thought-formations, or in
terms of the nature of sankhara within us, until we see the truth of each of these things.


Don’t go investigating these things off target, by being clever with labels and interpretations that go against the truth — because in the investigation of phenomena, we investigate in line with the truth. We don’t resist the truth, for that would simply enhance the defilements causing stress at the very moment we think we’re investigating phenomena so as to remove them.


Birth we have already experienced. As for old age, we’ve
been growing old from the day of our birth, older and older, step by
step. Whatever our age, that’s how long we’ve been growing old, until we
reach the end of life. When we’re old to the nth degree, we fall apart.
In other words, we’ve been growing old from the moment of birth — older
by the day, the month, the year — older and older continually. We call
it ‘growing up’, but actually it’s growing old.


See? Investigate it for what it really is. This is the great highway — the way of nature. Don’t resist it.
For example, the body is growing old, but we don’t want it to be old.
We want it always to be young. This is called resisting the truth —
which is stress. Even when we try to resist it, we don’t get anywhere.
What do we hope to gain by resisting it and creating stress for
ourselves? Actually, we gain nothing but the stress that comes from
resisting the truth.


Use discernment to investigate just like this. Whenever pain
arises in any part of the body, if we have medicine to treat it, then
we treat it. When the medicine can take care of it, the body recovers.
When the medicine can’t, it dies. It goes on its own. There’s no need
for us to force it not to die, or to stay alive for so-and-so many
years, for that would be an absurdity. Even if we forced it, it wouldn’t
stay. We wouldn’t get any results and would just be wearing ourselves
out in vain. The body has to follow its own natural principles.


When we investigate in line with its truth this way, we can be at our ease.
Wherever there’s pain, keep aware of it continually in line with its
truth. Whether it hurts a lot or a little, keep aware of its
manifestations until it reaches the ultimate point of pain — the death
of the body — and that’s as far as it goes.


Know it in line with its truth. Don’t resist it. Don’t set up any desires,
because the setting up of desire is a deficiency, a hunger. And hunger,
no matter when or what the sort, is pain: Hunger for sleep is pain,
hunger for food is pain, hunger for water is pain. When was it ever a
good thing?


The hunger, the desires that arise, wanting things to be
like this, wanting them to be like that: These are all nothing but
disturbances, issues that give rise to stress and pain. This is why the Buddha doesn’t have us resist the truth.


Use your discernment to investigate, to contemplate in line with the natural principles of things as they already are. This is called discernment that doesn’t fly in the face of truth — and the heart can then be at ease.


We study the four ‘Noble Truths’ here in our body. In other
words, we study birth, aging, illness, and death, all of which lie in
this single heap of elements (dhatu) without ever leaving it.
Birth is an affair of these elements. Growing up or growing old, it’s
old right here. When there’s illness, it manages to be ill right here,
in one part or another. When death comes, it dies right here. So we have
to study right here — where else would we study? We have to study and
know the things that involve us directly before we study anything else.
We have to study them comprehensively and to completion — studying our
own birth, our aging, our illness and pain, and completing our study of our own death. That’s when we’ll be wise — wise to all the events around us.


People who know the Dhamma through practicing so that they are wise to the events that occur to themselves, do not flinch in the face of any of the conventional realities of the world at all.
This is how it is when we study the Dhamma, when we know and see the
Dhamma in the area of the heart — in other words, when we know rightly
and well. ‘Mindfulness and discernment that are wise all around
themselves’ are wise in this way, not wise simply from being able to remember.
They have to be wise in curing doubt, in curing the recalcitrance of
the heart, as well as in curing their own attachments and false
assumptions so as to leave only a nature that is pure and simple. That’s
when we’ll be really at ease, really relieved.


Let the khandhas be khandhas pure and simple
in their own way, without our messing with them, without our struggling
with them for power, without our forcing or coercing them to be like
this or like that. The khandhas are then khandhas, the
mind is then the mind, each with its own separate reality, each not
infringing on the others as it used to. Each performs its own duties.
This is called khandhas pure and simple, the mind pure and
simple, without any conventional realities adulterating them. What knows
is what knows, the elements are elements, the khandhas are khandhas.


Whatever things may break apart, let them break apart. We
have already known them clearly with our discernment. We have no doubts.
We’ve known them in advance, even before they die, so when death comes,
what doubts can we have? — especially now that they display the truth
of their nature for us to see clearly. This is called studying the
Dhamma, practicing the Dhamma. To study and practice this way is to
follow the same way that sages have practiced and known before us.


All of these conditions are matters of conventional reality — matters of the elements, the khandhas, or the sense media (ayatana). The four khandhas, the five khandhas,
whatever, are individual conditions, individual conditions that are
separated in line with conventions. Discernment is also a condition; and
mindfulness, another condition — conditions of the heart — but they’re
Dhamma, means of curing the mind that is clouded and obscured, means of
washing away the things that cloud and obscure it, until radiance
appears through the power of the discernment that cleanses the heart. Once the heart is radiant, in the next step it becomes pure.


Why is it pure? Because all impurities have fallen away from
it. The various misconstruings that are an affair of defilement are all
gone from the heart, so the heart is pure. This pure heart means that
we have completed our study of ourselves, in line with the statement of
the teaching:

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2642 Tue 5 Jun LESSON - Those who practice the Dhamma will begin to know the Dhamma or to gain a feel for the Dhamma in the area of meditation more markedly than in other areas, and more extensively. For example, the gratification that comes from being generous is moving in one way, the gratification that comes from maintaining the precepts is moving in another way, the feelings of gratification that come from the different forms of goodness are moving in their own separate ways. This is called finding gratification in skillfulness.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 9:47 pm

vusitam brahmacariyam katam karaniyam:


‘The task of the religion is done, the holy life is complete, there is no further task to be done.’

When the tasks we have had to do — abandoning and striving —
are done to completion, we know right here, because delusion lay right
here in the heart. We study and practice simply to cure our own
delusion. Once we know right here, and delusion is gone, what else is
there to know? — for beyond this there is nothing further to know. What
else is there for us to be deluded about? We’re no longer deluded,
because we know fully all around.


This very state of mind: When at the beginning I referred to
the superlative Dhamma, the marvelous Dhamma, I was referring to this
very state of mind, this very Dhamma — but it’s something known
exclusively within itself, and exists only within itself. It’s marvelous
— this we know within our own mind. It’s superlative — this we also
know within our own mind. We can’t take it out or unfurl it like other
things for other people to see.


So if you want to have any Noble Treasures to show for
yourself, practice. Remove all those dirty stains from the heart, and
the superlative things I have mentioned will appear by their own nature —
in other words, they will appear in the mind.


This is called completing your study of the Dhamma; and your
study of the world is completed right here. The ‘world’ means the world
of elements, the world of the khandhas that lie right here with each of us, which are more important than the worlds of elements and khandhas belonging to other people, because this world of elements and khandhas lies with us and has been weighing on the heart all along.


When we have studied the Dhamma to the attainment of release, that’s all there is to study. We’ve studied the world to completion and studied the Dhamma in full. Our doubts are gone,
and there is nothing that will ever make us doubt again. As the Buddha
exclaimed, ‘When dhammas become apparent to the Brahman, earnest and
absorbed, doubt comes to an end because the conditions, the factors for
continued being and birth, come to an end.’


Once we have reached this level, we can live wherever we
like. The war is ended — the war between the mind and defilement, or the
war between Dhamma and defilement, is over. This is where we dismantle
being and birth. This is where we dismantle the heap of suffering in the round of rebirth — right here in the heart.
Since the heart is the wanderer through the cycle of rebirth, we have
to dismantle things right here, to know them right here. Once we know,
that’s the end of all problems right here.


In this whole wide world there are no problems. The only
problem was the issue of the heart that was deluded about itself and
about the things that became involved with it. Now that it has
completely rectified the way it is involved with things, there is
nothing left — and that’s the end of the problem.


From this point on, there are no more problems to trouble the heart until the day of its total nibbana. This is how the Dhamma is studied to completion. The world — the world of elements and khandhas — is studied to completion right here.


So keep striving in order to see the marvel described at the
beginning, which was described in line with the truth with no aspect to
invite any doubt.


The Buddha and the Noble Disciples have Dhamma filling their
hearts to the brim. You are a disciple of the Tathagata, with a mind
that can be made to show its marvelousness through the practice of
making it pure, just like the Buddha and the Noble Disciples. So try to
make it still and radiant, because the heart has long lain buried in the
mud. As soon as you can see the harm of the mud and grow tired of it,
you should urgently wake up, take notice, and exert yourself till you
can manage to make your way free. Nibbana is holding its hand out, waiting for you. Aren’t you going to come out?


Rebelliousness is simply distraction. The end of
rebelliousness is stillness. When the heart is still, it’s at ease. If
it’s not still, it’s as hot as fire. Wherever you are, everything is hot
and troubled. Once it is still, then it’s cool and peaceful wherever
you are — cool right here in the heart. So make the heart cool with the
practice, because the heat and trouble lie with the heart. The heat of
fire is one thing, but the heat of a troubled heart is hotter than fire.
Try to put out the fires of defilement, craving, and mental effluents
burning here in the heart, so that only the phenomenon of genuine Dhamma
remains. Then you will be cool and at peace, everywhere and always.


And so I’ll ask to stop here.

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2642 Tue 5 Jun LESSON - KUSHINAGAR | the Maitreya Buddha Project | 152m — India’s and the World’s Tallest Statue and Buddhist temple!
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 6:24 am

2642 Tue 5 Jun  LESSON



The Maitreya Project, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
…The World’s tallest statue and a brilliant religious masterpiece dedicated to the Maitreya Buddha!

Now, another great religious project has officially been given the go-ahead in one of the poorest parts of India. The Maitreya Project is a tribute to Buddhism for and from the land of the Buddha and is as a multi-faith cooperative designed by Tibetans who call India their home as as a lasting gift to India and Buddhism.

In this era of veritable skyscraper-hedonism (*cough*Dubai*coughh* j/k), this project is unique in that it is designed to fulfill a completely selfless goal, namely “to benefit as many people as possible.” A monumental sustainable work of art that will serve as a constant source of inspiration and a symbol of loving-kindness, work will soon begin on the 152 meter-tall Maitreya Buddha Statue that is the centerpiece of a large temple complex.

An engineering marvel that at will not only be — at three times the size of the Statue of Liberty — the world’s tallest statue and world’s tallest temple but will also be the world’s largest (first?) statue-skyscraper, designed to have a lifespan surpassing a 1,000 years.

For more information and a large collection of pictures of this beautiful project originally posted by me on Skyscrapercity.com, read on!…

 

The focal point of Indian architecture, like its culture, has always been religious in nature. Just as the Indian economic boom is bringing incredible economic and architectural growth in the secular area, so has Indian religious architecture once again become manifest in the construction of some of the largest, massive, and most intricate religious architecture the world has seen, from the recently completed Akshardham Temple, New Delhi — the largest volume Hindu Temple in India, to the under construction Global Vipassana Pagoda, Mumbai — the largest stupa, largest dome, and largest rock cave in the world, to the planned Sri Mayapur Vedic Temple and Planetarium, Mayapur, the world’s tallest Hindu temple.

And now the Maitreya Buddha Statue is to be another gem added to this crow. The statue is a veritable temple-skyscraper that will contain 17 individual shrine rooms. The highest room at 140 meters high — the equviliant height of the 40th storey of a standard building. This statue and complex will be a fusion of Indian and Tibetan architectural styles
that will adhere to ancient Vaastu Shastra design code and will also
hold the world’s largest collection of Lord Buddha’s relics.

^
A cutaway view of the 152 meter Maitreya statue and throne building
showing the spaces and levels within. Note that the throne itself will
be a 17 storey fully functional temple, with 15 additional shrine rooms
in the the body of the Maitreya statue.

Apart from the statue/skyscraper, the Maitreya Project organizers will also build free hospitals and schools servicing tens of thousands of poor, and also be a huge catalyst for infrastructure and tourism development efforts in one of the most economically backwards parts of India.

The project is a joint religious collaboration by
organizations representing the various sects and faiths that revere the
Buddha: from Hinduism to Mahayana to Vajrayana to Hinayana to Jaina to
Christian and Muslim. Under guidance of the overall project conceptualizer, Nepalese-Tibetan spiritual leader Lama Zopa Rinpoche,
the Project was funded by Buddhist and Hindu temples, social
organizations, religious groups and by individuals in India, Nepal,
Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, the UK and America.

Through this project, India once again shows that the
ancient arts of massive devotional architecture continues to undergo a
veritable renaissance.

—–==–=–==—–

The Maitreya Complex: Project Detail


^ A prerendering of the Maitreya Buddha statue and temple, showing its massive size.

The Maitreya Project “is based on the
belief that inner peace and outer peace share a cause and effect
relationship and that loving-kindness leads to peace at every level of
society — peace for individuals, families, communities and the world.”

The entire temple complex is designed to be completely sustainable,
meaning that it will quite literally have the same environmental impact
(i.e. emit the same amount of carbon dioxide and methane) as the paddy
field it will be constructed.

The Project will include schools and universities that focus on ethical and spiritual development as well as academic achievement, and a healthcare network based around a teaching hospital of international standard with the intention of supplementing the medical services currently provided by the government to provide healthcare services, particularly for the poor and underprivileged.

As such, the Maitreya Project organizers are working in tandem with
the local, regional and state governments in Uttar Pradesh, India, who
have fully supported the project. To this effect, the Kushinagar
Special Development Area Authority will support the planned development
of the area surrounding the Project.

The total project cost is estimated at $250 million,
but the project will develop this impoverished region and will earn a
hundredfold more that will be funneled into the Maitreya Project’s
historical preservation plans and charities.


^ Maitreya Project engineers on-site

—–==–=–==—–

The Location of the Maitreya Complex

The Maitreya Buddha project was originally concieved to be built in Bodh Gaya, Bihar state,
the site of the Buddha’s enlightenment, but due to threat of delays due
to red tape, was moved to what was seen to be a more appropriate
location, the village of Kushinagar, in Uttar Pradesh state.

Kushinagar is a place of great historical and spiritual significance. It is the place where Shakyamuni (Historical) Buddha passed away and it is predicted to be the birthplace of the next Buddha, Maitreya – the Buddha of Loving-kindness - of whom this temple is dedicated to.


^ The original conception of the Maitreya Buddha statue, then to be located at Bodh Gaya

Recognising the long-term benefits Maitreya Project is bringing to
the region, the State Government of Uttar Pradesh is providing, free of
charge, 750 acres of mainly agricultural land in Kushinagar.


^ A view of the Maitreya Project land site, currently rice paddy

Indeed, the Project itslef will be located adjacent to the ancient Mahaparinirvana Temple, commemorating the Buddha’s passing, the ancient Ramabhar Stupa, commemorating the Buddha’s cremation site, as well as several equally old and older Hindu temples. It
is predicted that the pilgrimage, tourism and development capital that
will flow into this region because of this project will created
sustainable income for the restoration, refurbishment and maintinance of
these ancient sacred sites.

Surrounding the complex is the Kushinagar Special Development Area,
designed as a sustainable development entity that will coordinate the
various organizations involved in the project and surrounding tourist
and general development that will come with the project.

-=—-=—=–

The Kushinagar Special Development Area

The Maitreya Project and the Uttar Pradesh have worked together to create the Kushinagar Special Development Area (KSDA), an additional area of 7.5 kilometres surrounding the Maitreya Project site.

Municipal bylaws and planning regulations have now been adopted to
protect the KSDA from the kind of opportunism that is often seen in
communities of emerging economic development. Maitreya Project has
representation on the legal bodies governing the KSDA as well as the
work of monitoring the development of the region will be ongoing.

It is within the KSDA that Maitreya Project will implement its extensive healthcare and education programmes.

—–==–=–==—–

Maitreya Project Preliminary Site Plan

Maitreya Project’s lead architects, Aros Ltd., have drawn up a
preliminary proposed plan for the beautiful 750 acre Kushinagar site.

Main features being:

  • The Ceremonial Gateway & Maitreya Statue Sanctuary will lead visitors to the 500ft/152m Maitreya Buddha statue.
  • The Maitreya Buddha Statue will sit on the Throne Building containing temples, prayer halls, exhibition halls, a museum, library and audio-visual theatre.
  • The Hospital and Healthcare Centre will be the hub of Maitreya Project’s public healthcare programmes.
    The development of these programmes will begin with primary care
    clinics in the communities of the Kushinagar Special Development Area.
    Over the years, the medical services will be developed and expanded to
    meet the needs of many communities. A complete healthcare
    network will be developed to provide medical services that are centred
    around a teaching hospital of international standard. The healthcare
    system will primarily serve the poor and under-privileged, even in
    remote parts of the area.
  • The Centre of Learning, will eventually serve students from primary to university levels of education.
  • The Meditation Park will be a secluded area next to the ancient Mahaparinirvana Temple, which commemorates Buddha Shakyamuni’s passing away from our world, the ancient Ramabhar Stupa, commemorating the Buddha’s holy cremation site,
    and monasteries and temples belonging to many different traditions of
    Buddhism that include both modern facilities and ancient ruins.


^ A View from the Maitreya Project Park

All of these features will be set in beautifully landscaped parks
with meditation pavilions, beautiful water fountains and tranquil pools.
All of the buildings and outdoor features will contain an extensive
collection of inspiring sacred art.


^ A view of the temple from the gardens surrounding the site

—–==–=–==—–

The Statue of the Maitreya Buddha

The center of the Maitreya Project, of course, is the bronze plate statue of the Maitreya Buddha itself. Rising 500ft/152m in height, the statue will sit on a stone throne temple building located in an enclosed sanctuary park.

-=—-=—=–

The Living Wall:

Surrounding the Maitreya Buddha statue is a four-storey halo of buildings called the “Living Wall.” This ring of buildings contains accomadation for the complex’s monks and workers as well as rooms for functions ancillary to the statue and throne building.

The wall also serves two additional important functions. In light of
cross-border Islamist terrorist attacks against Indian holy sites in
Ayodhya, Akshardham and Jama Masjid, the Living Wall also is designed to be a security cordon
eqivalent to a modern castle wall, staffed with security personnel and
designed to withstand an attack from 200 heavily armed raiders.


^ Prerendering of the Statue showing the location of the living wall, main gate, paths and garden areas.

The final major function it performs is that of the boundary for the enclosed sanctuary area of landscaped gardens, pools and fountains for meditation directly surrounding the Maitreya statue. The entry to the enclosed sanctuary and the Maitreya statue will be serviced by a main gate.


^ The tree and stupa lined paths to the ceremonial gate, which is the entrance to the sanctuary.

Passing the ceremonial gate, landscaped paths allow devotes to do Pradakshina (circumambulation) of the Maitreya Statue.


^ The terraced circumambulation paths, with the gate in the background.

Within the sanctuary, the gardens provide a place for relaxing,
resting, and meditating, with educational artwork depicting the Buddha’s
life.


^ A view towards the statue from one of these stupa lined terraces.

Walking further inward, the is Maitreya Statue and Throne Temple,
surrounded by tranquil ponds and fountains that will cool the area in
the intense Indian summer.


^ The Maitreya statue and throne surrounded by the tranquil ponds containing Buddha statues of the meditation sanctuary.

-=—-=—=–

The Throne Temple:

The “seat” of the statue is itelf a fully functioning 17-storey temple roughly 80m x 50m in size
. The building will contain two very large prayer halls,
as well as meditation and meeting rooms, a library and facilities to
deal with the anticipated annual influx of 2 million visitors.


^ The entrance to the throne building with the Maitreya Buddha statue resting upon the lotus on top

Pilgrims will enter the throne temple through the giant lotus that
supports the Maitreya Buddha statue’s feet. The throne temple contains
several entrance rooms that contain works of art on the Buddha’s life
and teachings.


^ The first major prayer hall of throne building, containing works of art on the Buddha.

Continuing inward is the cavernous main auditorium of the Maitreya Temple containing the Sanctum Sanctorum which
in Indian architectural tradition is the innermost most sacred room
where the actual shrine is held. This Sanctum Sanctorum is unique in
that within it contains two large auditorium temples.

The first temple in the Sanctum Sanctorum is the Temple of the Maitreya Buddha, containing a huge, 12 meter tall statue of the Buddha.


^ Upon entering the Sanctum Sanctorum, the 12 meter tall statue of the Buddha can be glimpsed.

A wall containing 200,000 images of the Buddhas rises up to the throne ceiling over 50 metres above, behind both auditorium temples.


^ A glimpse from the ambulatory of the side walls within the Maitreya Temple and the 1,000 paintings of the Buddhas.

The centerpiece shrine of the Maitreya Temple is the 12 meter tall Maitreya Buddha. Stairs and elevators lead to viewing platforms around the Maitreya Temple, allowing views of the entire room


^ A view of the Maitreya Buddha statue and the wall of the 200,000 images of the Buddha, seen from viewing platforms.

The next biggest shrine in the Sanctum Sanctorum is the Temple of the Shakyamuni Buddha
which contains a 10 meter statue of the Shakyamuni (Historical) Buddha.
Behind the shrine is the continuation of the wall of 200,000 Buddhas.


^
On a higher level yet again, the Shakyamuni Temple will house a 10
metre (33 ft.) statue of the historical Buddha. The glass rear wall will
reveal the wall of 200,000 Buddhas within the Maitreya Temple.


^ Another view of the Shakyamuni Temple.

In Indian architecture, the Sanctum Sanctorum is encircled by a
pathway that allows devotees to do Pradakshina (circumambulation) of the
shrine. The Maitreya Temple, following this tradition, also has this
feature.


^
The main throne building and Pradakshina path where visitors may
circumambulate Sanctum Sanctorum of the Maitreya Temple, which can be
seen through the doorways on the right

From this area, elevators and staircases will carry visitors to the various other rooms in the 17 storey base, including prayer halls, meditation halls and libraries. Eventually conveying devotees to a large rooftop garden terrace upon which the Maitreya Buddha statue actually rests.

Here, rising into the upper legs of the main statue, is the Merit Field Hall
with a 10 meter, 3-dimensional depiction of over 390 Buddhas and
Buddhist masters at it’s center. Surrounding this will be 12 individual
shrine rooms devoted to particular deities in the Hindu-Buddhist
pantheon
.


^ The Merit Field Hall with its 10m, 3-D depiction.

From the garden terrace, another bank of elevators will whisk pilgrims to the higher shrine rooms contained in the statue’s torso and head.

-=—-=—=–

The Statue:

The statue will contain 15 individual shrine rooms and have a
total height of 152 meters, with the highest shrine room in the
statue’s head, at over 140 meters up. This is roughly equivalent in height to a 40-storey skyscraper.


^ A cutaway diagram of the statue-tower.

The statue is itself an engineering marvel. Rather than simply be designed in its massive size, the statue of the Maitreya Buddha was actually reversed-designed from a carved statue only a meter and half in height and the structure’s engineering extrapolated into its current form.


^
The original statue from which the Maitreya Buddha statue tower is
extrapolated from was hand carved, and is in the Indian Gupta style.

Moreover, the statue is designed to stand for at least 1,000 years, supporting the Project’s spiritual and social work for at least a millennium.
Due to the statue’s millenia-passing lifespan, the huge structure is
designed to withstand high winds, extreme temperature changes, seasonal
rains, possible earthquakes and floods and environmental pollution.

Extensive research has gone into developing “Nikalium”, the
special nickel-aluminum bronze alloy to be used for the outer ’skin’ of
the statue designed to withstand the most challenging conditions that
could conceivably arise.

As the bronze ’skin’ will expand and contract dramatically due to
daily temperature changes, the statue will require special expansion
joints that were designed to be not only invisible to the observer, but
also in such a way as to protect the internal supports of the statue
from water leakage, erosion and corrosion. The material and structural
components of the statue are meant to be able to withstand potential
unforseen disasters like earthquakes and monsoon flooding.


^ The engineering process of the Buddha statue.

—–==–=–==—–

Construction Status — June, 2007

The Maitreya Project recently passed its first major milestone this month,
when, in compliance with the Indian Land Acquistion Act, the State
Government of Uttar Pradesh has completed the necessary legal
requirements for the acquisition of the 750 acre land site to be made
available to the Project.

While there are still permissions and clearances to be obtained, it has now officially given the green light and the full support of the government.

It is expected that the Project will formally break ground either later this year or early 2008, with an expected construction time of five years. The project will employ more than a thousand skilled and semi-skilled workers in the construction phase.

—–==–=–==—–

For more information on this fantastic project, check out

Maitreyaproject.org

Sorry for the length of the post, but I wanted this veritable essay
to be a comprehensive introduction to what Maitreya Project organizers
aim to literally be the 8th Wonder of the World, and an everlasting
symbol of Religious Syncretism, Tolerance, Compassion and most of all,
Love.

A cause truely fitting of the Buddha, Shakya Muni Sri Siddharth Gautamaji.







American Buddhist Net



Uttar Pradesh to boast of world’s tallest Buddha statue



Does this sound good to you? Here’s a story about something similar in Australia: Nowra to get its own Kung Fu temple: Australia ABN
____________

Tuesday, 25 March , 2008, 18:25

Lucknow: Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s
tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have
directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres
of land required for the Rs 10 billion project to be funded and
undertaken by the global Maitryi Group. Provision of land is UP
government’s share in the project.

For more news, analysis click here>> | For more Science and Medicine news click here >>

The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue
of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international
university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The
project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood
that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

Nowra to get its own Kung Fu temple: Australia

The more I read about this temple, the less I like it. See also this. ABN
_______________

There will be a three-tier temple complex, with two pagodas,
500-room hotel, a 500-place kung fu academy. There’ll be some
residential subdivision, a 27-hole golf course, herbal medicine, herbal
gardens, acupuncture, special massage, and that’s about it.

AM - Saturday, 10 June , 2006 08:24:30
Reporter: John Taylor
ELIZABETH JACKSON: It’s probably the most famous temple in the world.

China’s Shaolin Temple has been made famous through books, films, and TV, because of its legendary kung fu fighting monks.

Now, the Zen Buddhist temple is looking to build another home for its monks, outside Nowra in New South Wales.

A deal to purchase 1,200 hectares will be signed in China today, as our Correspondent, John Taylor, reports.

LINK TO ORIGINAL

JOHN TAYLOR: In the history of kung fu, there is no other place like the Shaolin Temple.

The 1,500-year-old Zen Buddhist monastery in central China is home
to fighting monks, made famous in modern times on the big and small
screen.

If things go to plan, the monks may be about to set up a lavish home away from home, just south of Nowra.

Greg Watson is Mayor of the Shoalhaven City Council.

GREG WATSON: There will be a three-tier temple complex, with two pagodas, 500-room hotel, a 500-place kung fu academy.

There’ll be some residential subdivision, a 27-hole golf course,
herbal medicine, herbal gardens, acupuncture, special massage, and
that’s about it.

JOHN TAYLOR: Today in central China’s Henan province Mayor Watson
and the Temple’s Abbott are to sign off on the monks’ purchase of a
1,200 hectare property south of Nowra.

Patrick Peng is the Abbott’s representative in Australia.

PATRICK PENG: The Shaolin of course is very well known in China
itself, so he like to take this opportunity to try to introduce the
Shaolin legacy, the heritage to the rest of the world, through another
outlet.

JOHN TAYLOR: The NSW Government is still to give final approval to
the project. But speaking in Beijing yesterday, Mayor Greg Watson wasn’t
expecting a fight.

GREG WATSON: What happened was, I heard via a Member of Parliament,
that the Abbott was looking for a potential location to establish the
second Shaolin temple in the world, somewhere in Australia, and I said
have I got a deal for the Abbott?

JOHN TAYLOR: Who says religion and big business can’t mix?

The Shaolin Temple already has a performance touring the world, featuring the impressive skills of its fighting monks.

The Abbott’s man in Australia, Patrick Peng, says Shaolin is not just about kung fu.

PATRICK PENG: You know, it’s culture.

JOHN TAYLOR: Well can you have the two together, a tourist attraction and a functioning temple?

PATRICK PENG: Oh yes, in fact, on the contrary. Nowadays many
religions, not only just Buddhism, Daoism, they’re all trying to make
themselves more relevant to the modern world, and really they’re not
exclusive, they’re not just men in the caves, you know.

So what they’re trying to do is to share the philosophies and the lifestyle, the healthy lifestyle, to the world.

ELIZABETH JACKSON: Patrick Peng, who represents the Abbott of the
Shaolin Temple in Australia, ending that report from John Taylor.



Thaindian News



Uttar Pradesh to have world’s tallest Buddha statue


March 25th, 2008 - 3:37 pm ICT by admin


Lucknow, March 25 (IANS) Decks are being cleared for the
installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of
eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed
officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land
required for the Rs.10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by
the global Maitryi group.


Proviuion of land is UP government’s share in the project.


The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue
of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international
university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The
project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood
that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.


UP Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level
meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were
present here Monday. A presentation on the project was made.


Significantly, the project was initiated during the previous tenure
of Chief Minister Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the
backburner during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime.


“Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,” Misra told IANS.


He said: “Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land.


“The government had already started the acquisition process. The
whole project would not involve any major displacement of people and not
more than 70-80 farmers would be involved,” he said.


“We have worked out a handsome rehabilitation package for the farmers who would get displaced on account of the project.”




UP to have world’s tallest Buddha statue

Published: Wednesday, 26 March, 2008, 08:05 AM Doha Time

LUCKNOW: World’s tallest Buddha statue will be installed in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Chief
Minister Mayawati has asked officials to speed up acquisition and
transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs10bn project to be
funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.
The state
government will give the land for the project which involves
installation of a 152m tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a
giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art
hospital and a museum.
The project also envisages an entertainment
complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a
five-star hotel.
Uttar Pradesh Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra
presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which
representatives from Maitryi were present here on Monday. A presentation
on the project was made.
The project was initiated during the previous tenure of Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner.
“Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,” Misra said.
“Of
the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about
300 acres while the rest is government land,” he said.- IANS

 


India eNews Logo



From correspondents in Uttar Pradesh, India, 03:33 PM IST



Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.


Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have
directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres
of land required for the Rs.10 billion project to be funded and
undertaken by the global Maitryi group.


Proviuion of land is UP government’s share in the project.


The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue
of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international
university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The
project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood
that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.


UP Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level
meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were
present here Monday. A presentation on the project was made.


Significantly, the project was initiated during the previous tenure
of Chief Minister Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the
backburner during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime.


‘Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,’ Misra told IANS.


He said: ‘Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land.


‘The government had already started the acquisition process. The
whole project would not involve any major displacement of people and not
more than 70-80 farmers would be involved,’ he said.


‘We have worked out a handsome rehabilitation package for the farmers who would get displaced on account of the project.’



India - Uttar Pradesh - Kushinagar Buddhist Site


Kushinagar Buddhist Site

Population : 14,000
Distance : 55km from Gorakhpur

¤ Kushinagar - A Site of Buddhist Parinirvana

KushinagarSituated
in Deoria district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Kushinagara was a small
town in the days of the Buddha. But it became famous when the Buddha
died here, on his way from Rajgir to Sravasti. His last memorable words
were, “All composite things decay. Strive diligently!” This event is
known as the ‘Final Blowing-Out’ (Parinirvana) in Buddhist parlance.
Since then the place has become a celebrated pilgrim centre. It was the
capital of the kingdom of the Mallas, one of the 16 Janapadas (see
Sravasti).

¤ Places of Interest

Muktabandhana Stupa
The
Muktabandhana Stupa was built by the Mallas just after the Buddha’s
death. It is built over the sacred relics of the Buddha himself. The
Stupa is also known as Ramabhar Stupa and is 50 ft tall. It is believed
that the Stupa was built on the spot where the Buddha was cremated.

Nirvana Stupa
1km west of the Muktabandhana Stupa is the
Nirvana Stupa that was built in the days of Ashoka. It was renovated in
1927 by the Burmese Buddhists. In front of the Stupa is the
Mahaparinirvana Temple in which is installed a colossal sandstone statue
of the Buddha in the reclining position. It was built by the Mathura
school of art and was brought to Kushinagar by a Buddhist monk named
Haribala during the reign of Kumaragupta (c. a.d.415-454).


Kushinagar
   
Kushinagar

Once in Kushinagar, it appears that time has come to
a complete halt. This sleepy town, with its serenity and unassuming
beauty, absorbs visitors into a contemplative mood. It is this place
that the Buddha had chosen to free himself from the cycles of death and
life and, therefore, it occupies a very special space in the heart of
every Buddhist.
Location
Kushinagar is situated in the north
Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 51 km off Gorakhpur. The place, which is
famous for the Mahaparinirvana (death) of Lord Buddha, has been included
in the famous Buddhist trail encompassing Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and
Nepal.
Kushinagar is also known as Kasia or Kusinara. The founder of
Buddhism, Lord Buddha passed away at this place near the Hiranyavati
River and was cremated at the Ramabhar stupa. It was once a celebrated
center of the Malla kingdom. Many of its stupas and viharas date back to
230 BC-AD 413. when its prosperity was at the peak. The Mauryan emperor
Ashoka added grandeur to this place by getting the magnificent statue
of Buddha carved on a single piece of red sandstone. Fa Hien, Huen
Tsang, and I-tsing, the three famous Chinese scholar travelers to India,
all visited Kushinagar.

With the decline of Buddhism, however, Kushinagar lost its
importance and suffered much neglect. It was only in the last century
that Lord Alexander Cunningham excavated many important remnants of the
main site such as the Matha Kua and Ramabhar stupa. Today, people from
all over the world visit Kushinagar. Many national and international
societies and groups have established their centers here.

Climate
Like other places in the Gangetic plain, the
climate of Kushinagar is hot and humid in the summers
(mid-April-mid-September) with Maximum Temperature touching 40-45°C.
Winters are mild
and Minimum Temperature in December can go down to
around 5°C. Monsoon reaches this region in June and remains here till
September

Population
Around 22,35,505 people live here

Language
Hindi and Bhojpuri

 
Places of Interest

Mahaparinirvana Temple
The
Mahaparinirvana temple (also known as the Nirvana temple) is the main
attraction of Kushinagar. It is a single room structure, which is raised
on a platform and is topped by a superstructure, which conforms to the
traditional Buddhist style of architecture. The Mahaparinirvana temple
houses the world famous 6m (19.68 ft) long statue of the reclining
Buddha.

This statue was discovered during the excavation of 1876 by British
archaeologists. The statue has been carved out from sandstone and
represents the dying Buddha. The figures carved on the four sides of the
small stone railing surrounding the statue, show them mourning the
death of Lord Buddha. According to an inscription found in Kushinagar,
the statue dates back to the 5th century AD.
It is generally believed
that Haribala, a Buddhist monk brought the statue of the reclining
Buddha to Kushinagar, from Mathura during 5th century, during the period
of the Gupta Empire.

Nirvana Stupa
The Nirvana stupa is located behind the
Mahaparinirvana temple. British archaeologists discovered this brick
structure during the excavation carried out in 1876. Subsequent
excavations carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
unearthed a copper vessel, which contained the remains of Lord Buddha
apart from precious stones, cowries and a gold coin belonging to the
Gupta Empire. The copper vessel bore the inscription that the ashes of
Lord Buddha had been interred here.

Mathakuar Shrine
The Mathakuar Shrine is an interesting
place to visit in Kushinagar. It is located near the Nirvana stupa. A
statue of Buddha made out of black stone was found here. The statue
shows Buddha in the Bhumi Sparsha mudra (pose in which Buddha is
touching the earth with his fingers). It is believed that Lord Buddha
preached his last sermon here before his death.

Ramabhar Stupa
The Ramabhar Stupa (also known as the
Mukutabandhana stupa) is a 14.9 m (49 ft) tall brick stupa, which is
located at a distance of 1 km from the Mahaparinirvana temple. This
stupa is built on the spot where Lord Buddha was cremated in 483 BC.
Ancient Buddhist scriptures refer this stupa as the Mukutabandhana
stupa. It is said that the Malla rulers, who ruled Kushinagar during the
death of Buddha built the Ramabhar stupa.

Modern Stupas
Kushinagar has a number of modern stupas
and monasteries, which have been built, by different Buddhist countries.
The important shrines worth visiting are the Chinese stupa and the
IndoJapan-Sri Lankan Buddhist Centre.

Kushinagar Museum
The Kushinagar Museum (Archaeological
Museum) is located near the IndoJapan-Sri Lankan Buddhist Centre. The
museum has a collection of artefacts like statues, carved panels etc
excavated from various stupas and monasteries in Kushinagar and places
around it.

 
Excursion
Gorakhpur
Fifty-one kilometers
off Kushinagar is Gorakhpur, an important city of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
At Gorakhpur is the Rahul Sanskrityayan Museum, which has an excellent
collection of Thanka paintings and relics of the Buddha. The water
sports complex at Ramgarh Tal Planetarium and the Gorakhnath Temple in
the city are also worth a visit.

Kapilavastu (Piprahwa)
Situated 148 km from Kushinagar
and is an important Buddhist pilgrimage. Kapilavastu was the ancient
capital of the Sakya clan ruled by Gautama Buddha’s father.

Lumbini
Situated in Nepal at a distance of 122 km from
Gorakhpur, Lumbini is the birthplace of Lord Buddha. There are regular
buses to the Nepalese border, from where the remaining 26 km has to be
covered by private vehicles

How to get there
Airport
The nearest airhead is located at Varanasi from where one can take flights to Delhi, Calcutta, Lucknow, and Patna.

Rail
Kushinagar does not have a railway station. The
nearest railway station is at Gorakhpur (51 km), which is the
headquarters of Northeastern Railways and linked to important
destinations. Some important trains to Gorakhpur are
Bombay-Gorakhpur-Bandra Express, New Delhi-Barauni-Vaishali Express,
Cochin-Gorakhpur Express, Shaheed Express, Amarnath Express, and
Kathgodam Express.

Road
Kushinagar is well connected to other parts of the
state of Uttar Pradesh by bus. The distances from places around are :
Gorakhpur (51 km), Lumbini (173 km), Kapilavastu (148 km), Sravasti (254
km), and Sarnath (266 km), and Agra (680 km).



BUDDHIST HEARTLAND  

Enlightening Odyssey


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It was a prediction that
set it off. Terrified that his son might one day renounce the world to
become a great seer, King Suddhodhana of the Shakyas, a small kingdom in
the Terai region of Nepal, shielded the young Prince Siddhartha from
the evil of the world by keeping him within the confines of his palace,
in the embrace of material comforts and loving care. From his very birth
in 623 BC, in a garden at Lumbini close to the Shakya capital of
Kapilavastu, portent’s revealed that the young man’s fate was sealed for
higher things than dealing with the earthly concerns and the business
of a king.

It was chance too that rolled the dice in favour of
the spiritual world, and Prince Siddhartha was a willing pawn when he
rejected his regal life. It was an amazing journey that would transform
the deeply troubled prince into the great Buddha, the Enlightened One,
culminating in his release from the endless cycle of rebirths, at
Bodhgaya in Bihar. His great quest would become the core of an important
religious movement.

Buddhism - Charismatic Formula

For kings and commoners, criminals and courtesans,
Buddhism had the power and strength to transform their lives forever.
This is beautifully illustrated in the legendary commitment to Buddhism
of King Ashoka, after the bloody battle of Kalinga in Orissa. The great
king was enthusiastic in spreading the Buddha’s message of peace and
enlightenment across the length and breadth of his vast empire, reaching
from present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.

Buddhism was to travel from its home in India’s eastern Gangetic
region of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa to encompass Sri Lanka and the
countries of South East Asia, then onto the Himalayan countries of
Bhutan, Nepal and Tibet, even far-flung Central Asia, China and Japan,
under the umbrella of royal patronage and the dedication of its vast
community of monks, teachers and artists.

The essence of Buddhism is embodied in the concept of the 4 noble
truths and the 3 jewels (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) via the 8-fold path to
salvation and peace Anticipating his death in his 80th year Buddha urged
his followers, especially his chosen disciples, to continue his work
after his imminent Mahaparnirvana the attaining of nirvana
(enlightenment). As a reminder of his difficult journey and its ultimate
goal, he prevailed upon them to visit the four important places that
were the cornerstones of his great journey - Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Sarnath,
and Kushinagar.

The spread of Buddhism down the centuries was to leave in its wake a
wealth of symbolic structures, including sculpted caves, stupas (relic
shrines), chaityas (prayer halls) viharas (monasteries), mahaviharas
(universities) and numerous art forms and religious literature. The
arrival of Guru Padamasambhava, in the 8th century, was a major impetus
in the spread of Buddhism in the Himalayan region.

Today, both pilgrims and tourists can enjoy the special appeal of
these myriad experiences, in the Buddhist Heartland of Bangladesh,
Bhutan, India, and Nepal. From the moment of his birth, his teachings,
spiritual struggle, attainment of enlightenment, great meditations, and
message of peace and non-violence, are as relevant to our life and times
as it was in his day.

Buddhism - Jewels of the Lotus

Almost a hundred years later there emerged various
schools of Buddhist thought evolving somewhat from the Buddha’s original
precepts. The most prominent amongst these were the Mahayana School,
the Theravada School (based on the old Hinayana School) which flourished
in Sri Lanka and established itself quite quickly in many South East
Asian countries, and the Vajrayana School with its Tantric features,
which spread to the Himalayan regions of Bhutan, Nepal and Tibet.

Lumbini, Sarnath, Bodhgaya and Kushinagar are the
primary pilgrimage places associated with the life and teachings of the
Lord Buddha. There are numerous other sites where the Buddha and the
saints that followed travelled during his life after his transformation,
which are held in deep veneration. Visitors can travel through this
Buddhist Heartland today, to savour the splendid beauty and great appeal
of Buddhism.

FOOTSTEPS OF LORD BUDDHA

The greatest impetus to Buddha’s teachings came from
the Indian King Ashoka who went on a great pilgrimage visiting the
important sites that are directly associated with his life, in the
Footsteps of Lord Buddha. Primary amongst these holy places are Lumbini
in Nepal, and Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar in India. The
international Buddhist community has been active in supporting these
important religious centres. There are other places of lesser
significance on the Footsteps of Lord Buddha visitor circuit associated
closely with Buddha’s life. Amongst these are Buddha’s monsoon retreats
of Vaishali, Rajgir and Sravastii in India, and his early home at
Tilaurakot in Kapilavastu Nepal.

Primary Patronage

Lumbini. Lumbini in southern Nepal is where Queen
Mayadevi gave birth to Prince Siddhartha. It is just a short distance
from the Shakya capital of Kapilavastu. Pilgrimages focus on the sacred
garden which contains the site of the birth, the Mayadevi temple, the
Pashkarni pond and the Ashoka pillar. Designed by Japanese architect
Kenzo Tange, the sacred garden of Lumbini is a World Heritage Site with
monasteries from many Buddhist nations. It is recognised as a supreme
pilgrimage site and symbol of world peace.

Bodhgaya. It was in Bodhgaya in Bihar, India that
Prince Siddhartha found Enlightenment (nirvana) under the bodhi tree
after meditating for 49 days. No longer a bodhisattva (mentor), he
became Lord Buddha, the Enlightened One.

Primary points of homage are the Mahabodhi Temple,
the Vajrasan throne donated by King Ashoka, the holy Bodhi Tree, the
Animeshlochana chaitya, the Ratnachankramana, the Ratnagaraha, the
Ajapala Nigrodha Tree, the Muchhalinda Lake and the Rajyatna Tree. The
spiritual home of all Buddhists, devotees from many Buddhist countries
have built temples around the complex in their characteristic
architectural styles. Bodhgaya today is a vibrant and inspiring tourist
attraction.

Sarnath. Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath
after achieving enlightenment, about 10 km from the ancient holy city of
Varanasi. The sermon, setting in motion the wheel of the teaching
(dharamchakrapravartna) revealed to his followers the 4 noble truths,
the concept of the 3 jewels of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha via the 8 fold
path, for inner peace and enlightenment. It was here that the Buddha
established his first disciples (sangha) to promote his new doctrine.
The splendid Dhamekha Stupa at Sarnath was originally erected by King
Ashoka, as was the famous lion capital pillar, now the proud symbol of
India.

Kushinagar. At Kushinagar close to Gorakhpur in
eastern Uttar Pradesh, India en route to Kapilavastu, Lord Buddha fell
ill and left this world in 543 BC. His mortal remains were preserved in
eight commemorative chortens, and then further distributed by King
Ashoka into 84,000 stupas across his kingdom and beyond. Important
places to see here are the Mukatanabandhana stupa and the Gupta period
reclining Buddha statue in red sandstone.

Mobilising Mantras & Sutras

The Buddha preached his last sermon before his death
at Vaishali in Bihar, 60 km away from its capital Patna. It was here
that he told his disciple Ananda about his imminent demise. The Second
Buddhist Council was held in Vaishala about 110 years later.

About 70 km from Bodhgaya, Rajgir was Buddha’s
monsoon retreat for 12 years whilst he spread his doctrine. It was at
the holy Griddhikuta Hill that he expounded the precepts of his Lotus
Sutra and the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra. The Saptaparni Caves set on
Vaibhar Hill were the venue of the First Buddhist Council, held to
compile the teachings of the Buddha in its authentic form, after his
death. The world-renowned university of Nalanda is another important
landmark site.

About 150 km from the city of Lucknow in Uttar
Pradesh, Shravasti was Buddha’s favourite rainy season retreat where he
Buddha performed his first miracle.

The Ties That Bind

Around Lumbini in Nepal are seven other pilgrimage
sites. The first thirty years of Buddha’s life were spent at Tilaurakot
in Kapilavastu in his father’s home, 27 km west of Lumbini in Nepal. The
well-preserved city foundations are evocative of former times, and the
casket recovered from the original stupa is preserved in the nearby
museum. About 34 km northeast of Lumbini is Devdaha whose Koliya people
are considered to be the maternal tribesmen of the Buddha. The forest of
Sagarhawa lies northwest of Niglihawa. Another important site is the
stupa at Kudan, 5 km from Tilaurakot, where Buddha’s father King
Suddhodhana met him after his enlightenment.

LIVING BUDDHISM

The trans-Himalayan regions of Bhutan, India, and
Nepal are strongly rooted in the Buddhist faith. In Dharamsala, in the
Kangra Valley, lives his Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, spiritual leader
of all Tibetan Buddhists. Visitors can enjoy Living Buddhism experiences
throughout the region, whether as a student of Buddhism, meditation and
yoga, or as a layperson attracted by the vibrant culture, people and
festivals.

Eastern Himalayas-The Lotus Blooms Still

Kathmandu Valley is an important Buddhist pilgrimage
circuit with 15 major sites. It is a living center of Buddhist learning
with many new monasteries and schools that attract funding and visitors
from all over the world. The most important Living Buddhism sites are
Swayambhunath and Bodhnath stupas, both with strong links to Tibet.
Protected as World Heritage Sites, they are the most revered spiritual
sites in the country, attracting thousands of pilgrims. Many of the
indigenous Newar people of Kathmandu practice a unique form of Buddhism,
unrelated to Tibet.

In the northern regions of Nepal, Tibetan Mahayana
Buddhism continues to flourish and there are many monasteries and sacred
sites. Many of these are in Mustang and Dolpa districts. The important
monasteries Thyangboche, Thame, Chiwong and Thupten Choeling are in the
Everest region of Solu Khumbu.

In the Buddhist kingdom of Bhutan, HM the King is
considered equal in status to the religious leader, the Jekhenpo. The
depth and vibrancy of the Buddhist faith is reflected in everyday life.
Devotees revere Guru Padmasambhava as the second Buddha. Bhutan’s
monastery fortresses (dzongs) are an integral feature of governance, and
the repository of precious treasures of ancient literature, scriptures
and art. The great dzongs of Thimphu, Paro, Punakha and Wangdi Phodrang,
amongst many others, offer a fabulous journey for both pilgrim and
tourist to explore Bhutan’s colourful history and spiritual splendour.
An added temptation for the visitor is the fabulous repertoire of
cultural activities associated with the Kingdom’s renowned festivals
(tsechus).

A short distance from Paro is the renovated Taktsang
monastery, the venerated location of Guru Rimpoche’s (Padmasambhava)
deep meditation before subduing evil demons. Kyichu Lakhang in Paro and
Jambay Lakhang in Bhumtang are amongst Bhutan’s most important and
oldest Buddhist sites. The famous tsechu festivities are marked by
prayers and religious dances, colourful costumes, morality tales, and
invocations of protection against evil forces. Dungtse Lakhang is
reputed for its fabulous collection of religious paintings .The
spectacular Punakha dzong is the winter seat of the monkhood, and houses
numerous sacred artifacts and important temples.

Living Buddhism flourishes in northern India, home
of the Dalai Lama. Set amongst the splendid heights of the Eastern
Himalayas in Arunachal Pradesh is the remote Tawang Monastery. Amongst
the native inhabitants, the Monpas and the Sherdupkens people keep alive
the Buddhist faith from ancient times. This 17th century monastery is
the largest of its kind in India and the second largest in Asia. The
hill town of Bomdila offers local handicrafts and religious artifacts,
and ancient monasteries

Other North East states also have Buddhist
attractions. In the shadow of Mt Khangchendzonga, Buddhism flourishes in
the sacred landscape of Sikkim which is dotted with 107 monasteries and
many sacred stupas. Amongst the most important are Rumtek, the home of
the Kagyupa sect, Pemayangtse, Tashding and Enchey. The monastery at
Chungtang marks the footprint of Guru Padamasambhava when he rested en
route to Tibet. Recently, the world’s tallest statue of Guru Rinpoche
has been erected at Namchi. The people celebrate their faith during the
chaam (masked) dances at the great festivals.

Surviving Buddhist Enclaves

Bangladesh is now largely Muslim, but the country
has important pockets of Buddhist communities that date back to the 7th
century, especially in the region of Chittagong, the Chittagong Hill
Tracts, Cox’s Bazaar, Noakhali and Barisal. There are at least 50
Buddhist settlements surviving from the 8-12th century in the
Mainamati-Lalmai range at Tipera, Laksham and Comilla

ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY

The great journey of Buddhism throughout its
2,500-year history has manifested itself in a profusion of creative
energy in its art, archaeology and architecture. These include
beautifully painted holy caves, statues and sculpted heads, bas reliefs,
mandalas, thangkas (religious paintings) and frescos, stupas and
chortens, fine chaityas, viharas, mahaviharas and temples that offer the
traveller cross-border cultural pickings that are as enriching as they
are moving.

The earliest form of Buddhism had no iconoclastic
roots. Buddha himself was regarded as a teacher not a God. When Buddha
attained nirvana he was represented only in the form of symbols such as
the lotus, the bo (peepul) tree, and the wheel.

Buddha as an icon emerged through the influence of
the Mahayana School of Buddhism, and the mystical and highly symbolic
Tantric form of the Vajrayana School. Vajrayana culture flourished at
Bodhgaya, Nalanda and Vikramshila around the 8-9 BC. Buddhist Nalanda
enjoyed the patronage of several dynasties of kings but was annihilated
by the Turks in the 12th century. Tantric ritual and mysticism relied
heavily on sutras and tantras - secret practices linked with the mandala
(magical diagram). It saw the inclusion of occult concepts woven
intricately into the rapidly expanding pantheon of Buddha images of gods
and goddesses.

The Dharma and the Kings of old Bengal

Bangladesh enjoyed the fruits of early Buddhist
thought and art. Buddhism received enormous support during the Pala,
Chandra and Deva rulers, devout Buddhists, who were responsible for
erecting a cavalcade of commemorative monuments. Amongst them was the
important university of Paharpur, now archaeological remains about 300
km from Dhaka. Along with Nalanda University in Bihar, India it was an
important centre of Buddhist teaching. Other important archeological
sites in Bangladesh are at Mahastangar, Comila, Mainamati, and Ramu.

Pillars, Sculpted Caves and the Pledge of a King

The earliest form of Buddhist architecture is
visible in the sculpted caves, monastic retreats that were in effect
temples of great spirituality. The caves at Udaygiri, Ratnagiri and
Lalitagiri in Orissa and the Barabar caves in Bihar are an excellent
example of how the art form developed. At Dhauli, the site of the great
battle of Kalinga fought by King Ashoka, 8 km from Bhubaneswar, stands
Ashoka’s rock edict revealing his pledge to become a Buddhist.

Stupas, Chortens, Chaityas, Viharas and Dzongs

The splendour of the stupas at Sarnath, Bodhgaya,
Bodhnath, Nalanda and other important Buddhist sites are an evocative
message of Buddha’s teachings. The Dhamekha stupa at Sarnath is a
cylindrical structure dating to the golden age of the Guptas (320 AD).
It features the typical floral design on stone of Gupta workmanship.
Nepal’s Swayambhunath features traditional Nepalese architectural design
with its tall steeple mounting the dome, representing the 13 Buddhist
heavens.

Chortens and viharas, stupas in miniature, were
originally meant to preserve the relics of the Buddha or great Buddhist
teachers. Excellent examples of the early viharas were those at
Vaishali, Rajgir and Shravasti. Some of the most powerful mahaviharas
were Nalanda and Vikramshila in Bihar, India and Paharpur in Bangladesh.

In Bhutan the great dzongs were ideal for keeping
precious Buddhist treasures and also as monastic retreats thanks to
their isolation and invincibility. These imposing structures with their
tapering walls, courtyards and galleries have been created with
traditional designs handed down verbally from generation to generation,
No nails mar their creation.

Buddhist Centres of Learning

With the advent of the Mahayana school, the
world-renowned university of Nalanda became an important centre for
Buddhist learning, along with Pahapur, attracting scholars from around
the known world. Nalanda enjoyed the patronage of several dynasties of
kings but was annihilated by the Turks in the 12th century. It’s an
amazing experience walking across the vast grounds of the ruins with its
great stupa and other monastic structures.

Sculptures & Paintings - Messengers of the Buddha

The first images of Buddha were formed at Gandhara
and show decidedly Hellinistic features (defined by drapery and
hairstyle) due to the trade and cultural links with Mediterranean Europe
at the time. With the emergence of the Mathura school, close to Agra,
the features of the Buddha became more indigenous, inspired by the
traditional yakshis and yakshas sculptural forms. In Bhutan, and Nepal
the elements of the highly symbolic Vajrayana Buddhist style of
iconography, so popular in the 10th-11th century, were however
discontinued around the 14th century in exchange for a less complex
range of artistic vision but which still retained its vibrancy and
colourful splendour.

The massive Mahasthangarh archeological remains (240
km from Dhaka) throw light on the development of Buddhist art and
architectural leanings in Bangladesh. This fortified city of the 3rd
century BC, extending over an 8 km radius, is the earliest documented
urban civilization of Bangladesh. Within easy reach are the Buddhist
ruins of Govind Bhita, Gokul Medh Stupa and the Vasu Vihara monastery.
The greatest collection of early Pala sculptures have been found in the
Paharpur monastic complex at the central temple of the renowned Somapura
Mahavihara.

At the tomb of Saint Shah Sultan Mahi Swar Balkhi,
were discovered 40 bronze statues representing Buddhist deities, and
terracotta plaques with scenes from the Ramayana. The Mainamati Museum
houses an extensive range of finds from these Buddhist sites. The Salban
Vihara in the Mainamati-Lalmai hills has a complex of 115 cells around a
central courtyard with its cruciform temple facing the gateway complex,
resembles the Paharpur monastery. Kotila Mura houses three stupas
representing the holy Trinity of Buddhism - the Buddha, Dharma and
Sangha. From Rupban Mura was recovered an early standing Buddha in
abhaya mudra.

The yellow-bronze statuary of Bhutan reflects
influences in bronze-casting from the craftsman who settled here from
the eastern Tibetan province of Kham, in the 16th century. Bhutanese
painters are still sought after to decorate religious buildings all over
the region.

The splendid innovation in the use of colour and
expressive elements of Buddhist art down the ages is amply recorded in
the fabulous thangkas or religious paintings of Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and
the trans-Himalayan regions of India. Objects of veneration and an aid
to meditation, thangkas are traditional scroll paintings on cotton cloth
with vegetable and precious mineral dyes. Buddhas, Boddhisatvas, Taras
and numerous estoteric subjects reflect the artist’s vision of his
Buddhist world. Embellishments with the lotus motif and themes from the
Jataka Tales (lives of the Buddha) are a recurring form of imagery and
inspiration for paintings.

The fantastic range of Buddhist art and archaeology
in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, carries the visitor on a
splendid journey that marks some of the most evocative and dynamic
aspects of the Buddhist faith. Time and tide have worked upon the
measures of the emerging artistic trends, but at the core of it remain
the Buddha’s basic tenets - of self-discipline and balance as a means to
the ultimate goal of the human being - the release from the endless
cycle of rebirth-pain and suffering and finding the great peace.





Giant Face-lift of World’s Tallest Buddha Statue
2001.04.18 16:25:03
   CHENGDU, April 17 (Xinhuanet) – Looking through the cobweb-shaped
platforms wrapped around the head and chest of a 71 meter-tall 
seated Buddha statue, the backs of repair experts’ are seen while 
they are busy painting dark-red clay, which will be the new 
lipstick on the Buddha’s huge mouth.
   Like a slow motion, another expert with a safety rope is sent 
down in mid-air from the base of the 8 meter-long middle finger of
the statue’s left hand to the statue’s 8.5 meter-high flat instep 
of the left foot, where 100 people could sit. 
   This is just one scene of an ongoing facelift project on the 1,
280 year-old Buddha statue in Leshan, a city in southwest China’s 
Sichuan Province.
   Carving of the Buddha started in 713 A.D. and was completed in 
803 A.D., in the prosperous period of the Tang Dynasty (618-907).
   The statue was included in the World Cultural Heritage List 
under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization (UNESCO) in 1996.
   The Buddha statue, which sits on a cliff overlooking the 
merging of the three rivers: Minjiang, Qingyijiang and Daduhe. The
statue is 71 meters from top to bottom and 28 meters from left to 
right. It is 18 meters higher than the standing Buddha statue at 
Bamian Valley, Afghanistan, once thought to be the highest of its 
kind in the world.
   Over the past 1,000 years, erosion has become a major threat to
the statue. Owning to damage by natural environment changes and 
human activities, six major repairs on the giant Buddha statue 
have been carried out since ancient times.
   Before the largest repair project, which was initiated early 
this month, Xinhua reporters visited the famous sitting Maitreya, 
which looked in need of immediate repair and attention. 
   ”Some coiled bobs on the head of the statue fell down, weed 
coated on its surface rocks, and the face was darkened,” the 
reporters recalled.
   But the reporters visited it again this week and it looks very  shiny and new after two weeks of repair.
   The 1,000 color-faded bobs on the Buddha’s head have been 
painted black, the drainage system has been dredged and the big 
crack going from the right eye to the back of its head  has been 
fixed. 
   ”The crack use to cause the Buddha to burst into tears on rainy
days,” said Zeng Zhiliang, an engineer of ancient architecture, 
who climbed up onto the 10-story-high statue everyday to conduct 
repair work.
   When the reporters followed Zeng to have a closer look and 
touch the Buddha’s cheek, they could feel the smoothness and 
brightness of the repaired surface of its’ face. 
   The black spots on the face of the Buddha, caused by erosion  have disappeared after a thorough cleaning,” Zeng said.
   At the Buddha’s neck, which 60 meters high from the base of the
statue, an expert is using a small hammer to carefully knock 
mantlerocks, rocks which have become loose on the statue due to 
erosion, away from the statue surface. With a safety rope, the 
expert is crouching in the narrow space of the platform 
constructed around the statue. 
   After knocking it free, he has to use a brush and water to wash
the spot and piece it up with repair material. To achieve the 
perfect result, this procedure has to be repeated three or four  times.
   According to Zeng, the experts also take photos on the 
mantlerocks in order to set up archives on the statue’s original 
form and the repair work done. 
   The most difficult parts in the face-lift are the giant facial 
features, Zeng said, for example, the Buddha’s nose is the 
combined size of several persons. 
   ”If there is no accurate technique and skills, harmonious  proportionment can be hardly realized,” he told the reporters.
   Tourists to the statue are also interested in asking questions  about the repair work. 
   ”How do you mix the face color of the Buddha,” asked Ney Johnn, a German tourist. 
   Zeng’s answer is that the statue was carved out of red  gritstone and covered by skin-color clay.
   ”Why don’t you use chemical paint as my country did on some  historical relics?” Johnn said. 
   Natural repair material, in the same color of the statue, is  
being used, Zeng said, adding that it is a mixture of rocks, 
charcoal, hemp and lime. 
   This is in accordance with China’s law on cultural relics that  chemical materials or cement are banned for repairing relics.
   Chinese leaders have paid close attention to the repair work. 
The repair plan was made by the State Administration of Cultural 
Heritage and seven universities and related cultural relics 
protection research institutes across China. 
   The face-lift project has aroused great attention at home and 
overseas. The UNESCO has sent experts to the repair site, the 
World Bank has provided considerable loans and foreign media 
coverage with Time magazine and New York Times being contacted to 
cover the event.      
   A massive petition signing has been staged here to call for 
efforts to be made to protect the statue. So far, more than 10,000
tourists signed their names on a scroll of silk 71 meters long.
   The Buddha statue management center said the drive has received
a donation of over 300,000 yuan (about 36,000 US dollars) from 
people from all walks of life.
   The first phase of the repair work will be completed by the end
of April. An additional investment of 250 million yuan (about 30 
million US dollars) will be used for the further repair on the 
statue as well as a number of projects to build roads and highways
and control pollution in the area. 
   Experts suggested that the statue should be inspected and 
repaired every five years after this project is completed.   Enditem

Kindly visit:

Buddhacarita

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMohOrbFohY&NR=1

Life of the Buddha in pictures

http://www.beyondthenet.net/buddha/bpicmain.htm



Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket

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