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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā satipaṭṭhāna ] This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice. Note: infobubbles on all Pali words 29) Classical English,Roman
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[
mahā satipaṭṭhāna ] This sutta is widely considered as a the main
reference for meditation practice. Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

29) Classical English,Roman



29) Classical English,Roman

Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe in Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा)

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This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

Sutta Piμaka
(Five nik±yas, or collections)
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house, dwelling).

Dīgha Nikāya[dīgha: long]
The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

Sutta Piμaka
(Five nik±yas, or collections)
1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)
2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]
(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)
4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)
5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)
6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)
10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)
11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]
(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]
(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)
(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)
5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]
(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i
1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26 vaggas)
3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with
some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)
(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular suttas of the Buddha
(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)
(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.
(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i
11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and
the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i
12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])
(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)
(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i
14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)
(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i
16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)
(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i
18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)Abhidhamma Piμaka
[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]
1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the dhammas)
(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i
2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)
(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)
4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.
(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42
5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)
(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)
(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III
7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)
(8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V
(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30
(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7
(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______Bhikkhuni
2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the
Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha
3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism
(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)
2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li
3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]
(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.
Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda — Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā. Note: plain texts

Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception & knowledge arise simultaneously?

Potthapada, perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledgehas arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception.DN 22 - (D ii 290)


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā satipaṭṭhāna ] This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice. Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

English Introduction I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds
II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction

Thus have I heard: 


On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 

– This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā
A. Section on ānāpāna
And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he understands it accordingly.Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 
Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya o phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena\ in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 


Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds
(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead, swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”\ sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(2)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in acharnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, heldtogether by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone, here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone, or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passingaway of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya andpassing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction

Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi.

And what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:

IV. Observation of Dhammas

A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five nīvaraṇas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being kāmacchanda present within, understands: “there is kāmacchanda within me”; there not being kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there is no kāmacchanda within me”; he understands how the unarisen kāmacchanda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being byāpāda present within, understands: “there is byāpāda within me”; there not being byāpāda present within, he understands: “there is no byāpāda within me”; he understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned byāpāda does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thīnamiddhā present within, understands: “there is thīnamiddhā within me”; there not being thīnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no thīnamiddhā within me”; he understands how the unarisen thīnamiddhā comes to arise; he understands how the arisen thīnamiddhā is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned thīnamiddhā does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being uddhacca-kukkucca present within, understands: “there is uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being uddhacca-kukkucca present within, he understands: “there is no uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he understands how the unarisen uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he understands how the arisen uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise in the future

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being vicikicchā present within, understands: “there is vicikicchā within me”; there not being vicikicchā present within, he understands: “there is no vicikicchā within me”; he understands how the unarisen vicikicchā comes to arise; he understands how the arisen vicikicchā is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned vicikicchā does not come to arise in the future.Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five nīvaraṇas.

B. Section on the Khandhas

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five khandhas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rūpa, such is the samudaya of rūpa, such is the passing away of rūpa; such is vedanā, such is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of vedanā; such is saññā, such is the samudaya of saññā, such is the passing away of saññā; such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of saṅkhāra, such is the passing away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is the samudaya of viññāṇa, such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five khandhas.

D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati sambojjhaṅga present within, understands: “there is the sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen sati sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen sati sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pīti sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pīti sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection. There being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

E. Section on the Truths

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the four ariya·saccas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the four ariya·saccas?

E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging is dukkha (sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is disliked is dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to get what one wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various classes of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the arising [in the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas, the acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

And what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various classes of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken [teeth], of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of vitality, the decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

And what, bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various classes of beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of existence], the break up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the passing away, the break up of the khandhas, the laying down of the corpse: this, bhikkhus, is called maraṇa.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the inner sorrow, the inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the state of crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha, bodily unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus, is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha, mental unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the trouble, the despair, the state of being in trouble, the state of being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is called despair.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being associated with what is disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds, tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are unpleasing, not enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s disadvantage, those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s discomfort, those who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment, meeting, being associated, being together, encountering them: this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being associated with what is disagreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being dissociated from what is agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds, tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are pleasing, enjoyable, pleasant, or else those who desire one’s advantage, those who desire one’s benefit, those who desire one’s comfort, those who desire one’s liberation from attachment, not meeting, not being associated, not being together, not encountering them: this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being dissociated from what is agreeable.The eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

And what in the world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.The saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha ariyasacca.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi? That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

And what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā, those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā, abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right means of livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence of confusion, for their increase, their development, their cultivation and their completion, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.

An what, bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsati.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference towards pīti, he abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he abides therein. Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and domanassa having previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with the purity of upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he abides therein. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the four ariya·saccas.

The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas

For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.Let alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for half a month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for a week, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

“This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has it been said, and on the basis of all this has it been said.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.

COVID-19 conspiracy claims, but virus origins still a mystery.
There were still no conclusive answers as to where the disease started.

SARS-CoV-2, now responsible for more than 200,000 deaths worldwide, was synthesised by the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), based in the city where the disease was first identified.

https://srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

Last updated: July 10, 2020, 01:20 GMT
Coronavirus Cases:
12,386,274

Deaths:
557,334
 7,797,212,607Current World Population
73,812,492Births this year
“this year” = from January 1 (00:00) up to now
123,384Births today
30,988,253Deaths this year
51,800Deaths today
42,824,239Net population growth this year
71,584Net population growth today

Coronavirus Updates
World Population

7,797,211,323Current World Population
73,810,278Births this year
121,170Births today
30,987,323Deaths this year
50,870Deaths today
42,822,955Net population growth this year
70,300Net population growth today

Government & Economics

$ 4,772,690,631Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 3,262,452,502Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,481,537,273Public Military expenditure today
41,563,796Cars produced this year
79,482,685Bicycles produced this year
131,676,516Computers produced this year

Society & Media

1,413,075New book titles published this year
150,234,471Newspapers circulated today
210,839TV sets sold worldwide today
2,059,446Cellular phones sold today
$ 92,171,076Money spent on videogames today
4,613,943,002Internet users in the world today
83,042,016,595Emails sent today
2,200,085Blog posts written today
246,747,163Tweets sent today
2,295,348,602Google searches today
Environment

2,740,010Forest loss this year (hectares)
3,688,794Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
19,054,666,635CO2 emissions this year (tons)
6,322,460Desertification this year (hectares)
5,159,327 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment this year (tons)

Food

844,374,263Undernourished people in the world
1,695,880,785Overweight people in the world
760,735,328Obese people in the world
9,712People who died of hunger today
$ 184,040,891Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA today
$ 60,036,953Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA today

Water

2,299,833,513Water used this year (million L)
443,652Deaths caused by water related
diseases this year
799,649,852People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy

148,229,923Energy used today (MWh), of which:
126,181,680- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
22,322,134- from renewable sources (MWh)
928,816,064,264 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
30,401,924Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,503,366,359,684Oil left (barrels)
15,678Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,094,850,490,316Natural Gas left (boe)
57,624Days to the end of natural gas
4,314,971,657,937Coal left (boe)
148,792Days to the end of coal

Health

6,839,223Communicable disease deaths this year
256,887Seasonal flu deaths this year
4,004,502Deaths of children under 5 this year
22,407,624Abortions this year
162,839Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,933,441HIV/AIDS infected people
885,643Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
4,326,856Deaths caused by cancer this year
516,763Deaths caused by malaria this year
4,807,174,183Cigarettes smoked today
2,633,666Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,317,664Deaths caused by alcohol this year
564,950Suicides this year
$ 210,759,742,811Money spent on illegal drugs this year
711,173Road traffic accident fatalities this year

    BIRTH, OLD AGE, SICKNESS, ILLNESS, DEATH ARE CERTAININTIES    May all be Happy, Well and Secure!    May all have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that Everything is Changing!    
May all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal and Rest in Peace
as they followed the following original words of the Buddha the Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19                

1. Comoros,2. North Korea,3. Yemen,4. The Federated States of Micronesia,5. Kiribati,6. Solomon Islands,7. The Cook Islands,8. Micronesia,9. Tong,10. The Marshall Islands Palau,11. American Samoa,12. South Georgia,13. South Sandwich Islands,14.SaintHelena,Europe,15. Aland Islands,16.Svalbard,17. Jan Mayen Islands,18. Latin America,19.Africa,20.British Indian Ocean Territory,21.French Southern Territories,22.Lesotho,23.Oceania,24.Christmas Island,25. Cocos (Keeling) Islands,26. Heard Island,27. McDonald Islands,28. Niue,29. Norfolk Island,30. Pitcairn,31. Solomon Islands,32. Tokelau,33. United States Minor Outlying Islands,34. Wallis and Futuna Islands,35.Tajikistan,36. Turkmenistan,37. Tuvalu,38. Vanuatu
as they are following the original words of the Buddha Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness:
        Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4. priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata, 7. Samyutta Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima Nikaya,10. arya” or “ariy, 11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21. Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,27. Samsara,28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31. Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37. Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,40. dhammamahamatras, 41.IV. Observation of Dhammas,42.Assamedha,43.Sassamedha,44.Naramedha,45.Purisamedha,46.Sammapasa,47.Vajapeyya,48.Niraggala,49.Sila,50.Samadhi,  51.Panna, 52.Samma-sankappa,53.Sigalovada Sutta,54.Brahmajala Sutta,55.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya,56.Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

May all be Happy, Well and Secure!May all live Long!May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding that Everything is Changing!

The Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The TathagataGive people time.Give people space.Don’t beg anyone to stay.Let them roam.What’s meant for you willalways be yours.

https://tricycle.org/magazine/buddhist-food-cupcake/

Where Word’s Hunger Struggle Is Headed

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems”
received a magicAtchaya Pathiram
(begging bowl) , which always gets filled.

Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that

 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”  

Manimekalai converted the prison into a hospice to help the needy, teaches the king the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of the epic, Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other ideas to her.

Volunteers must become full-time members to fullfill the vision & aspiration of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya Pathram. Must be committed to the cause currently and involve in strategy, growth, and governance of Akshaya Patra.

The journey so far and what the future holds in the mission to end hunger for children and adults in the world. Technology must be  used in mass production for the fantastic results. Other initiatives of the Akshaya Patra must help children and adults from underprivileged backgrounds achieve their dreams.

 All the Governments all over the world allot funds for the governance of Akshaya Patra and order all the vans used by postal department, police vans to supply provisions, vegetables and food in edible food packs till all the curfews are removed.

The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership with the Governments all over the world India and various State Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates, individual donors, and well-wishers have to help Manimekali Akshya Pathram to serve millions of underprevilaged children and adults.Picture a life in which your every waking moment is spent searching for food. Your belly is distended and your limbs are emaciated like a starving child’s. Your hunger is ceaseless and painful, but your throat is no wider than the eye of a needle. When you find food, you can’t swallow it. Not even a bite. The hunger persists, and your search continues. Such is the fate of pretas in Buddhist tradition—the hungry ghosts.These poor souls were reborn this way because in past lives they were driven by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance. While you might find yourself checking a few of these boxes on any given day, in Buddhism you have to take such vices to the extreme to end up with such a tortured existence—like committing murder in a jealous rage. So no need to panic.It’s a tradition in many Asian cultures to leave offerings of food for the hungry ghosts. But this doesn’t really help. It turns out these ghosts aren’t really searching for food. Or they are, but their search is misguided. Hunger for the ghosts has nothing to do with food, and everything to do with what they did in their previous time on earth. There’s plenty of food for them, but they can’t eat it. Like every religious parable, there’s an important lesson here: it’s not food they really need.Back here in the human realm, we still look to food to do much more than nourish our bodies and satisfy our hunger. We turn to food in times of great joy and great sadness. When something wonderful happens, we celebrate with a dinner out. We drink champagne, we eat cake, we splurge on nice meals. Food becomes part of the rejoicing. And the opposite is true, too. There’s a long tradition of providing food to those who are grieving. We band together to provide meals to friends in crisis—you may, at some point in your life, have signed up on a spreadsheet or email thread to bring meals to someone mourning, someone recovering, someone struggling. In times of sadness, we instinctively want to provide comfort in a tangible way. And very often, we do that with food.Food is there for all of it—the good times and the bad. And to some extent, it makes sense. It’s fun to go out and celebrate a raise, an anniversary, or a graduation. And it feels right that when people are truly suffering, the last thing they should worry about is putting together a meal. In these moments of tragedy or triumph, food is a worthy and welcome ally.The problem comes when we use food to comfort and reward ourselves when the stakes are much, much lower. Finally I got the kids to sleep, now I can eat those cookies I’ve been eyeing. That big meeting today was a mess, time for a big glass of wine. These mundane highs and lows are challenging. But they are not worthy of great sadness or great celebration. Or, really, food.Related: Read a collection of Tricycle Teachings on Food And we know it, too.

Imagine going out for dinner to celebrate fixing the washing machine. Or delivering a meal to a friend who had a bad sunburn. It sounds ridiculous. But we still give ourselves mini-rewards for minor successes, and mini-comforts for minor irritations—and they often involve food. We won’t buy ourselves a celebratory cake, but we might well take a slice if there’s some in the refrigerator. Or we might find ourselves a bag of chips or a cold beer. Each of these could easily be several hundred calories. And worse still, it’s generally at the end of a long day that we find ourselves wanting this reward or comfort—the worst possible time for our bodies. Do that regularly, and it adds up fast.There’s a reason we do this, of course. Food is a natural reward. Think of Ivan Pavlov and his studies of classical conditioning in dogs—he trained them with food. The comfort foods we usually turn to—the ones full of starch and sugar—are scientifically proven to improve our mood. Ever hear someone refer to a particularly enticing snack as being “like crack”? Eating tasty food seems to activate the same parts of the brain as addictive drugs and even cause the release of natural opiates. Studies have shown that carbohydrates in particular increase serotonin release, the chemical in the body that boosts mood. The more serotonin, the better you feel. Fatty foods are the same. Brain scans of participants in a 2011 study, who were fed either a solution of fatty acids or a saline solution via a feeding tube, showed that those who got the fatty acids had less activity in the areas of the brain that controlled sadness, even after listening to “sad classical music.” (Yes, people actually volunteered for this study—with sad music and a feeding tube.)So what’s wrong with that? Better than actual crack at least, right? If food really does help with our mood, isn’t that a good thing?Yes and no. But mostly no. Remember those hungry ghosts? They get a bit of relief when they taste the food on their tongues. So do you, studies tell us—and you’re luckier than the hungry ghosts because at least you can swallow your chocolate. But that relief is temporary. The bad day still lingers, smothered by the brownie, pretzel, or muffin. And just like the hungry ghosts, you aren’t really looking for food. What the ghosts truly want is relief from the void created by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance—yet they keep trying to fill that empty feeling with food, even though it never works. Sound familiar?Not only are these self-soothing snacks not all that soothing, but when we use food to comfort and provide relief from stress, we’re using it at a time when we can least afford the calories. A recent Ohio State University study of 58 healthy middle-aged women revealed that experiencing one or more stressful events the day before eating a single high-fat meal actually slowed their metabolism. And not just a little—enough to “add up to almost 11 pounds across a year” according to the authors. Stress seems to cause the body to freak out and cling to the calories, thinking it might need them later. This may be a biological holdover from times of famine, or when we weren’t all that sure when we’d spear our next woolly mammoth. Whatever we’re stressed about today—whether an ill loved one, a struggling relationship, a financial burden, or a lousy job—probably won’t cause us to starve tomorrow. But our bodies haven’t evolved to know the difference.And it gets worse. Overeating for any reason often leads to these same negative emotional states that then trigger more overeating. A study of both normal-weight and overweight women in Germany found that they felt sadness, shame, and anxiety after eating high-calorie foods—with the overweight women reporting the most intense emotional responses. So we overeat when we’re sad or stressed, then get more sad and stressed when we overeat. In between, we gain weight, which is also associated with depression and makes everything worse. It’s another vicious cycle of “overeating, weight gain, and depressed mood.”Related: I Tried the Buddhist Monk Diet—And It Worked Luckily, there are many ways to deal with stress. The healthiest approach is to take steps to address the actual cause. That may mean facing the reality of a bad relationship, or seeking out a new job, or saying no to commitments that have you stretched too thin. Social diversion—basically hanging out with friends or family—also works well. In fact, of all the ways to distract yourself, this seems to be the most effective.What psychologists call “emotion-oriented coping” is the most dangerous. This is when you blame yourself, daydream, fantasize, and otherwise ruminate on your miserable life. Maybe lying in bed listening to sad music. Don’t do that. This often leads to emotional eating—perhaps because it just doesn’t work on its own. Awful-izing rarely makes us feel better.On the other hand, meditation and mindfulness—a few minutes of pure silence and peace—have been shown to help significantly. Similarly, studies of yoga for relieving stress and anxiety are very promising, and have even shown that yoga can reduce preoccupations with food for those with serious eating disorders. Physical exercise has long been known to improve our moods, and also seems to help us fight anxiety. Exposure to nature helps many people. You may have to try several things before you find something that works for you. But don’t let yourself use food as your cure.You will slip up, of course, now and again. These are hard habits to break. But think carefully about just how often you are engaging in these behaviors, and see them for what they are—a temporary fix that can cause a lasting problem. And remember the lesson of the hungry ghosts. The unsettled self can never be sated with food.

♦From Buddha’s Diet: The Ancient Art of Losing Weight Without Losing Your Mind, by Tara Cottrell and Dan Zigmond, © 2016.

Reprinted with permission of Running Press, an imprint of Perseus Books, a division of PBG Publishing, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group.

There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom. Gautama Buddha Zen famously says: when hungry, eat; when tired, sleep. But all things in moderation - as the Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death.

UN News

Over 820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge Economic Development

After nearly a decade of progress, the number of people who suffer from hunger has slowly increased over the past three years, with about one in every nine people globally suffering from hunger today, the United Nations said in a new report released on Monday.

This fact underscores “the immense challenge” to achieving the Zero Hunger target of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, according to the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019.

The report, launched on the margins of the High-level Political Forum (HLPF) – the main UN platform monitoring follow-up on States’ actions on the SDGs – currently under way in New York, breaks down statistics by region, and shows that hunger has risen almost 20 per cent in Africa’s subregions, areas which also have the greatest prevalence of undernourishment.

Although the pervasiveness of hunger in Latin America and the Caribbean is still below seven per cent, it is slowly increasing. And in Asia, undernourishment affects 11 per cent of
the population.

 Although southern Asia saw great progress over the last five years, at almost 15 per cent, it is still the subregion with the highest prevalence of undernourishment.

“Our actions to tackle these troubling trends will have to be bolder, not only in scale but also in terms of multisectoral collaboration,” the heads of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World

Health Organization (WHO) urged in their joint foreword to the report.

Hunger is increasing in many countries where economic growth is lagging, particularly in middle-income countries and those that rely heavily on international primary commodity trade. The annual UN report also found that income inequality is rising in many of the countries where hunger is on the rise, making it even more difficult forthe poor, vulnerable or marginalized to cope with economic slowdowns and downturns.

“We must foster pro-poor and inclusive structural transformation focusing on people and placing communities at the centre to reduce economic vulnerabilities and set ourselves on track to ending hunger, food insecurity and all forms of malnutrition,” the UN leaders said.Food insecurity
This year’s edition of the report takes a broader look at the impact of food insecurity – beyond hunger.
It introduces, for the first time, a second indicator for monitoring Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 2.1 on the Prevalence of Moderate or Severe Food Insecurity that shows that 17.2 per cent of the world’s population, or 1.3 billion people, lacked regular access to “nutritious and sufficient food”.
“Even if they were not necessarily suffering from hunger, they are at greater risk of various forms of malnutrition and poor health”, according to the report.The combination of moderate and severe levels of food insecurity brings the estimate to about two billion people, where in every continent, women are slightly more food insecure than men.
Low birthweight still a major challenge Turning to children, the report disclosed that since 2012, no progress has been made in reducing low birthweight.
Additionally, while the number of under-age-five children affected by stunting has decreased over the past six years by 10 per cent globally, the pace of progress is too slow to meet the 2030 target of halving the number of stunted children.
Furthermore, overweight and obesity continue to increase throughout all regions, particularly among school-age children and adults. Income inequality increases the likelihood of severe food insecurity – UN report
To safeguard food security and nutrition, the 2019 report stresses the importance to economic and social policies to counteract the effects of adverse economic cycles when they arrive, while avoiding cuts in essential services.
It maintains that the uneven pace of economic recovery “is undermining efforts to end hunger and malnutrition, with hunger increasing in many countries where the economy
 has slowed down or contracted”, mostly in middle-income nations.

Moreover, economic slowdowns or downturns disproportionally undermine food security and nutrition where inequalities are greater.

The report concludes with guidance on what short- and long-term policies must be undertaken to safeguard food security and nutrition during episodes of economic turmoil or in preparation for them, such as integrating food security and nutrition concerns into poverty reduction efforts using pro-poor and inclusive structural transformations. Solving India’s hunger problem The Supreme Court has agreed to examine a plea that starvation deaths continue to eat into the right to life and dignity of social fabric and a “radical” new measure like community kitchens need to be set up across the country to feed the poor and the hungry.

A Bench led by Justice N.V. Ramana issued notice on Monday to the government on the petition filed jointly by activists Anun Dhawan, Ishann Dhawan and Kunjana Singh, represented by advocates Ashima Mandla and Fuzail Ahmad Ayyubi. State-funded community Asskhaya Patra kitchens must be the  novel concept in all countries. For combating starvation and malnutrition crisis every locality must have Akshaya Patra kitchens along with the existing hotels and bakeries.

https://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/English-Texts/Buddhist-Legends/15-05.htm

Book XV. Happiness, Sukha VaggaXV. 5. The Buddha feeds the Hungry 01203. Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.This religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Āḷavi with reference to a certain lay disciple.

For one day, as the Teacher seated in the Perfumed Chamber at Jetavana {3.262} surveyed the world at dawn, he beheld a certain poor man at Āḷavi. Perceiving that he possessed the faculties requisite for attaining the Fruit of Conversion, he surrounded himself with a company of five hundred monks and went to Āḷavi.

The inhabitants of Āḷavi straightway invited the Teacher to be their guest. That poor man also heard that the Teacher had arrived and made up his mind to go and hear the Teacher preach the Law. But that very [30.75] day an ox of his strayed off. So he considered within himself, “Shall I seek that ox, or shall I go and hear the Law?” And he came to the following conclusion, “I will first seek that ox and then go and hear the Law.” Accordingly, early in the morning, he set out to seek his ox.The residents of Āḷavi provided seats for the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, served them with food, and after the meal took the Teacher’s bowl, that he might pronounce the words of thanksgiving. Said the Teacher, “He for whose sake I came hither a journey of thirty leagues has gone into the forest to seek his ox which was lost. Not until he returns, will I preach the Law.” And he held his peace.While it was still day, that poor man found his ox and straightway drove the ox back to the herd. Then he thought to himself, “Even if I can do nothing else, I will at least pay my respects to the Teacher.” Accordingly, although he was oppressed with the pangs of hunger, he decided not to go home, but went quickly to the Teacher, and having paid obeisance to the Teacher, sat down respectfully on one side. When the poor man came and stood before the Teacher, the Teacher said to the steward of the alms, “Is there any food remaining over and above to the Congregation of Monks?” “Reverend Sir, the food has not been touched.” “Well then, serve this poor man with food.” So when the steward had provided that poor man with a seat in a place indicated by the Teacher, he served him dutifully with rice-porridge and other food, both hard and soft. When the poor man had eaten his meal, he rinsed his mouth.(We are told that with this single exception there is no other instance on record in the Three Piṭakas {3.263} of the Tathāgata’s having thus inquired about the supply of food.) As soon as the poor man’s physical sufferings had been relieved, his mind became tranquil. Then the Teacher preached the Law in orderly sequence, expounding one after another the Four Noble Truths. At the conclusion of the lesson, the poor man was established in the Fruit of Conversion.

Then the Teacher pronounced the words of thanksgiving, and having so done, arose from his seat and departed. The multitude accompanied him a little way and then turned back.The monks who accompanied the Teacher were highly indignant and said, “Just consider, brethren, what the Teacher did. Nothing of the sort ever happened before. But to-day, seeing a certain poor man, the Teacher inquired about the supply of food and directed that food to be given to another.” The Teacher turned around, stopped, [30.76] and said, “Monks, what are you saying?” When he heard what they were saying, he said to them, “It is even so, monks. When I came hither a journey of thirty leagues, a long and difficult journey, my sole reason for coming hither was the fact that I saw that this lay disciple possessed the faculties requisite for the attainment of the Fruit of Conversion. Early in the morning, oppressed with the pangs of hunger, this man went to the forest and spent the day in the forest seeking his ox which was lost.

Therefore I thought to myself, ‘If I preach the Law to this man while he is suffering from the pangs of hunger, he will not be able to comprehend it.’ Therefore was it that I did what I did. Monks, there is no affliction like the affliction of hunger.” So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza,203.

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”
 
“When one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
 Instead of avoiding it,
 Learn to embrace it.
 Without pain,
 there is no growth”Friends

https://tricycle.org/magazine/buddhist-food-cupcake/

Give people time.
Give people space.
Don’t beg anyone to stay.
Let them roam.What’s meant for you will
always be yours.

Happiness, Sukha Vagga

 The Buddha feeds the Hungry

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;
If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

 Lord Buddha’s Ideals Have Solutions To Challenges Faced By World Today.

The eight-fold path of Lord Buddha shows the way towards the well-being of societies and nations.

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems”
received a magic Atchaya Pathiram
(begging bowl) , which always gets filled.

Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that
 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”

There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom.
Gautama Buddha

Zen famously says: when hungry, eat; when tired, sleep.
But all things in moderation - as the Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death.

Manimekalai converted the prison into a hospice to help the needy, teaches the king the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of the epic.

Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other ideas to her.

Volunteers must become full-time members to fullfill the vision & aspiration of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya Pathram. Must be committed to the cause currently and involve in strategy, growth, and governance of Akshaya Patra.

The journey so far and what the future holds in the mission to end hunger for children and adults in the world. Technology must be  used in mass production for the fantastic results. Other initiatives of the Akshaya Patra must help children and adults from underprivileged backgrounds achieve their dreams.

All the Governments all over the world allot funds for the governance of Akshaya Patra and order all the vans used by postal department, police vans to supply provisions, vegetables and food in edible food packs till all the curfews are removed.

The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership with the Governments all over the world,India and various State Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates, individual donors, and well-wishers have to help
Manimekali Akshya Pathram to serve millions of underprevilaged children and adults.

Picture a life in which your every waking moment is spent searching for food.

Your belly is distended and your limbs are emaciated like a starving
child’s. Your hunger is ceaseless and painful, but your throat is no
wider than the eye of a needle. When you find food, you can’t swallow it. Not even a bite. The hunger persists, and your search continues.
Such is the fate of pretas in Buddhist tradition—the hungry ghosts.
These poor souls were reborn this way because in past lives they were driven by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance. While you might find yourself checking a few of these boxes on any given day, in Buddhism you have to take such vices to the extreme to end up with such a tortured existence—like committing murder in a jealous rage. So no need to panic.  

It’s a tradition in many Asian cultures to leave offerings of food for the hungry ghosts. But this doesn’t really help. It turns out these ghosts aren’t really searching for food.

Or they are, but their search is misguided. Hunger for the ghosts has nothing to do with food, and everything to do with what they did in their previous time on earth. There’s plenty of food for them, but they can’t eat it. Like every religious parable, there’s an important lesson here: it’s not food they really need.

Back here in the human realm, we still look to food to do much more than nourish our bodies and satisfy our hunger. We turn to food in times of great joy and great sadness. When something wonderful happens, we celebrate with a dinner out. We drink champagne, we eat cake, we splurge on nice meals. Food becomes part of the rejoicing.

 And the opposite is true, too. There’s a long tradition of providing food to those who are grieving. We band together to provide meals to friends in crisis—you may, at some point in your life, have signed up on a spreadsheet or email thread to bring meals to someone mourning, someone recovering, someone struggling. In times of sadness, we instinctively want to provide comfort in a tangible way. And very often, we do that with food.Food is there for all of it—the good times and the bad. And to some extent, it makes sense. It’s fun to go out and celebrate a raise, an anniversary, or a graduation. And it feels right that when people are truly suffering, the last thing they should worry about is putting together a meal. In these moments of tragedy or triumph, food is a worthy and welcome ally.

The problem comes when we use food to comfort and reward ourselves when the stakes are much, much lower. Finally
I got the kids to sleep, now I can eat those cookies I’ve been eyeing.
That big meeting today was a mess, time for a big glass of wine. These mundane highs and lows are challenging. But they are not worthy of great sadness or great celebration. Or, really, food.

UN News

 Over 820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

“When one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
Instead of avoiding it,
Learn to embrace it.
Without pain,
there is no growth”

As the world fights extraordinary challenges, their lasting solutions can come from the ideals of Lord Buddha. In his first sermon at Sarnath, Lord Buddha referred to hope and purpose. For Lord Buddha, it was the removal of human suffering.

We have to rise to the occasion and do whatever we can to increase hope among people.

If You Give a Buddhist a Cupcake
tricycle.org
If You Give a Buddhist a Cupcake…
An excerpt from Tara Cottrell and Dan Zigmond’s new book Buddha


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