Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU)
From Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat White Home 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Punya Bhumi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -PRABUDDHA BHARAT
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Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DMAOAU) The Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The Tathagata Give people time. Give people space. Don’t beg anyone to stay. Let them roam. What’s meant for you will always be yours. “Hunger is the worst kind of illness.” “The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.” There is no fire like passion No crime like hatred, No sorrow like separation, No sickness like hunger, And no joy like the joy of freedom. Gautama Buddha Zen famously says: when hungry, eat; when tired, sleep. But all things in moderation - as the Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death. Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering; If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness. Fear What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness quotes teach us about fear? Trade your fear for freedom. “Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.” “The whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.” “When one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear. ”Pain is a Gift Instead of avoiding it, Learn to embrace it. Without pain, there is no growth”Friends ‘Ram temple site in Ayodhya a Buddhist Sthal’-The Political Undertones of Choosing August 5 for Ayodhya Ram Temple ‘Bhoomi Pujan’ COMMONLY USED ANTI-ASTHMATIC HERBS IN SIDDHA MEDICINE Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta— Attendance on awareness — in 29) Classical English,Roman,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 6:15 am


Discovery of Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DMAOAU) 


The Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The Tathagata
Give people time.
Give people space.
Don’t beg anyone to stay.
Let them roam.
What’s meant for you will always be yours.
 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.” 

There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom.

Gautama Buddha Zen famously says:
when hungry, eat;
when tired, sleep.
But all things in moderation -
as the Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death.

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”
 
“When
one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one
finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these
feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
 Instead of avoiding it,
 Learn to embrace it.
 Without pain,
 there is no growth”Friends


‘Ram temple site in Ayodhya a Buddhist Sthal’-The Political Undertones of Choosing August 5 for Ayodhya Ram Temple ‘Bhoomi Pujan’



                 COMMONLY USED ANTI-ASTHMATIC HERBS IN SIDDHA MEDICINE


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta— Attendance on awareness — in    29) Classical English,Roman,

https://www.hindustantimes.com/lucknow/ram-temple-site-in-ayodhya-a-buddhist-sthal/story-aDrCNpNa4sRnkI72niQ2hP.html

‘Ram temple site in Ayodhya a Buddhist Sthal’

Ancient
artefacts found during the land levelling work at Ram Janmabhoomi in
Ayodhya on Thursday proved that it was a Buddha Sthal (Buddhist
pilgrimage site),‘Dhamma Cakka’ and ‘Stupas’ recovered from the site
bore testimony.

Supreme court verdict as the Apex Court had said
it was a matter of faith though the status quo was not maintained as per
our Marvelous Modern Constitution without getting the area studied
properly by a team of ASI so that historical facts were not distorted as
evidence prove that the place is a centre of Buddhism. The ‘Dhamma
Cakka’ and ‘Stupas’ found at the site of proposed temple is a clear
evidence.

It is a historical fact that Faxian, the Chinese Buddhist
monk who had travelled to Prabuddha Bharath , had written about the
presence of 100 Ashoka Stupas in Ayodhya. Save historical facts and not
let it get distorted.

The ground levelling work at the proposed site of Ram temple construction started from May 11.

Caption Ancient artefacts recovered from proposed site of ram temple in Ayodhya recently.
 
Historical artifacts recovered from proposed site of ram temple in Ayodhya recently.

https://thewire.in/politics/ayodhya-ram-temple-august-5-bhoomi-pujan

The
Political Undertones of Choosing August 5 for Ayodhya Ram Temple
‘Bhoomi Pujan’Members of the temple trust also indicated that
construction will likely be completed around the time of the 2024
general elections.

Politics20/Jul/2020Lucknow: August 5 has been
finalised as the date for the Ram Mandir ‘bhoomi pujan’ in Ayodhya – a
decision that comes with political undertones.The date marks the first
anniversary of the revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s special
constitutional status with the reading down of Article 370 of the
constitution, a long-standing demand of the Sangh parivar and one that
predates even its Ram temple movement by decades.By linking these two
events in this fashion, it is clear that a political message is being
sent.In recommending August 3 and 5 as the preferred dates for a grand
‘bhoomi pujan’ ceremony, members of the Ram Janmbhoomi Teerth Kshetra
Trust described these as “auspicious” days.While the trust spokespersons
did not give details on why these dates are “auspicious” – especially
at a time when the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic is raging and lockdown
and Unlock 2.0 restrictions prohibit religious and other large
gatherings – the political leverage that a quick ‘bhoomi pujan’  could
yield cannot be underrated.Not only do the rules prohibit large
gatherings but persons over the age of 65 are “advised to stay at home
except for essential and health purposes.” Among the “100-150” persons
expected to attend the event are Murderer of democratic institutions
& Master of diluting institutions (Modi), who is 69, and Rajnath
Singh, also 69 own mother’s flesh eaters, slaves, stooges, chamchas,
cheals remotely controlled by just 0.1% Intolerant, violent, militant,
crooked, cunning, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob
lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners kicked out from Bene
Israel, Tibet, Afrika, Eastern Europe, Western Germany, Northern Europe,
South,Russia,Hungary, etc, chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam
Sevaks (RSS) remotely control such Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP)  the
fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections to enslave Judiciary, Election
Commission, Parliament, Executive and the Media to the chitpavan
brahmins who will be forced to quit Prabuddha Bharath by 99.9% All
Aboriginal Awakened Societies to save Democracy, Liberty, Equality and
Fraternity as enshrined by our Marvelous Modern Constitution.  

It
is hard to see how a boomi pujan for a temple project that has been in
abeyance for years can be considered “essential”. Except, of course, for
politics.The BJP (Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths) hopes a definite move
towards the construction of the Ram temple could give it mileage in the
state elections in Bihar later this year and even in West Bengal in
2021, where hindutva will be a major poll plank for the party.It has
also been noted that by the time the temple site in Ayodhya a Buddhist
Sthal  is built on the site where the Babri Masjid once stood, it will
likely be time for the 2024 national elections.The trust members met in
Ayodhya on Saturday evening under the chairmanship of former top
bureaucrat Nripendra Misra. While 11 members were present in Ayodhya,
the remaining four joined through video conferencing.A retired UP-cadre
IAS officer, Misra is former principal secretary to Modi and has held
several key assignments, including chairman of the Telecom Regulatory
Authority of India (TRAI). Earlier, he also served as principal
secretary to two ideologically diverse UP chief ministers – the
Samajwadi Party’s Mulayam Singh Yadav and BJP’s Kalyan Singh.

Ironically,
he was principal secretary to Mulayam when the latter ordered firing on
hindutva karsevaks in Ayodhya in 1990. Earlier this year, he was named
chief executive officer of the trust which has been entrusted with the
task of temple construction.While Misra kept himself away from media, it
was trust general secretary Champat Rai and member Kameshwar Chaupal
who came forward to make announcements. “We have proposed two dates –
August 3 and 5 – for ‘bhoomi pujan’ and now it is up to the Modis office
to decide which of these suits the prime minister, as we are very keen
that he is here on that auspicious occasion,” said Chaupal.

Significantly,
Chaupal’s association with the Ayodhya temple dates back to 1989, when
he was specially brought to do the ‘shilaniyas’ of the temple during the
then Congress regime. Citing his Scheduled Caste, a own mother’s flesh
eater, slave, stooge, chamcha, chela, bootlicker of chitpavan brahmins
 lineage, 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies proclaim how they had
chosen a person from the socially downtrodden community to lay the
foundation stone of the Ayodhya temple.Rai disclosed how the entire plot
of 67 acres had been levelled as a part of preparations for building
the temple.

According to him, “leading construction company
Larsen and Toubro was already on the job doing testing of the soil etc.,
while architect Chandrakant Sompura who had prepared the original
design for the temple was giving final touches to the plan in accordance
with the suggestions made by the trust”.He said, “As per the final
plan, the temple will now have five domes instead of the initially
proposed three; even the height of the temple is proposed to be raised
from the original plan of 128 feet to 161 feet.”Sompura, whose family is
credited with the design of several prominent temples across the
country, is now in his 80s, but still quite enthused about giving a
final shape to the shrine.According to Rai, “Since a bulk of the stones
required for the temple were sculpted and ready, the construction of the
temple could be completed between 36 to 42 months.”

Significantly,
that would mean by the middle or end of 2023 – just about six months
before the next general elections in 2024. What kind of bearing the
completion of the new Ram temple will have on electoral outcomes can be
anybody’s guess.

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati held a
public rally in Chhattisgarh’s Bilaspur on Saturday. In her address at
the event, Mayawati said, “Closer to elections the building of Ram
Mandir is gathering heat. Even if they (BJP) build a Ram Mandir in Uttar
Pradesh or more Ram Mandirs all across the nation, BJP-RSS will not
gain any political advantage out of it. #Mayawati #RamMandir #Ayodhya

राम
मंदिर को लेकर मायावती का भी बयान सामने आया है.. छत्तीसगढ़ विधानसभा
चुनाव प्रचार के दौरान मायावती ने कहा की राम मंदिर मुद्दे से इस बार न तो
बीजेपी को और न ही आरएसएस को फायदा होने वाला है… राम मंदिर से इस बार
पार्टियों को राजनीतिक लाभ नहीं मिलेगा…

https://youtube.com/watch?v=pTiZagu-n9s


Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi पर Buddhists का दावा, SC में याचिका दायर | वनइंडिया हिन्दी
Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi पर Buddhists का दावा, SC में याचिका दायर |…
Buddhists
Stake Claim To Ayodhya Dispute Land. Members of the Buddhist community
have filed a petition before the Supreme Court claiming that the
disputed la…
youtube.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rpEKWakAFm8

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https://www.hindustantimes.com/lucknow/ram-temple-site-in-ayodhya-a-buddhist-sthal/story-aDrCNpNa4sRnkI72niQ2hP.html

‘अयोध्या में राम मंदिर स्थल एक बौद्ध स्थल’

गुरुवार
को अयोध्या में राम जन्मभूमि पर भूमि समतलन के दौरान पाए गए प्राचीन
प्रमाणों से साबित होता है कि यह एक बुद्ध स्थली (बौद्ध तीर्थ स्थल), ‘धम्म
काक्का’ और ‘स्तूप’ स्थल से बोर की गवाही से बरामद हुआ था।

सर्वोच्च
न्यायालय के फैसले के रूप में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय ने कहा था कि यह विश्वास
का विषय है, हालांकि एएसआई की एक टीम द्वारा इस क्षेत्र का ठीक से अध्ययन
किए बिना हमारे अद्भुत आधुनिक संविधान के अनुसार यथास्थिति को बनाए नहीं
रखा गया था, ताकि ऐतिहासिक तथ्यों को विकृत न किया जाए क्योंकि साक्ष्य
नहीं हैं यह स्थान बौद्ध धर्म का एक केंद्र है। प्रस्तावित मंदिर की जगह पर
पाया गया ‘धम्म काक्का’ और ‘स्तूप’ एक स्पष्ट प्रमाण है।
यह एक
ऐतिहासिक तथ्य है कि प्रबुद्ध भरथ की यात्रा करने वाले चीनी बौद्ध भिक्षु
फैक्सियन ने अयोध्या में 100 अशोक स्तूपों की उपस्थिति के बारे में लिखा
था। ऐतिहासिक तथ्यों को बचाएं और इसे विकृत न होने दें।

राम मंदिर निर्माण के प्रस्तावित स्थल पर ग्राउंड लेवलिंग का काम 11 मई से शुरू हुआ था।


https://www.nhp.gov.in/eraippu-erumal-bronchial-asthma-_mtl
 
ERAIPPU ERUMAL (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA) 

Asthma
is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways.
 Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during
childhood.

Common signs and symptoms of asthma include: ·        

Coughing often worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep.

·         Wheezing, a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs during breathing.

·         Chest tightness, the feeling of something squeezing or sitting on chest. ·        
 Shortness of breath.

SIDDHA CONCEPT

Asthma
is mentioned as “Eraippu Noi” in siddha literature, which is classified
in to five types depending on the deranged humour (kuttram) and
clinical features present.

1.       Vazhi eraippu noi:  Because
of increased state of vatham humour due to intake of indigestible food,
tubers etc, mild discomfort in breathing occur. This is a less severe
form of the disease and easily curable.

2.       Iya eraippu
noi: This occurs due to increased state of kabam humour due to intake of
kabam accumulating food and exposure to rain and cold wind. Common
symptoms are nasal block, runny nose followed by chest tightness,
inability to lie down on the bed etc.

3.       Iyavazhi eraippu
noi: In this type both vatham and Iyam humours are affected and it
produces symptoms like shortness of breath, constipation, bloating,
mental distress, disorientation, unconsciousness etc.

4.      
Mukkuttra eraippu noi: All three humours are affected and cause
depletion of all the 7 udal thathukkal, chest tightness and pain,
frequent loss of consciousness, constipation and urinary retention etc.

5.
      Mel nokku eraippu noi: This type is the most severe form and
usually does not respond to any common methods of treatment, causing
symptoms like severe dyspnoea, inability to speak and loss of
consciousness. Unless immediate medical attention is given, this can
cause even death.

CAUSE AND PATHOLOGY

According to
siddha system of medicine, cause of any disease is attributed to the
derangement of humours. Likewise, in the case of asthma, the disease is
attributed to the derangement of kabam humour. Some of the factors that
cause increase of kabam humour are exposure to cold wind and allergens,
staying/living in high altitudes like hilly places and walking in the
dew. The amplified kabam humour alone or otherwise associated with other
deranged humours, either vatham or pitham, affects the throat, nose,
respiratory airways and lungs. Due to the increased kabam, mucus
secretion is increased, causing mild fever and other symptoms.


The
following lines in sadaga nadi prove this, தானமுள்ள
சேத்துமநதானிளகிய………………………….. சுவாசம் பாங்கான
வாதத்தில் சேத்தும நாடி பரிசித்தால்……………………… சுவாசகாசம்
In this disease one of the constituents of vazhi (vatham) namely
uthanan is also increased from its normal state (uthanan occupies the
chest, neck and nasal regions of the body). So usually derangement of
vazhi (vatham humour) is also associated with the deranged kabam humour.

MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION

The deranged humour, primarily kabam and
then vatham is normalized by giving emetic or purgative. Usually in
clinical practice, one of the juice of adathodai (Justicia beddomei) or
thulasi (Ocimum sanctum) or uthamani (Pergularia daemia) leaves is given
in more than normal dosage, to induce vomiting and remove the mucus
that is present in excess quantity.

Then suitable medicines are
prescribed to reduce the symptoms as well as to cure the disease. In
siddha literature, various herbal drugs either single or compound and
herbo-mineral drugs are mentioned for the management of bronchial
asthma. Some herbs which are used to treat bronchial asthma are given
below                 COMMONLY USED ANTI-ASTHMATIC HERBS IN SIDDHA
MEDICINE Botanical name Family
Siddha Name Part used Boswellia serrata
Burseraceaea Kundhirikkam Gum
resin Calotropis gigantean Apocynaceae
Erukku Roots Clerodendrum
phlomidis Lamiaceae Thazhuthalai
Leaves Vitex negundo Lamiaceae
Nochi Leaves Solanum
xanthocarpum Solanaceae Kandankatri
Flower Piper longum Piperaceae
Thipili Flower Moringa
oleifera Moringaceae Murungai
Roots Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae
Sirukanpeelai Aerial parts Mimosa
pudica Fabaceae Thottarsinungi
Roots Clerodendrum serratum.


In
addition to this, there are many more poly herbal, mineral and animal
source medicines which are used in the treatment of this disease.

1.
      Pavazha parpam, Muthu parpam, Velli parpam, Muthuchippi parpam,
Thalaga karuppu, Chembu parpam are some of the formulations of mineral
origin prescribed for this disease.

2.       Swasakudori
mathitai, Magavasantha kusumaagaram mathirai, Poorna chandrothaya
mathirai, sambraanipoo mathirai are some medicines in tablet form used
to treat this disease.    

All the above medicines should be
given in appropriate medium (anupanam), in one of the juices of tulasi
(Ocimum sanctum), kandankathiri (Solanum xanthocarpum), adathodai
(Justicia adhatoda), kanchankorai (Ocimum album), karisalai (Eclipta
prostrate), ponnankani (Alternanthera sessilis), uthamani (Pergularia
daemia), thumbai poo (flower of Leuces aspera), Impooral (Oldenlandia
unbellata) and manathakkali (Solanum nigrum).

3.       For
childhood asthma which is called as sooli kanam in a siddha text called
Balavagadam, Amirthasanjeeevi kuligai, a polyherbal formulation is found
to be effective.

4.       Adhathodai chooranam is specially
indicated for Bronchial Asthma which comprises  ingredients such as
athimathuram (Alpinia galanga Wild), arathai (Alpinia officinarum
Hance), adathodai (Justicia adhatoda Linn), kanchori (Tragia involucrata
Linn), thippili(Piper longum Linn), shambirani(Styrax benzoin Dryand),
manjal (Curcuma longa Linn), kottam (Costus speciosus), vaivilangam
(Embelia ribes Burm.f), kanduparangi (Clerodendrum serratum),
korai(Cyperus rotundus Linn), kalathi(Ficus tsiela Roxb), velakkai
(Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz), thuthuvalai (Solanum trilobatum Linn),
kandangattari (Solanum surattence Burm.f), milagu (Piper nigrum Linn).

5.       Linga mathirai, a mineral preparation is also
effective in this disease. Scientific studies done on guinea pigs also
reveal that, Linga mathirai significantly protected the Guinea pigs
against histamine-induced bronchospasm.

6.       Experimental
study also reveals that another drug Maha punnai ver kuligai; a
herbo-mineral preparation has potent broncho dilator property with
significant mast cell stabilizing activity in experimental animals.

7.
      Clinical trials of another herbo-mineral formulation named
Thuthuvalayathy chooranam demonstrate the efficacy of the drug in
treating this disease.

SOME SIMPLE HOME REMEDIES:

Decoction
of arisi thipilli (Piper Longum) and pulp of vilampazham (wood-apple
–Limonia acidissima) reduces the difficulty in breathing.

A cup of venthayam (fenugreek) decoction with a spoonful of honey and fresh ginger juice acts as an excellent expectorant.

Turmeric gives good result when its powder is added with a cup of milk daily.

Decoction
of leaves of puthina (Mentha arvensis) and thulasi (Ocimum sanctum),
one or two times a day would be helpful. Juice of thulasi (Ocimum
sanctum) leaves can be consumed with honey.

Eating Thoothuvalai powder (Solanum trilobatum) with honey regularly may prevent the onset of the disease.

External
application of karpoorathy oil in chest and back helps to relieve the
phlegm accumulated in the chest and aids breathing freely.

Pranayamam,
the breathing excercise mentioned in kayakarpam is highly recommended
for strengthening the respiratory system, reducing the stress of day to
day life and prevention of the disease.

Note: Consultation of a qualified siddha medical practitioner is mandatory for optimal results.

References: http://www.thesiddha.com/top-10-best-herbal-remedies-for-asthma/

http://siddham.in/bronchial-asthma-siddha-medicine-treatment 1)

Vetha
merlin kumari H, Adhathodai chooranam: siddha medicine indicated for
iya eraippu noi (bronchial asthma) – a review, World Journal of
Pharmaceutical Research, volume 4, issue 3, 802-848

2) D. P.
Sangeetha, Anti-histamine activity of Amirtha sanjeevi kuligai (pill)
Int. J. Ayur. Pharma Research, 2014; 2(5): 22-26.

3)
P.Parthiban, K.Samraj, K.Kanakavalli, V.Aruna, M.Aaliya Parveen,
P.Govindammal, A Review on Anti – Asthmatic Herbs in Siddha Medicine,
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 26(1), May – Jun 2014; Article No. 49,
Pages: 291-295

4) P. Parthiban, K. Kanagavalli, P. Sathiya
Rajeswaran, J. Anbu, N. T. Parthiban, Evaluation of Anti-Histaminic and
Bronchodilator Activity of Linga Mathirai (Formal Siddha Drug),
International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, May 2013;
2(5):8-12


5)
Vasantha Kumar P, Pitchiah Kumar, Velpandian, Banumathi, Bronchodilator
and mast cell stabilizer effect of siddha herbo mineral formulation
maha punnai ver kuligai, International Journal of Research in
Pharmaceutical and Nano Sciences. 3(5), 2014, 438 - 443.

6)
Banu.G, Nalini Sofia, Vetha Merlin Kumari, Manickavasakam, Pre clinical
and clinical study on swasakasam (bronchial asthma) and the drug of
choice is Thuthuvalayathy chooranam, IJPBS |Volume 4| Issue
2|APR-JUN|2014|102-108.

7) Kuppusamy Mudaliar K.N, Eraipu noi, Siddha Maruthuvam, Tamil Nadu Siddha Maruthuva variyam, 1987:226-232.

8) K.S. Murugesa Mudaliar, Siddha Materia Medica, Directorate of Indian Medicine & Homeopathy, Chennai-106, 2013.  

PUBLISHED
DATE : Nov 20, 2015PUBLISHED BY : ZahidCREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. G
JEBA SINGH (CREATOR)LAST UPDATED ON : Nov 20, 2015

Discussion


Today Forced face masking is a civil rights offense

Capturing the Master Key

Babasaheb
Dr B.R Ambedkar has said that “political power is the master key using
which you can open all the doors of your progress and self respect”.

If
Foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy/Rakshasa Swayam
Sevaks (RSS) can call this as manusmriti manuvad hindutva land why can
not we declare this land as PRABUDDHA BHARAT for the benefit of All
Aboriginal Societies ?

As we were Buddhists, are Buddhists and continue to be Buddhists.

Just
0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world,
ever shooting, mob lynching foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel,
Tibet, Africa etc., chitpavan brahmin Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS)
grabbed the Master Key through the Murderer of democratic institutions
(Modi) of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) who are least bothered
about civil rights hence force people to wear masks.

The good
news is that people will live for 150 years and all those who are dead
will attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. So why wear masks. The
chitpavan brahmins  hate the word freedom 73 years after Prabuddha
Bharat’s independence.

99.9% All Awakened Aboriginal Societies
experience discrimination ever since the chitpavan brahmins gobbled the
Master Key.99.9% Awakened Aboriginal Societies alone can challenge and
defeat the casteist, communal and pro-capitalist BJP remotely controlled
by chitpavan brahmins of RSS.

Freedom means that those with ability get what the chitpavan brahmins rightfully deserve, irrespective of skin tone or caste.

Freedom of expression is on top of the priority list as of now. Unless you feel free to say what you think, you cannot be free.

Now
again, freedom meanings have broadened. The use of freedom now is about
freedom within Prabuddha Bharat from foreigners chitpavan brahmins by
forcing to quit  Prabuddha Bharath to save Freedom, Democracy, Equality,
Liberty and Fraternity as enshrined in our Marvellous Modern
Constitution.

May all be happy, well and secure!


May all have calm, quiet, alert and attentive and have equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!

May
all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal and Rest in Peace
as they followed the following original words of the Buddha the
Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :

Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19

1.
Comoros,2. North Korea,3. Yemen,4.The Federated States of Micronesia,5.
Kiribati,6. Solomon Islands,7. The Cook Islands,8. Micronesia,9.
Tong,10. The Marshall Islands Palau,11. American Samoa,12. South
Georgia,13. South Sandwich Islands,14.SaintHelena,Europe,15. Aland
Islands,16.Svalbard,17. Jan Mayen Islands,18. Latin
America,19.Africa,20.British Indian Ocean Territory,21.French Southern
Territories,22.Lesotho,23.Oceania,24.Christmas Island,25. Cocos
(Keeling) Islands,26. Heard Island,27. McDonald Islands,28. Niue,29.
Norfolk Island,30. Pitcairn,31. Solomon Islands,32. Tokelau,33. United
States Minor Outlying Islands,34. Wallis and Futuna
Islands,35.Tajikistan, 36. Turkmenistan,37. Tuvalu,38. Vanuatu

as they are following the original words of the Buddha Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness:
Dhammacakkappavattana
Sutta 1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4.
priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata, 7. Samyutta
Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima Nikaya,10.
arya” or “ariy, 11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha
Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16.
Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and
Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21.
Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya
Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,27. Samsara,28.
Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31.
Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha
vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37.
Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,40. dhammamahamatras, 41.IV.
Observation of  
Dhammas,42.Assamedha,43.Sassamedha,44.Naramedha,45.Purisamedha,46.Sammapasa,47.Vajapeyya,48.Niraggala,49.Sila,50.Samadhi,
 51.Panna, 52.Samma-sankappa,53.Sigalovada Sutta,54.Brahmajala
Sutta,55.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya,56.Ambattha Sutta in Digha
Nikaya


https://thinkworth.wordpress.com/2014/02/12/ten-buddhist-principles-of-good-governance/

Ten Buddhist Principles of Good Governance

The 10 virtues of governance are:

Dana:
It is the duty of the rulers to look after the welfare of needy
subjects and to give them food, clothing and other necessities of life.

Sila: Beneficence or sharing – the rulers must conduct himself in private and public life in an exemplary manner.

Pariccaga:
Donations – the grant of privileges by the rulers to those who serve
the nation loyally, acknowledging their loyal service and encourage all
servants of the public to perform in an exemplary manner.

Ajjavan:
Uprightness, the rulers must be absolutely straightforward, never
taking recourse to any crooked or doubtful means to achieve their ends.

Majjavan:
Impartiality, gentleness, the rulers’ straightforwardness and
rectitude, will require firmness, but this should be tempered with
gentleness, and not be over harsh and cruel. A harmonious balance is
required between gentleness and firmness.

Tapan: Composure, the rulers must keep the five senses under control shunning excessive indulgence, follow the middle path.

Akkodha: Non hatred, rulers should not harbour grievances and act with forbearance and love.

Avihimsa:
Non violence – rulers must practice non violence to the greatest extent
that is reconcilable with the obligations of rulers.

Khanti:
Forgiveness, patience, rulers must conduct themselves with patience,
courage and fortitude, in joy, in sorrow, in victory and defeat, act
with magnanimity, calmness and dignity.

Avirohata: Non
revengefulness, non vindictiveness, non enmity and friendship – rulers
must not indulge in ‘bheda’ – divide and rule – acting always in a
spirit of amity and benevolence.

In Buddhist philosophy it is
emphasised that the evil and the good of a people depends on the
behaviour of their rulers, and for the good of the people the 10 Royal
Virtues – Dasa Raja Dharma are to be practiced by the rulers. Further a
virtuous ruler should practice Priyavacana – kindly speech and not use
intemperate language. Artha Chariya – the spirit of service must also be
cultivated, this includes living a simple life and not given to
excesses –the Madyama Pravipadava – the middle path so fundamental to
the Buddha’s teaching. Samanatmata – equality, while retaining the
exalted position of being a ruler, a ruler must consider him in no way
superior to the ruled and dispense justice fairly, without fear or
favour.

No space to exercise absolute power

In the
Buddhist tradition in particular, and in ancient Asian governance in
general, there was no space for the exercise of absolute power by a
ruler. Power was always limited, by convention, by tradition and by
philosophical belief and religious precept. Examples of abuse of power
and tyrannical rule are aberrations which reinforce the generality of
the situation that rulers were subject to conditionality of governance,
the violation of which created resentment, revolt and regime change.

Indeed
King Mahanama of Lanka, in 428 A.C., wrote to the Emperor of the Middle
Kingdom (China), ‘the Son of Heaven,’ in these terms, which well
reflects the philosophy and principles which govern the conduct of the
ideal Buddhist ruler: ‘Our ancient kings considered hitherto the
practice of virtue as their only duty; they knew how to rule without
being severe and honoured the Three Jewels; they governed and helped the
world, and were happy if men practiced righteousness. For myself I
desire respectfully, in concert with the Son of Heaven, to magnify the
good law in order to save beings from the evils of continued existence.’

The
Marquess of Zetland, one time Viceroy of British India, in the
introduction to his book ‘Legacy of India’ says: ‘We know indeed that
political science – Arthashastra in Sanskrit – was a favourite subject
with Indian scholars some centuries before the Christian era. The Social
Contract as the origin of kinship is discussed in the now famous work
attributed to Kautilya, the Chief Minister of the Emperor Chandragupta,
about the year 300 B.C. And it would seem that the people who contracted
for a king in these early days did so in order that there should be
some external authority capable of ensuring that the laws and
regulations
of the various corporate bodies which came into existence were
respected. “The King,” wrote Yajnavalkya, “must discipline and establish
again on the path of duty all such as have erred from their own laws,
whether families, castes, guilds or associations….” It is notable that
tendency towards self government evidenced by these various forms of
corporate activity received fresh impetus from the Buddhist rejection of
the authority of the (chitpavan brahmin) priesthood and further by the
doctrine of equality as exemplified by its repudiation of caste. It is
indeed to the Buddhist books that we have to turn, for an account, of
the manner in which the affairs of these early examples of
representative self governing institutions were conducted. And it may
come as a surprise to many to learn that in the Assemblies of the
Buddhists in Prabuddha Bharat two thousand or more years ago are to be
found the rudiments of our parliamentary practice of the present day.’

Further
the principles of good governance, which results in the right thing
being done the right way at the right time would include: participation
of all groups, including civil society, in the process of government
without exclusion or discrimination, the primacy of the Rule of Law and
equity in the process of investigation, dispute resolution and
adjudication, transparent access to information, responsiveness to the
needs of the governed within a reasonable time frame, tolerance of
different points of view, consultation, compromise and consensus
oriented administration, effectiveness and efficiency in a sustainable
manner, the accountability of public, private and civil society
authorities to their respective stakeholders.

In Sri Lanka we are
the fortunate heirs to a legal system which has been enriched by the
customs and traditions of legal and customary practices from the world
over. The religious influences of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam,
Christianity, the personal laws of the Kandyans, the Jaffna Tamils, the
Muslims and the Mukkuwas and the legal rules of the Roman Dutch law,
English law and United Nations Treaties and Conventions.

Rule of Law

The
late Tom Bingham, who became a life peer as Baron Bingham of Cornhill,
accepted as the greatest English Judge since World War II, was
successively Master of the Rolls, Lord Chief Justice of England and
Senior Law Lord of the United Kingdom, in his monumental work ‘The Rule
of Law’, suggested eight principles which form the core ingredients of
the Rule of Law. They are:

The law must be accessible and so far as possible intelligible, clear and predictable.

Questions
of legal right and liability should ordinarily be resolved by
application of the law and not the exercise of discretion.

The laws of the land should apply equally to all, save to the extent that objective differences justify the differentiation.

Ministers
and public officers at all levels must exercise the powers conferred on
them in good faith, fairly, for the purpose for which the powers were
conferred , without exceeding the limits of such powers and not
unreasonably.

The law must provide adequate protection of
fundamental human rights. Means must be provided for resolving, without
prohibitive cost or inordinate delay, bona fide civil disputes which the
parties themselves are unable to resolve.

Adjudicative procedures provided by the state should be fair.

The Rule of Law requires compliance by the state with its obligations in international law as in national law.

Lord
Bingham succinctly defined the Rule of Law as follows:-’ all persons
and authorities within the state, whether public or private, should be
bound by and entitled to the benefit of laws publicly made…andpublicly
administered in courts’.

On a plain reading of the above, it is
clear that there is a common golden thread running through the Dasa Raja
Dharma, principles of good governance and the Rule of Law. The thread
is, plainly stated, “limitations on the authority of the ruler and the
protection and strengthening of the rights of the subject”.

Prof
.S.A. de Smith, Downing Professor of the Laws of England at Cambridge
University, in his leading work, Constitutional and Administrative Law,
says, on the Rule of Law: ‘One can at least say that the concept is
usually intended to imply (i) that the powers exercised by politicians
and officials must have a legitimate foundation; they must be based on
authority conferred by law; and (ii) that the law should conform to
certain minimum standards of justice, both substantive and procedural.
Sir Alfred Denning, later Justice Lord Denning Master of the Rolls, of
famous legal repute and intellect, in his Hamlyn lecture, Freedom under
the Law, dealing with the powers of the rulers, says: ‘All that the
courts can do is to see that the powers are not exceeded or abused. But
this is a most important task. “All power corrupts. Total power corrupts
absolutely.” And the trouble about is that an official who is the
possessor of power often does not realise when he is abusing it. Its
influence is so insidious that he may believe that he is acting for the
public good when, in truth, all he is doing is to assert his own brief
authority. The Jack-in-office never realises that he is being a little
tyrant.’

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a proud heir to all these
strong legal traditions, which give primacy to the Rule of Law and good
governance. To have a person who professes to hold high legal office to
declare that he is not sure that these things are ‘found’ anywhere
surely only exposes the limits of his knowledge and his dictatorial and
lapdog tendencies.

There also has been some discussion, in Sri
Lanka recently, of a Sinhala Buddhist tradition of benevolent absolute
rulers, with unlimited power, in our past history. Is this tenable?

Prof.
L.S. Dewaraja in her path-breaking book ‘The Kandyan Kingdom,
1707-1760,, says of the Sinhala Buddhist king, at Senkadagala Kande
Mahanuwara: ‘To foreigners the power of the king seemed unchallenged.


The
king, Knox declared, “Ruleth Absolute and after his own Will and
Pleasure; His own Head being his only Counsellor.” D’Oyly remarked that
“the ministers advise but cannot control his Will”. In practice however,
the Kandyan monarchy was far from being an unfettered personal
despotism. It followed the traditions of the Indian monarchy which, in
spite of the quasi religious sanctity and the great authority vested in
the personality of the ruler, which was in no way and absolute monarchy.
The Kandyan king exercised supreme power, but his power was not
personal and it was hedged in, by safeguards against abuse. The most
relentless of these checks was sirit, the conventions of the country,
which every ruler had to follow, and which if violated would turn
popular opinion against him.’

The Dasa Raja Dharma and related rules were a very important part of these conventions.

Prof.
Dewaraja further says: ‘The king was expected to avail himself of the
advice of his ministers and before any innovations of importance were
introduced it was customary to consult the chiefs and not infrequently
the chief monks also. The royal council consisted of the two Adigars,
the Disavas, the Maha Mohottala or chief secretary and the Rate Ralas.
…If on any occasion the members of the council made a unanimous
representation to the king, it was laid down that the king should uphold
their point of view.’ Even the present, much vilified, criticised, but
most times, unsurprisingly strengthened, used/abused and supported by
its erstwhile critics, when in power, the constitution of Sri Lanka,
ends with the following invocation:

‘Devo Vassatukalena
sassasampattihetu ca
phito bhavatu loko ca
raja bhavatu dhammiko’

(May
the rains be on time, may the farmers have successful harvests, may the
ruler be just, and by these happenings may the people prosper.)

So,
the conclusion is inevitably that power is never unlimited, nor
absolute; it is and always has been constrained by the Rule of Law and
the principles of good governance.

It certainly may be argued
that it can be questioned whether good governance and the Rule of Law
can be reached to a 100% in any jurisdiction at any given time. The
reality and immaturity of the democratic political process may certainly
cause aberrations. But that does not mean that we should not strive to
achieve it and that those whose duty it is to protect the ordinary
citizens’ basic fundamental and human rights from abuse by the Executive
and the Legislature can go to seats of higher learning and mock these
concepts and express puerile doubts as to whether they are ‘found
anywhere in the world’. The statement only exposes the speaker’s
pathetic and slavish mindset. The Dasa Raja Dharma, the principles of
good governance and the Rule of Law are entrenched into Sri Lanka’s
constitutional practice, and must be upheld.

It is in the natural
order of things that, everything is time-bound, even an autocrat’s
power. Let’s give the last word to undoubtedly the most successful
strong man of Asia – retired Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore,
the veritable doyen of all autocrats who ruled with an iron hand, with
no concerns for principles of good governance or the Rule of Law. Like
Mahathir of Malaysia, Suharto of Indonesia and Ne Win of Burma, he was a
proponent of Asian values, which gave priority to national issues over
individual freedoms. To them the Rule of Law and principles of good
governance were Judeo Christian values, which were not applicable to
Asia.


Lee
at the end of his days writes: ‘…What is next, I do not know. Nobody
has ever come back. I’m reaching 87, trying to keep fit, presenting a
vigorous figure, and it is an effort, and is it worth the effort? I just
laugh at myself trying to keep a bold front… I’m not saying that
everything I did was right, but everything I did was for an honourable
purpose. I had to do some nasty things, locking fellows up without
trial. Close the coffin, and then decide. Then you assess me, I may
still do something foolish before the lid is closed on me.’

https://youtube.com/watch?v=-mlCu-5rxlI&list=RDCMUC66Sb8thexFrMlK4td5TssA&start_radio=1&t=14

Good
Governance The 10 virtues of governance are:Dana: It is the duty of the
rulers to look after the welfare of needy subjects and to give them
food, clothing and other necessities of life.

Citizen Full Tamil Movie | சிட்டிசன் | அஜித் | Mega Hit Tamil Movie HD

Citizen
Full Tamil Movie | சிட்டிசன் | அஜித் | Mega Hit Tamil Movie HD #Ajith
#Nagma Citizen is a 2001 Indian Tamil-language action thriller film
written and…
youtube.com

https://www.thenewstuff.in/ajiths-citizen-movie-village-missing
Like Ajith’s Citizen movie, a village is missing!
By alagu, 10 February, 2020
India, Tamilnadu, Chennai, ADMK, Politics, Uncertainty

The
people in the forest village of Salem district have left with
uncertainty after their village had suspiciously disappeared from the
government records and their homes were demolished by the forest
department by claiming that the people had infiltrated the land, as what
it appears to be more similar to the movie ‘Citizen’ that was acted by
Ajith, which covers the story of the lost village and the pains of the
people.

On January 27th, 2020, the state revenue department
officials had abruptly stormed the Sooriyur Pallakkadu village in Salem
and they had reportedly annihilated and demolished the huts and homes of
the farmers and ruined their farms that were cropped with Oleander,
Turmeric, and Onions. The authorities had justified their eviction drive
as the people living in the village had occupied the forests and the
lands that belong to the forest department. Their claims were denied by
the village people who stated that the lands belong to the revenue
department, not to the forest department.
test A JCB Machine demolishing the house in the village

When
we questioned about the developments to Periasamy, the forest officer
of Salem, he asserted that the lands belong to the forest department,
with no doubt. He stated that the lands were mapped under the forest
department in 1889 during the British rule and added that the people who
are currently protesting at the village had occupied the lands and
settled in 1987. However, people in the village have the assertions that
largely stood away from the claims made by the authorities.
test
                 (L-R) Murugesan and Periasamy

Murugesan,
who has been fighting for the rights of the village people, told us
that they approached the district collectorate to appeal the
administration to install proper electricity to the village under the
scheme that was introduced by former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
M.G.Ramachandran in 1984, during when the district revenue authorities
revealed that there is no village under the name of Sooriyur Pallakkadu
in Salem district and denied that they can’t provide the electricity to
the village that doesn’t exist. Murugesan expressed that it was shocking
to know that the government registry doesn’t have the name of the
village that houses the people for many generations and stated that the
revenue authorities had lost their village similar to the village of
Atthipatti, that was featured in the movie Citizen.

Murugesan
further pointed out that Sooriyur village was registered as 126th
village of Salem district under the records of the Revenue department in
1905. In 1972, Salem Taluk was mapped separately and the documents have
the name of the village during the separation. He claimed that the
records had confirmed the existence of the Sooriyur village but the
revenue authorities had ruined and lost the village by unleashing the
treason and added that they have been fighting for their village and
their rights for the past 28 years.


test

Salem district magistrate inspects the village along with the police officials

He
cited that the revenue authorities have been involving with the illegal
groups which log and ax out the trees and the authorities have been
evacuating the people from the village since they have been disruptive
against the tree logging. By stating that they won’t sacrifice the
village, he urged the government to grant the rights to the village
people to have their settlements in the village. Our sources have
revealed that Salem district magistrate Senthil Kumar visited the
village after the issue came to the spotlight and he asserted the people
with legal solutions for their issues.


https://srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

Last updated: July 13, 2020, 00:13 GMT

Coronavirus Cases:
13,027,337
Deaths:
571,076

Recovered:7,575,205
World Population

May
all be Happy, Well and Secure! May all live Long! May all have calm,
quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding
that Everything is Changing!romanalipyAH devanAgarIlipyAm parivartanam

Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness
from
Free Online step by step creation of Virtual tour in 3D Circle-Vision 360° for Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda

This
outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script
edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of
the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i”
indicating the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than
commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.Please
note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not
for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

Sutta Piμaka
(Five nik±yas, or collections)
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a
collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
congregation; a house, dwelling).

Dīgha Nikāya[dīgha: long] The
Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the Buddha.
There are various hints that many of them are late additions to the
original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha:
short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as
been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta
Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while
other books are late additions and their authenticity is more
questionable.

Sutta Piμaka
(Five nik±yas, or collections)
1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)
2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]
(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)
4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)
5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)
6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)
10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)
11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)
3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]
(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]
(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)
(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)
5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]
(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i
1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26 vaggas)
3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with
some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)
(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular suttas of the Buddha
(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)
(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.
(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i
11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and
the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i
12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])
(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)
(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i
14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)
(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i
16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)
(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i
18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)
Abhidhamma Piμaka
[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]
1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the dhammas)
(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i
2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)
(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)
4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.
(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42
5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)
(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)
(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III
7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)
(8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V
(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30
(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7
(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______Bhikkhuni
2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the
Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha
3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism
(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)
2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li
3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]
(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.

Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda — Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā. Note: plain texts

Now,
lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously?

Potthapada, perception arises
first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the
arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my
knowledgehas arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize
how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception.DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[
mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] This sutta is widely considered as a the main
reference for meditation practice. Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

English Introduction I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction

Thus have I heard: 


On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at
Kammāsadhamma,a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the
bhikkhus:

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā
A. Section on ānāpāna
And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Just as, bhikkhus, a
skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn,
understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Thus he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he
dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing
the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 


B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in
kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 
Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya o phenomena in kāya, or
he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena\ in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,bhikkhus,
a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and
from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full
of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of
the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones,
bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines,
mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood,
sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and
urine.” 


Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two
openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy,
paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with
good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]:
“This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are
cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same
way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. 


E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Just as,
bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a
cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.”

Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds
(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in
kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!”\ sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or
he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(3)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
acharnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood,
heldtogether by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is
of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(5)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(7)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


(8)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if
he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones
reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passingaway of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
andpassing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction

Which
four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

Thus
he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing
vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in
vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.

And what, Ānanda, is that
discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which
the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me,
there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya,
no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a
sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being
destined to sambodhi?

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
IV. Observation of Dhammas

A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
five nīvaraṇas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
kāmacchanda present within, understands: “there is kāmacchanda within
me”; there not being kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there
is no kāmacchanda within me”; he understands how the unarisen
kāmacchanda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is
abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not
come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there
being byāpāda present within, understands: “there is byāpāda within me”;
there not being byāpāda present within, he understands: “there is no
byāpāda within me”; he understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to
arise; he understands how the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned byāpāda does not come to arise in the
future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thīnamiddhā
present within, understands: “there is thīnamiddhā within me”; there not
being thīnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no
thīnamiddhā within me”; he understands how the unarisen thīnamiddhā
comes to arise; he understands how the arisen thīnamiddhā is abandoned;
and he understands how the abandoned thīnamiddhā does not come to arise
in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
uddhacca-kukkucca present within, understands: “there is
uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being uddhacca-kukkucca present
within, he understands: “there is no uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he
understands how the unarisen uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise
in the future

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being vicikicchā
present within, understands: “there is vicikicchā within me”; there not
being vicikicchā present within, he understands: “there is no vicikicchā
within me”; he understands how the unarisen vicikicchā comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen vicikicchā is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned vicikicchā does not come to arise in the
future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally,
or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing
the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the
samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:]
“these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five nīvaraṇas.

B. Section on the Khandhas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does
a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five
khandhas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rūpa,
such is the samudaya of rūpa, such is the passing away of rūpa; such is
vedanā, such is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of
vedanā; such is saññā, such is the samudaya of saññā, such is the
passing away of saññā; such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of
saṅkhāra, such is the passing away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is
the samudaya of viññāṇa, such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the five khandhas.

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas. And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas?

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu, he understands rūpa, he
understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands sota, he understands sadda, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands ghāna, he understands
gandha, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands jivha, he understands rasa, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands kāya, he understands
phoṭṭhabba, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these
two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he
understands how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands
how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands mana, he understands dhammas, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or
he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas;
or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the six internal
and external āyatanas.

D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
seven bojjhaṅgas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati
sambojjhaṅga present within, understands: “there is the sati
sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present
within, he understands: “there is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
understands how the unarisen sati sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen sati sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There
being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being
the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the
vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is no vīriya sambojjhaṅga within
me”; he understands how the unarisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga is developed to
perfection.

There being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is the pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being
the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pīti
sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection. There being the passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is no passaddhi sambojjhaṅga
within me”; he understands how the unarisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga comes
to arise; he understands how the arisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga is
developed to perfection.

There being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
within me”; there not being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is no samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
understands how the unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to
perfection.

There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within,
he understands: “there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not
being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there
is no upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

Thus he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in
dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference
to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

E. Section on the Truths

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the four ariya·saccas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
four ariya·saccas?

E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca

And what,
bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging is dukkha
(sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation, dukkha,
domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is disliked is
dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to get what one
wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are dukkha.

And
what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various classes
of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the arising [in
the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas, the
acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

And
what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various classes
of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken [teeth],
of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of vitality, the
decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

And what,
bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various classes of
beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of existence], the break
up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the passing away, the break
up of the khandhas, the laying down of the corpse: this, bhikkhus, is
called maraṇa.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus,
associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of
dukkha dhammas, the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the
inner sorrow, the inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And
what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated with
various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas,
the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the state of
crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And
what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha, bodily
unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant
vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus,
is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha, mental unpleasantness,
dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this,
bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In
one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by
various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the trouble, the despair, the state of
being in trouble, the state of being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is
called despair.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
associated with what is disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
unpleasing, not enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s
disadvantage, those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s
discomfort, those who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment,
meeting, being associated, being together, encountering them: this,
bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being associated with what is
disagreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
dissociated from what is agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
pleasing, enjoyable, pleasant, or else those who desire one’s
advantage, those who desire one’s benefit, those who desire one’s
comfort, those who desire one’s liberation from attachment, not meeting,
not being associated, not being together, not encountering them: this,
bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being dissociated from what is
agreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of not getting what
one wants? In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of being born,
such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be jāti for us, and
really, may we not come to jāti.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In
beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a wish
arises: “oh really, may there not be jarā for us, and really, may we not
come to jarā.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the
dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having
the characteristic of getting sick, such a wish arises: “oh really, may
there not be sickness for us, and really, may we not come to sickness.”
But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not
getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the
characteristic of getting old, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there
not be maraṇa for us, and really, may we not come to maraṇa.” But this
is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what
one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of
sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises:
“oh really, may there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and
distress for us, and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation,
dukkha, domanassa and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

And
what, bhikkhus, are in short the five upādānakkhandhas? They are: the
rūpa upādānakkhandha, the vedanā upādānakkhandha, the saññā
upādānakkhandha, the saṅkhāra upādānakkhandha, the viññāṇa
upādānakkhandha. These are called in short, bhikkhus, the five
upādānakkhandhas.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha ariyasacca

E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when arising, where does it
arise, and when settling [itself], where does it settle? In that in the
world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when
arising, arises, where when settling, it settles.

And what in the
world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The tongue in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Smells in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Dhammas
in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles.

The eye-viññāṇa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-viññāṇa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles.

The eye-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles.

The saññā of visible forms in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The saññā of sounds in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā
of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The intention
[related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for bodily
phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for dhammas
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles.


The
vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra
of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of odors in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.

E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it
abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world
which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned,
is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

And what in the
world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Visible
forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases.

The eye-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of
nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born
of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The intention [related to] visible forms in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to]
sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention
[related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] dhammas in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The taṇhā for visible
forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā
for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The
vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka
of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka
of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The
vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra
of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra
of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. This is called,
bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha ariyasacca.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is
just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi,
sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo,
sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi?
That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of
dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of
dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

And
what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are
saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā,
those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.

And what, bhikkhus,
is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā,
abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and
abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

And
what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining
from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from
abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

And
what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having
abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right means of
livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva.

And what,
bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda
for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts
himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he
generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala
dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his
citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen
kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously
his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of
arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence of confusion, for their
increase, their development, their cultivation and their completion, he
exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and
strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.

An what,
bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya
in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing
dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus,
sammāsati.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having
entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra,
with pīti and sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of
vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein
with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor
vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference
towards pīti, he abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences
in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and
mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he
abides therein. Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and
domanassa having previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with
the purity of upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he
abides therein. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the four ariya·saccas.

The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas

For
whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way
for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
anāgāmita.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six
years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these
four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results may be
expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there
is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus.
For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this
way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
anāgāmita.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus,
would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three years,
one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two years, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two years,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven
months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six months, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six months,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four
months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three months, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two months, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two months,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for half a
month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for a week, one of two results may
be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

“This, bhikkhus, is the
path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the
overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has it been said,
and on the basis of all this has it been said.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.


https://tenor.com/view/government-conspiracy-covid19-mom-died-of-avirus-gif-17552801 

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/china-lab-rejects-covid-19-conspiracy-claims-but-virus-origins-still-a-mystery/articleshow/75422373.cms?from=mdr

COVID-19 conspiracy claims, but virus origins still a mystery.
There were still no conclusive answers as to where the disease started.
SARS-CoV-2,
now responsible for more than 200,000 deaths worldwide, was synthesised
by the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), based in the city where the
disease was first identified.

https://srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/


Last updated: July 27, 2020, 02:51 GMT

Coronavirus Cases:
16,413,954
Deaths:
652,057

Recovered:10,042,584



World Population

79,970,218Births this year
140,350Births today

33,573,413Deaths this year

58,922Deaths today

46,396,805Net population growth this year

81,428Net population growth today


Government & Economics

$ 5,535,790,450Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 3,782,883,285Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,716,349,806Public Military expenditure today
45,083,382Cars produced this year
86,161,175Bicycles produced this year
142,545,551Computers produced this year

Society & Media

1,531,841New book titles published this year
173,945,859Newspapers circulated today
244,245TV sets sold worldwide today
2,389,766Cellular phones sold today
$ 106,899,533Money spent on videogames today
4,629,297,603Internet users in the world today
96,351,519,150Emails sent today
2,561,057Blog posts written today
286,491,607Tweets sent today
2,671,035,398Google searches today

Environment

2,968,661Forest loss this year (hectares)
3,996,621Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
20,647,868,311CO2 emissions this year (tons)
6,850,064Desertification this year (hectares)
5,589,868 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year (tons)

Food

844,759,768Undernourished people in the world
1,696,627,473Overweight people in the world
761,885,519Obese people in the world
11,204People who died of hunger today
$ 212,646,130Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 69,256,983Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today

Water

2,493,485,609Water used this year (million L)
480,675Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
799,231,166People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy

170,993,975Energy used today (MWh), of which:
145,559,727- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
25,750,201- from renewable sources (MWh)
1,071,456,744,416 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
35,070,826Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,501,827,225,379Oil left (barrels)
15,662Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,094,545,436,670Natural Gas left (boe)

57,608Days to the end of natural gas

4,314,505,757,823Coal left (boe)

148,776Days to the end of coal


Health

7,409,951Communicable disease deaths this year

278,454Seasonal flu deaths this year
4,338,674Deaths of children under 5 this year
24,280,057Abortions this year
176,427Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,973,929HIV/AIDS infected people
959,549Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
4,687,928Deaths caused by cancer this year
559,887Deaths caused by malaria this year
5,545,424,329Cigarettes smoked today
2,853,443Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,427,622Deaths caused by alcohol this year
612,095Suicides this year
$ 228,347,456,080Money spent on illegal drugs this year
770,520Road traffic accident fatalities this year
BIRTH, OLD AGE, SICKNESS, ILLNESS, DEATH ARE CERTAININTIES
May all be Happy, Well and Secure!
May all have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that Everything is Changing!
May
all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal and Rest in Peace
as they followed the following original words of the Buddha the
Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :


https://tricycle.org/magazine/buddhist-food-cupcake/

Where Word’s Hunger Struggle Is Headed

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems”
received a magicAtchaya Pathiram
(begging bowl) , which always gets filled.

Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that

 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”  

Manimekalai
converted the prison into a hospice to help the needy, teaches the king
the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of the epic,
Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other
ideas to her.

Volunteers must become full-time members to
fullfill the vision & aspiration of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya
Pathram. Must be committed to the cause currently and involve in
strategy, growth, and governance of Akshaya Patra.

The journey so
far and what the future holds in the mission to end hunger for children
and adults in the world. Technology must be  used in mass production
for the fantastic results. Other initiatives of the Akshaya Patra must
help children and adults from underprivileged backgrounds achieve their
dreams.

 All the Governments all over the world allot funds for
the governance of Akshaya Patra and order all the vans used by postal
department, police vans to supply provisions, vegetables and food in
edible food packs till all the curfews are removed.

The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership
with the Governments all over the world India and various State
Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates,
individual donors, and well-wishers have to help Manimekali Akshya
Pathram to serve millions of underprevilaged children and adults.Picture
a life in which your every waking moment is spent searching for food.
Your belly is distended and your limbs are emaciated like a starving
child’s. Your hunger is ceaseless and painful, but your throat is no
wider than the eye of a needle. When you find food, you can’t swallow
it. Not even a bite. The hunger persists, and your search continues.
Such is the fate of pretas in Buddhist tradition—the hungry ghosts.These
poor souls were reborn this way because in past lives they were driven
by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance. While you might find yourself
checking a few of these boxes on any given day, in Buddhism you have to
take such vices to the extreme to end up with such a tortured
existence—like committing murder in a jealous rage. So no need to
panic.It’s a tradition in many Asian cultures to leave offerings of food
for the hungry ghosts. But this doesn’t really help. It turns out these
ghosts aren’t really searching for food. Or they are, but their search
is misguided. Hunger for the ghosts has nothing to do with food, and
everything to do with what they did in their previous time on earth.
There’s plenty of food for them, but they can’t eat it. Like every
religious parable, there’s an important lesson here: it’s not food they
really need.Back here in the human realm, we still look to food to do
much more than nourish our bodies and satisfy our hunger. We turn to
food in times of great joy and great sadness. When something wonderful
happens, we celebrate with a dinner out. We drink champagne, we eat
cake, we splurge on nice meals. Food becomes part of the rejoicing. And
the opposite is true, too. There’s a long tradition of providing food to
those who are grieving. We band together to provide meals to friends in
crisis—you may, at some point in your life, have signed up on a
spreadsheet or email thread to bring meals to someone mourning, someone
recovering, someone struggling. In times of sadness, we instinctively
want to provide comfort in a tangible way. And very often, we do that
with food.Food is there for all of it—the good times and the bad. And to
some extent, it makes sense. It’s fun to go out and celebrate a raise,
an anniversary, or a graduation. And it feels right that when people are
truly suffering, the last thing they should worry about is putting
together a meal. In these moments of tragedy or triumph, food is a
worthy and welcome ally.The problem comes when we use food to comfort
and reward ourselves when the stakes are much, much lower. Finally I got
the kids to sleep, now I can eat those cookies I’ve been eyeing. That
big meeting today was a mess, time for a big glass of wine. These
mundane highs and lows are challenging. But they are not worthy of great
sadness or great celebration. Or, really, food.Related: Read a
collection of Tricycle Teachings on Food And we know it, too.

Imagine
going out for dinner to celebrate fixing the washing machine. Or
delivering a meal to a friend who had a bad sunburn. It sounds
ridiculous. But we still give ourselves mini-rewards for minor
successes, and mini-comforts for minor irritations—and they often
involve food. We won’t buy ourselves a celebratory cake, but we might
well take a slice if there’s some in the refrigerator. Or we might find
ourselves a bag of chips or a cold beer. Each of these could easily be
several hundred calories. And worse still, it’s generally at the end of a
long day that we find ourselves wanting this reward or comfort—the
worst possible time for our bodies. Do that regularly, and it adds up
fast.There’s a reason we do this, of course. Food is a natural reward.
Think of Ivan Pavlov and his studies of classical conditioning in
dogs—he trained them with food. The comfort foods we usually turn to—the
ones full of starch and sugar—are scientifically proven to improve our
mood. Ever hear someone refer to a particularly enticing snack as being
“like crack”? Eating tasty food seems to activate the same parts of the
brain as addictive drugs and even cause the release of natural opiates.
Studies have shown that carbohydrates in particular increase serotonin
release, the chemical in the body that boosts mood. The more serotonin,
the better you feel. Fatty foods are the same. Brain scans of
participants in a 2011 study, who were fed either a solution of fatty
acids or a saline solution via a feeding tube, showed that those who got
the fatty acids had less activity in the areas of the brain that
controlled sadness, even after listening to “sad classical music.” (Yes,
people actually volunteered for this study—with sad music and a feeding
tube.)So what’s wrong with that? Better than actual crack at least,
right? If food really does help with our mood, isn’t that a good
thing?Yes and no. But mostly no. Remember those hungry ghosts? They get a
bit of relief when they taste the food on their tongues. So do you,
studies tell us—and you’re luckier than the hungry ghosts because at
least you can swallow your chocolate. But that relief is temporary. The
bad day still lingers, smothered by the brownie, pretzel, or muffin. And
just like the hungry ghosts, you aren’t really looking for food. What
the ghosts truly want is relief from the void created by desire, greed,
anger, and ignorance—yet they keep trying to fill that empty feeling
with food, even though it never works. Sound familiar?Not only are these
self-soothing snacks not all that soothing, but when we use food to
comfort and provide relief from stress, we’re using it at a time when we
can least afford the calories. A recent Ohio State University study of
58 healthy middle-aged women revealed that experiencing one or more
stressful events the day before eating a single high-fat meal actually
slowed their metabolism. And not just a little—enough to “add up to
almost 11 pounds across a year” according to the authors. Stress seems
to cause the body to freak out and cling to the calories, thinking it
might need them later. This may be a biological holdover from times of
famine, or when we weren’t all that sure when we’d spear our next woolly
mammoth. Whatever we’re stressed about today—whether an ill loved one, a
struggling relationship, a financial burden, or a lousy job—probably
won’t cause us to starve tomorrow. But our bodies haven’t evolved to
know the difference.And it gets worse. Overeating for any reason often
leads to these same negative emotional states that then trigger more
overeating. A study of both normal-weight and overweight women in
Germany found that they felt sadness, shame, and anxiety after eating
high-calorie foods—with the overweight women reporting the most intense
emotional responses. So we overeat when we’re sad or stressed, then get
more sad and stressed when we overeat. In between, we gain weight, which
is also associated with depression and makes everything worse. It’s
another vicious cycle of “overeating, weight gain, and depressed
mood.”Related: I Tried the Buddhist Monk Diet—And It Worked Luckily,
there are many ways to deal with stress. The healthiest approach is to
take steps to address the actual cause. That may mean facing the reality
of a bad relationship, or seeking out a new job, or saying no to
commitments that have you stretched too thin. Social diversion—basically
hanging out with friends or family—also works well. In fact, of all the
ways to distract yourself, this seems to be the most effective.What
psychologists call “emotion-oriented coping” is the most dangerous. This
is when you blame yourself, daydream, fantasize, and otherwise ruminate
on your miserable life. Maybe lying in bed listening to sad music.
Don’t do that. This often leads to emotional eating—perhaps because it
just doesn’t work on its own. Awful-izing rarely makes us feel better.On
the other hand, meditation and mindfulness—a few minutes of pure
silence and peace—have been shown to help significantly. Similarly,
studies of yoga for relieving stress and anxiety are very promising, and
have even shown that yoga can reduce preoccupations with food for those
with serious eating disorders. Physical exercise has long been known to
improve our moods, and also seems to help us fight anxiety. Exposure to
nature helps many people. You may have to try several things before you
find something that works for you. But don’t let yourself use food as
your cure.You will slip up, of course, now and again. These are hard
habits to break. But think carefully about just how often you are
engaging in these behaviors, and see them for what they are—a temporary
fix that can cause a lasting problem. And remember the lesson of the
hungry ghosts. The unsettled self can never be sated with food.

♦From Buddha’s Diet: The Ancient Art of Losing Weight Without Losing Your Mind, by Tara Cottrell and Dan Zigmond, © 2016.

Reprinted
with permission of Running Press, an imprint of Perseus Books, a
division of PBG Publishing, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group.

UN News

Over
820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals
stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge Economic Development

After
nearly a decade of progress, the number of people who suffer from
hunger has slowly increased over the past three years, with about one in
every nine people globally suffering from hunger today, the United
Nations said in a new report released on Monday.

This fact
underscores “the immense challenge” to achieving the Zero Hunger target
of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, according to the
State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019.

The
report, launched on the margins of the High-level Political Forum (HLPF)
– the main UN platform monitoring follow-up on States’ actions on the
SDGs – currently under way in New York, breaks down statistics by
region, and shows that hunger has risen almost 20 per cent in Africa’s
subregions, areas which also have the greatest prevalence of
undernourishment.

Although the pervasiveness of hunger in Latin
America and the Caribbean is still below seven per cent, it is slowly
increasing. And in Asia, undernourishment affects 11 per cent of
the population.

 Although
southern Asia saw great progress over the last five years, at almost 15
per cent, it is still the subregion with the highest prevalence of
undernourishment.

“Our actions to tackle these troubling trends
will have to be bolder, not only in scale but also in terms of
multisectoral collaboration,” the heads of the UN Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP)
and the World

Health Organization (WHO) urged in their joint foreword to the report.

Hunger
is increasing in many countries where economic growth is lagging,
particularly in middle-income countries and those that rely heavily on
international primary commodity trade. The annual UN report also found
that income inequality is rising in many of the countries where hunger
is on the rise, making it even more difficult forthe poor, vulnerable or
marginalized to cope with economic slowdowns and downturns.

“We
must foster pro-poor and inclusive structural transformation focusing on
people and placing communities at the centre to reduce economic
vulnerabilities and set ourselves on track to ending hunger, food
insecurity and all forms of malnutrition,” the UN leaders said.Food
insecurity
This year’s edition of the report takes a broader look at the impact of food insecurity – beyond hunger.
It
introduces, for the first time, a second indicator for monitoring
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 2.1 on the Prevalence of
Moderate or Severe Food Insecurity that shows that 17.2 per cent of the
world’s population, or 1.3 billion people, lacked regular access to
“nutritious and sufficient food”.
“Even if they were not necessarily
suffering from hunger, they are at greater risk of various forms of
malnutrition and poor health”, according to the report.The combination
of moderate and severe levels of food insecurity brings the estimate to
about two billion people, where in every continent, women are slightly
more food insecure than men.


Low
birthweight still a major challenge Turning to children, the report
disclosed that since 2012, no progress has been made in reducing low
birthweight.
Additionally, while the number of under-age-five
children affected by stunting has decreased over the past six years by
10 per cent globally, the pace of progress is too slow to meet the 2030
target of halving the number of stunted children.

Furthermore,
overweight and obesity continue to increase throughout all regions,
particularly among school-age children and adults. Income inequality
increases the likelihood of severe food insecurity – UN report

To
safeguard food security and nutrition, the 2019 report stresses the
importance to economic and social policies to counteract the effects of
adverse economic cycles when they arrive, while avoiding cuts in
essential services.

It
maintains that the uneven pace of economic recovery “is undermining
efforts to end hunger and malnutrition, with hunger increasing in many
countries where the economy has slowed down or contracted”, mostly in
middle-income nations.

Moreover, economic slowdowns or downturns
disproportionally undermine food security and nutrition where
inequalities are greater.

The report concludes with guidance on
what short- and long-term policies must be undertaken to safeguard food
security and nutrition during episodes of economic turmoil or in
preparation for them, such as integrating food security and nutrition
concerns into poverty reduction efforts using pro-poor and inclusive
structural transformations. Solving India’s hunger problem The Supreme
Court has agreed to examine a plea that starvation deaths continue to
eat into the right to life and dignity of social fabric and a “radical”
new measure like community kitchens need to be set up across the country
to feed the poor and the hungry.

A Bench led by Justice N.V.
Ramana issued notice on Monday to the government on the petition filed
jointly by activists Anun Dhawan, Ishann Dhawan and Kunjana Singh,
represented by advocates Ashima Mandla and Fuzail Ahmad Ayyubi.
State-funded community Asskhaya Patra kitchens must be the  novel
concept in all countries. For combating starvation and malnutrition
crisis every locality must have Akshaya Patra kitchens along with the
existing hotels and bakeries.

https://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/English-Texts/Buddhist-Legends/15-05.htm

Book
XV. Happiness, Sukha VaggaXV. 5. The Buddha feeds the Hungry 01203.
Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the
principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand
this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.This religious
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Āḷavi
with reference to a certain lay disciple.

For one day, as the
Teacher seated in the Perfumed Chamber at Jetavana {3.262} surveyed the
world at dawn, he beheld a certain poor man at Āḷavi. Perceiving that he
possessed the faculties requisite for attaining the Fruit of
Conversion, he surrounded himself with a company of five hundred monks
and went to Āḷavi.

The inhabitants of Āḷavi straightway invited
the Teacher to be their guest. That poor man also heard that the Teacher
had arrived and made up his mind to go and hear the Teacher preach the
Law. But that very [30.75] day an ox of his strayed off. So he
considered within himself, “Shall I seek that ox, or shall I go and hear
the Law?” And he came to the following conclusion, “I will first seek
that ox and then go and hear the Law.” Accordingly, early in the
morning, he set out to seek his ox.The residents of Āḷavi provided seats
for the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, served them
with food, and after the meal took the Teacher’s bowl, that he might
pronounce the words of thanksgiving. Said the Teacher, “He for whose
sake I came hither a journey of thirty leagues has gone into the forest
to seek his ox which was lost. Not until he returns, will I preach the
Law.” And he held his peace.While it was still day, that poor man found
his ox and straightway drove the ox back to the herd. Then he thought to
himself, “Even if I can do nothing else, I will at least pay my
respects to the Teacher.” Accordingly, although he was oppressed with
the pangs of hunger, he decided not to go home, but went quickly to the
Teacher, and having paid obeisance to the Teacher, sat down respectfully
on one side. When the poor man came and stood before the Teacher, the
Teacher said to the steward of the alms, “Is there any food remaining
over and above to the Congregation of Monks?” “Reverend Sir, the food
has not been touched.” “Well then, serve this poor man with food.” So
when the steward had provided that poor man with a seat in a place
indicated by the Teacher, he served him dutifully with rice-porridge and
other food, both hard and soft. When the poor man had eaten his meal,
he rinsed his mouth.(We are told that with this single exception there
is no other instance on record in the Three Piṭakas {3.263} of the
Tathāgata’s having thus inquired about the supply of food.) As soon as
the poor man’s physical sufferings had been relieved, his mind became
tranquil. Then the Teacher preached the Law in orderly sequence,
expounding one after another the Four Noble Truths. At the conclusion of
the lesson, the poor man was established in the Fruit of Conversion.

Then
the Teacher pronounced the words of thanksgiving, and having so done,
arose from his seat and departed. The multitude accompanied him a little
way and then turned back.The monks who accompanied the Teacher were
highly indignant and said, “Just consider, brethren, what the Teacher
did. Nothing of the sort ever happened before. But to-day, seeing a
certain poor man, the Teacher inquired about the supply of food and
directed that food to be given to another.” The Teacher turned around,
stopped, [30.76] and said, “Monks, what are you saying?” When he heard
what they were saying, he said to them, “It is even so, monks. When I
came hither a journey of thirty leagues, a long and difficult journey,
my sole reason for coming hither was the fact that I saw that this lay
disciple possessed the faculties requisite for the attainment of the
Fruit of Conversion. Early in the morning, oppressed with the pangs of
hunger, this man went to the forest and spent the day in the forest
seeking his ox which was lost.

Therefore I thought to myself, ‘If
I preach the Law to this man while he is suffering from the pangs of
hunger, he will not be able to comprehend it.’ Therefore was it that I
did what I did. Monks, there is no affliction like the affliction of
hunger.” So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza,203.

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”
 
“When
one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one
finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these
feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
 Instead of avoiding it,
 Learn to embrace it.
 Without pain,
 there is no growth”Friends

https://tricycle.org/magazine/buddhist-food-cupcake/

Give people time.
Give people space.
Don’t beg anyone to stay.
Let them roam.What’s meant for you will
always be yours.

Happiness, Sukha Vagga

 The Buddha feeds the Hungry

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;
If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

 Lord Buddha’s Ideals Have Solutions To Challenges Faced By World Today.

The eight-fold path of Lord Buddha shows the way towards the well-being of societies and nations.

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems”
received a magic Atchaya Pathiram
(begging bowl) , which always gets filled.

Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that
 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”

There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom.
Gautama Buddha

Zen famously says: when hungry, eat; when tired, sleep.
But all things in moderation - as the Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death.

Manimekalai
converted the prison into a hospice to help the needy, teaches the king
the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of the epic.

Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other ideas to her.

Volunteers
must become full-time members to fullfill the vision & aspiration
of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya Pathram. Must be committed to the
cause currently and involve in strategy, growth, and governance of
Akshaya Patra.

The journey so far and what the future holds in
the mission to end hunger for children and adults in the world.
Technology must be  used in mass production for the fantastic results.
Other initiatives of the Akshaya Patra must help children and adults
from underprivileged backgrounds achieve their dreams.

All the
Governments all over the world allot funds for the governance of Akshaya
Patra and order all the vans used by postal department, police vans to
supply provisions, vegetables and food in edible food packs till all the
curfews are removed.

The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership
with the Governments all over the world,India and various State
Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates,
individual donors, and well-wishers have to help Manimekali Akshya
Pathram to serve millions of underprevilaged children and adults.

Picture a life in which your every waking moment is spent searching for food.

Your
belly is distended and your limbs are emaciated like a starving
child’s. Your hunger is ceaseless and painful, but your throat is no
wider than the eye of a needle. When you find food, you can’t swallow
it. Not even a bite. The hunger persists, and your search continues.


Such is the fate of pretas in Buddhist tradition—the hungry ghosts.

These
poor souls were reborn this way because in past lives they were driven
by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance. While you might find yourself
checking a few of these boxes on any given day, in Buddhism you have to
take such vices to the extreme to end up with such a tortured
existence—like committing murder in a jealous rage. So no need to panic.
 

It’s a tradition in many Asian cultures to leave offerings of
food for the hungry ghosts. But this doesn’t really help. It turns out
these ghosts aren’t really searching for food.

Or they are, but
their search is misguided. Hunger for the ghosts has nothing to do with
food, and everything to do with what they did in their previous time on
earth. There’s plenty of food for them, but they can’t eat it. Like
every religious parable, there’s an important lesson here: it’s not food
they really need.

Back here in the human realm, we still look to
food to do much more than nourish our bodies and satisfy our hunger. We
turn to food in times of great joy and great sadness. When something
wonderful happens, we celebrate with a dinner out. We drink champagne,
we eat cake, we splurge on nice meals. Food becomes part of the
rejoicing.

 And the opposite is true, too. There’s a long
tradition of providing food to those who are grieving. We band together
to provide meals to friends in crisis—you may, at some point in your
life, have signed up on a spreadsheet or email thread to bring meals to
someone mourning, someone recovering, someone struggling. In times of
sadness, we instinctively want to provide comfort in a tangible way. And
very often, we do that with food.Food is there for all of it—the good
times and the bad. And to some extent, it makes sense. It’s fun to go
out and celebrate a raise, an anniversary, or a graduation. And it feels
right that when people are truly suffering, the last thing they should
worry about is putting together a meal. In these moments of tragedy or
triumph, food is a worthy and welcome ally.

The problem comes
when we use food to comfort and reward ourselves when the stakes are
much, much lower. Finally I got the kids to sleep, now I can eat those
cookies I’ve been eyeing.


That
big meeting today was a mess, time for a big glass of wine. These
mundane highs and lows are challenging. But they are not worthy of great
sadness or great celebration. Or, really, food.

UN News

 Over 820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

“When
one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one
finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these
feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
Instead of avoiding it,
Learn to embrace it.
Without pain,
there is no growth”
As
the world fights extraordinary challenges, their lasting solutions can
come from the ideals of Lord Buddha. In his first sermon at Sarnath,
Lord Buddha referred to hope and purpose. For Lord Buddha, it was the
removal of human suffering.

We have to rise to the occasion and do whatever we can to increase hope among people.

If You Give a Buddhist a Cupcake
tricycle.org
If You Give a Buddhist a Cupcake…
An excerpt from Tara Cottrell and Dan Zigmond’s new book Buddha


https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01295-8


Nature


Hopes rise for coronavirus drug remdesivir

Despite
conflicting studies, results from largest trial yet show the antiviral
speeds up recovery, putting it on track to become a standard
of care in the United States.

Hopes rise for coronavirus drug remdesivir

Despite
conflicting studies, results from largest trial yet show the antiviral
speeds up recovery, putting it on track to become a standard of care in
the United States.

nature.com

A patient at the intensive care unit receives treatment from two hospital workers in Hefei, China


Coronavirus causes severe respiratory illness in some people.Credit: Zhang Yazi/China News Service via Getty

An
experimental drug — and one of the world’s best hopes for treating
COVID-19 — could shorten the time to recovery from coronavirus
infection,
according to the largest and most rigorous clinical trial of the
compound yet. On 1 May, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
granted an ‘emergency use authorization’ for clinicians to use the drug,
called remdesivir, which is administered intravenously, in hospitals
for people with severe COVID-19.

Remdesivir
interferes with the replication of some viruses, including SARS-CoV-2,
which is responsible for the current pandemic. On 29 April, Anthony
Fauci, director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases (NIAID), announced that a clinical trial in more than 1,000
people had showed that those taking remdesivir recovered in 11 days on
average, compared with 15 days for those on a placebo.

“Although
a 31% improvement doesn’t seem like a knockout 100%, it is a very
important proof of concept,” Fauci said. “What it has proven is that a
drug can block this virus.”

There
were also fewer deaths among trial participants who received the drug,
he said, but that trend was not statistically significant. The shortened
recovery time, however, was significant, and was enough of a benefit
that investigators decided to stop the trial early, he said, to ensure
that those participants who were receiving placebo could now access the
drug. Fauci added that remdesivir would become a standard treatment for
COVID-19. The FDA’s authorization is not a final drug approval, and can
be revoked when the conditions required for emergency use are no longer
in effect. Distribution of the drug in the United States will be under
government control.

Rollercoaster ride

The
news comes after weeks of data leaks and on a day of mixed results from
clinical trials of the drug. The drug’s maker, Gilead Sciences of
Foster City, California, announced on the same day that in its own
trial, more than half of 400 participants with severe COVID-19 had
recovered from their illness within two weeks of receiving treatment.

But
the study lacked a placebo-controlled arm, making the results difficult
to interpret. Also on 29 April, a smaller trial run in China
announced
that it had found1 no benefits from remdesivir when compared with a
placebo. But that trial was stopped early owing to difficulty in
enrolling participants as the outbreak subsided in China. Nevertheless,
onlookers are hopeful that the large NIAID trial provides the first
glimmer of promise in a race to find a drug that works against the
coronavirus, which has infected more than three million people
worldwide.

“There
is a lot of focus on remdesivir because it’s potentially the best shot
we have,” says virologist Stephen Griffin at the University of Leeds,
UK.

Small trials

Fast-flowing,
conflicting information on remdesivir in the past few weeks has left
people reeling. In the rush to find therapies to combat COVID-19, small
clinical trials without control groups have been common. “I’m just very
annoyed by all of these non-controlled studies,” says Geoffrey Porges, a
biotechnology analyst for the investment bank SVB Leerink in New York
City. “It’s reassuring that 50–60% of patients are discharged from the
hospital, but this is a disease that mostly gets better anyway.”

With
so much uncertainty, the remdesivir-watchers were waiting anxiously for
final results from the NIAID trial, which were not expected until the
end of May. In lieu of a vaccine, which could still be more than a year
away, effective therapies are crucial in reducing deaths and limiting
economic damage from the pandemic. Yet, despite the flood of small
clinical trials, no therapy has been convincingly shown to boost
survival in people with COVID-19.

The
NIAID results put a new sheen on remdesivir.The NIAID did not release
detailed safety data. The study in China found no significant difference
between remdesivir and placebo in the frequency of adverse events, but
12% of people who received remdesivir dropped out of the study due to
side effects including nausea and cardiopulmonary failure, compared to
only 5% on placebo.

“It
may not be the wonder drug that everyone’s looking for, but if you can
stop some patients from becoming critically ill, that’s good enough,”
says Griffin.

Fauci
said the finding reminded him of the discovery in the 1980s that the
drug AZT helped to combat HIV infection. The first randomized,
controlled clinical trial showed only a modest improvement, he said, but
researchers continued to build on that success, eventually developing
highly effective therapies.

Remdesivir
works by gumming up an enzyme that some viruses, including SARS-CoV-2,
use to replicate. In February, researchers showed2 that the drug reduces
viral infection in human cells grown in a laboratory.

Gilead
began to ramp up production of remdesivir well before the NIAID results
came out. By the end of March, the company had produced enough to treat
30,000 patients. And by streamlining its manufacturing process and
finding new sources of raw materials, Gilead announced, it hopes to
produce enough remdesivir to treat more than one million people by the
end of the year.

That
calculation was based on the assumption that people would take the drug
for ten days, but the results announced from Gilead’s trial on 29 April
suggest that a five-day course of treatment could work just as well. If
so, that would effectively double the number of people who could be
treated, says Porges.

Many drugs needed

In
the long term, clinicians will probably want a bevy of antiviral drugs —
with different ways of disabling the virus — in their arsenal, says
Timothy Sheahan, a virologist at the University of North Carolina in
Chapel Hill, who has teamed up with Gilead researchers to study
remdesivir.
“There is always the potential for antiviral resistance,” he says. “And
to hedge against that potential, it’s good to have not only a
first-line, but also a second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-line antiviral.”

Researchers
are furiously testing a wide range of therapies, but early results,
although not yet definitive, have not been encouraging. The malaria
drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, both of which have
anti-inflammatory effects, drew so much attention from physicians and
the public that some countries have depleted their supplies of the
drugs. Yet studies in humans have failed to show a consistent benefit,
and some have highlighted the risks posed by side effects of the drugs
that affect the heart.

Early
interest in a mix of two HIV drugs called lopinavir and ritonavir
flagged when a clinical trial in nearly 200 people did not find any
benefit
of the mix for those with severe COVID-193. Another promising
therapeutic hypothesis — that inhibiting the action of an immune-system
regulator called IL-6 could reduce the serious inflammation seen in some
people with severe COVID-19 — has met with mixed results thus far.

Still,
a host of other therapies are being tested in people, and many
researchers are hunting for new drugs at the bench. Sheahan and his
colleagues
have found4 a compound that is active against SARS-CoV-2 and other
coronaviruses, including a remdesivir-resistant variant of a
coronavirus, when tested in laboratory-grown human cells.

But
much more testing would be needed before the compound could be tried in
people. “What we’re doing now will hopefully have an impact on the
current pandemic,” he says. “But maybe more importantly, it could
position us to better respond more quickly in the future.”

doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01295-8

Updates & Corrections

Update
04 May 2020: This story has been updated to note that on 1 May US
regulatory authorities granted remdesivir ‘emergency use’
authorization for use in people with severe COVID-19.

References

1.
Wang, Y. et al. Lancet https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9 (2020).


https://www.webmd.com/lung/covid-treatment-home-hospital#1


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Coronavirus (COVID-19) Treatment

The
most common symptoms of COVID-19 are a fever, coughing, and breathing
problems. Unless you have severe symptoms, you can most likely treat
them at home, the way you would for a cold or the flu. Most people
recover from COVID-19 without the need for hospital care. Call your
doctor to ask about whether you should stay home or get medical care
inperson.

Scientists
are trying to make new medicines and test some existing drugs to see
whether they can treat COVID-19. In the meantime, there are a number of
things that can relieve symptoms, both at home and at the hospital. a
number of things can relieve symptoms, both at home and at the hospital.

At-Home Coronavirus Treatment

If your symptoms are mild enough that you can recover at home, you should:
Rest. It can make you feel better and may speed your recovery.
Stay home. Don’t go to work, school, or public places.
Drink fluids. You lose more water when you’re sick.
Dehydration can make symptoms worse and cause other health problems.

Monitor. If your symptoms get worse, call your doctor right away.
Don’t go to their office without calling first. They might tell you to
stay home, or they may need to take extra steps to protect staff and
other patients.


Ask your doctor about over-the-counter medicines that may help, like acetaminophen to lower your fever.

The
most important thing to do is to avoid infecting other people,
especially those who are over 65 or who have other health problems.

That means:
Try to stay in one place in your home. Use a separate bedroom and bathroom if you can.
Tell others you’re sick so they keep their distance.
Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue or your elbow.
Wear a mask over your nose and mouth if you can.
Wash regularly, especially your hands.
Don’t share dishes, cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding with anyone else.
Clean and disinfect common surfaces like doorknobs, counters, and tabletops.

What to expect

Symptoms
begin 2 to 14 days after you come into contact with the virus. Early
studies show that many people who have mild infections recover within 2
weeks. More severe cases tend to last 3 to 6 weeks.

Talk
to your doctor about how long you should isolate yourself if you have
symptoms. CDC guidelines say you can leave isolation when all of these
are true:

You haven’t had a fever for 3 days.
Your respiratory symptoms, such as coughing or shortness of breath, are better.
It’s been at least 10 days since your symptoms began OR you have two negative COVID-19 tests 24 hours apart.
How do you know if your symptoms are getting worse?
Get medical care right away if you begin to have:
Trouble breathing
Pain or pressure in your chest
Confusion or severe drowsiness
A blue tint to your lips or face
Coronavirus Treatment in a Hospital

You
don’t need to go to the hospital or ER if you have basic COVID-19
symptoms, like a mild fever or cough. If you do, many hospitals will
send you home.

If
your case is severe, members of the medical staff will check for signs
that the illness is causing more serious problems. They might:

Check the levels of oxygen in your blood with a clip-on finger monitor

Listen to your lungs

Give you a COVID-19 test. This involves putting a 6-inch cotton swab up both sides of your nose for about 15 seconds.

Give you a chest X-ray or CT scan
 

You
may get extra oxygen through two small tubes that go just inside your
nostrils. In very serious cases, doctors will connect you to a machine
that can breathe for you, called a ventilator.

You
may also get fluids through a tube, or IV, in your arm to keep you from
getting dehydrated. Doctors will also closely monitor your breathing.

The goal is for your infection to run its course and for your lungs to heal enough that they can breathe on their own again.

Your doctor might give you medication to thin your blood and prevent clots.

If
you take drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors,
angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or statins for other health
problems, your doctor will tell you to continue them as usual.

Many
clinical trials are underway to explore treatments used for other
conditions that could fight COVID-19 and to develop new ones.

People
who are in the hospital with severe COVID-19 may get an antiviral
medicine called remdesivir. Research shows that some patients recover
faster after taking it. Remdesivir was created to fight Ebola, but the
FDA has issued an emergency use ruling so doctors can use it against
COVID-19.

The
FDA is also allowing clinical trials and hospital use of blood plasma
from people who’ve recovered from COVID-19 in order to help patients
with severe or life-threatening cases. You’ll hear this called
convalescent plasma.

Clinical
trials are under way for other medications, including tocilizumab,
which has been used to treat autoimmune conditions and an inflammatory
condition called cytokine release syndrome.

The
FDA had issued an emergency ruling so doctors could use
hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat people who are hospitalized
with
COVID-19. But the agency revoked the ruling amid serious concerns about
their safety. The World Health Organization stopped trials of
hydroxychloroquine, and France banned its use against COVID-19. The
medications are approved to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions like
rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
 

One
study found that dexamethasone, a common steroid medication, can help
people who are hospitalized with severe COVID-19 complications. But the
findings are preliminary, and the researchers haven’t released the full
study.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Treatment
webmd.com

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Treatment…


Most
people can treat COVID-19 symptoms at home, but some people will need
hospital care. Find out what treatment involves for both scenarios.

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