Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation
https://translate.google.com and propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.
Analytic Insight-Net - FREE Online Analytic Insight-Net Tipiṭaka Research & Practice
University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya
DN 9 -
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —
Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Note: plain texts
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas.
The view on which this work is based is that the passages of the
suttas which are reported to be the most often repeated by the Buddha in
all the four Nikāyas can be taken as indicating what he considered as
being the most worthy of interest in his teaching, and at the same time
as what represents with most accuracy his actual words. Eight of them
are expounded in the Gaṇaka-Moggallāna Sutta (MN 107) and described as
the Sekha Paṭipadā or Path for one under Training, which practically
leads the neophyte all the way to the fourth jhāna.
And Buddhism Begins where Science Ends!
Country’s Political Class Is Empowering Falsity of Intellectual Thought Against Scientific Progress
The audacity of the carelessness on display in their utterances is
phenomenal. It has meandered from implanting the head of Lord Ganesh to
the exhalation of oxygen by cows to the chastity of the peacocks. So
much so that the political class has even bludgeoned Charles Darwin’s
theory of evolution without any hesitation.
A refusal to accept
scientific norms is not wrong. Being a rational animal, a human is bound
to ask questions. But for rationality to prevail, it must also be
respected. Every scientific theory undergoes scrutiny and inquiry but
not in the language of faith, religion or cultural dogma. Science can
only be questioned by evidence that is tangible, reproducible and can
itself stand survive the almost-constant onslaught of new data. It is
this immutability that makes faith helpless in arguments against
The recent advent of right-wing members in functional
democracies across the globe has seen the political class attack science
and scientists with impunity.
PROF SHAH ALAM KHAN | Caravan Daily
THE erosion of scientific temper is the hallmark of a society drifting
into obscurantism. Those who babble without evidence against the
established principles of scientific theory are the worst enemies of
science – not because their words carry the power to damage or dent the
principles they question but because they sow the seeds of doubt in
minds unaware of science as a way of life.
The recent onslaught
on scientific knowledge by the political class of our country is a
matter of grave worry. From Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)
glorifying ‘plastic surgery’ in ancient Country to Harsh Vardhan,
science and technology minister, claiming Stephen Hawking had recognised
the superiority of the Vedas over the famous E = mc2 equation, there
has been a blitz of statements on virtually every aspect of scientific
The audacity of the carelessness on display in their
utterances is phenomenal. It has meandered from implanting the head of
Lord Ganesh to the exhalation of oxygen by cows to the chastity of the
peacocks. So much so that the political class has even bludgeoned
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution without any hesitation.
refusal to accept scientific norms is not wrong. Being a rational
animal, a human is bound to ask questions. But for rationality to
prevail, it must also be respected. Every scientific theory undergoes
scrutiny and inquiry but not in the language of faith, religion or
cultural dogma. Science can only be questioned by evidence that is
tangible, reproducible and can itself stand survive the almost-constant
onslaught of new data. It is this immutability that makes faith helpless
in arguments against science.
Having said this, it is not
unknown in scientific circles to accept or refute an established theory
but it is important that all new theories keep themselves open to
further scrutiny. This cycle of scrutiny and re-scrutiny in science
allows it to grow beyond the demesnes of its understanding, allowing a
scientific temper to percolate through the layers of society. The
critics of Darwin’s theory never questioned his intellectual arguments
based on their grandparents not having seen apes transform into humans,
as HRD minister Satyapal Singh recently said. Instead, they based their
arguments on the work of other scientists, such as the French naturalist
Unlike faith, which relies on the unseen and the unfelt, science questions not only what it can see but also what it can’t.
That said, the falsity of intellectual thought is the worst enemy of
scientific progress. And the current onslaught by the political class
against science in our country is dangerous because it is using falsity
of as well as because it is putting faith and religion in direct
conflict with science. In a country like ours, where a large chunk of
the populace is ignorant yet deeply religious, this conflict between
opinion and fact can evolve quite dangerously.
excuse given for propagating this falsity is religious traditions. We
are told that we are a nation of traditions, and rightly so. But being
traditional is by no means the same as being unscientific. The world’s
more scientific nations – such as China, Japan and South Korea – are
also home to rich traditions. In fact, incongruous traditions can be
tweaked by a scientific temper. When science prevails in a society, the
social only order stands to be strengthened. It is notable that in the
West, science has a better chance of prevailing in its conflict against
the Church on matters such as anti-abortion laws. Whether such a victory
would be possible in India is questionable.
The recent advent of
right-wing members in functional democracies across the globe has seen
the political class attack science and scientists with impunity. It is a
known fact that science does not go with rightist thought. Science and
its spine of evidence both stand erect in the storm of irrational ideas.
The just 0.1% intolerable, cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of
the world, violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded Bene Israelt Paradesi chitpvan brahmin RSS (Rakshasa Rowdy
Swayam Sevaks) and all other avathars the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha
Psychopaths) VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), ABVP (All Brahmin Visha
Psychopaths) and instant mushrooming other avathars class in the
country is simply threatened by science. We all know what Hitler Adolf
did to science when he was in power. His scientists, including Nobel
laureates Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark, relentlessly attacked
Albert Einstein on absurd grounds, using poor evidence to disgrace their
stature as persons of reason.
American President Donald Trump’s
disdain for climate change is another example of rightist forces
breaking from science for political gains. It appears that hostility
towards science is the essential step in establishing an anti-democratic
order, where hard evidence gives way to fairy tales and mythologies.
To expect that our political class will change for the better is to ask
for the Moon. The least that politicians can do is refrain from
commenting on matters of science. If I may, they should leave science
for minnows like us. They should remember what the first prime minister
of the country, Jawaharlal Nehru, had said about science: “It is science
alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of sanitation
and illiteracy, of superstition and deadening custom and tradition, of
vast resources running to waste, of a rich country inhabited by starving
(Shah Alam Khan is a professor in the Department of Orthopaedics at AIIMS, New Delhi. Views are personal.)
Congress Asks Amit Shah, Yeddyurappa To Clear Stand On Lingayat Minority Status
All India Press Trust of India
Congress’s communications incharge Randeep Surjewala said the issue
should not be linked with elections or the political process.
Updated : March 20, 2018 04:32 IST
Cabinet decision was slammed by BJP, that accused Siddaramaiah of “playing with fire”
New Delhi: The Congress on Sunday asked the BJP to make its stand clear
on the Karnataka Cabinet’s decision to recommend religious minority
status to Lingayat and Veerashaiva Lingayat communities, after the party
accused Chief Minister Siddaramaiah of “playing with fire” for vote
Congress’s communications incharge Randeep
Surjewala said the issue should not be linked with elections or the
“It is inappropriate to link the decision of
Karnataka government viz-a-viz declaration of Lingayat Samaj as a
minority community to the political processes,” he told reporters.
Mr Surjewala asked BJP chief Amit Shah and the party’s state unit
president BS Yeddyurappa to clarify whether they are in favour of the
decision or against it.
“You need to clarify and come out
clearly. Do not hunt with the hare. That is why we have clearly said the
sinister propaganda of BJP on this issue is condemnable. For, they do
not want to speak for the fear of annoying vote bank, yet they are
opposing the demand of Lingayat samaj. It is condemnable and we dare
Shri BS Yeddyuruppa and Shri Amit Shah to clarify their position in the
open,” he said.
Mr Surjewala said the Karnataka government had
followed the due process before taking the decision. Referring to the
Jain community, which was recognized as a religious minority a few years
ago, he said Lingayats should also be accorded such status.
said the previous UPA Congress government had got the demand of the
community examined and due process was followed by the Siddaramaiah
dispensation. After examining historical and other evidences, the UPA
government had come to a conclusion that the Jain community was a
religious minority despite objections by the Agrawal community, which
said they were part of them.
Lingayats and Veerashaivas
constitute an estimated 17 per cent of the state’s population, and are
considered the BJP’s traditional vote base in Congress-ruled Karnataka,
which is likely to go to polls in April-May.
The Cabinet decision
was slammed by the BJP, which accused Siddaramaiah of “playing with
fire” for vote bank politics and carrying on with the “divide and rule”
Yeddyurappa Goes Against BJP Stand on Lingayats, Says ‘I Support Mahasabha Decision’
The BJP has accused Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah of “playing
with fire for vote back politics” while Congress has said that
Yeddyurappa himself had signed on the demand to accord Lingayats an
independent religion status.
Deepa Balakrishnan | CNN-News18deepab18
Updated: March 20, 2018, 8:00 AM IST
File photo of state BJP chief B S Yeddyurappa.
Bengaluru: While the BJP on Monday slammed the Karnataka government for
its decision to recommend separate religion status for Lingayats, its
state unit chief BS Yeddyurappa seems to be in a dilemma over his take
on the issue and said that BJP stands by the all-India Veerashaiva
The BJP, on the other hand, accused
Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah of “playing with fire for vote
back politics” while Congress has said that Yeddyurappa himself had
signed on the demand to accord Lingayats an independent religion status,
him being the tallest Lingayat leader in the state.
months of speculation, the Siddaramaiah-led Congress government in
Karnataka on Monday decided to ask the Centre to recognise the Lingayats
as an independent religion and put the ball in BJP’s court.
After a marathon cabinet meeting and informal discussion with the
powerful Lingayat seers, the state government declared that it would
send the recommendation to the Centre. The state cabinet has decided to
accept the recommendations of the Justice Nagamohan Das Committee which
had asked the state to accord a separate religion tag to Lingayats.
BJP general secretary in-charge of Karnataka P Muralidhar Rao accused
the state’s ruling Congress of practising a “divide and rule” policy.
“Congress carrying ‘Divide and Rule’ legacy of Britishers in India.
Siddaramaiah ji is playing with fire for vote bank politics. Why has
Congress done this before elections? Why haven’t they done it 4 years
back?” he said in a tweet.
The Cabinet decision has put the main
opposition BJP in a fix as Lingayats are the backbone of the BJP in
Karnataka. Its CM candidate BS Yeddyurappa is also a Lingayat and the
saffron party in the state is in a dilemma.
“Now that the state
government has come up with this recommendation, the all India
Veerashaiva Mahasabha should immediately call a meeting, discuss the
pros and cons of this recommendation and be a guiding light to society.
This is my appeal,” said Yeddyurappa in his statement.
significant move, the Congress government in poll-bound Karnataka on
Monday decided to recommend to the Centre granting religious minority
tag to the numerically strong and politically influential Lingayat and
Veerashaiva Lingayat communities.
The Cabinet meeting convened to
discuss the issue was chaotic, claim insiders. Some argued that it
should be called Lingayat religion and the others insisted that it
should be called Veerashaiva–Lingayat religion. However, the expert
committee had recommended that it should be called only Lingayat
Lingayats are the followers of 12th Century social
reformer and mystic Basavanna or Basaveshwara. A Brahmin by birth,
Basavanna revolted against the Hindu caste system and founded Lingayat
religion to create a casteless society.
The Veerashaivas are a
Shaiva sect and not considered a part of Lingayats. However, they insist
that they are also Lingayats and the religion should include them too.
But some scholars argue that Veerashaivas are a part of Hinduism and not
the followers of Basavanna.
Peace Is Doable
21 Mar at 7:03 AM
BJP’s Forays in North Eastern States and anti Minority Agenda
From last couple of decades one is coming across the pamphlets,
leaflets and other material containing the propaganda that Christian
missionaries are converting the people at rapid pace; the examples
mostly given have been those of the North Eastern states. This
propaganda has been extensively used at pan India level, particularly
before elections in most of the states. It is this propaganda which
formed the base of hate against Christians and we witnessed the ghastly
murder of Pastor Graham Stewart Stains, the horrific Kandhmal violence,
and low intensity anti Christian violence and attacks on Churches in
different parts of the country. So how come BJP, the party flaunting it
Ram Temple, Mother cow and Hindu nationalism could make its inroads into
an area where many states Christianity is the religion with good
presence, where beef eating is part of the people’s dietary habits and
where different tribes with diverse and clashing political interests
articulate their aspirations by forming various groups which have been
asking for separate state for their tribes.
While the situation
in each state is different, there is a pattern of BJP strategy, which in
a flexible manner, supplemented by massive resources, near perfect
electoral machinery and the backing of its parent organization’s
swayamsevaks is getting the cake in state after state. In Assam it
focused mainly on the Bangladeshi immigrants, the Muslims swamping the
state and threatening that Hindus will be reduced to a minority. It was
clever enough to strike alliances even with separatist organizations.
Most of the regional organization in the area looks at Congress as the
party which has not focused on the development work, and BJP while at
one level abuses those differing with its ideology as ‘anti nationals’,
has no compunctions at all in allying with those who have been talking
of separate state or even secession. In Tripura left government; despite
its clean record; failed to fulfill the aspirations of tribal and OBCs
in matters of reservation. It also failed miserably in creating
employment opportunities for the youth which gave the ground to BJP to
promise and create the illusion of development.
BJP here mainly
harped on two major factors. One is the promise of development. As by
now its claims of development all over the country stand exposed as mere
vote catching slogans, in North East they still could sell Modi as a
development man. Manik Sarkar’s failure to implement the new pay
commissions must have hurt the large numbers as they are still stuck at
fourth pay commission while talk of seventh pay commission is in the
air. In Tripura, they could also harp on ‘Hindus are Refugees: Muslim is
infiltrators’ to influence the Bengali Hindu votes. In tribal area, RSS
swayamsevaks working consistently by organizing religious functions,
opening schools etc. from long time have succeeded in turning the
tables, as Manik Sarkar Government failed to address the needs of
Tribal’s in matters of opportunities. In matters of beef, BJP openly
took a hypocritical line that their ban on cow slaughter and eating
beef, which is being imposed in different parts of country; will not be
enforced in North East. As such also one knows that like most of the
issues raised by RSS-BJP, holy cow is a political tool for dividing the
society and when the crunch comes they manipulate the issue as they have
done in Kerala and Goa on the issue of beef and cow slaughter.
In a very loud manner, towering over Christian voters, Mr. Modi talked
of rescuing 46 nurses in ISIS captivity in Iraq and Father Alex
Premkumar from Taliban captivity. What can one say on these issues? Were
they rescued as they were Indians or were they rescued because they
belong to a particular religion? As is the wont with Modi type politics,
they do take advantage of these incidents in a crass political manner.
Despite the fact that their ideology regards Christians and Muslims as
foreigners they do at the same time manipulate these identities for
electoral gains. In Tripura the majority of Congress and TMC MLAS
migrated to BJP as well as the electoral support shifted to BJP. What
worked for BJP here was the anti Bangladeshi sentiment along with the
illusory promise of development.
In Meghalaya, the situation is
different. Though Congress did emerge as the single largest party and
logically is should have been given the chance to form the Government,
the Hindu nationalist Governor, thought otherwise and the second largest
party, in alliance with practically everybody including BJP are going
to form the Government. Here the failure of BJP to win over electorate
is writ large on the results, what is putting them in the camp of power,
is the alliance with a regional party, which has not been having
amicable attitude and relations to Congress. The role of BJP’s all round
clout including money and muscle is the undercurrent of the story.
There is lot of lessons for left in Tripura to learn. Issue of
addressing problems of youth, Tribal and OBC are paramount. In addition
the issue of BJP manipulating in all possible ways to come to power is
something, which can be ignored at the risk of severe declines in the
electoral power of the left and other parties. What is being labeled as
Karat line, not allying with Congress, will surely decimate the left in
times to come, probably sooner than later, as this line underestimates
the potential and the deeper agenda of BJP-RSS. It ignores the threat of
powerful electoral machine built by BJP over a period of time and its
capability to manipulate issues, like beef and conversion by Christian
missionaries, is different parts of the country, taking two opposite
positions and getting away with it!
The emotive politics
unleashed by BJP RSS is visible again in the form of attacking Lenin’s
statue and attacks on CPM workers. What is in store for future of the
region if democratic forces don’t rise to the occasion is anybody’s
“When a woman says no, it is really a no. But some men take it as a
yes and repeat themselves,” said magistrate Ingale while sentencing
Galange for causing mental and physical trauma to the female advocate.
Additional public prosecutor Rashmi Kshirsagar told the court that
the female lawyer, who is divorced, practises in Thane court. “She had
uploaded her profile on a matrimonial website for remarriage. The
accused initially sent his proposal online but she turned it down.”
The defence lawyer argued that the office of an advocate is
accessible to everyone. The magistrate, though, said it is not a public
place, it is a private office and permission is required to enter it.
“If the analogy of the defence is accepted, then the office of an
advocate may be open for public and this would not be accepted.”
When the complainant repeatedly rejected the accused’s proposal, it
implied her refusal to him to enter her office, said the magistrate. It
therefore amounts to trespassing. In his order, the magistrate further
said, “It is brought to my notice that even after her insistence, the
accused approached the complainant and threatened that she withdraw the
The accused was convicted under Indian Penal Code
sections 452 (house trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or
wrongful restraint), 509 (word, gesture or act intended to insult the
modesty of a woman) and 504 (intentional insult with an intent to
provoke breach of peace.
Karnataka grants separate religion status to Lingayat community
Yahoo India Team Yahoo IndiaYahoo India19 March 2018
Ahead of state assembly elections, the Siddaramaiah-led Congress
government in Karnataka on Monday approved the recommendations for a
separate religion status for Lingayats.
The Karnataka Cabinet after
okaying the move will now write to the Union government seeking separate
religion status for Lingayat.
The ball is now in the central
government’s court which will have to decide if Lingayats can be
recognized as belonging to an independent religion or not.
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After a separate flag for the state, this is the second such move before the crucial elections by the Karnataka government.
The Siddaramaiah government’s decision comes a day after a group of
Lingayat seers met the Chief Minister and urged him to implement the
report of the committee.
The demand for a separate religion tag
to Veerashaiva/Lingayat faiths had surfaced from the numerically strong
and politically-influential community, amidst resentment from within
over projecting the two communities as the same.
section led by Akhila Bharata Veerashaiva Mahasabha had demanded
separate religion status, asserting that Veerashaiva and Lingayats are
the same, the other wanted it only for Lingayats as it believes that
Veerashaivasare one among the seven sects of Shaivas, which is part of
The BJP — whose state unit president and CM face BS
Yeddyurappa is a Lingayat — has maintained a cautious stance on the
issue. It has accused the Siddaramaiah government of dividing the
society to draw political mileage ahead of the assembly elections this
Lingayats are the followers of 12th-century social reformer
and mystic Basavanna or Basaveshwara, who revolted against the caste
system in Hinduism. Basavanna was a Brahmin, but he opposed Brahminical
practices and hegemony by founding a casteless religion called
“Lingayats”. They worship Shiva Linga and are not supposed to follow any
Hindu rituals. Over 18% population in Karnataka is Lingayat. (Inputs:
News18 and Agencies)
Some of the prominent figures in the Hindu reform movements of the 19th and 20th centuries came from the Chitpavan Brahmin community. These included Dhondo Keshav Karve, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade,Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Gopal Ganesh Agarkar,Vinoba Bhave.
Some of the strongest resistance to change came from the very same
community. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. D. K.
Karve was ostracised. Even Tilak offered penance for breaking caste or
religious rules. One was for taking tea at Poona Christian mission in
1892 and the second was going to England in 1919.
The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale,
whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his
outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the “jewel of his
disciples”, and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However,
strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva,
was a Chitpavan Brahmin and several other Chitpavans were among the
first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of
the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak,.These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins, Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.
|Traditionally, Marathi; those in Israel, mostly Hebrew
English, Gujarati, Malayalam, Hindi
|Related ethnic groups|
|Cochin Jews, Baghdadi Jews, Marathi people|
The Bene Israel (”Sons of Israel”), formerly known in India as the “Native Jew Caste”, are a historic community of Jews in India. It has been suggested that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative (Ashkenazi/Sephardi) Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan area to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata, India; and Karachi, in today’s Pakistan. Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period.
In the early part of the twentieth century, many Bene Israel became
active in the new film industry, as actresses and actors, producers and
directors. After India gained its independence in 1947, and Israel was
established in 1948, most Bene Israel emigrated to Israel, Canada and other Commonwealth countries and the United States.
Some historians have thought their ancestors may have belonged to one of the Lost Tribes of Israel,
but the Bene Israel have never been officially recognized by Jewish
authorities as such. According to Bene Israel tradition, their ancestors
migrated to India after centuries of travel through western Asia from
Israel and gradually assimilated to the people around them, while
keeping some Jewish customs. The medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides mentioned in a letter that there was a Jewish community living in India: he may have been referring to the Bene Israel.
At a point in history which is uncertain, an Indian Jew from Cochin named David Rahabi discovered the Bene Israel in their villages and recognized their vestigial Jewish customs.
Rahabi taught the people about normative Judaism. He trained some young
men among them to be the religious preceptors of the community. Known as Kajis, these men held a position that became hereditary, similar to the Cohanim. They became recognized as judges and settlers of disputes within the community.
One Bene Israel tradition places Rahabi’s arrival at around 1000 or
1400, although some historians believe he was not active until the 18th
century. They suggest that the “David Rahabi” of Bene Israel folklore
was a man named David Ezekiel Rahabi, who lived from 1694 to 1772, and
resided in Cochin, then the center of the wealthy Malabar Jewish community. Others suggest that the reference is to David Baruch Rahabi, who arrived in Bombay from Cochin in 1825.
It is estimated that there were 6,000 Bene Israel in the 1830s;
10,000 at the turn of the 20th century; and in 1948—their peak in
India—they numbered 20,000. Since that time, most of the population have emigrated.
Under British colonial rule, many Bene Israel rose to prominence in India.
They were less affected than other Indians by the racially
discriminatory policies of the British colonists, considered somewhat
outside the masses.They gained higher, better paying posts in the British Army when compared with their non-Jewish neighbours. Some of these enlistees with their families later joined the British in the British Protectorate of Aden. In the 19th century, the Bene Israel did however meet with hostility from the newly anglicized Baghdadi Jews who considered the Bene Israel to be “Indian”.They also questioned the Jewishness of the community
In the early twentieth century, numerous Bene Israel became leaders
in the new film industry in India. In addition, men worked as producers
and actors: Ezra Mir
(alias Edwin Myers) (1903-1993) became the first chief of India’s Film
Division, and Solomon Moses was head of the Bombay Film Lab Pvt Ltd from
the 1940s to 1990s. Ennoch Isaac Satamkar was a film actor and assistant director to Mehboob Khan, a prominent director of Hindi films.
Given their success under the British colonial government, many Bene Israel prepared to leave India at independence in 1947. They believed that nationalism and the emphasis on indigenous religions would mean fewer opportunities for them. Most emigrated to Israel, which was newly established in 1948 as a Jewish homeland.