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2567 Wed 21 Mar 2018 LESSON http://www.buddha-vacana.org/ Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — in Classical English
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
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2567 Wed 21 Mar 2018 LESSON


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 Buddha Vacana
— The words of the Buddha —

in 23 Classical English


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Buddha Vacana

— The words of the Buddha —

Learn Pali online for free and the easy way.


This website is dedicated to those who wish to understand better the
words of the Buddha by learning the basics of Pali language, but who
don’t have much time available for it. The idea is that if their purpose
is merely to get enabled to read the Pali texts and have a fair feeling
of understanding them, even if that understanding does not cover all
the minute details of grammatical rules, they don’t really need to spend
much time struggling with a discouraging learning of tedious
grammatical theory involving such things as numerous declensions and
conjugations.

In that case, it is enough to
limit themselves to simply learn the meaning of the most important Pali
words, because the repeated experience of reading provides an empirical
and intuitive understanding of the most common sentence structures.
They are thus enabled to become autodidacts, choosing the time,
duration, frequency, contents and depth of their own study.

Their understanding of the
Buddha Vacana will become much more precise as they effortlessly learn
and memorize the words and the important formulae that are fundamental
in the Buddha’s teaching, by ways of regular reading. Their learning and
the inspiration they get from it will grow deeper as their receptivity
to the messages of the Teacher will improve.



Disclaimer: This website is created by an autodidact and
is meant for autodidacts. The webmaster has not followed any official
Pali course and there is no claim that all the information presented
here is totally free from errors. Those who want academic precision may
consider joining a formal Pali course. In case the readers notice any
mistake, the webmaster will be grateful if they report it via the
mailbox mentioned under ‘Contact’.

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Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.

Note: plain texts


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Sutta Piṭaka

— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]

The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas.


Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest
discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of
them are late additions to the original corpus and of questionable
authenticity.
Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas
according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It
contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but
generally relatively short.
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara
Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them
gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one additional factor
versus those of the precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas
which are generally short.
Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts
and is considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna,
Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the
ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their
authenticity is more questionable.


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Pali Formulae



The view on which this work is based is that the passages of the
suttas which are reported to be the most often repeated by the Buddha in
all the four Nikāyas can be taken as indicating what he considered as
being the most worthy of interest in his teaching, and at the same time
as what represents with most accuracy his actual words. Eight of them
are expounded in the Gaṇaka-Moggallāna Sutta (MN 107) and described as
the Sekha Paṭipadā or Path for one under Training, which practically
leads the neophyte all the way to the fourth jhāna.

Sekha Paṭipadā - The Path for one under Training


Twelve formulae that define step by step the main practices
prescribed by the Buddha. It is of fundamental importance for anyone
wishing to progress successfully, because it contains the instructions
that will enable the meditator to set up the indispensable conditions
for an efficient practice.


Ānāpānassati - Awareness of the Breath
The practice of ānāpānassati is highly recommended by the Buddha
for all kinds of wholesome purposes and here you can understand quite
precisely the instructions he gives.
Anussati - The Recollections
Here we have the standard description of the Buddha (≈140 occ.), the Dhamma (≈90 occ.) and the Sangha (≈45 occ.).
Appamāṇā Cetovimutti - The boundless liberations of the mind
The Buddha often praises the practice of the four appamāṇā
cetovimutti, which are reputed for bringing protection against dangers
and for being a way leading to Brahmaloka.
Arahatta - Arahantship
This is the stock formula by which the attainment of arahantship is described in the suttas.
Ariya Sīlakkhandha - The noble aggregate of virtue
Various rules to be followed by bhikkhus.
Arūpajjhānā - The Formless Jhānas
Here are the stock formulae describing the absorptions of
samādhi beyond the fourth jhāna, which are referred to in late Pali
litterature as arūpajjhānas.
Āsavānaṃ Khayañāṇa - Knowledge of the destruction of the āsavas
Knowledge of the destruction of the āsavas: arahantship.
Bhojane Mattaññutā - Moderation in food
Moderation in food: knowing the proper amount to eat.
Cattāro Jhānā - The four jhānas
The four jhānas: having a pleasant abiding.
Indriyesu Guttadvāratā - Surveillance at the entrance of sense faculties
Guard at the entrance of sense faculties: sense restraint.
Jāgariyaṃ Anuyoga - Dedication to wakefulness
Dedication to wakefulness: day and night.
Kammassakomhi - I am my own kamma
This formula explicits one of the foundation stones of the
Buddha’s teaching: a subjective version of the law of cause and effect.
Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna - Removal of hindrances
Removal of the hindrances: overcoming obstructing mental states.
Pabbajjā - The going forth
The going forth: how one decides to renounce the world.
Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa - Knowledge of the recollection of former living places
Knowledge of the recollection of former living places: remembering one’s past lives.
Satipaṭṭhāna - Presence of Awareness
These are the formulae by which the Buddha defines in brief what the four satipaṭṭhānas are (≈33 occ.).
Satisampajañña - Mindfulness and thorough understanding
Mindfulness and thorough understanding: an uninterrupted practice.
Satta saddhammā - Seven good qualities
Seven fundamental qualities that have to be mastered by the
trainee in order to be successful. Four of these qualities appear also
among the five spiritual indriyas and the five balas.
Sattānaṃ Cutūpapātañāṇa - Knowledge of the rebirth of diceased beings
Knowledge of the rebirth of diceased beings.
Sīlasampatti - Accomplishment in virtue
Accomplishment in virtue: a careful observance of the Pātimokkha rules.
Vivitta Senāsanena Bhajana - Resorting to secluded dwellings
The choice of a proper place and the adoption of the proper
physical and mental posture is another sine qua non condition of
successful practice.
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Pātimokkha


— The Bhikkhu’s guidelines —


These are the 227 guidelines that every bhikkhu must learn by heart in
Pali language in order to be able to recite them. Here a semantic
analysis of each guideline will (hopefully) be provided.


Pārājika 1
Should any bhikkhu — participating in the training and
livelihood of the bhikkhus, without having renounced the training,
without having declared his weakness — engage in sexual intercourse,
even with a female animal, he is defeated and no longer in affiliation.
http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha/par1.html
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Pārājika 1



yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā·s·ājīva·samāpanno sikkhaṃ a·paccakkhāya du·b·balyaṃ an·āvi·katvā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya antamaso tiracchāna·gatāya·pi, pārājiko hoti a·saṃvāso.

Should any bhikkhuparticipating in the training and livelihood of the bhikkhus, without having renounced the training, without having declared his weaknessengage in sexual intercourse, even with a female animal, he is defeated and no longer in affiliation.



yo pana bhikkhu Should any bhikkhu
bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā·s·ājīva·samāpanno participating in the training and livelihood of the bhikkhus,
sikkhaṃ a·paccakkhāya without having renounced the training,
du·b·balyaṃ an·āvi·katvā without having declared his weakness
methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya engage in sexual intercourse,
antamaso tiracchāna·gatāya·pi,
even with a female animal,
pārājiko hoti a·saṃvāso.
he is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

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Dīgha Nikāya

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Dīgha Nikāya


— The long discourses —
[ dīgha: long ]


The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses supposedly given by the Buddha.



Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) {excerpts} - word by word
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the
sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very
important set of instructions for us nowadays.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) - word by word
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.


——————oooOooo——————


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Majjhima Nikāya


— The discourses of medium length —
[ majjhima: medium ]


The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.





Sabbāsava Sutta (MN 2) - enhanced translation
Very interesting sutta, where the different ways by which the āsavas, fermentating defilements of the mind, are dispelled.
Bhayabherava Sutta (MN 4) - enhanced translation
What would it take to live in solitude in the wilderness, completely free from fear? The Buddha explains.
Vattha Sutta (MN 7) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
We
find here a rather standard list of sixteen defilements (upakkilesa) of
the mind, and an explanation of a mechanism by which one gets these
‘confirmed confidences’ in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha that
are factors of stream-entry.
Mahādukkhakkhandha Sutta (MN 13) - enhanced translation
On the assāda (allure), ādīnava (drawback) and nissaraṇa
(emancipation) of kāma (sensuality), rūpa (form) and vedanā (feeling). A
lot of very useful matter to ponder over.
Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta (MN 27) - enhanced translation
The Buddha explains how the fact that he is actually an
enlightened being must be taken on faith or as a conjecture until a
certain stage is reached, and that any claim of such a knowledge without
that realization is be worthless.
Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43) {excerpt} - word by word
Sāriputta answers various interesting questions asked by āyasmā
Mahākoṭṭhika, and in this excerpt, he explains that Vedanā, Saññā and
Viññāṇa are not clearly delineated but deeply interwoven.
Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
The bhikkhuni Dhammadinnā answers a series of interesting
questions asked by Visākha. Among other things, she gives the 20-fold
definition of sakkāyadiṭṭhi.
Sekha Sutta (MN 53) - enhanced translation
The Buddha asks Ānanda to expound the Sekha Paṭipadā, of which
he gives a surprising version, from which Satisampajañña and Nīvaraṇānaṃ
Pahāna are curiously replaced by a series of seven ‘good qualities’,
and which is illustrated by a telling simile.
Potaliya Sutta (MN 54) - enhanced translation
A series of seven standard similes to explain the drawbacks and dangers of giving in to sensuality.
Bahuvedanīya Sutta (MN 59) {excerpt} - word by word
In this short excerpt, the Buddha defines the five kāmaguṇās and makes an important comparison with another type of pleasure.
Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN 70) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
This sutta contains a definition of dhammānusārī and saddhānusārī.
Bāhitikā Sutta (MN 88) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
The
King Pasenadi of Kosala is eager to understand what is recommended or
not by wise ascetics and brahmans, and he asks series of questions to
Ānanda which allow us a better grasp of the meaning of the words kusala
(wholesome) and akusala (unwholesome).
Ānāpānassati Sutta (MN 118) - word by word
The famous sutta about the practice of ānāpānassati, and how it
leads to the practice of the four satipaṭṭhānas and subsquently to the
fulfillment of the seven bojjhaṅgas.
Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta (MN 137) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
In this deep and very interesting sutta, the Buddha defines
among other things what are the investigations of pleasant, unpleasant
and neutral mental feelings, and also defines the expression found in
the standard description of the Buddha: ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’.
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta (MN 152) - word by word
This sutta offers three approaches to the practice of sense restraint, that contain additional instructions complementing the Indriyesu Guttadvāratā formulae.



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Saṃyutta Nikāya


— The classified discourses —
[ saṃyutta: group ]


The discourses of the Saṃyutta Nikāya are divided according to
their theme in 56 saṃyuttas, which are themselves grouped in five
vaggas.






Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 12.2) - word by word
A detailed explanation of paṭicca samuppāda, with a definition of each of the twelve links.
Cetanā Sutta (SN 12.38) - enhanced translation
Here the Buddha explains how cetanā, together with pondering and anusaya, act as a basis for viññāṇa.
Upādāna Sutta (SN 12.52) - enhanced translation
This
is a very enlightening lesson that reveals by which psychological
mechanism one gives in to craving, and explains how it can be easily
replaced by wholesome considerations to get rid of it.
Puttamaṃsūpama Sutta (SN 12.63) - enhanced translation
The Buddha offers here four impressing and inspiring similes to explain how the four āhāras should be regarded.
Sanidāna Sutta (SN 14.12) - enhanced translation
A
wonderful explanation of how perceptions turn into actions, further
enlightened by the simile of the blazing torch. Remain diligently
mindful to dispel unwholesome thoughts!
Āṇi Sutta (SN 20.7) - word by word
A
very important thing is reminded to us by the Buddha: for our own
benefit as well as for the benfit of the generations yet to come, we
must give most importance to his own actual words, and not so much to
whoever else pretends nowadays or has pretended in the past to be a
proper (Dhamma) teacher.
Samādhi Sutta (SN 22.5) - word by word
The
Buddha exhorts his followers to develop concentration so that they can
practice insight into the arising and passing away of the five
aggregates, after which he defines what he means by arising and passing
away of the aggregates, in terms of dependent origination.
Paṭisallāṇa Sutta (SN 22.6) - without translation
The
Buddha exhorts his followers to practice seclusion so that they can
practice insight into the arising and passing away of the five
aggregates, after which he defines what he means by arising and passing
away of the aggregates, in terms of dependent origination.
Upādāparitassanā Sutta (SN 22.8) - word by word
The arising and cessation of suffering takes place in the five aggregates.
Nandikkhaya Sutta (SN 22.51) - word by word
How to operate the destruction of delight.
Anattalakkhana Sutta (SN 22.59) - word by word
In this very famous sutta, the Buddha expounds for the first time his teaching on anatta.
Khajjanīya Sutta (SN 22.79) {excerpt} - word by word
This sutta provides a succinct definition of the five khandhas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 29.1) - enhanced translation
The different types of nāgas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 30.1) - enhanced translation
The different types of supaṇṇas (aka garudas).
Suddhika Sutta (SN 31.1) - enhanced translation
The different types of gandhabba devas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 32.1) - enhanced translation
The different types of cloud devas.
Samāpattimūlakaṭhiti Sutta (SN 34.11) - enhanced translation
Attaining concentration vs maintaining concentration.
Pubbesambodha Sutta (SN 35.13) - word by word
The
Buddha defines what he means by allure, drawback and emancipation in
the case of the internal sense spheres, and then declares that his
awakening was nothing more nor less than understanding them.
Abhinanda Sutta (SN 35.20) - word by word
There is no escape for whoever delights in sense objects.
Migajāla Sutta (SN 35.46) - enhanced translation
Why
is true solitude so hard to find? The Buddha explains why, no matter
where you go, your most annoying companions always tag along.
Avijjāpahāna Sutta (SN 35.53) - word by word
A very simple discourse, yet very deep, on what to know and see to abandon ignorance and produce knowledge.
Sabbupādānapariññā Sutta (SN 35.60) - word by word
The
Buddha, while expounding the complete understanding of all attachment,
gives a deep and yet very clear explanation: contact arises on the basis
of three phenomena.
Migajāla Sutta Sutta (SN 35.64) {excerpt} - word by word
Some
neophytes (and we may often count ourselves among them) sometimes want
to believe that it is possible to delight in sensual pleasures without
giving rise to attachment nor suffering. The Buddha teaches Migajāla
that this is downright impossible.
Adantāgutta Sutta (SN 35.94) - word by word
Here
is one of those advises which are so easy to understand with the
intellect, yet so difficult to understand at deeper levels because our
wrong views constantly interfere in the process. Therefore we need to
get it repeated often, even though that may seem boring to some.
Pamādavihārī Sutta (SN 35.97) - word by word
What makes the difference between one who lives with negligence and one who lives with vigilance.
Sakkapañhā Sutta Sutta (SN 35.118) - word by word
The
Buddha gives a rather simple answer to Sakka’s question: what is the
reason why some people attain the final goal while others don’t?
Rūpārāma Sutta (SN 35.137) - word by word
The
Buddha explains for us once more, in yet another way, the cause and the
cessation of suffering. It takes place right in the middle of what we
keep doing all day and all night.
Aniccanibbānasappāya Sutta (SN 35.147) - word by word
Here
are hardcore vipassanā instructions dealing with the perception of
impermanence for advanced meditators who are looking forward to
attaining Nibbāna.
Ajjhattānattahetu Sutta (SN 35.142) - word by word
How
investigating the causes for the arising of the sense organs, in which
the characteristic of nonself may be easier to understand, allows a
transfer of this understanding to their case.
Samudda Sutta (SN 35.229) - enhanced translation
What the ocean in the discipline of the noble ones is. Beware not to sink in it!
Pahāna Sutta (SN 36.3) - enhanced translation
The relation between the three types of vedanā and three of the anusayas.
Daṭṭhabba Sutta (SN 36.5) - enhanced translation
How the three types of vedanā (feelings) should be seen.
Salla Sutta (SN 36.6) - enhanced translation
When
shot by the arrow of physical pain, an unwise person makes matters
worse by piling mental anguish on top of it, just as if he had been shot
by two arrows. A wise person feels the sting of one arrow alone.
Anicca Sutta (SN 36.9) - enhanced translation
Seven
characteristics of vedanā (feelings), which are also applicable to the
other four khandhas (SN 22.21) and each of the twelve links of
paṭicca·samuppāda (SN 12.20).
Phassamūlaka Sutta (SN 36.10) - word by word
The three types of feelings are rooted in three types of contacts.
Aṭṭhasata Sutta (SN 36.22) - enhanced translation
The
Buddha expounds vedanās in seven different ways, analysing them into
two, three, five, six, eighteen, thirty six or one hundred and eight
categories.
Nirāmisa Sutta (SN 36.31) {excerpt} - word by word
We
can understand here that pīti, though being often listed as a
bojjhaṅga, can also sometimes be akusala. This passage also includes a
definition of the five kāmaguṇā.
Dhammavādīpañhā Sutta (SN 38.3) - enhanced translation
Who professes the Dhamma in the world (dhamma·vādī)? Who practices well (su·p·paṭipanna)? Who is faring well (su·gata)?
Dukkara Sutta (SN 39.16) - enhanced translation
What is difficult to do in this Teaching and Discipline?
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 45.8) - word by word
Here the Buddha defines precisely each factor of the eightfold noble path.
Āgantuka Sutta (SN 45.159) - enhanced translation
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Kusala Sutta (SN 46.32) - word by word
All that is advantageous unite in one thing.
Āhāra Sutta (SN 46.51) - enhanced translation
The
Buddha describes how we can either “feed” or “starve” the hindrances
and the factors of enlightenment according to how we apply our
attention.
Saṅgārava Sutta (SN 46.55) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
A
beautiful series of similes to explain how the five nīvaraṇas
(hindrances) affect the purity of the mind and its ability to perceive
the reality as it is.
Sati Sutta (SN 47.35) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha reminds the bhikkhus to be satos and sampajānos, and then defines these two terms.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40) - word by word
The satipaṭṭhānas taught in short.
Daṭṭhabba Sutta (SN 48.8) - enhanced translation
Each of the five spiritual indriyas is said to be seen in a fourfold dhamma.
Saṃkhitta Sutta (SN 48.14) - enhanced translation
Fulfilling them is all we have to do, and this is the measure of our liberation.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 48.38) - enhanced translation
Here the Buddha defines the five sensitive indriyas.
Uppaṭipāṭika Sutta (SN 48.40) - enhanced translation
This
sutta draws an interesting parallel between the cessation of the
feeling faculties and the successive attainments of jhānas.
Sāketa Sutta (SN 48.43) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
In
this sutta, the Buddha states that the balas and the indriyas can be
considered as one and the same thing or as two different things.
Patiṭṭhita Sutta (SN 48.56) - enhanced translation
There is one mental state through which all the five spiritual faculties are perfected.
Bīja Sutta (SN 49.24) - enhanced translation
A beautiful simile that illustrates how fundamental virtue is for the practice of the four right strivings.
Gantha Sutta (SN 50.102) - enhanced translation
This
sutta is based on the interesting list of the four ‘bodily knots’, and
promotes the development of the five spiritual strengths.
Viraddha Sutta (SN 51.2) - enhanced translation
Whoever neglects these neglects the noble path.
Chandasamādhi Sutta (SN 51.13) - enhanced translation
This sutta explains clearly the meaning of the formulae describing the practice of the iddhi·pādas.
Samaṇabrāhmaṇa Sutta (SN 51.17) - enhanced translation
Wether
in the past, in the future or at present, whoever wields supernormal
powers has developped and assiduously practiced four things.
Vidhā Sutta (SN 53.36) - enhanced translation
The
jhānas are recommended to get rid of the three types of conceit, which
are related to comparing oneself with others. It makes it plain that if
there is any hierarchy in the Sangha, it is only for practical purposes,
and it is not to be taken as being representative of any reality. It is
not quite clear whether this is one sutta repeating 16 times the same
thing, or 16 suttas grouped together, or 4 suttas containing each 4
repetitions.
Padīpopama Sutta (SN 54.8) - word by word
Here
the Buddha explains ānāpānassati and recommands it for various
purposes: from abandoning gross impurities, through developing all the
eight jhānas.
Saraṇānisakka Sutta (SN 55.24) - enhanced translation
In
this interesting discourse, the Buddha states that one does not even
have to have gained strong confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha
to become a stream-winner at the time of death.
Mahānāma Sutta (SN 55.37) - enhanced translation
What it means to be a lay lay disciple, endowed with virtue, conviction, generosity and discernment.
Aṅga Sutta (SN 55.50) - word by word
The four sotāpattiyaṅgas (factors for stream-entry).
Samādhi Sutta (SN 56.1) - word by word
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice samādhi, for it leads to understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Paṭisallāna Sutta (SN 56.2) - word by word
The
Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice paṭisallāna, for it leads to
understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11) - word by word
This is certainly the most famous sutta in the Pali litterature. The Buddha expounds the four ariya-saccas for the first time.
Saṅkāsanā Sutta (SN 56.19) - enhanced translation
The
teaching of the four noble truths, however boring it may seem to the
wandering mind, is actually very deep and the mind could spend the whole
time investigating it.
Siṃsapāvana Sutta (SN 56.31) - word by word
The
famous sutta where the Buddha states that he has no interest in any
teachings which are not immediately connected with attaining the goal.
Daṇḍa Sutta (SN 56.33) - enhanced translation
The telling simile of the stick.


——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html
Tree>> Sutta Piṭaka


Aṅguttara Nikāya


— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]



The Aṅguttara Nikāya contains thousands
of short discourses, which have the particularity to be structured as
enumerations. It is divided into eleven sections, the first dealing with
enumerations of one item, the second with those of two items etc. The
Buddha, having never made use of writing, asked his listeners to be
attentive and to memorize his instructions. In order to make his words
as clear as possible and to facilitate this memorization, he often
presented his teaching in the form of enumerations.




Nipātas


1. Ekaka Nipāta        7. Sattaka Nipāta
2. Duka Nipāta        8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
3. Tika Nipāta        9. Navaka Nipāta
4. Catuka Nipāta        10. Dasaka Nipāta
5. Pañcaka Nipāta        11. Ekādasaka Nipāta
6. Chakka Nipāta


——————oooOooo——————



1. Ekaka Nipāta


Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10) - word by word
There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20) - word by word
The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30) - word by word
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Adanta Vagga (AN 1.31-40) - enhanced translation
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Udakarahaka Suttas (AN 1.45 & 46) - enhanced translation
The difference between a clear mind and a muddy one.
Mudu Sutta (AN 1.47) - enhanced translation
A simile for a mind that’s pliant.
Lahuparivatta Sutta (AN 1.48) - enhanced translation
The Buddha, normally so adept at finding similes, is here at a loss.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55) - word by word
Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73) - word by word
What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Pamāda Suttas (AN 1.58-59) - enhanced translation
Nothing is so disadvantageous as this.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97) - word by word
The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Kāyagatāsati Vagga (AN 1.563-574) {excerpts} - enhanced translation
The Buddha speaks in high praise of the mindfulness directed to the body.
——————oooOooo——————



2. Duka Nipāta


Appaṭivāna Sutta (AN 2.5) - enhanced translation
How we ought to train ourselves if we wish to reach awakening.
Cariya Sutta (AN 2.9) - enhanced translation
What is it, after all, that guarantees harmony, politeness,
honesty, brotherhood in a word peace within a given society? The Buddha
explains here which are the two guardians of the world.
Ekaṃsena Sutta (AN 2.18) - enhanced translation
Here is one thing that the Buddha declares categorically.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32) - word by word
Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.
——————oooOooo——————



3. Tika Nipāta


Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66) - word by word
In
this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our
own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others,
even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Sāḷha Sutta (AN 3.67) - enhanced translation
The advice given here is very similar to that given to the Kalamas.
Aññatitthiya Sutta (AN 3.69) - enhanced translation
The
three roots of the unwholesome are explained with their respectve
characteristic, the cause of their arising, and the way to bring about
their cessation.
Uposatha Sutta (AN 3.71) - enhanced translation
In this sutta, the Buddha defines how lay people should practice Uposatha and describes the different types of devas.
Sīlabbata Sutta (AN 3.79) - enhanced translation
Ānanda explains by which very simple creteria rites and rituals can be judged as beneficial or not.
Samaṇa Sutta (AN 3.82) - enhanced translation
Here are the three ascetics tasks of an ascetic.
Vajjiputta Sutta (AN 3.85) - enhanced translation
A
certain monk cannot train with so many rules. The Buddha explains him
how he can do without them, and it works out rather well.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90) - word by word
The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Accāyika Sutta (AN 3.93) - enhanced translation
Three urgent tasks of an ascetic which are like three urgent tasks of a farmer.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91) - word by word
Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Paṃsudhovaka Sutta (AN 3.102) - few info·bubbles
In
this sutta, the Buddha compares the removal of mental impurities
through the practice to the work of a goldsmith. It is particularly
interesting, because it provides a gradual exposition of the impurities
one has to deal with during the practice, which gives an useful
reference.
Nimitta Sutta (AN 3.103) - few info·bubbles
Do
you find yourself nodding off or becoming overly agitated during your
meditation practice? This is a very useful discourse for the meditators
who wish to balance the two corresponding spiritual faculties of effort
and concentration, together with equanimity. Many of us would benefit
substantially from applying properly these instructions.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108) - word by word
Here
the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline of
the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing and
smiling.
Atitti Sutta (AN 3.109) - enhanced translation
Three wrong things, of which many are unfortunately fond, that can never bring about satiety.
Nidāna Sutta (AN 3.112) - enhanced translation
Six causes, three wholesome and three unwholesome, to the arising of kamma.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164) - word by word
It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.
——————oooOooo——————



4. Catukka Nipāta


Yoga Sutta (AN 4.10) - enhanced translation
What the Buddha means when he talks about yoga and yogakkhema (rest from the yoke).
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - enhanced translation
Four simple practices that make one incapable of falling away, right in the presence of Nibbāna.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41) - word by word
The
four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite
obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and
paññā.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Appamāda Sutta (AN 4.116) - simple translation
Four instances in which one should practice with assiduity.
Ārakkha Sutta (AN 4.117) - simple translation
Four things to be undertaken with assiduity, mindfulness while protecting the mind.
Mettā Sutta (AN 4.125) - enhanced translation
Here
the Buddha explains what kind of rebirth one who thoroughly practices
the four Brahmavihāras can expect, and the great advantage of being his
disciple.
Asubha Sutta (AN 4.163) - enhanced translation
The
four ways of practicing, according to the type of practice chosen and
the intensity or weakness of strengths and spiritual factulties.
Abhiññā Sutta (AN 4.254) - without translation
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Arañña Sutta (AN 4.262) - enhanced translation
What sort of person is fit to live in the wilderness?
——————oooOooo——————



5. Pañcaka Nipāta


Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.2) - without translation
Here the Buddha defines in detail what he calls the five
Sekha-balas (strenghs of one in training). This sutta is easily
understandable without requiring a parallel translation, if you refer to
the Satta saddhammā Formulae as will be suggested in the text. The Pali-English Dictionary is also available, just in case.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14) - word by word
Here are defined the five balas.
Samādhi Sutta (AN 5.27) - enhanced translation
Five uplifting knowledges that occur to one who practices the boundless concentration.
Akusalarāsi Sutta (AN 5.52) - enhanced translation
Speaking rightly, what should be called ‘accumulation of demerit’?
Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhāna Sutta (AN 5.57) {excerpt} - word by word
How to consider one’s own kamma.
Anāgatabhaya Sutta (AN 5.80) - enhanced translation
The
Buddha reminds the monks that the practice of Dhamma should not be put
off for a later date, for there are no guarantees that the future will
provide any opportunities for practice.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.89) - without translation
The
Buddha reminds us of five things that deteriorate the practice, which
for anyone wishing to progress in the training are nearly as important
to know about, remember and integrate into our lifestyles as the
knowledge of the five standard nīvaraṇas.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.90) - enhanced translation
Five attitudes that lead to the deterioration of the practice.
Sutadhara Sutta (AN 5.96) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Kathā Sutta (AN 5.97) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Āraññaka Sutta (AN 5.98) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Andhakavinda Sutta (AN 5.114) - enhanced translation
Five things that the Buddha exhorted his newly ordained monks to do.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.149) - without translation
Five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.150) - without translation
Another set of five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Vaṇijjā Sutta (AN 5.177) - enhanced translation
The Buddha specifies here five trades which should not be carried on by his lay followers, among which the business of meat.
Gihī Sutta (AN 5.179) - enhanced translation
In
this sutta, the Buddha gives greater precision about the way in which
the four usual sotāpattiyaṅgas have to be internalized in order to
constitute the proper conditions for sotāpatti.
Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN 5.200) - enhanced translation
This sutta declines five types of nissāraṇas.
Yāgu Sutta (AN 5.207) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five advantages of eating rice-gruel.
Dantakaṭṭha Sutta (AN 5.208) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five reasons to use a tooth-cleaner.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209) - word by word
This
sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions:
the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any
melodic chanting.
Muṭṭhassati Sutta (AN 5.210) - enhanced translation
The disadvantages of falling asleep without proper sati and sampajañña, and the respective advantages of doing so with them.
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.241) - enhanced translation
Five dangers of duccarita (bad conduct) and five advantages of sucarita (good conduct).
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.245) - enhanced translation
Another sutta about the five dangers of duccarita and five advantages of sucarita.
Sivathika Sutta (AN 5.249) - enhanced translation
Five ways in which an ill-conducted person can be similar to a charnel ground where people throw dead bodies.
Puggalappasāda Sutta (AN 5.250) - enhanced translation
Here is a rare warning given by the Buddha about the dangers of placing confidence in anyone.
Rāgassa abhiññāya Sutta (AN 5.303) - enhanced translation
Five things to be practiced for the direct knowledge of rāga.
——————oooOooo——————



6. Chakka Nipāta


Bhaddaka Sutta (AN 6.14) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be unauspicious and one whose death will be auspicious.
Anutappiya Sutta (AN 6.15) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be remorseful and one whose death will be remorseless.
Maraṇassati Sutta (AN 6.20) - enhanced translation
This sutta explains in detail how to practice the mindfulness of death.
Sāmaka Sutta (AN 6.21) - few info·bubbles
Prompted
by the intervention of a deva, the Buddha reveals the six ageless ways
by which bhikkhus deteriorate in kusala dhammas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 6.22) - few info·bubbles
Six dhammas connected to non-deterioration. Another set of very useful dhammas for keen practitioners.
Himavanta Sutta (AN 6.24) - enhanced translation
Six qualities undowed with which a meditator would reportedly break into pieces the Himalayas.
Anussatiṭṭhāna Sutta (AN 6.25) - enhanced translation
This sutta defines what are the six subjects of recollection.
Sekha Sutta (AN 6.31) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the six dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
Nāgita Sutta (AN 6.42) - enhanced translation
While
dwelling in a forest grove, the Buddha speaks in praise of modesty,
contentment, unentanglement, and seclusion in the wilderness.
Dhammika Sutta (AN 6.54) - plain texts
In
this sutta, the word tathāgata is not used to designate the Buddha but
in the common sense, which allows us a better grasp of its meaning.
Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63) - plain texts
This
sutta provides an interesting systematic analysis of Kāma, Vedanā,
Saññā, Āsavā, Kamma and Dukkha. Each of these terms is defined and then
described witht the pattern of the four ariya-saccas.
Anavatthitā Sutta (AN 6.102) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anicca.
Atammaya Sutta (AN 6.104) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anatta.
Assāda Sutta (AN 6.112) - enhanced translation
How to eradicate the view of enjoyment, the view of self, and wrong view in general.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118) - word by word
It
is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits
without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
——————oooOooo——————



7. Sattaka Nipāta


Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.11) - plain texts
Here are listed the seven anusayas.
Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.12) - enhanced translation
On abandoning the seven anusaya (obsessions or latent tendencies).
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.27) - enhanced translation
Seven perceptions that lead to the long-term welfare of the bhikkhus and prevent their decline.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.28) - enhanced translation
Seven points on which a bhikkhu in training may decline or not.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.29) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may decline or not.
Vipatti Sutta (AN 7.30) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her failure or success.
Parābhava Sutta (AN 7.31) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her ruin or prosperity.
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.49) - enhanced translation
Seven inner reflections that are well worth pursuing.
Nagaropama Sutta (AN 7.67) - plain texts with Pali Formulae
Here the Buddha uses an enlightening simile to explain how seven
good qualities that should be mastered by the trainee in order to be
successful work together to prevent the troops of Māra (ie. akusala
dhammas) from entering the fortress of the mind.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83) - word by word
Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.
——————oooOooo——————



8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta


Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt} - word by word
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce
sense desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions.
This sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt} - word by word
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Anuruddhamahāvitakka Sutta (AN 8.30) - few info·bubbles
Seven
wise thoughts which are truly worth understanding and remembering occur
to ven. Anuruddha. The Buddha comes to him to teach him the eighth,
endowed with which he will attain arahantship. The Buddha then explains
in detail the meaning of those thoughts.
Abhisanda Sutta (AN 8.39) - enhanced translation
Here are eight ways in which all serious disciples of the Buddha create much merit for themselves.
Duccaritavipāka Sutta (AN 8.40) - few info·bubbles
This sutta describes the kind of suffering which one undergoes owing to the non observance of the main precepts.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53) - word by word
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Dīghajāṇu Sutta (AN 8.54) {excerpt} - plain texts
Among other things, the Buddha defines in this sutta what he means by generosity.
Vimokkha Sutta (AN 8.66) - enhanced translation
An explanation of the eight vimokkhas (liberations).
Parihāna Sutta (AN 8.79) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the eight dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
——————oooOooo——————



9. Navaka Nipāta


Nāga Sutta (AN 9.40) - plain texts
This sutta, colored with subtle humor, explains how a bhikkhu of
heightened mind is comparable to a solitary elephant, both of whom are
usually called Nāga.
Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41) {excerpt} - plain texts
Here saññā·vedayita·nirodha, the cessation of saññā and vedanā is presented as a ninth jhāna.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63) - word by word
What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64) - word by word
How to remove the five hindrances.
——————oooOooo——————



10. Dasaka Nipāta


Saṃyojana Sutta (AN 10.13) - plain texts
This very short sutta lists the ten saṃyojanas.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25) - word by word
This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Girimānanda Sutta (AN 10.60) - enhanced translation
In
order to help Girimānanda recovering from a grave illness, the Buddha
gives a great teaching reviewing ten types of very useful perceptions
that can be developped.
Kathāvatthu Sutta (AN 10.69) {excerpt} - plain texts
The Buddha reminds the bhikkhus what they should not talk about and what they should talk about.
Cunda Sutta (AN 10.176) - some info·bubbles
The buddha explains a deeper meaning of purity, in kāya, vācā and mana, not in rites or rituals and demonstrates that the former underlies the latter, whose inefficiency is made obvious.
——————oooOooo——————



11. Ekādasaka Nipāta


30/03/2555

Mettā Sutta (AN 11.15) - few info·bubbles
Eleven good results that come out of the practice of mettā.
——————oooOooo——————


Bodhi leaf


http://caravandaily.com/…/indias-political-class-is-empowe…/

And Buddhism Begins where Science Ends!

Country’s Political Class Is Empowering Falsity of Intellectual Thought Against Scientific Progress


The audacity of the carelessness on display in their utterances is
phenomenal. It has meandered from implanting the head of Lord Ganesh to
the exhalation of oxygen by cows to the chastity of the peacocks. So
much so that the political class has even bludgeoned Charles Darwin’s
theory of evolution without any hesitation.

A refusal to accept
scientific norms is not wrong. Being a rational animal, a human is bound
to ask questions. But for rationality to prevail, it must also be
respected. Every scientific theory undergoes scrutiny and inquiry but
not in the language of faith, religion or cultural dogma. Science can
only be questioned by evidence that is tangible, reproducible and can
itself stand survive the almost-constant onslaught of new data. It is
this immutability that makes faith helpless in arguments against
science.

The recent advent of right-wing members in functional
democracies across the globe has seen the political class attack science
and scientists with impunity.

PROF SHAH ALAM KHAN | Caravan Daily


THE erosion of scientific temper is the hallmark of a society drifting
into obscurantism. Those who babble without evidence against the
established principles of scientific theory are the worst enemies of
science – not because their words carry the power to damage or dent the
principles they question but because they sow the seeds of doubt in
minds unaware of science as a way of life.

The recent onslaught
on scientific knowledge by the political class of our country is a
matter of grave worry. From Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)
glorifying ‘plastic surgery’ in ancient Country to Harsh Vardhan,
science and technology minister, claiming Stephen Hawking had recognised
the superiority of the Vedas over the famous E = mc2 equation, there
has been a blitz of statements on virtually every aspect of scientific
research.

The audacity of the carelessness on display in their
utterances is phenomenal. It has meandered from implanting the head of
Lord Ganesh to the exhalation of oxygen by cows to the chastity of the
peacocks. So much so that the political class has even bludgeoned
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution without any hesitation.

A
refusal to accept scientific norms is not wrong. Being a rational
animal, a human is bound to ask questions. But for rationality to
prevail, it must also be respected. Every scientific theory undergoes
scrutiny and inquiry but not in the language of faith, religion or
cultural dogma. Science can only be questioned by evidence that is
tangible, reproducible and can itself stand survive the almost-constant
onslaught of new data. It is this immutability that makes faith helpless
in arguments against science.

Having said this, it is not
unknown in scientific circles to accept or refute an established theory
but it is important that all new theories keep themselves open to
further scrutiny. This cycle of scrutiny and re-scrutiny in science
allows it to grow beyond the demesnes of its understanding, allowing a
scientific temper to percolate through the layers of society. The
critics of Darwin’s theory never questioned his intellectual arguments
based on their grandparents not having seen apes transform into humans,
as HRD minister Satyapal Singh recently said. Instead, they based their
arguments on the work of other scientists, such as the French naturalist
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

Unlike faith, which relies on the unseen and the unfelt, science questions not only what it can see but also what it can’t.


That said, the falsity of intellectual thought is the worst enemy of
scientific progress. And the current onslaught by the political class
against science in our country is dangerous because it is using falsity
of as well as because it is putting faith and religion in direct
conflict with science. In a country like ours, where a large chunk of
the populace is ignorant yet deeply religious, this conflict between
opinion and fact can evolve quite dangerously.

The commonest
excuse given for propagating this falsity is religious traditions. We
are told that we are a nation of traditions, and rightly so. But being
traditional is by no means the same as being unscientific. The world’s
more scientific nations – such as China, Japan and South Korea – are
also home to rich traditions. In fact, incongruous traditions can be
tweaked by a scientific temper. When science prevails in a society, the
social only order stands to be strengthened. It is notable that in the
West, science has a better chance of prevailing in its conflict against
the Church on matters such as anti-abortion laws. Whether such a victory
would be possible in India is questionable.

The recent advent of
right-wing members in functional democracies across the globe has seen
the political class attack science and scientists with impunity. It is a
known fact that science does not go with rightist thought. Science and
its spine of evidence both stand erect in the storm of irrational ideas.


The just 0.1% intolerable, cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of
the world, violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded Bene Israelt Paradesi chitpvan brahmin RSS (Rakshasa Rowdy
Swayam Sevaks) and all other avathars the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha
Psychopaths) VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), ABVP (All Brahmin Visha
Psychopaths) and instant mushrooming other avathars class in the
country is simply threatened by science. We all know what Hitler Adolf
did to science when he was in power. His scientists, including Nobel
laureates Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark, relentlessly attacked
Albert Einstein on absurd grounds, using poor evidence to disgrace their
stature as persons of reason.

American President Donald Trump’s
disdain for climate change is another example of rightist forces
breaking from science for political gains. It appears that hostility
towards science is the essential step in establishing an anti-democratic
order, where hard evidence gives way to fairy tales and mythologies.


To expect that our political class will change for the better is to ask
for the Moon. The least that politicians can do is refrain from
commenting on matters of science. If I may, they should leave science
for minnows like us. They should remember what the first prime minister
of the country, Jawaharlal Nehru, had said about science: “It is science
alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of sanitation
and illiteracy, of superstition and deadening custom and tradition, of
vast resources running to waste, of a rich country inhabited by starving
people.”

(Shah Alam Khan is a professor in the Department of Orthopaedics at AIIMS, New Delhi. Views are personal.)

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Congress Asks Amit Shah, Yeddyurappa To Clear Stand On Lingayat Minority Status

All India Press Trust of India


Congress’s communications incharge Randeep Surjewala said the issue
should not be linked with elections or the political process.

Updated : March 20, 2018 04:32 IST

Cabinet decision was slammed by BJP, that accused Siddaramaiah of “playing with fire”
New Delhi: The Congress on Sunday asked the BJP to make its stand clear
on the Karnataka Cabinet’s decision to recommend religious minority
status to Lingayat and Veerashaiva Lingayat communities, after the party
accused Chief Minister Siddaramaiah of “playing with fire” for vote
bank politics.

Congress’s communications incharge Randeep
Surjewala said the issue should not be linked with elections or the
political process.

“It is inappropriate to link the decision of
Karnataka government viz-a-viz declaration of Lingayat Samaj as a
minority community to the political processes,” he told reporters.


Mr Surjewala asked BJP chief Amit Shah and the party’s state unit
president BS Yeddyurappa to clarify whether they are in favour of the
decision or against it.

“You need to clarify and come out
clearly. Do not hunt with the hare. That is why we have clearly said the
sinister propaganda of BJP on this issue is condemnable. For, they do
not want to speak for the fear of annoying vote bank, yet they are
opposing the demand of Lingayat samaj. It is condemnable and we dare
Shri BS Yeddyuruppa and Shri Amit Shah to clarify their position in the
open,” he said.

Mr Surjewala said the Karnataka government had
followed the due process before taking the decision. Referring to the
Jain community, which was recognized as a religious minority a few years
ago, he said Lingayats should also be accorded such status.

He
said the previous UPA Congress government had got the demand of the
community examined and due process was followed by the Siddaramaiah
dispensation. After examining historical and other evidences, the UPA
government had come to a conclusion that the Jain community was a
religious minority despite objections by the Agrawal community, which
said they were part of them.

Lingayats and Veerashaivas
constitute an estimated 17 per cent of the state’s population, and are
considered the BJP’s traditional vote base in Congress-ruled Karnataka,
which is likely to go to polls in April-May.

The Cabinet decision
was slammed by the BJP, which accused Siddaramaiah of “playing with
fire” for vote bank politics and carrying on with the “divide and rule”
policy..


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Yeddyurappa Goes Against BJP Stand on Lingayats, Says ‘I Support Mahasabha Decision’
The BJP has accused Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah of “playing
with fire for vote back politics” while Congress has said that
Yeddyurappa himself had signed on the demand to accord Lingayats an
independent religion status.

Deepa Balakrishnan | CNN-News18deepab18

Updated: March 20, 2018, 8:00 AM IST

File photo of state BJP chief B S Yeddyurappa.

Bengaluru: While the BJP on Monday slammed the Karnataka government for
its decision to recommend separate religion status for Lingayats, its
state unit chief BS Yeddyurappa seems to be in a dilemma over his take
on the issue and said that BJP stands by the all-India Veerashaiva
Mahasabha’s decision.

The BJP, on the other hand, accused
Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah of “playing with fire for vote
back politics” while Congress has said that Yeddyurappa himself had
signed on the demand to accord Lingayats an independent religion status,
him being the tallest Lingayat leader in the state.

Ending
months of speculation, the Siddaramaiah-led Congress government in
Karnataka on Monday decided to ask the Centre to recognise the Lingayats
as an independent religion and put the ball in BJP’s court.

After a marathon cabinet meeting and informal discussion with the
powerful Lingayat seers, the state government declared that it would
send the recommendation to the Centre. The state cabinet has decided to
accept the recommendations of the Justice Nagamohan Das Committee which
had asked the state to accord a separate religion tag to Lingayats.

BJP general secretary in-charge of Karnataka P Muralidhar Rao accused
the state’s ruling Congress of practising a “divide and rule” policy.

“Congress carrying ‘Divide and Rule’ legacy of Britishers in India.
Siddaramaiah ji is playing with fire for vote bank politics. Why has
Congress done this before elections? Why haven’t they done it 4 years
back?” he said in a tweet.

The Cabinet decision has put the main
opposition BJP in a fix as Lingayats are the backbone of the BJP in
Karnataka. Its CM candidate BS Yeddyurappa is also a Lingayat and the
saffron party in the state is in a dilemma.

“Now that the state
government has come up with this recommendation, the all India
Veerashaiva Mahasabha should immediately call a meeting, discuss the
pros and cons of this recommendation and be a guiding light to society.
This is my appeal,” said Yeddyurappa in his statement.

In a
significant move, the Congress government in poll-bound Karnataka on
Monday decided to recommend to the Centre granting religious minority
tag to the numerically strong and politically influential Lingayat and
Veerashaiva Lingayat communities.

The Cabinet meeting convened to
discuss the issue was chaotic, claim insiders. Some argued that it
should be called Lingayat religion and the others insisted that it
should be called Veerashaiva–Lingayat religion. However, the expert
committee had recommended that it should be called only Lingayat
religion.

Lingayats are the followers of 12th Century social
reformer and mystic Basavanna or Basaveshwara. A Brahmin by birth,
Basavanna revolted against the Hindu caste system and founded Lingayat
religion to create a casteless society.

The Veerashaivas are a
Shaiva sect and not considered a part of Lingayats. However, they insist
that they are also Lingayats and the religion should include them too.
But some scholars argue that Veerashaivas are a part of Hinduism and not
the followers of Basavanna.


Peace Is Doable

https://mail.yahoo.com/d/folders/1/messages/48916
21 Mar at 7:03 AM

BJP’s Forays in North Eastern States and anti Minority Agenda

Ram Puniyani

From last couple of decades one is coming across the pamphlets,
leaflets and other material containing the propaganda that Christian
missionaries are converting the people at rapid pace; the examples
mostly given have been those of the North Eastern states. This
propaganda has been extensively used at pan India level, particularly
before elections in most of the states. It is this propaganda which
formed the base of hate against Christians and we witnessed the ghastly
murder of Pastor Graham Stewart Stains, the horrific Kandhmal violence,
and low intensity anti Christian violence and attacks on Churches in
different parts of the country. So how come BJP, the party flaunting it
Ram Temple, Mother cow and Hindu nationalism could make its inroads into
an area where many states Christianity is the religion with good
presence, where beef eating is part of the people’s dietary habits and
where different tribes with diverse and clashing political interests
articulate their aspirations by forming various groups which have been
asking for separate state for their tribes.

While the situation
in each state is different, there is a pattern of BJP strategy, which in
a flexible manner, supplemented by massive resources, near perfect
electoral machinery and the backing of its parent organization’s
swayamsevaks is getting the cake in state after state. In Assam it
focused mainly on the Bangladeshi immigrants, the Muslims swamping the
state and threatening that Hindus will be reduced to a minority. It was
clever enough to strike alliances even with separatist organizations.
Most of the regional organization in the area looks at Congress as the
party which has not focused on the development work, and BJP while at
one level abuses those differing with its ideology as ‘anti nationals’,
has no compunctions at all in allying with those who have been talking
of separate state or even secession. In Tripura left government; despite
its clean record; failed to fulfill the aspirations of tribal and OBCs
in matters of reservation. It also failed miserably in creating
employment opportunities for the youth which gave the ground to BJP to
promise and create the illusion of development.

BJP here mainly
harped on two major factors. One is the promise of development. As by
now its claims of development all over the country stand exposed as mere
vote catching slogans, in North East they still could sell Modi as a
development man. Manik Sarkar’s failure to implement the new pay
commissions must have hurt the large numbers as they are still stuck at
fourth pay commission while talk of seventh pay commission is in the
air. In Tripura, they could also harp on ‘Hindus are Refugees: Muslim is
infiltrators’ to influence the Bengali Hindu votes. In tribal area, RSS
swayamsevaks working consistently by organizing religious functions,
opening schools etc. from long time have succeeded in turning the
tables, as Manik Sarkar Government failed to address the needs of
Tribal’s in matters of opportunities. In matters of beef, BJP openly
took a hypocritical line that their ban on cow slaughter and eating
beef, which is being imposed in different parts of country; will not be
enforced in North East. As such also one knows that like most of the
issues raised by RSS-BJP, holy cow is a political tool for dividing the
society and when the crunch comes they manipulate the issue as they have
done in Kerala and Goa on the issue of beef and cow slaughter.

In a very loud manner, towering over Christian voters, Mr. Modi talked
of rescuing 46 nurses in ISIS captivity in Iraq and Father Alex
Premkumar from Taliban captivity. What can one say on these issues? Were
they rescued as they were Indians or were they rescued because they
belong to a particular religion? As is the wont with Modi type politics,
they do take advantage of these incidents in a crass political manner.
Despite the fact that their ideology regards Christians and Muslims as
foreigners they do at the same time manipulate these identities for
electoral gains. In Tripura the majority of Congress and TMC MLAS
migrated to BJP as well as the electoral support shifted to BJP. What
worked for BJP here was the anti Bangladeshi sentiment along with the
illusory promise of development.

In Meghalaya, the situation is
different. Though Congress did emerge as the single largest party and
logically is should have been given the chance to form the Government,
the Hindu nationalist Governor, thought otherwise and the second largest
party, in alliance with practically everybody including BJP are going
to form the Government. Here the failure of BJP to win over electorate
is writ large on the results, what is putting them in the camp of power,
is the alliance with a regional party, which has not been having
amicable attitude and relations to Congress. The role of BJP’s all round
clout including money and muscle is the undercurrent of the story.

There is lot of lessons for left in Tripura to learn. Issue of
addressing problems of youth, Tribal and OBC are paramount. In addition
the issue of BJP manipulating in all possible ways to come to power is
something, which can be ignored at the risk of severe declines in the
electoral power of the left and other parties. What is being labeled as
Karat line, not allying with Congress, will surely decimate the left in
times to come, probably sooner than later, as this line underestimates
the potential and the deeper agenda of BJP-RSS. It ignores the threat of
powerful electoral machine built by BJP over a period of time and its
capability to manipulate issues, like beef and conversion by Christian
missionaries, is different parts of the country, taking two opposite
positions and getting away with it!

The emotive politics
unleashed by BJP RSS is visible again in the form of attacking Lenin’s
statue and attacks on CPM workers. What is in store for future of the
region if democratic forces don’t rise to the occasion is anybody’s
guess!




No means no, says judge and convicts lawyer for harassing female colleague #Goodnews





No means no, says judge and convicts lawyer for harassing female colleague

THANE: “No means no.” The Thane magistrate court recently said these words while convicting a 45-year-old practising lawyer and sentencing him to three years’ rigorous imprisonment for “outraging the modesty” of a colleague who repeatedly rejected his marriage proposal.
Magistrate R T Ingale on Monday held advocate Rajendra Galange guilty of pestering the female lawyer with a marriage proposal despite her clear rejection of it.

“When a woman says no, it is really a no. But some men take it as a
yes and repeat themselves,” said magistrate Ingale while sentencing
Galange for causing mental and physical trauma to the female advocate.

Additional public prosecutor Rashmi Kshirsagar told the court that
the female lawyer, who is divorced, practises in Thane court. “She had
uploaded her profile on a matrimonial website for remarriage. The
accused initially sent his proposal online but she turned it down.”


 Galange is said to have then waylaid her at the Kalyan
court complex and once again proposed marriage, which she politely
refused. He continued to call her on her phone several times, forcing
her to block his number. “On September 16, 2013, the complainant was at
her office in Naupada,
when Galange walked in around 9.15pm and once again proposed marriage.
He then went on to hurl abuses at her and threaten her. Those present in
the office intervened and the accused was taken to the police station
where an offence was registered,” said Kshirsagar.

The defence lawyer argued that the office of an advocate is
accessible to everyone. The magistrate, though, said it is not a public
place, it is a private office and permission is required to enter it.
“If the analogy of the defence is accepted, then the office of an
advocate may be open for public and this would not be accepted.”

When the complainant repeatedly rejected the accused’s proposal, it
implied her refusal to him to enter her office, said the magistrate. It
therefore amounts to trespassing. In his order, the magistrate further
said, “It is brought to my notice that even after her insistence, the
accused approached the complainant and threatened that she withdraw the
case.”

The accused was convicted under Indian Penal Code
sections 452 (house trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or
wrongful restraint), 509 (word, gesture or act intended to insult the
modesty of a woman) and 504 (intentional insult with an intent to
provoke breach of peace.


https://www.news18.com/…/lingayat-seers-amp-up-pressure-on-…


















Peace Is Doable


The
issue of a separate religion for Lingayats has put the Siddaramaiah
government in a bind. With over 50 Lingayat seers, led by the Mathe
Mahadevi, meeting the Chief…
news18.com

https://in.news.yahoo.com/karnataka-grants-separate-religio…

Karnataka grants separate religion status to Lingayat community
Yahoo India Team Yahoo IndiaYahoo India19 March 2018

Ahead of state assembly elections, the Siddaramaiah-led Congress
government in Karnataka on Monday approved the recommendations for a
separate religion status for Lingayats.
The Karnataka Cabinet after
okaying the move will now write to the Union government seeking separate
religion status for Lingayat.

The ball is now in the central
government’s court which will have to decide if Lingayats can be
recognized as belonging to an independent religion or not.

View image on Twitter

ANI


@ANI
Karnataka Govt has accepted suggestions of Nagbhushan committee;
cabinet has given nod to the recommendation of separate religion for
Lingayat community

3:04 PM - Mar 19, 2018
68
73 people are talking about this
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After a separate flag for the state, this is the second such move before the crucial elections by the Karnataka government.

The Siddaramaiah government’s decision comes a day after a group of
Lingayat seers met the Chief Minister and urged him to implement the
report of the committee.

The demand for a separate religion tag
to Veerashaiva/Lingayat faiths had surfaced from the numerically strong
and politically-influential community, amidst resentment from within
over projecting the two communities as the same.

While one
section led by Akhila Bharata Veerashaiva Mahasabha had demanded
separate religion status, asserting that Veerashaiva and Lingayats are
the same, the other wanted it only for Lingayats as it believes that
Veerashaivasare one among the seven sects of Shaivas, which is part of
Hinduism.

The BJP — whose state unit president and CM face BS
Yeddyurappa is a Lingayat — has maintained a cautious stance on the
issue. It has accused the Siddaramaiah government of dividing the
society to draw political mileage ahead of the assembly elections this
year.

Lingayats are the followers of 12th-century social reformer
and mystic Basavanna or Basaveshwara, who revolted against the caste
system in Hinduism. Basavanna was a Brahmin, but he opposed Brahminical
practices and hegemony by founding a casteless religion called
“Lingayats”. They worship Shiva Linga and are not supposed to follow any
Hindu rituals. Over 18% population in Karnataka is Lingayat. (Inputs:
News18 and Agencies)


Ahead
of state assembly elections, the Siddaramaiah-led Congress government
in Karnataka on Monday approved the recommendations for a separate
religion status…
in.news.yahoo.com
These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins, Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.
The Bene Israel claim that Chitpavans are also of Jewish origin.
Chitpavan immigrants began arriving en masse
from the Konkan to Pune where the Peshwa offered all important offices
to his fellow castemen. The Chitpavan kin were rewarded with tax relief
and grants of land. Historians cite nepotism and corruption as causes of
the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell
Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of
social rank rising with political fortune.The haughty behaviour by the
upstart Chitpavans caused
conflicts with other communities which manifested itself as late as in
1948 in the form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of Mahatma Gandhi
by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpavan.
The Peshwa rule forced untouchability treatment on the Mahars. As a result Mahars served in the armies of the East India company On 1 January 1818 in the Battle of Koregaon
between forces of the East India Company and the Peshwa, Mahars
soldiers formed the biggest contingent of the Company force. The battle
effectively ended Peshwa rule.

Role in Indian politics

After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the Chitpavans lost their
political dominance to the British. The British would not subsidize the
Chitpavans on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the Peshwas, had
done in the past. Pay and power was now significantly reduced. Poorer
Chitpavan students adapted and started learning English because of
better opportunities in the British administration.

Some of the prominent figures in the Hindu reform movements of the 19th and 20th centuries came from the Chitpavan Brahmin community. These included Dhondo Keshav Karve, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade,Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Gopal Ganesh Agarkar,Vinoba Bhave.

Some of the strongest resistance to change came from the very same
community. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. D. K.
Karve was ostracised. Even Tilak offered penance for breaking caste or
religious rules. One was for taking tea at Poona Christian mission in
1892 and the second was going to England in 1919.

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale,
whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his
outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the “jewel of his
disciples”, and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However,
strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva,
was a Chitpavan Brahmin and several other Chitpavans were among the
first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of
the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak,.These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins, Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.


Bene Israel

Not to be confused with Bani Isra’il or Beta Israel.
Bene Israel
Beni-israel-india-2.jpg
Languages
Traditionally, Marathi; those in Israel, mostly Hebrew
English, Gujarati, Malayalam, Hindi[1]
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Cochin Jews, Baghdadi Jews, Marathi people

The Bene Israel (”Sons of Israel”), formerly known in India as the “Native Jew Caste”,[2] are a historic community of Jews in India. It has been suggested[3] that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative (Ashkenazi/Sephardi) Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan area[4] to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai,[3] but also to Pune, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata, India; and Karachi, in today’s Pakistan.[5] Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period.

In the early part of the twentieth century, many Bene Israel became
active in the new film industry, as actresses and actors, producers and
directors. After India gained its independence in 1947, and Israel was
established in 1948, most Bene Israel emigrated to Israel, Canada and other Commonwealth countries and the United States.

History

Bene Israel teachers of the Free Church of Scotland’s Mission School and the Jewish English School in Bombay, 1856

Some historians have thought their ancestors may have belonged to one of the Lost Tribes of Israel,[6]
but the Bene Israel have never been officially recognized by Jewish
authorities as such. According to Bene Israel tradition, their ancestors
migrated to India after centuries of travel through western Asia from
Israel and gradually assimilated to the people around them, while
keeping some Jewish customs.[7] The medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides mentioned in a letter that there was a Jewish community living in India: he may have been referring to the Bene Israel.[8]

At a point in history which is uncertain, an Indian Jew from Cochin named David Rahabi discovered the Bene Israel in their villages and recognized their vestigial Jewish customs.[9]
Rahabi taught the people about normative Judaism. He trained some young
men among them to be the religious preceptors of the community.[10] Known as Kajis, these men held a position that became hereditary, similar to the Cohanim. They became recognized as judges and settlers of disputes within the community.[11]

One Bene Israel tradition places Rahabi’s arrival at around 1000 or
1400, although some historians believe he was not active until the 18th
century. They suggest that the “David Rahabi” of Bene Israel folklore
was a man named David Ezekiel Rahabi, who lived from 1694 to 1772, and
resided in Cochin, then the center of the wealthy Malabar Jewish community.[12][13][14] Others suggest that the reference is to David Baruch Rahabi, who arrived in Bombay from Cochin in 1825.[15]

It is estimated that there were 6,000 Bene Israel in the 1830s;
10,000 at the turn of the 20th century; and in 1948—their peak in
India—they numbered 20,000.[16] Since that time, most of the population have emigrated.

Under British colonial rule, many Bene Israel rose to prominence in India[citation needed].
They were less affected than other Indians by the racially
discriminatory policies of the British colonists, considered somewhat
outside the masses[citation needed].They gained higher, better paying posts in the British Army when compared with their non-Jewish neighbours.[7] Some of these enlistees with their families later joined the British in the British Protectorate of Aden.[17] In the 19th century, the Bene Israel did however meet with hostility from the newly anglicized Baghdadi Jews who considered the Bene Israel to be “Indian”.They also questioned the Jewishness of the community[18]

In the early twentieth century, numerous Bene Israel became leaders
in the new film industry in India. In addition, men worked as producers
and actors: Ezra Mir
(alias Edwin Myers) (1903-1993) became the first chief of India’s Film
Division, and Solomon Moses was head of the Bombay Film Lab Pvt Ltd from
the 1940s to 1990s.[19] Ennoch Isaac Satamkar was a film actor and assistant director to Mehboob Khan, a prominent director of Hindi films.[20]

Given their success under the British colonial government, many Bene Israel prepared to leave India at independence in 1947. They believed that nationalism and the emphasis on indigenous religions would mean fewer opportunities for them. Most emigrated to Israel,[21] which was newly established in 1948 as a Jewish homeland.[22][23]


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