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03/09/18
2556 Sat 10 Mar 2018 LESSON Buddha Vacana in 16 Classical Chinese (Traditional)-16個古典漢語(繁體) Fadnavis’ Cousin Threatened Me: Advocate Gathering Info on Loya If EVM was so perfect then why is VVPAT being introduced that too in a phased manner ? The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs couldbe replaced in a phased manner on the suggestion ofthe ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs1600 crore at that time. Only 8 of 543 parliamentary constituencies as a pilot project in Indian general election, 2014 were replaced. Because EVMs could be tampered the judgement of replacing them in aphased manner. He failed to order for using Balot Papers till the ntire EVMs were replaced. For 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Converted Religious Minorities and the poor upper castes voters in the entire nation , if there is an issue of concern in the coming elections, it is the electronic voting machine (EVM) Devil.With the circulation of messages on social media sites about EVMs being tampered with, many in the country feared their votes might be transferred to other candidates.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 9:56 pm

2556 Sat 10 Mar 2018 LESSON

 Buddha Vacana

in 16 Classical Chinese (Traditional)-
16個古典漢語(繁體)

Fadnavis’ Cousin Threatened Me: Advocate Gathering Info on Loya
If EVM was so perfect then why is VVPAT being introduced that too in a phased manner ?
The
ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering
that the EVMs couldbe replaced in a phased manner on the suggestion
ofthe ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs1600 crore at that time.
Only 8 of 543 parliamentary constituencies as a pilot project in Indian
general election, 2014 were replaced. Because EVMs could be tampered
the judgement of replacing them in aphased manner. He
failed to order for using Balot Papers till the ntire EVMs were
replaced. For 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Converted
Religious Minorities and the poor upper castes voters in the entire
nation , if there is an issue of concern in the coming elections, it
is the electronic voting machine (EVM) Devil.With the circulation of
messages on social media sites about EVMs being
tampered with, many in the country feared
their votes might be transferred to other candidates.


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16 Classical Chinese (Traditional)

16個古典漢語(繁體)

2556週六2018年3月10日LESSON

 佛假
- 佛陀的話 -
通過免費和簡單的方式在線學習Pali。

本網站致力於那些希望通過學習巴利語的基礎知識來更好地理解佛陀的話,但誰沒有太多時間可用。這個想法是,如果他們的目的只是為了讓讀者能夠閱讀巴利文,並且有理解他們的理解,即使這種理解不包括語法規則的所有微小細節,他們並不需要花太多時間時間與令人沮喪的學習​​乏味的語法理論相互作用,這些理論涉及諸如眾多的傾向和變化。

在這種情況下,僅限於學習最重要的巴利語詞彙的含義就足夠了,因為閱讀的重複經驗提供了對最常見句子結構的經驗和直觀的理解。因此,他們可以成為自學者,選擇他們自己的研究的時間,持續時間,頻率,內容和深度。

他們對Buddha Vacana的理解將會變得更加精確,因為他們通過定期閱讀的方式毫不費力地學習和記憶佛陀教學中基本的詞語和重要公式。他們的學習和從中獲得的靈感將隨著他們對教師信息的接受程度的提高而變得更深。

免責聲明:本網站由autodidact創建,旨在用於autodidacts。網站管理員沒有遵循任何官方的帕里課程,也沒有聲稱這裡提供的所有信息完全沒有錯誤。那些想要學術準確的人可能會考慮加入正式的帕里課程。如果讀者發現任何錯誤,網站管理員將非常感謝他們通過“聯繫”中提到的郵箱進行報告。

EnFrançais:

在這個網站上搜索

SuttaPiṭaka-DighaNikāya

DN 9 -
PoṭṭhapādaSutta
{摘抄}
- Poṭṭhapāda的問題 -

Poṭṭhapāda提出了各種與Saññā性質相反的問題。
注意:純文本

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html

 SuttaPiṭaka
- 一攬子話語 -
[sutta:話語]

“佛經”中包含了佛教有關佛法的本質。它包含了一萬多個蘇達。它分為五個名為Nikāyas的藏品。

DīghaNikāya
    
[dīgha:long]DīghaNikāya聚集了佛陀給出的最長的講道中的34段。有許多提示,其中許多是對原始語料庫的延遲添加以及可疑的真實性。
MajjhimaNikāya
    
[majjhima:中] MajjhimaNikāya收集了中等長度的佛陀的講道,處理各種事情。
SaṃyuttaNikāya
    
[samyutta:group]SaṃyuttaNikāya根據他們的主題在被稱為saṃyuttas的56個小組中收集suttas。它包含三千多個可變長度的話語,但通常較短。
AṅguttaraNikāya
    
[a:g:factor | uttara:additionnal]AṅguttaraNikāya被細分為11個子組,分別稱為nipātas,每個子組收集由一個額外因子與先前nipāta的列舉組成的列舉。它包含數千個通常較短的suttas。
KhuddakaNikāya
    
[Khuddhaka:short,small]

KhuddhakaNikāya簡短的文本,被認為是由兩個地層組成:Dhammapada,Udāna,Itivuttaka,SuttaNipāta,Theragāthā-Therīgāthā和Jātaka構成了古代的階層,而其他書籍是遲到的附加物和真實性更值得懷疑。

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/formulae.html

Pali Formulas

這項工作所依據的觀點是,佛陀在所有四個Nikāyas中報導說最常被重複的suttas的段落可以被看作是他認為對他的教學最值得關注的東西同時也是最能準確表達他的真實話語的。其中八個在Gaṇaka-MoggallānaSutta(明尼蘇達州107)中闡述,並被描述為SekhaPaṭipadā或一個在訓練中的人的道路,這實際上導致新手到達第四個尊者。

SekhaPaṭipadā - 培訓中的人之路

一步一步定義佛陀規定的主要做法的十二個公式。對於那些希望取得成功的人來說,這是至關重要的,因為它包含了使禪修者能夠為有效練習設置必不可少的條件的指示。

容易接近:

DīghaNikāya

MajjhimaNikāya

SaṃyuttaNikāya

AṅguttaraNikāya

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
DīghaNikāya

- 漫長的話語 -
[dīgha:long]

DīghaNikāya收集了據說由佛陀給出的最長話語中的34個。

PoṭṭhapādaSutta(DN 9){節選} - 強化翻譯
    
Poṭṭhapāda提出了各種與Saññā性質相反的問題。
Mahāpa




Ānāpānassati - 呼吸意識
    
ānāpānassati的做法被佛陀高度推薦用於各種有益的目的,在這裡你可以非常精確地理解他給出的指示。
Anussati - 回憶
    
這裡我們有佛陀的標準描述(≈140occ。),佛法(≈90occ。)和僧伽(≈45occ。)。
AppamāṇāCetovimutti - 心靈的無邊的解放
    
佛陀常常稱讚四位阿拉伯人的做法,這些人被稱為防止危險和通往布拉瑪洛卡的道路。
Arahatta - Arahantship
    
這是suttas描述達到arahantship的股票公式。
AriyaSīlakkhandha - 美德的高貴匯集
    
比丘所遵循的各種規則。
Arūpajjhānā - 無形的Jhānas
    
這裡是描述samādhi超越第四個jhāna吸收的股票公式,這些公式在帕利文後期被稱為arūpajjhānas。
ÁsavānaṃKhayañāṇa - 有關破壞āsavas的知識
    
關於破壞āsavas:arahantship的知識。
BhojaneMattaññutā - 適量食物
    
適量食物:知道適量吃。
CattāroJhānā - 四個jhānas
    
四個jhānas:有一個愉快的持久。
IndriyesuGuttadvāratā - 在感官院的入口處進行監視
    
警惕感官能力的入口:感覺抑制。
JāgariyaṃAnuyoga - 致力於清醒
    
致力於清醒:白天和黑夜。
Kammassakomhi - 我是我自己的業
    
這個公式表達了佛陀教學的基石之一:一種主觀的因果律規則。
NīvaraṇānaṃPahāna - 消除障礙
    
消除障礙:克服障礙的精神狀態。
Pabbajjā - 前進
    
出現:人們如何決定放棄這個世界。
Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa - 了解前居住地的回憶
    
了解以前的生活場所:回憶過去的生活。
Satipaṭṭhāna - 意識的存在
    
這些是佛陀簡要地定義了四個齋戒者(≈33occ)的公式。
Satisampajañña - 正念和徹底的理解
    
正念和徹底的理解:不間斷的練習。
Sattasaddhammā - 七個好品質
    
學員必須掌握七項基本素質才能取得成功。其中四種特質也出現在五種靈性indriyas和五種balas之中。
SattānaṃCutūpapātañāṇa - 了解生命的重生
    
了解被打傷的生物的重生。
Sīlasampatti - 德行的成就
    
美德的成就:認真遵守Pātimokkha規則。
VivittaSenāsanenaBhajana - 度假至幽靜的住宅
選擇適當的地方和採取適當的身體和精神姿勢是成功實踐的另一個必要條件。

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha.html

Pātimokkha
- 比丘的準則 -

這些是227條準則,每個比丘必須在梵語中用心學習,以便能夠背誦它們。這裡將對每條指南進行語義分析(希望)。

帕拉吉卡1
    
如果任何比丘參加比丘的訓練和生計,未放棄訓練,沒有宣布他的弱點,即使與雌性動物進行性交,他也會被擊敗而不再隸屬於其中。
    
Pātimokkha

帕拉吉卡1

yo pana bhikkhubhikkhūnaṃsikkhāsājīvasamāpannosikkhaṃapaccakkhāyadu
bbalyaṃanāvikatvāmethunaṃdhammaṃpaṭiseveyyaantamasotiracchānagatāyapi,pārājikohoti
a·saṃvāso。

如果任何比丘參加比丘的訓練和生計,未放棄訓練,沒有宣布他的弱點,即使與雌性動物進行性交,他也會被擊敗而不再隸屬於其中。

喲帕娜比丘如果有任何比丘
bhikkhūnaṃsikkhā·s·ājīva·samāpanno參加比丘的訓練和生計,
sikkhaṃa·paccakkhāya沒有放棄訓練,
du·b·balya·an·āvi·katvā沒有宣布他的軟弱
處女座dhammaṃpaṭiseveyya進行性交,
antamasotiracchāna·gatāya·pi,即使有一隻雌性動物,
pārājikohoti a·saṃvāso。他被擊敗,不再隸屬關係。

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/download.html
 
網站下載

下載網站(Januray 2013版):

點擊這裡

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/contact.html
 
聯繫
bvacana@gmail.com
對於任何評論,建議,問題:
不要猶豫,要報告你可能遇到的任何錯誤,差異,斷​​開的鏈接,空信息·泡沫等。網站管理員將不勝感激。http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/samyutta.html

SuttaPiṭaka

SaṃyuttaNikāya

- 分類話語 -
[saṃyutta:組]

SaṃyuttaNikāya的話語根據
他們的主題是56個saṃyuttas,它們本身分為五個
vaggas。

VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 12.2) - 逐字
    
關於paulaiccasamuppāda的詳細解釋,對每個十二個鏈接的定義。
CetanāSutta(SN 12.38) - 強化翻譯
    
這裡佛陀解釋了cetanā如何與思考和anusaya一起作為viññāṇa的基礎。
UpādānaSutta(SN 12.52) - 強化翻譯
    
這個
    
是一個非常啟發性的教訓,揭示了哪些心理
    
機制讓人渴望,並解釋如何輕鬆
    
取而代之的是有益健康的考慮,以擺脫它。
PuttamaṃsūpamaSutta(SN 12.63) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀在這裡提供了四個令人印象深刻和鼓舞人心的明喻,以解釋如何看待這四個āhāras。
SanidānaSutta(SN 14.12) - 強化翻譯
    
一個
    
對感知如何轉化為行動的精彩解釋
    
明亮的火炬的明喻啟發。保持勤奮
    
注意消除不好的想法!
ĀṇiSutta(SN 20.7) - 逐字逐句
    
一個
    
佛陀提醒我們非常重要的事情:為了我們自己
    
我們的利益以及未來幾代人的幸福
    
必須最重視他自己的真實話語,而不是那麼重要
    
無論誰現在假裝或假裝過去是一個
    
(Dhamma)老師。
SamādhiSutta(SN 22.5) - 逐字
    

    
佛陀勸誡他的追隨者發展集中,以便他們能夠
    
深入了解五個人的興起與消逝
    
在此之後,他通過出現和傳遞來定義他的意思
    
從依賴的起源方面來看,這些聚合體已被排除。
PaṭisallāṇaSutta(SN 22.6) - 沒有翻譯
    

    
佛陀勸誡他的追隨者練習隱居,以便他們可以
    
深入了解五個人的興起與消逝
    
在此之後,他通過出現和傳遞來定義他的意思
    
從依賴的起源方面來看,這些聚合體已被排除。
UpādāparitassanāSutta(SN 22.8) - 逐字
    
在五個總量中發生和結束痛苦。
Nandikkhaya Sutta(SN 22.51) - 逐字逐句
    
如何操作令人高興的破壞。
Anattalakkhana Sutta(SN 22.59) - 逐字逐句
    
在這個非常著名的經典中,佛陀首次闡述了他對於魔鬼的教導。
KhajjanīyaSutta(SN 22.79){節選} - 逐字逐句
    
這個經文提供了五khandhas的簡潔定義。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 29.1) - 強化翻譯
    
不同類型的nāgas。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 30.1) - 強化翻譯
    
不同類型的supaṇṇas(aka garudas)。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 31.1) - 強化翻譯
    
不同類型的gandhabba devas。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 32.1) - 強化翻譯
    
不同類型的雲端devas。
SamāpattimūlakaṭhitiSutta(SN 34.11) - 強化翻譯
    
達到濃度與維持濃度。
Pubbesambodha Sutta(SN 35.13) - 一字一句
    

    
佛陀通過誘惑,退讓和解放來定義他的意思
    
內感的情況下,然後宣布他的
    
覺醒只不過是理解它們而已。
Abhinanda Sutta(SN 35.20) - 逐字
    
無論誰喜歡感官對象,誰都無法逃脫。
MigajālaSutta(SN 35.46) - 強化翻譯
    
為什麼
    
真的很孤獨嗎?佛陀解釋了為什麼,不管
    
你去哪裡,你最討厭的同伴總是標記。
AvijjāpahānaSutta(SN 35.53) - 一字一句
    
一個非常簡單的話語,但非常深刻的是什麼要知道和看到放棄無知和產生知識。
SabbupādānapariññāSutta(SN 35.60) - 逐字
    

    
佛陀在闡述對所有依戀完整理解的同時,
    
給出了一個深刻但非常清晰的解釋:聯繫是在此基礎上產生的
    
三種現象。
MigajālaSutta Sutta(SN 35.64){節選} - 逐字逐句
    
一些
    
新手(有時候我們可能會把自己當成自己),有時候也是這樣
    
相信可以在沒有感覺的情況下享受快樂
    
引起依戀或痛苦。佛陀教導米加亞拉
    
這是完全不可能的。
AdantāguttaSutta(SN 35.94) - 逐字
    
這裡
    
是那些很容易理解的建議之一
    
智力,但很難在更深層次上理解,因為我們的智力
    
錯誤的觀點不斷干預這一過程。所以我們需要
    
儘管這對某些人來說似乎很無聊,但經常重複。

PamādavihārīSutta(SN 35.97) - 逐字
    
在疏忽中生活的人和以警惕生活的人之間有什麼區別。
SakkapañhāSutta Sutta(SN 35.118) - 逐字
    
佛陀對薩卡的問題給出了一個相當簡單的答案:有些人達到最終目標的原因是什麼,而另一些人則沒有?
RūpārāmaSutta(SN 35.137) - 一字一句
    
佛以另一種方式再次向我們解釋了痛苦的原因和停止。它發生在我們整天整夜都在做的事情中。
AniccanibbānasappāyaSutta(SN 35.147) - 逐字
    
這裡有核心內觀指示,指導那些渴望獲得涅b的高級冥想者對無常的感知。
AjjhattānattahetuSutta(SN 35.142) - 逐字
    
如何調查感官的發生原因,其中非自身的特徵可能更容易理解,從而可以將這種理解轉化為他們的情況。
Samudda Sutta(SN 35.229) - 強化翻譯
    
高貴的紀律中的海洋是什麼。當心不要沉入其中!
PahānaSutta(SN 36.3) - 強化翻譯
    
三種vedanā和三種anusayas之間的關係。
DaṭṭhabbaSutta(SN 36.5) - 強化翻譯
    
應該如何看待這三類vedanā(感受)。
Salla Sutta(SN 36.6) - 強化翻譯
    
當被身體疼痛的箭射中時,一個不明智的人通過在上面堆積精神上的痛苦使情況變得更糟,就好像他被兩個箭頭擊中一樣。一個智者只會感到一個箭頭的刺痛。
Anicca Sutta(SN 36.9) - 強化翻譯
    
vedanā(感情)的七個特徵,也適用於其他四khandhas(SN 22.21)和paiicca·samuppāda(SN 12.20)的十二個鏈接中的每一個。
PhassamūlakaSutta(SN 36.10) - 一字一句
    
這三種感受源於三種類型的聯繫。
AṭṭhasataSutta(SN 36.22) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀用七種不同的方式解釋了vedanās,將它們分成兩,三,五,六,十八,三十六或一百八十種。
NirāmisaSutta(SN 36.31){節選} - 逐字
    
我們可以在這裡理解,雖然pīti經常被列為bojjhaṅga,但有時也可能是akusala。這段文字還包含了五kāmaguṇā的定義。
DhammavādīpañhāSutta(SN 38.3) - 強化翻譯
    
誰承認世界上的法(dhamma·vādī)?誰做得很好(su·p·paṭipanna)?誰做得好(蘇·加塔)?
Dukkara Sutta(SN 39.16) - 強化翻譯
    
這個教學和紀律難以做到什麼?
VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 45.8) - 一字一句
    
佛陀在這裡精確地定義了八重崇高道路的每一個因素。
ĀgantukaSutta(SN 45.159) - 強化翻譯
    
貴族之路如何與關於各種法制的abhiññā合作,作為歡迎各種遊客的賓館。
Kusala Sutta(SN 46.32) - 一字一句
    
所有這一切都有利於團結一件事。
ĀhāraSutta(SN 46.51) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀描述我們如何能夠根據我們如何應用我們的注意力來“餵養”或“挨餓”妨礙和啟蒙因素。
SaṅgāravaSutta(SN 46.55){節選} - 強化翻譯
    
一系列明確的解釋來解釋五個nívaraṇas(障礙)如何影響心靈的純潔和它對現實的感知能力。
Sati Sutta(SN 47.35) - 一字一句
    
在這篇經文中,佛陀提醒比丘是satos和sampajānos,然後定義這兩個術語。
VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 47.40) - 逐字
    
satipaṭṭhānas簡而言之。
DaṭṭhabbaSutta(SN 48.8) - 強化翻譯
    
據說五種靈性indriyas中的每一種都是四倍法。
SaṃkhittaSutta(SN 48.14) - 強化翻譯
    
實現這些就是我們必須要做的,這就是我們解放的尺度。
VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 48.38) - 強化翻譯
    
這裡佛陀定義了五種敏感的印度人。
UppaṭipāṭikaSutta(SN 48.40) - 強化翻譯
    
這種經文在情感能力的停止和jhānas的連續成就之間繪製了一個有趣的平行線。
SāketaSutta(SN 48.43){節選} - 強化翻譯
    
在這部經文中,佛陀說,巴拉和印度人可以被認為是同一件事或兩件不同的事。
PatiṭṭhitaSutta(SN 48.56) - 強化翻譯
    
有一種精神狀態可以使五種精神能力都得到完善。
BījaSutta(SN 49.24) - 強化翻譯
    
一個美麗的比喻說明了四項正確的奮鬥實踐的基本美德。
Gantha Sutta(SN 50.102) - 強化翻譯
    
這個
    
經典是基於四個“身體結”的有趣列表,並且
    
促進五大精神力量的發展。
Viraddha Sutta(SN 51.2) - 強化翻譯
    
忽視這些忽略了高尚的道路。
ChandasamādhiSutta(SN 51.13) - 強化翻譯
    
這部經文清楚地解釋了這些公式的含義,這些公式描述了iddhi·pādas的實踐。
SamaṇabrāhmaṇaSutta(SN 51.17) - 強化翻譯
    
羯羊
    
在過去,未來或現在,誰超常規
    
權力已經發展並刻苦練習四件事。
VidhāSutta(SN 53.36) - 強化翻譯
    

    
jhānas被推薦去擺脫三種類型的自負,哪個
    
與將自己與他人進行比較有關。這說明瞭如果
    
僧伽中有任何等級,只是出於實際的目的,
    
它不能被視為任何現實的代表。它是
    
不太清楚這是否是一次重複十六次相同
    
東西,或16個小組,或4個小組,每組4個小組
    
重複。
PadīpopamaSutta(SN 54.8) - 一字一句
    
這裡
    
佛陀解釋ānāpānassati並為各種各樣的推薦它
    
用途:從放棄雜質,通過發展所有
    
八jhānas。
SaraṇānisakkaSutta(SN 55.24) - 強化翻譯
    

    
這個有趣的話語,佛陀說,甚至沒有
    
必須對佛陀,法師和僧侶有強烈的信心
    
在死亡時成為一個流贏家。
MahānāmaSutta(SN 55.37) - 強化翻譯
    
作為一名外行的門徒意味著什麼,賦有美德,信念,慷慨和洞察力。
AṅgaSutta(SN 55.50) - 逐字
    
四個sotāpattiyaṅgas(流入的因素)。
SamādhiSutta(SN 56.1) - 逐字
    
佛陀勸告比丘去修行,因為它導致了解四個真實的真理。
PaṭisallānaSutta(SN 56.2) - 逐字
    

    
佛陀勸告比丘去練習paṭisallāna,因為它導致了
    
理解其真實性的四個崇高真理。
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta(SN 56.11) - 逐字逐句
    
這當然是巴利文學中最著名的經文。佛陀第一次闡述了四個阿里亞 - 薩卡斯。
SaṅkāsanāSutta(SN 56.19) - 強化翻譯
    

    
教導這四個崇高的真理,然而無聊​​的事情可能會讓人覺得無聊
    
流浪的頭腦,實際上是非常深刻的,頭腦可以花費整個
    
實時調查它。
SiṃsapāvanaSutta(SN 56.31) - 一字一句
    

    
佛陀說他對此毫無興趣
    
與實現目標不直接相關的教導。
DaṇḍaSutta(SN 56.33) - 增強翻譯
    
棒的明喻。

—— OOOOOOO ——

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html
 
SuttaPiṭaka

AṅguttaraNikāya

- 另外一個因素的話語 -
[a:g:factor | uttara:額外]

AṅguttaraNikāya包含數千個
簡短的話語,具有特殊的結構
枚舉。它分為十一個部分,第一部分涉及
枚舉一個項目,第二個與兩個項目等
佛陀從未使用過寫作,他問他的聽眾是誰
細心並記住他的指示。為了使他的話
盡可能清楚並且為了促進這種記憶,他經常
以列舉形式介紹他的教學。

Nipātas

1. EkakaNipāta7. SattakaNipāta
2. DukaNipāta8.AṭṭhakaNipāta
3. TikaNipāta9. NavakaNipāta
4. CatukaNipāta10. DasakaNipāta
5.PañcakaNipāta11.EkādasakaNipāta
6. ChakkaNipāta

—— OOOOOOO ——1. EkakaNipāta

RūpādiVagga(AN 1.1-10) - 逐字
    
有五種類型的感官對像比其他任何對象(大多數)更能壓倒人類的頭腦。
NīvaraṇappahānaVagga(AN 1.11-20) - 逐字
    
最有效地滋養五種障礙的五尊佛法,以及五種最有效的方法來驅散它們。
Akammaniya Vagga(AN 1.21-30) - 一字排開
    
頭腦可以成為我們最大的敵人或我們最好的朋友。
Adanta Vagga(AN 1.31-40) - 強化翻譯
    
頭腦可以成為我們最大的敵人或我們最好的朋友。
Udakarahaka Suttas(AN 1.45&46) - 強化翻譯
    
一個清晰的頭腦和一個渾濁的頭腦之間的區別。
Mudu Sutta(AN 1.47) - 強化翻譯
    
這是一個靈活的思維。
Lahuparivatta Sutta(AN 1.48) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀通常非常善於發現明喻,在這裡不知所措。
AccharāsaṅghātaPeyyāla(AN 1.53-55) - 一字一句
    
實踐善意使人值得一提。
Kusala Suttas(AN 1.56-73) - 逐字
    
什麼產生和消除了健康和不健康的心理狀態。
PamādaSuttas(AN 1.58-59) - 強化翻譯
    
沒有什麼比這更不利的了。
PamādādiVagga(AN 1.81-97) - 逐字
    
佛陀謹慎地警告我們不要無所顧忌。
KāyagatāsatiVagga(AN 1.563-574){摘錄} - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀高度讚揚對身體的正念。

—— OOOOOOO ——

2. DukaNipāta

AppaṭivānaSutta(AN 2.5) - 強化翻譯
    
如果我們想要達到覺醒,我們應該如何訓練自己。
Cariya Sutta(AN 2.9) - 強化翻譯
    
畢竟,這是什麼保證和諧,禮貌,
    
誠實,兄弟情誼在一個特定的社會中一個和平的字?佛陀
    
在這裡解釋哪些是世界的兩個監護人。
EkaṃsenaSutta(AN 2.18) - 強化翻譯
    
這是佛陀斷言的一件事。
VijjābhāgiyaSutta(AN 2.32) - 逐字
    
佛陀在這裡將薩瑪塔與拉加和西托維穆蒂聯繫起來,將內觀與阿維賈和帕尼什維穆蒂聯繫起來。

—— OOOOOOO ——

3. TikaNipāta

Kesamutti [akaKālāmā] Sutta(AN 3.66) - 一字一句
    

    
這個著名的經文,佛陀提醒我們最終只相信我們
    
自己對現實的直接體驗,而不是別人所宣稱的,
    
即使他們碰巧是我們’尊敬的老師’。
SāḷhaSutta(AN 3.67) - 強化翻譯
    
這裡給出的建議與給卡拉馬斯的建議非常相似。
AññatitthiyaSutta(AN 3.69) - 強化翻譯
    

    
對他們的尊重解釋了不善的三個根源
    
特徵,出現的原因以及實現方式
    
他們停止。
Uposatha Sutta(AN 3.71) - 強化翻譯
    
在這篇經文中,佛陀定義人們應該如何練習Uposatha並描述不同類型的天神。
SīlabbataSutta(AN 3.79) - 強化翻譯
    
Ānanda解釋了非常簡單的儀式儀式和禮儀可以被判斷為有益與否。
SamaṇaSutta(AN 3.82) - 強化翻譯
    
這裡是苦行者的三個苦行者任務。
Vajjiputta Sutta(AN 3.85) - 強化翻譯
    
一個
    
某些和尚不能訓練這麼多規則。佛陀解釋他
    
他如何在沒有他們的情況下做到這一點,並且運作得相當好。
Sikkhattaya Sutta(AN 3.90) - 逐字
    
佛陀定義了三種訓練,即adhisīlasikkhā,adhicittasikkhā和adhipaññāsikkhā。
AccāyikaSutta(AN 3.93) - 強化翻譯
    
苦行僧的三項緊急任務就像農民的三項緊急任務。
Sikkhattaya Sutta(AN 3.91) - 逐字逐句
    
這裡佛陀給出了adhipañāsikkhā的另一個定義。
PaṃsudhovakaSutta(AN 3.102) - 很少有信息·氣泡
    

    
這個經文,佛陀比較了精神雜質的去除
    
通過實踐到金匠的工作。這是特別的
    
有趣的是,因為它提供了一個逐漸的雜質說明
    
必須在練習期間處理,這是有用的
    
參考。
Nimitta Sutta(AN 3.103) - 很少有信息·氣泡
    

    
你發現自己點頭或在你的過程中過度激動
    
冥想練習?這是冥想者非常有用的話語
    
他們希望平衡兩種相應的精神力量
    
集中精神,平靜下來。我們中的許多人都會受益
    
基本上不適用這些說明。
RuṇṇaSutta(AN 3.108) - 逐字
    
這裡
    
佛陀解釋了紀律中的歌舞
    
那些高貴的人,然後給他笑和嘲笑
    
面帶微笑。
Atitti Sutta(AN 3.109) - 強化翻譯
    
三個錯誤的東西,其中很多不幸的是,它們永遠不會引起飽腹感。NidānaSutta(AN 3.112) - 強化翻譯
    
六個原因,三個健康的,三個不善的,是因業的緣故。
Kammapatha Sutta(AN 3.164) - 逐字逐句
    
這裡表明,根據這種觀點,非素食者沒有任何錯誤是錯誤的。

—— OOOOOOO ——

4. CatukkaNipāta

Yoga Sutta(AN 4.10) - 強化翻譯
    
當談到瑜伽和瑜伽藥師(從軛中休息)時佛陀意味著什麼。
PadhānaSutta(AN 4.13) - 逐字
    
在這篇經文中,佛陀給出了sammappadhānas的定義。
AparihāniyaSutta(AN 4.37) - 強化翻譯
    
四個簡單的做法,使人無法脫身,就在涅presence的面前。
SamādhibhāvanāSutta(AN 4.41) - 一字一句
    

    
佛陀讚美的四種集中。這十分的
    
這裡顯然沒有明確區分samādhi和
    
奶。
VipallāsaSutta(AN 4.49) - 一字一句
    
在這篇經文中,佛陀描述了saññā,citta和diṭṭhi的四重變形。
AppamādaSutta(AN 4.116) - 簡單的翻譯
    
四個人應該刻苦練習。
ĀrakkhaSutta(AN 4.117) - 簡單的翻譯
    
在保護思想的同時,勤奮和正念四件事情。
MettāSutta(AN 4.125) - 強化翻譯
    
這裡
    
佛陀解釋徹底實踐的是什麼樣的重生
    
四個布茹阿瑪維亞拉斯可以期待,並且是他的偉大優勢
    
弟子。
Asubha Sutta(AN 4.163) - 強化翻譯
    

    
根據選擇的練習類型,練習四種方法
    
力量和精神力量的強弱。
AbhiññāSutta(AN 4.254) - 沒有翻譯
    
貴族之路如何與關於各種法制的abhiññā合作,作為歡迎各種遊客的賓館。
AraññaSutta(AN 4.262) - 強化翻譯
    
什麼樣的人適合在曠野生活?

—— OOOOOOO ——

5.PañcakaNipāta

Vitthata Sutta(AN 5.2) - 沒有翻譯
    
這裡佛陀詳細地定義了他所稱的五個
    
Sekha-balas(訓練中的一個強度)。這個經文很容易
    
如果你參考,可以理解而不需要平行翻譯
    
在文中將會提到Sattasaddhammā公式。為了以防萬一,Pali-English Dictionary也是可用的。
Vitthata Sutta(AN 5.14) - 逐字
    
這裡定義了五個巴拉。
SamādhiSutta(AN 5.27) - 強化翻譯
    
五個令人振奮的知識,發生在一個練習無邊無際的人身上。
AkusalarāsiSutta(AN 5.52) - 強化翻譯
    
說得很對,應該稱之為“過失積累”?
AbhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhānaSutta(AN 5.57){節選} - 逐字逐句
    
如何考慮自己的業績。
AnāgatabhayaSutta(AN 5.80) - 強化翻譯
    

    
佛陀提醒僧侶不應該放置佛法的做法
    
因為沒有任何未來的保證
    
提供任何實踐機會。
Sekha Sutta(AN 5.89) - 沒有翻譯
    

    
佛陀提醒我們有五件事情會惡化這種做法
    
對於那些希望在培訓中取得進步的人來說幾乎同樣重要
    
了解,記住並融入我們的生活方式
    
五標準nīvaraṇas的知識。
Sekha Sutta(AN 5.90) - 增強了翻譯
    
導致實踐惡化的五種態度。
Sutadhara Sutta(AN 5.96) - 強化翻譯
    
長期以來,領導人一直在努力解放呼吸的五種素質。
KathāSutta(AN 5.97) - 強化翻譯
    
長期以來,領導人一直在努力解放呼吸的五種素質。
ĀraññakaSutta(AN 5.98) - 強化翻譯
    
長期以來,領導人一直在努力解放呼吸的五種素質。
Andhakavinda Sutta(AN 5.114) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀勸誡他新任命的僧侶要做的五件事。
Samayavimutta Sutta(AN 5.149) - 沒有翻譯
    
獲得“偶爾解放”的五個條件將會倒退。
Samayavimutta Sutta(AN 5.150) - 沒有翻譯
    
另一組獲得“偶爾解放”的五個條件將會倒退。
VaṇijjāSutta(AN 5.177) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀在這裡指定了五個不應該由他的非信徒進行的交易,其中包括肉類業務。
GihīSutta(AN 5.179) - 強化翻譯
    

    
在這個經文中,佛陀給出了更精確的方式
    
四個通常的sotāpattiyaṅgas必須內化為了
    
構成sotāpatti的適當條件。
NissāraṇīyaSutta(AN 5.200) - 強化翻譯
    
這種經文拒絕了五種類型的nissāraṇas。YāguSutta(AN 5.207) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀給出吃米粥的五大好處。
DantakaṭṭhaSutta(AN 5.208) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀給出五個使用牙齒清潔器的理由。
GītassaraSutta(AN 5.209) - 逐字逐句
    
這個
    
各種佛教傳統在很大程度上忽略了經文:
    
佛陀解釋了為什麼他不允許比丘表演
    
旋律吟誦。
MuṭṭhassatiSutta(AN 5.210) - 強化翻譯
    
沒有適當的sati和sampajañña睡著的缺點,以及他們這樣做的各自優點。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.241) - 強化翻譯
    
duccarita(壞行為)的五大危害和sucarita(良好行為)的五大優勢。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.245) - 強化翻譯
    
關於duccarita的五個危險和sucarita的五個優點的另一個經文。
Sivathika Sutta(AN 5.249) - 強化翻譯
    
五種不良行為可以類似於人們扔屍體的地方。
PuggalappasādaSutta(AN 5.250) - 強化翻譯
    
這是佛陀給予人們信任的危險的罕見警告。
RāgassaabhiññāyaSutta(AN 5.303) - 強化翻譯
    
為了直接了解rāga,需要練習五件事。

—— OOOOOOO ——

6. ChakkaNipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta(AN 6.14) - 很少有信息·氣泡
    
舍利弗
    
解釋了死亡將會發生的比丘之間的區別
    
不吉利,死亡吉祥。
Anutappiya Sutta(AN 6.15) - 幾個信息·氣泡
    
舍利弗
    
解釋了死亡將會發生的比丘之間的區別
    
悔恨,死後會無情。
MaraṇassatiSutta(AN 6.20) - 增強了翻譯
    
這部經文詳細解釋瞭如何練習死亡的正念。
SāmakaSutta(AN 6.21) - 少數信息·氣泡
    
提示
    
通過德瓦的介入,佛陀揭示了六種永恆的方式
    
比庫拉在比薩拉法瑪惡化。
AparihāniyaSutta(AN 6.22) - 少數信息·氣泡
    
六法相連,不惡化。另一套非常有用的dhammas為敏銳的實踐者。
Himavanta Sutta(AN 6.24) - 強化翻譯
    
據說冥想者有六種品質會被劈成喜馬拉雅山碎片。
AnussatiṭṭhānaSutta(AN 6.25) - 強化翻譯
    
這個經文定義了回憶的六個主題。
Sekha Sutta(AN 6.31) - 沒有翻譯
    
佛陀解釋了哪些是導致正在接受培訓的比丘惡化的六法。
NāgitaSutta(AN 6.42) - 強化翻譯
    

    
佛陀在森林中居住,說話謙虛,
    
滿足,無拘無束,在曠野中隱居。
Dhammika Sutta(AN 6.54) - 純文本
    

    
這個經文,這個詞tathāgata並不是用來指定佛陀的,而是
    
在常識上,這使我們能夠更好地理解其含義。
Nibbedhika Sutta(AN 6.63) - 純文本
    
這個
    
sutta提供了一個有趣的系統分析Kāma,Vedanā,
    
Saññā,Āsavā,Kamma和Dukkha。這些術語中的每一個都是定義的,然後
    
描述四個ariya-saccas的模式。
AnavatthitāSutta(AN 6.102) - 強化翻譯
    
六項獎勵應該成為建立anicca認知的動機。
Atammaya Sutta(AN 6.104) - 強化翻譯
    
六項獎勵應該成為建立感知的動機。
AssādaSutta(AN 6.112) - 強化翻譯
    
如何根除欣賞觀,自我觀和一般錯誤觀。
DhammānupassīSutta(安息日6.118) - 逐字
    

    
值得重複這篇經文給出的信息:六種習慣
    
不放棄它是不可能實踐的
    
satipaṭṭhānas正確。在這裡,可能建議進行一些清潔。

—— OOOOOOO ——

YāguSutta(AN 5.207) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀給出吃米粥的五大好處。
DantakaṭṭhaSutta(AN 5.208) - 強化翻譯
    
佛陀給出五個使用牙齒清潔器的理由。
GītassaraSutta(AN 5.209) - 逐字逐句
    
這個
    
各種佛教傳統在很大程度上忽略了經文:
    
佛陀解釋了為什麼他不允許比丘表演
    
旋律吟誦。
MuṭṭhassatiSutta(AN 5.210) - 強化翻譯
    
沒有適當的sati和sampajañña睡著的缺點,以及他們這樣做的各自優點。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.241) - 強化翻譯
    
duccarita(壞行為)的五大危害和sucarita(良好行為)的五大優勢。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.245) - 強化翻譯
    
關於duccarita的五個危險和sucarita的五個優點的另一個經文。



Sivathika Sutta(AN 5.249) - 強化翻譯
    
五種不良行為可以類似於人們扔屍體的地方。
PuggalappasādaSutta(AN 5.250) - 強化翻譯
    
這是佛陀給予人們信任的危險的罕見警告。
RāgassaabhiññāyaSutta(AN 5.303) - 強化翻譯
    
為了直接了解rāga,需要練習五件事。

—— OOOOOOO ——

6. ChakkaNipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta(AN 6.14) - 很少有信息·氣泡
    
舍利弗
    
解釋了死亡將會發生的比丘之間的區別
    
不吉利,死亡吉祥。
Anutappiya Sutta(AN 6.15) - 幾個信息·氣泡
    
舍利弗
    
解釋了死亡將會發生的比丘之間的區別
    
悔恨,死後會無情。
MaraṇassatiSutta(AN 6.20) - 增強了翻譯
    
這部經文詳細解釋瞭如何練習死亡的正念。
SāmakaSutta(AN 6.21) - 少數信息·氣泡
    
提示
    
通過德瓦的介入,佛陀揭示了六種永恆的方式
    
比庫拉在比薩拉法瑪惡化。
AparihāniyaSutta(AN 6.22) - 少數信息·氣泡
    
六法相連,不惡化。另一套非常有用的dhammas為敏銳的實踐者。
Himavanta Sutta(AN 6.24) - 強化翻譯
    
據說冥想者有六種品質會被劈成喜馬拉雅山碎片。
AnussatiṭṭhānaSutta(AN 6.25) - 強化翻譯
    
這個經文定義了回憶的六個主題。
Sekha Sutta(AN 6.31) - 沒有翻譯
    
佛陀解釋了哪些是導致正在接受培訓的比丘惡化的六法。
NāgitaSutta(AN 6.42) - 強化翻譯
    

    
佛陀在森林中居住,說話謙虛,
    
滿足,無拘無束,在曠野中隱居。
Dhammika Sutta(AN 6.54) - 純文本
    

    
這個經文,這個詞tathāgata並不是用來指定佛陀的,而是
    
在常識上,這使我們能夠更好地理解其含義。
Nibbedhika Sutta(AN 6.63) - 純文本
    
這個
    
sutta提供了一個有趣的系統分析Kāma,Vedanā,
    
Saññā,Āsavā,Kamma和Dukkha。這些術語中的每一個都是定義的,然後
    
描述四個ariya-saccas的模式。
AnavatthitāSutta(AN 6.102) - 強化翻譯
    
六項獎勵應該成為建立anicca認知的動機。
Atammaya Sutta(AN 6.104) - 強化翻譯
    
六項獎勵應該成為建立感知的動機。
AssādaSutta(AN 6.112) - 強化翻譯
    
如何根除欣賞觀,自我觀和一般錯誤觀。
DhammānupassīSutta(安息日6.118) - 逐字
    

    
值得重複這篇經文給出的信息:六種習慣
    
不放棄它是不可能實踐的
    
satipaṭṭhānas正確。在這裡,可能建議進行一些清潔。

—— OOOOOOO ——
7. SattakaNipāta

Anusaya Sutta(AN 7.11) - 純文本
    
這裡列出七個anusayas。
Anusaya Sutta(AN 7.12) - 強化翻譯
    
放棄七個anusaya(執迷或潛在的傾向)。
SaññāSutta(AN 7.27) - 增強了翻譯
    
導致比丘長期福利並防止其衰落的七種觀念。
ParihāniSutta(AN 7.28) - 強化翻譯
    
培訓中的比丘可能會減少7點。
ParihāniSutta(AN 7.29) - 強化翻譯
    
七個非正式追隨者可能會拒絕的行為點。
Vipatti Sutta(AN 7.30) - 強化翻譯
    
一個非正式追隨者可能遇到他/她的失敗或成功的七點行為。
ParābhavaSutta(AN 7.31) - 強化翻譯
    
一個非正式追隨者可能遇到他/她的破產或繁榮的七點行為。
SaññāSutta(AN 7.49) - 強化翻譯
    
七個值得追求的內在思考。
Nagaropama Sutta(AN 7.67) - 純文字Pali Formulas
    
這裡佛陀用一種啟發性的比喻來解釋七個
    
應該由受訓者掌握的良好品質
    
成功地共同阻止馬拉的部隊(即阿庫薩拉)
    
法師)進入思想的堡壘。
SatthusāsanaSutta(AN 7.83) - 一字一句
    
這是一個非常簡潔的七重指令,用以區分什麼是佛教教學。

—— OOOOOOO ——

8.AṭṭhakaNipāta

Nanda Sutta(AN 8.9){節選} - 逐字
    
佛陀描述了南達是如何被猛烈掠奪的
    
感覺慾望,按照他的指示進行恐怖的行為。
    
這個經文包含了一個satisampajañña的定義。
MahānāmaSutta(AN 8.25){節選} - 逐字
    
Mahānāma要求佛陀定義什麼是平信徒,以及在何種方面,平信徒會有良好的表現。
AnuruddhamahāvitakkaSutta(AN 8.30) - 幾個信息·氣泡
    

    
聰明的想法是值得理解和記憶的
    
到達。阿尼律陀。佛陀來到他身邊教第八,
    
賦予他將獲得arahantship。佛陀然後解釋說
    
詳細說明這些想法的意義。
Abhisanda Sutta(AN 8.39) - 增強了翻譯
    
佛陀的所有嚴肅門徒都為自己創造了許多功勞,這裡有八種方法。
DuccaritavipākaSutta(AN 8.40) - 很少有信息·氣泡
    
這部經文描述了由於不遵守主要規則而遭受的那種苦難。
SaṅkhittaSutta(AN 8.53) - 逐字
    
佛陀在這裡給他的前護士八條標準
    
區分特定語句是否屬於他的教學內容,
    
現在這可能會很方便。
DīghajāṇuSutta(AN 8.54){節選} - 純文本
    
除此之外,佛陀在這部經文中定義了他的慷慨意味。
Vimokkha Sutta(AN 8.66) - 增強了翻譯
    
解釋八個vimokkhas(解放)。
ParihānaSutta(AN 8.79) - 沒有翻譯
    
佛陀解釋說,哪八個佛法導致正在接受培訓的比丘惡化。

—— OOOOOOO ——

9.納瓦卡尼帕塔

NāgaSutta(AN 9.40) - 純文本
    
這部經文,以微妙的幽默著色,解釋了一個比丘的比丘
    
精神上的提高可以與孤獨的大象相媲美,兩者都是
    
通常稱為Nāga。
Tapussa Sutta(AN 9.41){節選} - 純文本
    
在這裡saññā·vedayita·nirodha,saññā和vedanā的停止被呈現為第九jhāna。
SikkhādubbalyaSutta(AN 9.63) - 逐字
    
如果一個人在五戒中還不完美,該怎麼辦。
NävaraṇaSutta(AN 9.64) - 逐字
    
如何消除五大障礙。

—— OOOOOOO ——

10.達薩卡尼帕塔

SaṃyojanaSutta(AN 10.13) - 純文本
    
這個非常短的經文列出了十個saṃyojanas。
KasiṇaSutta(AN 10.25) - 逐字
    
這是對十名卡西亞斯練習的標準描述。
GirimānandaSutta(AN 10.60) - 強化翻譯
    

    
為了幫助Girimānanda從重病中恢復,佛陀
    
給出了一個很好的教學回顧十種非常有用的看法
    
可以開發。
KathāvatthuSutta(AN 10.69){節選} - 純文本
    
佛陀提醒比丘他們不該談論什麼,他們應該談論什麼。
昆達薩塔(AN 10.176) - 一些信息·氣泡
    
佛陀用kāya,vācā和mana解釋純潔的深層含義,而不是禮儀或儀式,並表明前者是後者的基礎,而後者的低效率顯而易見。

—— OOOOOOO ——

11.EkādasakaNipāta

30/03/2555

MettāSutta(AN 11.15) - 幾個信息·氣泡
    
mettā的實踐產生了十一個很好的結果。

—— OOOOOOO ——


https://www.ndtv.com/…/dont-care-if-i-am-known-as-aadhaar-j…
[《We are coming in even in 2019… Then we will see what all will be
done to you. We will see everything. Then don’t say later that I had to
go behind bars… Police picked me up… Got f***ed in the ass… Don’t say
all this later… I have some respect for your wife, that is why I am
talking to you. Understood, a******?》

(Excerpted from sl. no. I. below.)


It may be worth recalling here, the intemperate retort of a judge from
the same bench, while hearing the Aadhaar case, told the petitioner’s
advocate, pleading against the scheme, in the open court: < “I am not a liberal judge. But I am a nationalist and committed to justice and the Constitution.>>


The
hearing in the crucial Aadhaar case had its moment of drama today as
raised voice from an advocate drew a stinging rebuke from a judge. A
five-judge constitution…
ndtv.com

https://www.thequint.com/…/fadnavis-cousin-threatened-me-ad…
Fadnavis’ Cousin Threatened Me: Advocate Gathering Info on Loya
In a recent development in the Judge BH Loya case, The Caravan magazine
has found that a lawyer who was amassing information surrounding the
judge’s mysterious death was on 6 March threatened by Maharashtra Chief
Minister Devendra Fadnavis’ cousin.

According to the report, advocate and activist Abhiyan Barahate was working to collect information on Loya’s death, when he received a call from Sanjay Fadnavis, who is politically active in Nagpur.

Also Read: Treating Judge Loya Case With “Utmost Seriousness”: SC


Over the phone call, Fadnavis allegedly told Barahate that he had come
to know of the “big work” he was doing. He allegedly said that they (the
BJP) would return to power in 2019, warning him to not to “complain”
later when he is “picked up by the cops.”

According to the magazine, which has a transcript of the phone call, Fadnavis said:


We are coming in even in 2019… Then we will see what all will be
done to you. We will see everything. Then don’t say later that I had to
go behind bars… Police picked me up… Got f***ed in the ass… Don’t say
all this later… I have some respect for your wife, that is why I am
talking to you. Understood, a******?

The magazine reported that
Barahate had been working to collect information on behalf of another
lawyer and activist, Satish Uke.

On 5 March, Barahate had
reportedly received details of Amit Shah’s protocol provision for his
Nagpur visit dated 4 March via the Right to Information Act.


Barahate submitted a written complaint to the Commissioner of Nagpur on 6
March, specifying the “criminal intimidation through filthy language.”

Also Read: BH Loya Case: 15 Oppn Parties Demand Prez for Independent Probe


The advocate said his path has crossed with Sanjay Fadnavis several
times before, particularly during the 2014 Assembly elections in the
state. Following this, the two reportedly exchanged numbers and met on
several occasions, he wrote in his letter to the Nagpur Commissioner.


However, when Barahate began woking on the Loya case, he distanced
himself from all those related to the BJP, The Caravan reported citing
the letter. Barahate has reportedly worked for Uke several times before,
representing him in the Bombay High Court several times.

Uke is
currently working on gathering information related to the death of Judge
Loya, who allegedly died under mysterious circumstances when he was
hearing the Sohrabuddin fake encounter case.

The case pertains to
an alleged staged encounter of Sohrabuddin Shiekh, and BJP national
president Amit Shah is considered to be a prime accused.


Over a phone call, Sanjay Fadnavis reportedly told Barahate that they would return to power in 2019.
thequint.com

https://www.pressreader.com/india/the-times-of-india-mumbai-edition/20180309/282123522020643





comments (0)
2555 Fri 9 Mar 2018 LESSON Buddha Vacana in16 Classical Chinese (Simplified)-个古典中文(简体) If EVM was so perfect then why is VVPAT being introduced that too in a phased manner ? The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs couldbe replaced in a phased manner on the suggestion ofthe ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs1600 crore at that time. Only 8 of 543 parliamentary constituencies as a pilot project in Indian general election, 2014 were replaced. Because EVMs could be tampered the judgement of replacing them in aphased manner. He failed to order for using Balot Papers till the ntire EVMs were replaced. For 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Converted Religious Minorities and the poor upper castes voters in the entire nation , if there is an issue of concern in the coming elections, it is the electronic voting machine (EVM) Devil.With the circulation of messages on social media sites about EVMs being tampered with, many in the country feared their votes might be transferred to other candidates. Our vote through Universal Adult Franchise which has been negated by the EVMs is the only power we have and if somebody changes it, what are we left with in a democracy. The whole country did not trust the Electronic Voting Machines, adding that ballot papers were the more credible option. Educated sections of the people, with access to social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were more worried about EVMs than the others. The Voter know who he will vote for. But he is not assured if it will be counted in his favour. But with a ballot paper, his vote can’t be changed and he was not convinced about the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT), a process to verify that the vote cast had gone to the candidate concerned. There are so many videos of EVMs being tampered with on social media. Vote can be changed. The worries about the machines were not largely shared by hindutva voters though the RSS preferred Ballot Papers when the BJP was in opposition and now they are convenently keeping their mouth shut.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 1:44 am
2555 Fri 9 Mar 2018 LESSON

 Buddha Vacana

in16 Classical Chinese (Simplified)-个古典中文(简体)
If EVM was so perfect then why is VVPAT being introduced that too in a phased manner ?

The
ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering
that the EVMs couldbe replaced in a phased manner on the suggestion
ofthe ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs1600 crore at that time.
Only 8 of 543 parliamentary constituencies as a pilot project in Indian general election, 2014 were replaced. Because EVMs could be tampered the judgement of replacing them in aphased manner. He
failed to order for using Balot Papers till the ntire EVMs were
replaced. For 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Converted
Religious Minorities and the poor upper castes  voters in the entire
nation , if there is an issue of concern in the coming  elections, it is the electronic voting machine (EVM) Devil.With the circulation of messages on social media sites about EVMs being
tampered with, many in the country feared
their votes might be transferred to other candidates.

Our vote
through Universal Adult Franchise which has been negated by the EVMs is
the only power we have and if somebody changes it, what are we left with
in a democracy. The whole country
did not trust the Electronic Voting Machines, adding that ballot papers were the more credible option.

Educated sections of the people, with access to social media platforms
such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were more worried about EVMs than the
others.

The
Voter  know who he will vote for. But he is not assured if it will be
counted
in his favour. But with a ballot paper, his vote can’t be changed and he
was not convinced about the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail
(VVPAT), a process to verify that the vote cast had gone to the
candidate concerned.

There are so many videos of EVMs being tampered with on social media. Vote can be changed.

The
worries about the machines were not largely shared by hindutva voters
though the RSS preferred Ballot Papers when the BJP was in opposition
and now they are convenently keeping their mouth shut.



https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Chinese Buddha Chants - Best for Meditation
ScenesGalore
Published on Dec 2, 2011
Meditation Music
Category
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Meditation Music
youtube.com

16 Classical Chinese (Simplified)
16个古典中文(简体)

2555周五2018年3月9日LESSON

 佛假
- 佛陀的话 -
通过免费和简单的方式在线学习Pali。

本网站致力于那些希望通过学习巴利语的基础知识来更好地理解佛陀的话,但谁没有太多时间可用。这个想法是,如果他们的目的只是为了让读者能够阅读巴利文,并且有理解他们的理解,即使这种理解不包括语法规则的所有微小细节,他们并不需要花太多时间时间与令人沮丧的学习乏味的语法理论相互作用,这些理论涉及诸如众多的倾向和变化。

在这种情况下,仅限于学习最重要的巴利语词汇的含义就足够了,因为阅读的重复经验提供了对最常见句子结构的经验和直观的理解。因此,他们可以成为自学者,选择他们自己的研究的时间,持续时间,频率,内容和深度。

他们对Buddha Vacana的理解将变得更加精确,因为他们通过定期阅读的方式,毫不费力地学习和记忆佛陀教学中基本的词语和重要公式。他们的学习和从中获得的灵感将随着他们对教师信息的接受程度的提高而变得更深。

免责声明:本网站由autodidact创建,旨在用于autodidacts。网站管理员没有遵循任何官方的帕里课程,也没有声称这里提供的所有信息完全没有错误。那些想要学术准确的人可能会考虑加入正式的帕里课程。如果读者发现任何错误,网站管理员将非常感谢他们通过“联系”中提到的邮箱进行报告。

EnFrançais:

在这个网站上搜索

SuttaPiṭaka-DighaNikāya

DN 9 -
PoṭṭhapādaSutta
{摘抄}
- Poṭṭhapāda的问题 -

Poṭṭhapāda提出了各种与Saññā性质相反的问题。
注意:纯文本

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html

 SuttaPiṭaka
- 一揽子话语 -
[sutta:话语]

“佛经”中包含了佛教有关佛法的本质。它包含了一万多个苏达。它分为五个名为Nikāyas的藏品。

DīghaNikāya
    
[dīgha:long]DīghaNikāya聚集了佛陀给出的最长的讲道中的34段。有许多提示,其中许多是对原始语料库的延迟添加以及可疑的真实性。
MajjhimaNikāya
    
[majjhima:中] MajjhimaNikāya收集了中等长度的佛陀的讲道,处理各种事情。
SaṃyuttaNikāya
    
[samyutta:group]SaṃyuttaNikāya根据他们的主题在被称为saṃyuttas的56个小组中收集suttas。它包含三千多个可变长度的话语,但通常较短。
AṅguttaraNikāya
    
[a:g:factor | uttara:additionnal]AṅguttaraNikāya被细分为11个子组,分别称为nipātas,每个子组收集由一个额外因子与先前nipāta的列举组成的列举。它包含数千个通常较短的suttas。
KhuddakaNikāya
    
[Khuddhaka:short,small]

KhuddhakaNikāya简短的文本,被认为是由两个地层组成:Dhammapada,Udāna,Itivuttaka,SuttaNipāta,Theragāthā-Therīgāthā和Jātaka构成了古代的阶层,而其他书籍是迟到的附加物和真实性更值得怀疑。

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/formulae.html

Pali Formulas

这项工作所依据的观点是,佛陀在所有四个Nikāyas中报道说最常被重复的suttas的段落可以被看作是他认为对他的教学最值得关注的东西同时也是最能准确表达他的真实话语的。其中八个在Gaṇaka-MoggallānaSutta(明尼苏达州107)中阐述,并被描述为SekhaPaṭipadā或路径中的一个正在训练中,这实际上导致新手到第四个禅修。

SekhaPaṭipadā - 培训中的人之路

一步一步定义佛陀规定的主要做法的十二个公式。对于那些希望成功进步的人来说,这是至关重要的,因为它包含了使禅修者能够为有效练习设置必不可少的条件的指示。

容易接近:

DīghaNikāya

MajjhimaNikāya

SaṃyuttaNikāya

AṅguttaraNikāya

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
DīghaNikāya

- 漫长的话语 -
[dīgha:long]

DīghaNikāya收集了据说由佛陀给出的最长话语中的34个。

PoṭṭhapādaSutta(DN 9){节选} - 强化翻译
    
Poṭṭhapāda提出了各种与Saññā性质相反的问题。
MahāpaĀnāpānassati - 呼吸意识
    
ānāpānassati的做法被佛教高度推荐用于各种有益的目的,在这里你可以非常精确地理解他给出的指示。
Anussati - 回忆
    
这里我们有佛陀的标准描述(≈140occ。),佛法(≈90occ。)和僧伽(≈45occ。)。
AppamāṇāCetovimutti - 心灵的无边的解放
    
佛陀常常称赞四位阿拉伯人的做法,这些人被称为防止危险和通往布拉玛洛卡的道路。
Arahatta - Arahantship
    
这是suttas描述达到arahantship的股票公式。
AriyaSīlakkhandha - 美德的高贵汇集
    
比丘所遵循的各种规则。
Arūpajjhānā - 无形的Jhānas
    
这里是描述samādhi超越第四个jhāna吸收的股票公式,这些公式在帕利文后期被称为arūpajjhānas。
ÁsavānaṃKhayañāṇa - 有关破坏āsavas的知识
    
关于破坏āsavas:arahantship的知识。
BhojaneMattaññutā - 适量食物
    
适量食物:知道适量吃。
CattāroJhānā - 四个jhānas
    
四个jhānas:有一个愉快的持久。
IndriyesuGuttadvāratā - 在感官院的入口处进行监视
    
警惕感官能力的入口:感觉抑制。
JāgariyaṃAnuyoga - 致力于清醒
    
致力于清醒:白天和黑夜。
Kammassakomhi - 我是我自己的业
    
这个公式表达了佛陀教学的基石之一:一种主观的因果律规则。
NīvaraṇānaṃPahāna - 消除障碍
    
消除障碍:克服障碍的精神状态。
Pabbajjā - 前进
    
出现:人们如何决定放弃这个世界。
Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa - 了解前居住地的回忆
    
了解以前的生活场所:回忆过去的生活。
Satipaṭṭhāna - 意识的存在
    
这些是佛陀简要地定义了四个斋戒者(≈33occ)的公式。
Satisampajañña - 正念和彻底的理解
    
正念和彻底的理解:不间断的练习。
Sattasaddhammā - 七个好品质
    
学员必须掌握七项基本素质才能取得成功。其中四种特质也出现在五种灵性indriyas和五种balas之中。
SattānaṃCutūpapātañāṇa - 了解生命的重生
    
了解被打伤的生物的重生。
Sīlasampatti - 德行的成就
    
美德的成就:认真遵守Pātimokkha规则。
VivittaSenāsanenaBhajana - 度假至幽静的住宅
选择适当的地方和采取适当的身体和精神姿势是成功实践的另一个必要条件。

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha.html

Pātimokkha
- 比丘的准则 -

这些是227条准则,每个比丘必须在梵语中用心学习,以便能够背诵它们。这里将对每条指南进行语义分析(希望)。

帕拉吉卡1
    
如果任何比丘参加比丘的训练和生计,未放弃训练,没有宣布他的弱点,即使与雌性动物进行性交,他也会被击败而不再隶属于其中。
    
Pātimokkha

帕拉吉卡1

yo pana bhikkhubhikkhūnaṃsikkhāsājīvasamāpannosikkhaṃapaccakkhāyadu
bbalyaṃanāvikatvāmethunaṃdhammaṃpaṭiseveyyaantamasotiracchānagatāyapi,pārājikohoti
a·saṃvāso。

如果任何比丘参加比丘的训练和生计,未放弃训练,没有宣布他的弱点,即使与雌性动物进行性交,他也会被击败而不再隶属于其中。

哟帕娜比丘如果有任何比丘
bhikkhūnaṃsikkhā·s·ājīva·samāpanno参加比丘的训练和生计,
sikkhaṃa·paccakkhāya没有放弃训练,
du·b·balya·an·āvi·katvā没有宣布他的软弱
处女座dhammaṃpaṭiseveyya进行性交,
antamasotiracchāna·gatāya·pi,即使有一只雌性动物,
pārājikohoti a·saṃvāso。他被击败,不再隶属关系。

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SuttaPiṭaka

SaṃyuttaNikāya

- 分类话语 -
[saṃyutta:组]

SaṃyuttaNikāya的话语根据
他们的主题是56个saṃyuttas,它们本身分为五个
vaggas。

VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 12.2) - 逐字
    
关于paulaiccasamuppāda的详细解释,对每个十二个链接的定义。
CetanāSutta(SN 12.38) - 强化翻译
    
这里佛陀解释了cetanā如何与思考和anusaya一起作为viññāṇa的基础。
UpādānaSutta(SN 12.52) - 强化翻译
    
这个
    
是一个非常启发性的教训,揭示了哪些心理
    
机制让人渴望,并解释如何轻松
    
取而代之的是有益健康的考虑,以摆脱它。
PuttamaṃsūpamaSutta(SN 12.63) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀在这里提供了四个令人印象深刻和鼓舞人心的明喻,以解释如何看待这四个āhāras。
SanidānaSutta(SN 14.12) - 强化翻译
    
一个
    
对感知如何转化为行动的精彩解释
    
明亮的火炬的明喻启发。保持勤奋
    
注意消除不好的想法!
ĀṇiSutta(SN 20.7) - 逐字逐句
    
一个
    
佛陀提醒我们非常重要的事情:为了我们自己
    
我们的利益以及未来几代人的幸福
    
必须最重视他自己的真实话语,而不是那么重要
    
无论谁现在假装或假装过去是一个
    
(Dhamma)老师。
SamādhiSutta(SN 22.5) - 逐字
    

    
佛陀劝诫他的追随者培养专注力,以便他们能够做到
    
深入了解五个人的兴起与消逝
    
在此之后,他通过出现和传递来定义他的意思
    
从依赖的起源方面来看,这些聚合体已被排除。
PaṭisallāṇaSutta(SN 22.6) - 没有翻译
    

    
佛陀劝诫他的追随者练习隐居,以便他们可以
    
深入了解五个人的兴起与消逝
    
在此之后,他通过出现和传递来定义他的意思
    
从依赖的起源方面来看,这些聚合体已被排除。
UpādāparitassanāSutta(SN 22.8) - 逐字
    
在五个总量中发生和结束痛苦。
Nandikkhaya Sutta(SN 22.51) - 逐字逐句
    
如何操作令人高兴的破坏。
Anattalakkhana Sutta(SN 22.59) - 逐字逐句
    
在这个非常着名的经典中,佛陀首次阐述了他对于魔鬼的教导。
KhajjanīyaSutta(SN 22.79){节选} - 逐字逐句
    
这个经文提供了五khandhas的简洁定义。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 29.1) - 强化翻译
    
不同类型的nāgas。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 30.1) - 强化翻译
    
不同类型的supaṇṇas(aka garudas)。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 31.1) - 强化翻译
    
不同类型的gandhabba devas。
Suddhika Sutta(SN 32.1) - 强化翻译
    
不同类型的云端devas。
SamāpattimūlakaṭhitiSutta(SN 34.11) - 强化翻译
    
达到浓度与维持浓度。
Pubbesambodha Sutta(SN 35.13) - 一字一句
    

    
佛陀通过诱惑,退让和解放来定义他的意思
    
内感的情况下,然后宣布他的
    
觉醒只不过是理解它们而已。
Abhinanda Sutta(SN 35.20) - 逐字
    
无论谁喜欢感官对象,谁都无法逃脱。
MigajālaSutta(SN 35.46) - 强化翻译
    
为什么
    
真的很孤独吗?佛陀解释了为什么,不管
    
你去哪里,你最讨厌的同伴总是标签在一起。
AvijjāpahānaSutta(SN 35.53) - 一字一句
    
一个非常简单的话语,但非常深刻的,就是要知道什么要看到放弃无知和产生知识。
SabbupādānapariññāSutta(SN 35.60) - 逐字
    

    
佛陀在阐述对所有依恋完整理解的同时,
    
给出了一个深刻但非常清晰的解释:联系是在此基础上产生的
    
三种现象。
MigajālaSutta Sutta(SN 35.64){节选} - 逐字逐句
    
一些
    
新手(有时候我们可能会把自己当成自己),有时候也是这样
    
相信可以在没有感觉的情况下享受快乐
    
引起依恋或痛苦。佛陀教导米加亚拉
    
这是完全不可能的。
AdantāguttaSutta(SN 35.94) - 逐字
    
这里
    
是那些很容易理解的建议之一
    
智力,但很难在更深层次上理解,因为我们的智力
    
错误的观点不断干预这一过程。所以我们需要
    
尽管这对某些人来说似乎很无聊,但经常重复。PamādavihārīSutta(SN 35.97) - 逐字
    
在疏忽中生活的人和以警惕生活的人之间有什么区别。
SakkapañhāSutta Sutta(SN 35.118) - 逐字
    
佛陀对萨卡的问题给出了一个相当简单的答案:有些人达到最终目标的原因是什么,而另一些人则没有?
RūpārāmaSutta(SN 35.137) - 一字一句
    
佛以另一种方式再次向我们解释了痛苦的原因和停止。它发生在我们整天整夜都在做的事情中。
AniccanibbānasappāyaSutta(SN 35.147) - 一字一句
    
这里有关于期待获得涅b的高级冥想者无常知觉的核心内容。
AjjhattānattahetuSutta(SN 35.142) - 逐字
    
如何调查感觉器官出现的原因,其中非自身的特征可能更容易理解,从而可以将这种理解转化为他们的情况。
Samudda Sutta(SN 35.229) - 强化翻译
    
高贵的纪律中的海洋是什么。当心不要沉入其中!
PahānaSutta(SN 36.3) - 强化翻译
    
三种vedanā和三种anusayas之间的关系。
DaṭṭhabbaSutta(SN 36.5) - 强化翻译
    
应该如何看待这三类vedanā(感受)。
Salla Sutta(SN 36.6) - 强化翻译
    
当被身体疼痛的箭射中时,一个不明智的人通过在上面堆积精神上的痛苦使事情变得更糟,就像他被两个箭头击中一样。一个智者只会感到一个箭头的刺痛。
Anicca Sutta(SN 36.9) - 强化翻译
    
vedanā(感情)的七个特征,也适用于其他四khandhas(SN 22.21)和paiicca·samuppāda(SN 12.20)的十二个链接中的每一个。
PhassamūlakaSutta(SN 36.10) - 一字一句
    
这三种感受源于三种类型的联系。
AṭṭhasataSutta(SN 36.22) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀用七种不同的方式解释了vedanās,将它们分成两,三,五,六,十八,三十六或一百八十种。
NirāmisaSutta(SN 36.31){节选} - 逐字
    
我们可以在这里理解,虽然pīti经常被列为bojjhaṅga,但有时也可能是akusala。这段文字还包括对五kāmaguṇā的定义。
DhammavādīpañhāSutta(SN 38.3) - 强化翻译
    
谁承认世界上的法(dhamma·vādī)?谁做得很好(su·p·paṭipanna)?谁做得好(苏·加塔)?
Dukkara Sutta(SN 39.16) - 强化翻译
    
这个教学和纪律难以做到什么?
VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 45.8) - 一字一句
    
佛陀在这里精确地定义了八重崇高道路的每一个因素。
ĀgantukaSutta(SN 45.159) - 强化翻译
    
贵族之路如何与关于各种法制的abhiññā合作,作为欢迎各种游客的宾馆。
Kusala Sutta(SN 46.32) - 一字一句
    
所有这一切都有利于团结一件事。
ĀhāraSutta(SN 46.51) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀描述我们如何能够根据我们如何应用我们的注意力来“喂养”或“挨饿”妨碍和启蒙因素。
SaṅgāravaSutta(SN 46.55){节选} - 强化翻译
    
一系列明确的解释来解释这五个nívaraṇas(障碍)如何影响心灵的纯洁和它对现实的感知能力。
Sati Sutta(SN 47.35) - 一字一句
    
在这篇经文中,佛陀提醒比丘是satos和sampajānos,然后定义这两个术语。
VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 47.40) - 逐字
    
satipaṭṭhānas简而言之。
DaṭṭhabbaSutta(SN 48.8) - 强化翻译
    
据说五种灵性indriyas中的每一种都是四倍法。
SaṃkhittaSutta(SN 48.14) - 强化翻译
    
实现它们就是我们所要做的,而这就是我们解放的尺度。
VibhaṅgaSutta(SN 48.38) - 强化翻译
    
这里佛陀定义了五种敏感的印度人。
UppaṭipāṭikaSutta(SN 48.40) - 强化翻译
    
这种经文在情感能力的停止和jhānas的连续成就之间绘制了一个有趣的平行线。
SāketaSutta(SN 48.43){节选} - 强化翻译
    
在这部经文中,佛陀说,巴拉和印度人可以被认为是同一件事或两件不同的事。
PatiṭṭhitaSutta(SN 48.56) - 强化翻译
    
有一种精神状态可以使五种精神能力都得到完善。
BījaSutta(SN 49.24) - 强化翻译
    
一个美丽的比喻说明了四项正确的奋斗实践的基本美德。Gantha Sutta(SN 50.102) - 强化翻译
    
这个
    
经典是基于四个“身体结”的有趣列表,并且
    
促进五大精神力量的发展。
Viraddha Sutta(SN 51.2) - 强化翻译
    
忽视这些忽略了高尚的道路。
ChandasamādhiSutta(SN 51.13) - 强化翻译
    
这部经文清楚地解释了描述iddhi·pādas实践的公式的含义。
SamaṇabrāhmaṇaSutta(SN 51.17) - 强化翻译
    
羯羊
    
在过去,未来或现在,谁超常规
    
权力已经发展并刻苦练习四件事。
VidhāSutta(SN 53.36) - 强化翻译
    

    
jhānas被推荐去摆脱三种类型的自负,哪个
    
与将自己与他人进行比较有关。这说明了如果
    
僧伽中有任何等级,只是出于实际的目的,
    
它不能被视为任何现实的代表。它是
    
不太清楚这是否是一次重复十六次相同
    
东西,或16个小组,或4个小组,每组4个小组
    
重复。
PadīpopamaSutta(SN 54.8) - 一字一句
    
这里
    
佛陀解释ānāpānassati并为各种各样的推荐它
    
用途:从放弃杂质,通过发展所有
    
八jhānas。
SaraṇānisakkaSutta(SN 55.24) - 强化翻译
    

    
这个有趣的话语,佛陀说,甚至没有
    
必须对佛陀,法师和僧侣有强烈的信心
    
在死亡时成为一个流赢家。
MahānāmaSutta(SN 55.37) - 强化翻译
    
作为一名外行的门徒意味着什么,赋有美德,信念,慷慨和洞察力。
AṅgaSutta(SN 55.50) - 逐字
    
四个sotāpattiyaṅgas(流入的因素)。
SamādhiSutta(SN 56.1) - 逐字
    
佛陀劝告比丘去修行,因为它导致了解四个真实的真理。
PaṭisallānaSutta(SN 56.2) - 逐字
    

    
佛陀劝告比丘去练习paṭisallāna,因为它导致了
    
理解其真实性的四个崇高真理。
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta(SN 56.11) - 逐字逐句
    
这当然是巴利文学中最着名的经文。佛陀第一次阐述了四个阿里亚 - 萨卡斯。
SaṅkāsanāSutta(SN 56.19) - 强化翻译
    

    
教导这四个崇高的真理,然而无聊的事情可能会让人觉得无聊
    
流浪的头脑,其实是非常深刻的,头脑可以花费整个
    
实时调查它。
SiṃsapāvanaSutta(SN 56.31) - 一字一句
    

    
佛陀说他对此毫无兴趣
    
与实现目标不直接相关的教导。
DaṇḍaSutta(SN 56.33) - 增强翻译
    
棒的明喻。

—— OOOOOOO ——

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html
 
SuttaPiṭaka

AṅguttaraNikāya

- 另外一个因素的话语 -
[a:g:factor | uttara:额外]

AṅguttaraNikāya包含数千个
简短的话语,具有特殊的结构
枚举。它分为十一个部分,第一部分涉及
枚举一个项目,第二个与两个项目等
佛陀从来没有用过写作,他问他的听众是谁
细心并记住他的指示。为了使他的话
尽可能清楚并且为了促进这种记忆,他经常
以列举形式介绍他的教学。

Nipātas

1. EkakaNipāta7. SattakaNipāta
2. DukaNipāta8.AṭṭhakaNipāta
3. TikaNipāta9. NavakaNipāta
4. CatukaNipāta10. DasakaNipāta
5.PañcakaNipāta11.EkādasakaNipāta
6. ChakkaNipāta

—— OOOOOOO —— 

1. EkakaNipāta

RūpādiVagga(AN 1.1-10) - 逐字
    
有五种类型的感官对象比其他任何对象(大多数)更能压倒人类的头脑。
NīvaraṇappahānaVagga(AN 1.11-20) - 逐字
    
最有效地滋养五种障碍的五尊佛法,以及五种最有效的方法来驱散它们。
Akammaniya Vagga(AN 1.21-30) - 一字排开
    
头脑可以成为我们最大的敌人或我们最好的朋友。
Adanta Vagga(AN 1.31-40) - 强化翻译
    
头脑可以成为我们最大的敌人或我们最好的朋友。
Udakarahaka Suttas(AN 1.45&46) - 强化翻译
    
一个清晰的头脑和一个浑浊的头脑之间的区别。
Mudu Sutta(AN 1.47) - 强化翻译
    
这是一个灵活的思维。
Lahuparivatta Sutta(AN 1.48) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀通常非常善于发现明喻,在这里不知所措。
AccharāsaṅghātaPeyyāla(AN 1.53-55) - 一字一句
    
实践善意使人值得一提。
Kusala Suttas(AN 1.56-73) - 逐字
    
什么产生和消除了健康和不健康的心理状态。
PamādaSuttas(AN 1.58-59) - 强化翻译
    
没有什么比这更不利的了。
PamādādiVagga(AN 1.81-97) - 逐字
    
佛陀谨慎地警告我们不要无所顾忌。
KāyagatāsatiVagga(AN 1.563-574){摘录} - 强化翻译
    
佛陀高度赞扬对身体的正念。

—— OOOOOOO ——

2. DukaNipāta

AppaṭivānaSutta(AN 2.5) - 强化翻译
    
如果我们想要达到觉醒,我们应该如何训练自己。
Cariya Sutta(AN 2.9) - 强化翻译
    
毕竟,这是什么保证和谐,礼貌,
    
诚实,兄弟情谊在一个特定的社会中一个和平的字?佛陀
    
在这里解释哪些是世界的两个监护人。
EkaṃsenaSutta(AN 2.18) - 强化翻译
    
这是佛陀断言的一件事。
VijjābhāgiyaSutta(AN 2.32) - 逐字
    
佛陀在这里将萨玛塔与拉加和西托维穆蒂联系起来,将内观与阿维贾和帕尼什维穆蒂联系起来。

—— OOOOOOO ——

3. TikaNipāta

Kesamutti [akaKālāmā] Sutta(AN 3.66) - 一字一句
    

    
这个着名的经文,佛陀提醒我们最终只相信我们
    
自己对现实的直接体验,而不是别人所宣称的,
    
即使他们碰巧是我们’尊敬的老师’。
SāḷhaSutta(AN 3.67) - 强化翻译
    
这里给出的建议与给卡拉马斯的建议非常相似。
AññatitthiyaSutta(AN 3.69) - 强化翻译
    

    
对他们的尊重解释了不善的三个根源
    
特征,出现的原因以及实现方式
    
他们停止。
Uposatha Sutta(AN 3.71) - 强化翻译
    
在这篇经文中,佛陀定义人们应该如何练习Uposatha并描述不同类型的天神。
SīlabbataSutta(AN 3.79) - 强化翻译
    
Ānanda解释了非常简单的仪式仪式和礼仪可以被判断为有益与否。
SamaṇaSutta(AN 3.82) - 强化翻译
    
这里是苦行者的三个苦行者任务。
Vajjiputta Sutta(AN 3.85) - 强化翻译
    
一个
    
某些和尚不能训练这么多规则。佛陀解释他
    
他如何在没有他们的情况下做到这一点,并且运作得相当好。
Sikkhattaya Sutta(AN 3.90) - 逐字
    
佛陀定义了三种训练,即adhisīlasikkhā,adhicittasikkhā和adhipaññāsikkhā。
AccāyikaSutta(AN 3.93) - 强化翻译
    
苦行僧的三项紧急任务就像农民的三项紧急任务。
Sikkhattaya Sutta(AN 3.91) - 逐字逐句
    
这里佛陀给出了adhipañāsikkhā的另一个定义。
PaṃsudhovakaSutta(AN 3.102) - 很少有信息·气泡
    

    
这个经文,佛陀比较了精神杂质的去除
    
通过实践到金匠的工作。这是特别的
    
有趣的是,因为它提供了一个逐渐的杂质说明
    
必须在练习期间处理,这是有用的
    
参考。
Nimitta Sutta(AN 3.103) - 很少有信息·气泡
    

    
你发现自己点头或在你的过程中过度激动
    
冥想练习?这是冥想者非常有用的话语
    
他们希望平衡两种相应的精神力量
    
集中精神,平静下来。我们中的许多人都会受益
    
基本上不适用这些说明。
RuṇṇaSutta(AN 3.108) - 逐字
    
这里
    
佛陀解释了纪律中的歌舞
    
那些高贵的人,然后给他笑笑的指责
    
面带微笑。
Atitti Sutta(AN 3.109) - 强化翻译
    
三个错误的东西,其中很多不幸的是,它们永远不会引起饱腹感。

NidānaSutta(AN 3.112) - 强化翻译
    
六种原因,三种健康的,三种不善的,是因业的缘故。
Kammapatha Sutta(AN 3.164) - 逐字逐句
    
这里表明,根据这种观点,非素食者没有任何错误是错误的。

—— OOOOOOO ——

4. CatukkaNipāta

Yoga Sutta(AN 4.10) - 强化翻译
    
当谈到瑜伽和瑜伽药师(从轭中休息)时佛陀意味着什么。
PadhānaSutta(AN 4.13) - 逐字
    
在这篇经文中,佛陀给出了sammappadhānas的定义。
AparihāniyaSutta(AN 4.37) - 强化翻译
    
四个简单的做法,使人无法脱身,就在涅presence的面前。
SamādhibhāvanāSutta(AN 4.41) - 一字一句
    

    
佛陀赞美的四种集中。这十分的
    
这里显然没有明确区分samādhi和
    
奶。
VipallāsaSutta(AN 4.49) - 一字一句
    
在这篇经文中,佛陀描述了saññā,citta和diṭṭhi的四重变形。
AppamādaSutta(AN 4.116) - 简单的翻译
    
四个人应该刻苦练习。
ĀrakkhaSutta(AN 4.117) - 简单的翻译
    
在保护思想的同时,勤奋和正念四件事情。
MettāSutta(AN 4.125) - 强化翻译
    
这里
    
佛陀解释彻底实践的是什么样的重生
    
四个布茹阿玛维亚拉斯可以期待,并且是他的伟大优势
    
弟子。
Asubha Sutta(AN 4.163) - 强化翻译
    

    
根据选择的练习类型,练习四种方法
    
力量和精神力量的强弱。
AbhiññāSutta(AN 4.254) - 没有翻译
    
贵族之路如何与关于各种法制的abhiññā合作,作为欢迎各种游客的宾馆。
AraññaSutta(AN 4.262) - 强化翻译
    
什么样的人适合在旷野生活?

—— OOOOOOO ——

5.PañcakaNipāta

Vitthata Sutta(AN 5.2) - 没有翻译
    
这里佛陀详细地定义了他所称的五个
    
Sekha-balas(训练中的一个强度)。这个经文很容易
    
如果你参考,可以理解而不需要平行翻译
    
在文中将会提到Sattasaddhammā公式。为了以防万一,Pali-English Dictionary也是可用的。
Vitthata Sutta(AN 5.14) - 逐字
    
这里定义了五个巴拉。
SamādhiSutta(AN 5.27) - 强化翻译
    
五个令人振奋的知识,发生在一个练习无边无际的人身上。
AkusalarāsiSutta(AN 5.52) - 强化翻译
    
说得很对,应该称之为“过失积累”?
AbhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhānaSutta(AN 5.57){节选} - 逐字逐句
    
如何考虑自己的业绩。
AnāgatabhayaSutta(AN 5.80) - 强化翻译
    

    
佛陀提醒僧侣不应该放置佛法的做法
    
因为没有任何未来的保证
    
提供任何实践机会。
Sekha Sutta(AN 5.89) - 没有翻译
    

    
佛陀提醒我们有五件事情会恶化这种做法
    
对于那些希望在培训中取得进步的人来说几乎同样重要
    
了解,记住并融入我们的生活方式
    
五标准nīvaraṇas的知识。
Sekha Sutta(AN 5.90) - 增强了翻译
    
导致实践恶化的五种态度。
Sutadhara Sutta(AN 5.96) - 强化翻译
    
长期以来,领导人一直在努力解放呼吸的五种素质。
KathāSutta(AN 5.97) - 强化翻译
    
长期以来,领导人一直在努力解放呼吸的五种素质。
ĀraññakaSutta(AN 5.98) - 强化翻译
    
长期以来,领导人一直在努力解放呼吸的五种素质。
Andhakavinda Sutta(AN 5.114) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀劝诫他新任命的僧侣要做的五件事。
Samayavimutta Sutta(AN 5.149) - 没有翻译
    
获得“偶尔解放”的五个条件将会倒退。
Samayavimutta Sutta(AN 5.150) - 没有翻译
    
另一组获得“偶尔解放”的五个条件将会倒退。
VaṇijjāSutta(AN 5.177) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀在这里指定了五个不应该由他的非信徒进行的交易,其中包括肉类业务。
GihīSutta(AN 5.179) - 强化翻译
    

    
在这个经文中,佛陀给出了更精确的方式
    
四个通常的sotāpattiyaṅgas必须内化为了
    
构成sotāpatti的适当条件。
NissāraṇīyaSutta(AN 5.200) - 强化翻译
    
这种经文拒绝了五种类型的nissāraṇas。



YāguSutta(AN 5.207) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀给出吃米粥的五大好处。
DantakaṭṭhaSutta(AN 5.208) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀给出五个使用牙齿清洁器的理由。
GītassaraSutta(安5.209) - 逐字
    
这个
    
各种佛教传统在很大程度上忽略了经文:
    
佛陀解释了为什么他不允许比丘表演
    
旋律吟诵。
MuṭṭhassatiSutta(AN 5.210) - 强化翻译
    
没有适当的sati和sampajañña睡着的缺点,以及他们这样做的各自优点。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.241) - 强化翻译
    
duccarita(坏行为)的五大危害和sucarita(良好行为)的五大优势。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.245) - 强化翻译
    
关于duccarita的五个危险和sucarita的五个优点的另一个经文。
Sivathika Sutta(AN 5.249) - 强化翻译
    
五种不良行为可以类似于人们扔尸体的地方。
PuggalappasādaSutta(AN 5.250) - 强化翻译
    
这是佛陀给予人们信任的危险的罕见警告。
RāgassaabhiññāyaSutta(AN 5.303) - 强化翻译
    
为了直接了解rāga,需要练习五件事。

—— OOOOOOO ——

6. ChakkaNipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta(AN 6.14) - 很少有信息·气泡
    
舍利弗
    
解释了死亡将会发生的比丘之间的区别
    
不吉利,死亡吉祥。
Anutappiya Sutta(AN 6.15) - 几个信息·气泡
    
舍利弗
    
解释了死亡将会发生的比丘之间的区别
    
悔恨,死后会无情。
MaraṇassatiSutta(AN 6.20) - 增强了翻译
    
这部经文详细解释了如何练习死亡的正念。
SāmakaSutta(AN 6.21) - 少数信息·气泡
    
提示
    
通过德瓦的介入,佛陀揭示了六种永恒的方式
    
比库拉在比萨拉法玛恶化。
AparihāniyaSutta(AN 6.22) - 少数信息·气泡
    
六法相连,不恶化。另一套非常有用的dhammas为敏锐的实践者。
Himavanta Sutta(AN 6.24) - 强化翻译
    
据说冥想者有六种品质会被劈成喜马拉雅山碎片。
AnussatiṭṭhānaSutta(AN 6.25) - 强化翻译
    
这个经文定义了回忆的六个主题。
Sekha Sutta(AN 6.31) - 没有翻译
    
佛陀解释了哪些是导致正在接受培训的比丘恶化的六法。
NāgitaSutta(AN 6.42) - 强化翻译
    

    
佛陀在森林中居住,讲的是谦虚,
    
满足,无拘无束,在旷野中隐居。
Dhammika Sutta(AN 6.54) - 纯文本
    

    
这个经文,这个词tathāgata并不是用来指定佛陀的,而是
    
在常识上,这使我们能够更好地理解其含义。
Nibbedhika Sutta(AN 6.63) - 纯文本
    
这个
    
sutta提供了一个有趣的系统分析Kāma,Vedanā,
    
Saññā,Āsavā,Kamma和Dukkha。这些术语中的每一个都是定义的,然后
    
描述了四个ariya-saccas的模式。
AnavatthitāSutta(AN 6.102) - 强化翻译
    
六项奖励应该成为建立anicca认知的动机。
Atammaya Sutta(AN 6.104) - 强化翻译
    
六项奖励应该成为建立感知的动机。
AssādaSutta(AN 6.112) - 强化翻译
    
如何根除欣赏观,自我观和一般错误观。
DhammānupassīSutta(安息日6.118) - 逐字
    

    
值得重复这篇经文给出的信息:六种习惯
    
不放弃它是不可能实践的
    
satipaṭṭhānas正确。在这里,可能建议进行一些清洁。

—— OOOOOOO ——

YāguSutta(AN 5.207) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀给出吃米粥的五大好处。
DantakaṭṭhaSutta(AN 5.208) - 强化翻译
    
佛陀给出五个使用牙齿清洁器的理由。
GītassaraSutta(AN 5.209) - 逐字逐句
    
这个
    
各种佛教传统在很大程度上忽略了经文:
    
佛陀解释了为什么他不允许比丘表演
    
旋律吟诵。
MuṭṭhassatiSutta(AN 5.210) - 强化翻译
    
没有适当的sati和sampajañña睡着的缺点,以及他们这样做的各自优点。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.241) - 强化翻译
    
duccarita(坏行为)的五大危害和sucarita(良好行为)的五大优势。
Duccarita Sutta(AN 5.245) - 强化翻译
    
关于duccarita的五个危险和sucarita的五个优点的另一个经文。

Sivathika Sutta(AN 5.249) - 强化翻译
    
五种不良行为可以类似于人们扔尸体的地方。
PuggalappasādaSutta(AN 5.250) - 强化翻译
    
这是佛陀给予人们信任的危险的罕见警告。
RāgassaabhiññāyaSutta(AN 5.303) - 强化翻译
    
为了直接了解rāga,需要练习五件事。

—— OOOOOOO ——

6. ChakkaNipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta(AN 6.14) - 很少有信息·气泡
    
舍利弗
    
解释了死亡将会发生的比丘之间的区别
    
不吉利,死亡吉祥。
Anutappiya Sutta(AN 6.15) - 几个信息·气泡
    
舍利弗
    
解释了死亡将会发生的比丘之间的区别
    
悔恨,死后会无情。
MaraṇassatiSutta(AN 6.20) - 增强了翻译
    
这部经文详细解释了如何练习死亡的正念。
SāmakaSutta(AN 6.21) - 少数信息·气泡
    
提示
    
通过德瓦的介入,佛陀揭示了六种永恒的方式
    
比库拉在比萨拉法玛恶化。
AparihāniyaSutta(AN 6.22) - 少数信息·气泡
    
六法相连,不恶化。另一套非常有用的dhammas为敏锐的实践者。
Himavanta Sutta(AN 6.24) - 强化翻译
    
据说冥想者有六种品质会被劈成喜马拉雅山碎片。
AnussatiṭṭhānaSutta(AN 6.25) - 强化翻译
    
这个经文定义了回忆的六个主题。
Sekha Sutta(AN 6.31) - 没有翻译
    
佛陀解释了哪些是导致正在接受培训的比丘恶化的六法。
NāgitaSutta(AN 6.42) - 强化翻译
    

    
佛陀在森林中居住,讲的是谦虚,
    
满足,无拘无束,在旷野中隐居。
Dhammika Sutta(AN 6.54) - 纯文本
    

    
这个经文,这个词tathāgata并不是用来指定佛陀的,而是
    
在常识上,这使我们能够更好地理解其含义。
Nibbedhika Sutta(AN 6.63) - 纯文本
    
这个
    
sutta提供了一个有趣的系统分析Kāma,Vedanā,
    
Saññā,Āsavā,Kamma和Dukkha。这些术语中的每一个都是定义的,然后
    
描述了四个ariya-saccas的模式。
AnavatthitāSutta(AN 6.102) - 强化翻译
    
六项奖励应该成为建立anicca认知的动机。
Atammaya Sutta(AN 6.104) - 强化翻译
    
六项奖励应该成为建立感知的动机。
AssādaSutta(AN 6.112) - 强化翻译
    
如何根除欣赏观,自我观和一般错误观。
DhammānupassīSutta(安息日6.118) - 逐字
    

    
值得重复这篇经文给出的信息:六种习惯
    
不放弃它是不可能实践的
    
satipaṭṭhānas正确。在这里,可能建议进行一些清洁。

—— OOOOOOO ——
7. SattakaNipāta

Anusaya Sutta(AN 7.11) - 纯文本
    
这里列出七个anusayas。
Anusaya Sutta(AN 7.12) - 强化翻译
    
放弃七个anusaya(执迷或潜在的倾向)。
SaññāSutta(AN 7.27) - 增强了翻译
    
导致比丘长期福利并防止其衰落的七种观念。
ParihāniSutta(AN 7.28) - 强化翻译
    
培训中的比丘可能会减少7点。
ParihāniSutta(AN 7.29) - 强化翻译
    
七个非正式追随者可能会拒绝的行为点。
Vipatti Sutta(AN 7.30) - 强化翻译
    
一个非正式追随者可能遇到他/她的失败或成功的七点行为。
ParābhavaSutta(AN 7.31) - 强化翻译
    
一个非正式追随者可能遇到他/她的破产或繁荣的七点行为。
SaññāSutta(AN 7.49) - 强化翻译
    
七个值得追求的内在思考。
Nagaropama Sutta(AN 7.67) - 纯文字Pali Formulas
    
这里佛陀用一种启发性的比喻来解释七个
    
良好的素质应该由受训者掌握
    
成功地共同阻止马拉的部队(即阿库萨拉)
    
法师)进入思想的堡垒。
SatthusāsanaSutta(AN 7.83) - 一字一句
    
这是一个非常简洁的七重指令,用以区分什么是佛教教学。

—— OOOOOOO ——8.AṭṭhakaNipāta

Nanda Sutta(AN 8.9){节选} - 逐字
    
佛陀描述了南达是如何被猛烈掠夺的
    
感觉欲望,按照他的指示进行恐怖的行为。
    
这个经文包含了一个satisampajañña的定义。
MahānāmaSutta(AN 8.25){节选} - 逐字
    
Mahānāma要求佛陀定义什么是平信徒,以及在何种方面,平信徒会有良好的表现。
AnuruddhamahāvitakkaSutta(AN 8.30) - 几个信息·气泡
    

    
聪明的想法是值得理解和记忆的
    
到达。阿尼律陀。佛陀来到他身边教第八,
    
赋予他将获得arahantship。佛陀然后解释说
    
详细说明这些想法的意义。
Abhisanda Sutta(AN 8.39) - 增强了翻译
    
佛陀的所有严肃门徒都为自己创造了许多功劳,这里有八种方法。
DuccaritavipākaSutta(AN 8.40) - 很少有信息·气泡
    
这部经文描述了由于不遵守主要规则而遭受的那种苦难。
SaṅkhittaSutta(AN 8.53) - 逐字
    
佛陀在这里给他的前护士八条标准
    
区分特定语句是否属于他的教学内容,
    
现在这可能会很方便。
DīghajāṇuSutta(AN 8.54){节选} - 纯文本
    
除此之外,佛陀在这部经文中定义了他的慷慨意味。
Vimokkha Sutta(AN 8.66) - 增强了翻译
    
解释八个vimokkhas(解放)。
ParihānaSutta(AN 8.79) - 没有翻译
    
佛陀解释说,哪八个佛法导致正在接受培训的比丘恶化。

—— OOOOOOO ——

9.纳瓦卡尼帕塔

NāgaSutta(AN 9.40) - 纯文本
    
这部经文,以微妙的幽默着色,解释了一个比丘的比丘
    
精神上的提高可以与孤独的大象相媲美,两者都是
    
通常称为Nāga。
Tapussa Sutta(AN 9.41){节选} - 纯文本
    
在这里saññā·vedayita·nirodha,saññā和vedanā的停止被呈现为第九jhāna。
SikkhādubbalyaSutta(AN 9.63) - 逐字
    
如果一个人在五戒中还不完美,该怎么办。
NävaraṇaSutta(AN 9.64) - 逐字
    
如何消除五大障碍。

—— OOOOOOO ——

10.达萨卡尼帕塔

SaṃyojanaSutta(AN 10.13) - 纯文本
    
这个非常短的经文列出了十个saṃyojanas。
KasiṇaSutta(AN 10.25) - 逐字
    
这是对十名卡西亚斯练习的标准描述。
GirimānandaSutta(AN 10.60) - 强化翻译
    

    
为了帮助Girimānanda从重病中恢复,佛陀
    
给出了一个很好的教学回顾十种非常有用的看法
    
可以开发。
KathāvatthuSutta(AN 10.69){节选} - 纯文本
    
佛陀提醒比丘他们不该谈论什么,他们应该谈论什么。
昆达萨塔(AN 10.176) - 一些信息·气泡
    
佛陀用kāya,vācā和mana解释纯洁的深层含义,而不是礼仪或仪式,并表明前者是后者的基础,而后者的低效率显而易见。

—— OOOOOOO ——

11.EkādasakaNipāta

30/03/2555

MettāSutta(AN 11.15) - 几个信息·气泡
    
mettā的实践产生了十一个很好的结果。

—— OOOOOOO ——

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=news_section.10th_Manipur_Legislative_Assembly_Election_2012.How_can_Electronic_Voting_Machines_EVM_be_manipulated_Part_1

If EVM was so perfect then why is VVPAT being introduced that too in a phased manner ?
The
ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering
that the EVMs couldbe replaced in a phased manner on the suggestion
ofthe ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs1600 crore at that time.
Only 8 of 543 parliamentary constituencies as a pilot project in Indian general election, 2014 were replaced. Because EVMs could be tampered the judgement of replacing them in aphased manner. He
failed to order for using Balot Papers till the ntire EVMs were
replaced. For 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Converted
Religious Minorities and the poor upper castes  voters in the entire
nation , if there is an issue of concern in the coming  elections, it is the electronic voting machine (EVM) Devil.With the circulation of messages on social media sites about EVMs being
tampered with, many in the country feared
their votes might be transferred to other candidates.

Our vote
through Universal Adult Franchise which has been negated by the EVMs is
the only power we have and if somebody changes it, what are we left with
in a democracy. The whole country
did not trust the Electronic Voting Machines, adding that ballot papers were the more credible option.

Educated sections of the people, with access to social media platforms
such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were more worried about EVMs than the
others.

The Voter  know who he will vote for. But he is not assured if it will be counted
in his favour. But with a ballot paper, his vote can’t be changed and he was not convinced about the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail
(VVPAT), a process to verify that the vote cast had gone to the
candidate concerned.

There are so many videos of EVMs being tampered with on social media. Vote can be changed.

The
worries about the machines were not largely shared by hindutva voters
though the RSS preferred Ballot Papers when the BJP was in opposition
and now they are convenently keeping their mouth shut.

http://news.webindia123.com/…/A…/India/20100828/1575461.html

logo

RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny
New Delhi | Saturday, Aug 28 2010 IST

Joining the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic Voting
Machines (EVMs) which have been questioned by political parties, the RSS
today asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert back to tried and
tested paper ballots and subject EVMs to public scrutiny whether these
gadgets are tamper proof. In an editorial titled ‘Can we trust our
EVMs?’, The Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece, noted it was a fact that till
date an absolutely tamper-proof machine had not been invented and
credibility of any system depends on ‘transparency, verifiability and
trustworthiness’ than on blind and atavistic faith in its infallibility.
The issue is not a ‘private affair’ and it involves the future of
India. Even if the EVMs were genuine, there was no reason for the EC to
be touchy about it, the paper commented. The Government and the EC can’t
impose EVMs as a fait accompli on Indian democracy as the only option
before the voter. There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus
voting, tampering and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system
of polling leading the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these
problems were relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the
counting stage. What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that all
aberrations were taking place before the public eye and hence open for
corrections whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in the
hands of powers that be and the political appointees manning the sytem,
the paper commented. The EVM has only one advantage — ’speed’ but that
advantage has been undermined by the staggered polls at times spread
over three to four months. ‘’This has already killed the fun of the
election process,'’ the paper noted. Of the dozen General Elections held
in the country, only two were through the EVMs and instead of
rationally addressing the doubts aired by reputed institutions and
experts the Government has resorted to silence its critics by
‘intimidation and arrests on false charges’, the paper observed,
recalling the arrest of Hyederabad-based technocrat Hari Prasad by the
Mumbai Police. Prasad’s research has proved that the EVMs were
‘vulnerable to fraud’. The authorities want to send a message that
anybody who challenges the EC runs the risk of persecution and
harassment, the RSS observed. Most countries around the world looked at
the EVMs with suspicion and countries like the Netherlands, Italy,
Germany and Ireland had all reverted back to paper ballots shunning EVMs
because they were ‘easy to falsify, risked eavesdropping and lacked
transparency’. Democracy is too precious to be handed over to whims or
an opaque establishment and network of unsafe gizmos. ‘’For the health
of Indian democracy it is better to return to tried and tested methods
or else elections in future can turn out to be a farce,'’ the editorial
said.
— (UNI) — 28DI28.xml

Ex CJI EVM SADHASIVAM, shirked its duty & committed a grave
error of judgment by allowing in phased manner Fraud Tamperable EVMs on
the request of CEC EVM SAMPATH because of the Rs 1600 crore cost to replace
them and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy.

Ex CJI
did not order for ballot paper system would be brought in. No such
precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court. Ex CJI did not
order that till the time this newer set of about 1300000 voting machines
is manufactured in full & deployed totally. All the people in 80
democracies in the world who simply done away with fradulent EVMs should
not recognise EVM Murderer of democratic institutions(Modi) & his
Government. This had happened because of the the 1% chitpawan brahmins
of RSS practicing hatredness towards 99% Sarvajan Samaj including
SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and the poor upper caste in favour of Capitalists
and Industrialists. Hatred is a defilement of mind which is madness
requiring treatment in a mental asylum with Insight Meditation till they
are cured with this illness of hate.

SOLUTION

The Intellectuals and intellegent Advocated
belonging to Social Transformation Movement of Sarvajan Samaj must
unitedly move the Supreme Court as the EVMs are insecure, to Scrap them
and Order for fresh Lok Sabha elections and all the State Assembly
elections conducted with these fraud EVMs. Propagate through Internet by
creating websites, creating facebook, tweet, and sending bulk emails TV
channels and media as the present media is a dead wood forgetting what
Napolean said: “I can face two battalions but not two
scribes”.Democratic Institutions such as CJI, CEC, and all other pillars
of democracy such as Presidents, Prime Minister, Chief Ministers,
Defence etc. must follow Collegiate system consisting
SC/ST/OBCs/Minorities to challenge the following judgement:
http://supremecourtofindia.nic.in/outtoday/9093.pdf

Today the very same fraud EVMs which was doubted by RSS on Saturday,
Aug 28 2010 has been tampered in favor of 1% RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha
Paapis (BJP) for Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) who WERE
HATERS, who ARE HATERS and will CONTINUE TO BE HATERS.

Though the
Supreme Court had ordered to replace all the fraud EVMs with fool proof
voting system that is being followed by 80 democries of the world and
the tried and tested paper ballots used in the recent UK elections, the
ex CJI Sathasivan committed a grave error of judgement in allowing the
fraud EVMs to be replaced in phases as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath
because of the cost of Rs 1600 crore involved in replacing the fraud
EVMs totally.

Now the country is
OF the fraud EVMs favored 1%
Horrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant, Heckling, Lynching Stealth
hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!
BY the fraud EVMs
favored 1% Terrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant, Heckling, Stealth
hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!!
FOR the fraud EVMs
favored 1% Terrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant, Heckling, Stealth
hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!!!

AND

OFF the
99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya Rakshakas
(Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper Castes!
to
BUY the 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya
Rakshakas (Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper
Castes!

FAR the 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including
LOYAL Arogya Rakshakas (Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and
Poor Upper Castes!

Once again the Supreme Court has to be pursued
by 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., All Societies literates to SCRAP all the
Central and Sate Elections conducted with these fraud EVMs and order for
fresh elections with FOOL PROOF VOTING SYSTEM. Since the MEDIA has
become DEADWOOD for the 99% and ALIVE just for 1% brahmins and Baniyas
HIGHLIGHT this issue both ONLINE by creating WEBSITES, BLOGS, Emails,
SMSs etc., and OFFLINE by taking the message directly to the people.


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1
REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO.9093 OF 2013
(Arising out of SLP (Civil) No. 13735 of 2012)
Dr. Subramanian Swamy
…. Appellant(s)
Versus
Election Commission of India
…. Respondent(s)
WITH
WRIT PETITION (C) NO. 406 OF 2012
J U D G M E N T
P. Sathasivam, CJI.
1)
Leave granted.
Civil Appeal @ SLP (C) No. 13735 of 2012
2)
This appeal is directed against the judgment and order
dated 17.01.2012 passed by the Division Bench of the High
Court of Delhi at New Delhi in W.P.(C) No. 11879 of 2009
whereby the High Court disposed of the petition by
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2
disallowing the prayer made by the appellant herein for
issuance of a writ of
mandamus
directing the Election
Commission of India (ECI)-Respondent herein to incorporate
a system of “paper trail/paper receipt” in the Electronic
Voting Machines (EVMs) as a convincing proof that the EVM
has rightly registered the vote cast by a voter in favour of a
particular candidate.
3)
Being aggrieved of the above, the present appeal has
been filed by way of special leave.
Writ Petition (Civil) No. 406 of 2012
4)
One Rajendra Satyanarayan Gilda has filed this Writ
Petition, under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, praying
for issuance of a writ of
mandamus/
direction(s) directing the
Union of India, the Chief Election Commissioner and the
Technical Experts Committee-Respondent Nos. 1-3 herein
respectively to effect the necessary modifications in the
EVMs so as to allow the voters to verify their respective votes
and to attach the printers to the EVMs with a facility to print
the running record of the votes for the purpose of verification
by the voters in the process of voting. He also prayed for a
2

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3
direction to frame guidelines and to effect necessary
amendments in the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961.
5)
In view of the pendency of the appeal filed by Dr.
Subramanian Swamy, this Court issued notice in the writ
petition and tagged with the said appeal.
6)
Heard Dr. Subramanian Swamy, appellant-in-person in
the appeal, Dr. R.R. Deshpande, learned counsel for the writ
petitioner, Mr. Ashok Desai and Ms. Meenakshi Arora, learned
senior counsel for the ECI.
Contentions:
7)
Dr. Subramanian Swamy, the appellant herein
contended before this Court that the present system of
EVMs, as utilized in the last few general elections in India,
does not meet all the requirements of the international
standards and though the ECI maintains that the EVMs
cannot be tampered with, but the fact is that EVMs, like all
electronic equipments, are open to hacking.
8)
The appellant has further highlighted that the instant
matter arises out of the refusal of the ECI to incorporate a
certain obvious safeguard in the EVMs called “paper
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4
backup”, “paper receipt” or “paper trail”, presently in use
and mandated in some countries like USA, which would easily
and cheaply meet the requirement of proof that the EVM has
rightly registered the vote cast by a voter. The appellant has
further highlighted that the “paper trail” system is to
supplement the procedure of voting as in this procedure,
after recording a vote in the EVM, a print out will come out
which will appraise the voter that his vote has been rightly
registered and the same will be deposited in a box which can
only be used by the ECI in case of election dispute.
9)
It is the categorical stand of the appellant that the
above said system will bring more accuracy in the present
system and if a particular election is challenged on the
ground that some particular identified voter’s voter or the
votes of a group of voters have been suppressed/have not
been correctly assigned by the EVMs, the accepted current
procedure is for a re-run of the same EVMs for a re-count,
however, under the new procedure, a re-count will be of the
receipts in the ballot box containing the printouts the EVMs
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5
had issued to the voter thereby ensuring more transparency
in the process.
10)
The writ petitioner has also raised similar contentions as
those of Dr. Swamy. According to the petitioner, in the
present system of voting through EVMs, there is no such
facility by which a voter can verify and confirm his own
voting. At present, a voter presses a button only but cannot
ascertain the actual voting. He is not sure whether his vote
is recorded or not, if recorded, whether it is recorded in
favour of the person to whom it was intended or not.
Whether it is valid or invalid and whether it is counted or not.
It is submitted by the petitioner that unless and until answers
to these questions are personally seen by the voter, it cannot
be said that voting is made by him because “pressing a
button of choice and getting flashed the red-light” is not
actual voting in real sense unless the voter knows well that
what has happened in consequence of pressing a button of
his choice from the EVMs.
Stand of the Election Commission of India:
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11)
Mr. Ashok Desai, learned senior counsel for the ECI
submitted that the apprehension that EVMs could be
tampered with is baseless. It was also informed to this Court
that the ECI has been exploring the possibility of
incorporating a viable Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail
(VVPAT) system as a part of the presently used EVMs to
make the election system more transparent. Further, it was
brought to our notice that the ECI conducted field trials for
VVPAT system earlier also but the same had not been
successful and were discontinued. The ECI also filed a
counter affidavit stating that the EVMs provided by the
Commission are of such a high end technology that it cannot
be hacked.
12) Referring to Section 61A of the Representation of the
People Act, 1951, it is submitted that the Statute itself
provides for recording of votes by EVMs and the ECI has been
given the discretion to prescribe recording of votes by such
EVMs as it may deem fit. This discretion has to be exercised
in a manner to preserve the sanctity of the election process
and ensure that the election is conducted in a free and fair
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manner. The ECI has exercised due diligence to ensure that
EVMs so used are “tamper proof” and it is also in the process
of exploring to incorporate VVPAT system which is
compatible with the present EVMs used by it. It is asserted
that there is no instance of tampering with EVMs so far by
anyone.
13)
It is further submitted that the EVMs used in India are
unique and unlike the ones used in the elections in USA and
other countries, which are personal computer based. EVMs
deployed by the ECI have been lauded not only in India but
also abroad. EVM’s Control Unit retains in the memory each
vote recorded elector-wise. The information stored in the
memory of the Control Unit can be retrieved by using a
device called the “decoder” which, when attached to the
Control Unit of EVM, can print out the statement of voting
data showing the order in which each voter has voted and to
whom he has voted.
14)
Insofar as the transparency of the election process as
well as the right of a voter to know whether his vote has
actually been recorded for the candidate for whom it was
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cast is concerned, it is submitted that as soon as a vote is
recorded by a voter by pressing the “candidate’s” button on
the Ballot Unit, a light glows against the name and symbol of
the candidate, which the voter can see for himself/ herself.
This is a visual (electronic) assurance to the voter that the
candidate for whom he has cast his vote has actually got that
vote. Thereafter, the light goes off to protect the secrecy of
voting.
15)
It is further submitted that the feasibility of VVPAT
system was sought to be explored to by various political
parties and they were explained the technical and
administrative safeguards. The ECI also constituted a
Technical Experts Committee to examine the viability of the
VVPAT system. On 27.05.2011, the Technical Experts
Committee, after discussion with political parties and civil
society members and also after seeing the demonstration of
the prototype VVPAT system developed by M/s. Bharat
Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and M/s. Electronics Corporation of
India Ltd. (ECIL), recommended that a field test of the
prototype VVPAT system should be carried out in a simulated
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election under different environmental conditions in
Jaisalmer, Thiruvananthapuram, Delhi, Leh and Cherapunji.
The ECI also held further meetings with the manufacturers of
EVMs on various dates to fine tune the system and expedite
the follow up action required. Several meetings were also
held with the Expert Committee on VVPAT system.
16)
In wider fulfillment of the objectives of the field trial, the
ECI has requested the National and State parties to extend
necessary cooperation by getting involved in the trial process
actively and also witness the trial in order to have a first
hand experience of the system. The ECI has also requested
the individuals including the appellant – Dr. Subramanian
Swamy and the groups, who have been engaged with the ECI
on the issue of EVM-VVPAT, to witness the trial.
17) We have carefully perused the relevant materials and
considered the rival contentions.
Discussion
18)
When the matter was listed before this Court for
hearing on 27.09.2012, Mr. Ashok Desai had brought to our
notice that the ECI is contemplating foolproof method in
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EVMs for which they are taking various steps in consultation
with the Technical Experts Committee and the views of all
recognized political parties. Mr. Desai also promised to
appraise this Court about the deliberations and the ultimate
decision to be taken by them in this regard. Accordingly, this
Court granted sufficient time to the ECI to file Status Report
regarding introduction of VVPAT system in EVMs to be used
in the elections.
19)
Pursuant to the directions of this Court, the ECI filed a
Status Report on the developments of VVPAT system. In the
said report, the ECI, citing various technicalities, prayed for
further time to make the system more robust for the field
conditions.
20)
On 15.12.2012, M/s BEL, Bangalore filed a report
showing the status of development of VVPAT system which
contains changes that have been carried out in VVPAT from
September to December, 2012 and also furnished
chronological changes made in VVPAT system after the field
trial of the VVPAT system held in July and August, 2012.
10
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11
21)
Pursuant to the directions of this Court, the Secretary,
ECI, filed an affidavit highlighting the following steps/
information:

(i)
That vide its Affidavit dated 14.01.2013, the
Commission had filed the status report regarding
introduction of the VVPAT system in the Electronic
Voting Machines (EVMs).
(ii)
That subsequently, in the Technical Expert
Committee meeting held on 04.02.2013, the
Committee approved the design of the VVPAT and
decided that software fine tuning will be done and
completed by the end of February, 2013, and
modified design specifications will be submitted to
the Technical Expert Committee for approval.
The Committee also recommended that the
Commission may for using the VVPAT and that the
VVPAT should be tried in a bye-election.
(iii)
That in the Technical Expert Committee
meeting held on 19.02.2013, the Committee
finalized the VVPAT design.
The manufacturers, namely, M/s. Bharat Electronics
Limited and M/s. Electronics Corporation of India
Limited have quoted Rs. 16,200/- (excluding duties,
taxes and transport charges) per VVPAT system.
The Commission has decided to purchase sufficient
units of VVPAT for trials in a Bye-election, at an
approximate cost of Rs.72,90,000/- (Rupees seventy
two lakh ninety thousand) approximately.
(iv)
It is submitted that the Commission will
require approximately 13 lakh VVPAT units to be
manufactures for 13 lakh EVMs presently available
and roughly about Rs. 1690 crores (One Thousand
Six Hundred Ninety Crores)(i.e. 13 lakh units x
Rs.13,000 per unit) are required for the purpose of
implementation of the VVPAT system taking into
account the possible reduction in the cost per unit
when produced in bulk.
(v)
It is further submitted that in order to
implement the new system the Conduct of Election
Rules, 1961 will require certain amendments.
In this connection, vide letter No.
3/1/2013/Vol.II/SDR/86 dated 28.03.2013, the
11
Page
12
Commission has informed the Legislative
Department of the Ministry of Law and Justice
inter
alia
the various amendments required to the
relevant parts of Rules 49A to 49X, 66A, 55C, 56C,
57C and Form 17C of the Conduct of Elections Rules,
1961, as well as introduction of Rules 49MA and 56D
in the said Rules…
(vi)
That the Commission has called for a meeting
of all the recognized National and State Parties on
10
th
May, 2013 for the purpose of demonstration of
VVPAT unit to them and for discussion with them for
eliciting their views regarding use of VVPAT system
in the elections. The petitioner herein and others
interested in the matter would also be invited at the
meeting.”
22)
It is seen from the records that after various
deliberations with the experts and persons concerned with
the technology, the Technical Experts Committee approved
the final design of VVPAT units in its meeting held on
19.01.2013. In order to meet the directions of this Court and
for proper execution of VVPAT system, as noticed above, the
ECI in its letter dated 28.03.2013, addressed to the Secretary
to the Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice stated
that necessary ground work for amendment to the Conduct
of Election Rules, 1961 (in relevant parts in Rules 49A to 49X,
66A, 55C, 56C, 57C and Form 17C) may be made so that the
amendment to the Rules can be notified immediately which
12
Page
13
will enable the ECI to use the VVPAT system in bye-elections
in consultation with the political parties. By placing all those
materials, the ECI requested the Ministry of Law and Justice
for drafting and notifying amendment Rules expeditiously.
23)
From the materials placed by the ECI, it is noted that
the purchase order has been placed with M/s BEL and M/s
ECIL for supplying 150 and 300 VVPAT units respectively at
Rs. 16,200/- per unit excluding excise duty, sales tax and
transportation etc. costing Rs. 72,90,000/- (approx.). The ECI
has also highlighted that if the VVPAT systems are ultimately
to be used with all the 13 lakh EVMs available, the total cost
in the purchase of VVPAT units may come to about Rs. 1,690
crores, taking into account the possible reduction in the cost
per unit due to bulk production the cost may come to Rs.
13,000/- per unit approximately.
24)
The affidavit dated 21.08.2013, filed on behalf of the
ECI, shows that the Ministry of Law and Justice, on
24.07.2013, referred the draft notification to amend the
Conduct of Election Rules, 1961 to provide for use of VVPAT
system of elections to the ECI for its views and comments.
13
Page
14
The ECI suggested certain minor modifications in the draft
notification and sent the same back to the Ministry of Law
and Justice on 02.08.2013 with a request to notify the
amendment Rules at the earliest. Accordingly, the Ministry
of Law and Justice notified the amendments to the Conduct
of Election Rules, 1961 in the Gazette of India vide
notification No. S.O. 2470(E) dated 14.08.2013 to enable use
of VVPAT with EVMs.
25)
The aforesaid affidavit of the ECI also shows that the
ECI had also convened a meeting of all the recognized
National and State political parties on 10.05.2013 and
demonstrated before their representatives the working of
VVPAT system. Separately, on the same day, the ECI also
held a meeting with individuals including the appellant
herein who had been engaged with the ECI over the past
several years regarding the functioning of EVMs. VVPAT
system was demonstrated before them as well.
Representatives of political parties and other individuals
expressed their satisfaction over the VVPAT system.
Thereafter, the ECI had decided to use the VVPAT system in
14
Page
15
the bye-election from 51-Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency
in the State of Nagaland. Instructions were issued to hold
special meetings with the contesting candidates in that
constituency to brief them about the use of VVPAT system.
The ECI also organized special training sessions for poll
officers for the use of VVPAT and steps were taken to
educate the electors for the same.
26)
After various hearings, when the matter was heard on
4.10.2013, an affidavit dated 01.10.2013 filed on behalf of
the ECI was placed before this Court. The said affidavit was
filed to place on record the performance/result of the
introduction of the VVPAT system in the bye-election from
51-Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland for which
the poll was conducted on 04.09.2013 indicating the future
course of action to be decided by the ECI on the basis of said
performance. By this affidavit, it was brought to our notice
that since VVPAT system was being used for the first time,
the ECI has decided that intensive training shall be given to
the polling officers. Members of the Technical Experts
Committee of the ECI also went to supervise training and the
15
Page
16
actual use of VVPAT in the bye-election. It is further stated
that the ECI also wrote letters to all the recognized political
parties and other persons, including the appellant herein,
engaged with the ECI on this subject inviting them to witness
the use of VVPAT. It is also brought to our notice that VVPAT
was successfully used in all the 21 polling stations of 51-
Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland. It was also
stated that as per the Rules, the paper slips of VVPAT shall
not be counted normally except in case the Returning Officer
decides to count them on an application submitted by any of
the candidates. However, since VVPAT system was being
used for the first time in any election, the ECI decided on its
own to count paper slips of VVPAT in respect of all polling
stations. According to the ECI, no discrepancy was found
between the electronic and paper count.
27)
In the said affidavit, it is finally stated that the ECI has
decided to increase the use of VVPAT units in a phased
manner and for this purpose the ECI has already written to
the Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice to issue
administrative and financial sanction for procurement of
16
Page
17
20,000 units of VVPAT (10,000 each from M/s BEL and M/s
ECIL) costing about Rs. 38.01 crore.
28)
Though initially the ECI was little reluctant in
introducing “paper trail” by use of VVPAT, taking note of the
advantage in the system as demonstrated by Dr.
Subramanian Swamy, we issued several directions to the
ECI . Pursuant to the same, the ECI contacted several expert
bodies, technical advisers, etc. They also had various
meetings with National and State level political parties,
demonstrations were conducted at various places and finally
after a thorough examination and full discussion, VVPAT was
used successfully in all the 21 polling stations of 51-Noksen
(ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland. The information
furnished by the ECI, through the affidavit dated 01.10.2013,
clearly shows that VVPAT system is a successful one. We
have already highlighted that VVPAT is a system of printing
paper trail when the voter casts his vote, in addition to the
electronic record of the ballot, for the purpose of verification
of his choice of candidate and also for manual counting of
votes in case of dispute.
17
Page
18
29)
From the materials placed by both the sides, we are
satisfied that the “paper trail” is an indispensable
requirement of free and fair elections. The confidence of the
voters in the EVMs can be achieved only with the
introduction of the “paper trail”. EVMs with VVPAT system
ensure the accuracy of the voting system. With an intent to
have fullest transparency in the system and to restore the
confidence of the voters, it is necessary to set up EVMs with
VVPAT system because vote is nothing but an act of
expression which has immense importance in democratic
system.
30)
In the light of the above discussion and taking notice of
the pragmatic and reasonable approach of the ECI and
considering the fact that in general elections all over India,
the ECI has to handle one million (ten lakhs) polling booths,
we permit the ECI to introduce the same in gradual stages or
geographical-wise in the ensuing general elections. The
area, State or actual booth(s) are to be decided by the ECI
and the ECI is free to implement the same in a phased
18
Page
19
manner. We appreciate the efforts and good gesture made
by the ECI in introducing the same.
31)
For implementation of such a system (VVPAT) in a
phased manner, the Government of India is directed to
provide required financial assistance for procurement of units
of VVPAT.
32)
Before parting with the case, we record our appreciation
for the efforts made by Dr. Subramanian Swamy as well as
the ECI, in particular Mr. Ashok Desai and Ms. Meenakshi
Arora, learned senior counsel for the ECI.
33)
With the above directions, the appeal and the writ
petition are disposed of. No separate order is required in the
applications for intervention. Both sides are permitted to
approach this Court for further direction(s), if need arises.
………………………………………….CJI
(P. SATHASIVAM)
………………………………………..J.
(RANJAN GOGOI)
19
Page
20
NEW DELHI;
OCTOBER 8, 2013.

SAMAPATH, EVM GOVERNMENT- NEED OF THE HOUR IS Electronic Virtual Movement 4 Replacing all EVMs (EVM4RAEVMs) to save Democracy.

Ex CJI EVM SADHASIVAM, shirked its duty & committed a grave error
of judgment by allowing in phased manner Fraud Tamperable EVMs on the
request of CEC EVM SAMPATH because of the 1600 crore cost to replace
them and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy.

Ex CJI
did not order for ballot paper system would be brought in. No such
precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court. Ex CJI did not
order that till the time this newer set of about 1300000 voting machines
is manufactured in full & deployed totally. All the people in 80
democracies in the world who simply done away with fradulent EVMs should
not recognise EVM Modi & his Government.

EVM Narendra Modi
full of hatred for non-brahmins & non baniyas intoxicated for power
violated all good Silas of not killing, lying, stealing. EVM Militant
Violent Stealth Cult RSS saying no reservation on the basis of castes
means it is against Constitution providing reservation for SC/STs. RSS’s
Mr. Mohan Bagawath, a brahmin & a dropout is not a Constitutional
expert to say that there should not be any caste based reservation.

Attempt to E-File through http://sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/registration.jsp while trying to attach Driving Licence through http://sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/identity_file.jsp - got the result java.lang. StringIndexOutOfBounds Exception: String index out of range: - could not proceed further.

Brought this to the notice of supremecour@nic.in without any response.
through supremecour[at]nic[dot]in with a confusion whether it is
supremecour[at]nic[dot]in supremecour@nic.in or
supremecourt[at]nic[dot]in
supremecourt@nic.inhttp://goidirectory.nic.in/feedback.php - all
maintained by wim@nic.in also does not work. It often says “invalid
characters found, Please Re-Enter”

A correct procedure for E-Filing must be known to all procedures/ steps required to be taken for E-Filing process ? http://www.indg.in/…/ict-in-legal-servi…/egov-legal-efilling
Supreme Court initiatives for citizens via e -Filing - e-Filing in
Supreme Court of IndiaSupreme Court of India is also on the e-governance
track and providing its services at doorstep of the Indian citizens.

In this regard, on October 2, 2006 Supreme Court started e-filing
facility. It is a simple way of filing any case via internet from his
house. e-filing via internet does not require the help of advocate.

This service can be utilized by any common man as well as registered
advocate. Anybody desiring to avail this service may log on to www.sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/index.html and sign up as a user.

For sign up procedure please follow up these steps: First time users of
Supreme Court’s E-filing have to register him/her through the ‘Sign Up’
option.Through ‘e-FILING’ only Advocate-on Record’ and
petitioners-in-person can file cases in the Supreme Court of India
Advocate option is to be chosen if you are an ‘Advocate-on-Record’,
otherwise choose ‘In-person’ option in case you are
petitioner-in-person.

For registering first time personal details
such as Address, contact details, E-mail Id etc., which are mandatory,
need to be entered.For Advocate-on-record, his/her code
(Advocate-on-record code) will be ‘Login-ID’, while ‘In-person’will
create his/her Login-Id through ‘Sign Up’ option. Password needs to be
entered thereafter. Login Id and password will be created once the
mandatory requirements are filled properly. After successful login the
‘Disclaimer screen’ appears on the screen.

Clicking of ‘I agree’
button on Disclaimer allows the user to proceed further, while ‘I
decline’ button sends the control back to the Login screen. After
successful login, the user can file the case electronically. ‘New Case’
option allows the user to file a new case ‘Modify’ option allows a user
to carryout changes to the already e-filed case, provided the court fee
payment option is not invoked. Defects associated with the e-filed case
will be e-mailed to the advocate/petitioner by the Supreme Court
Registry.For further assistance, ‘Help’ option is available.Click here
to file case online in Supreme Court of India http://kohram.in/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms/
- Reasons For Banning Fradulent Tamperable EVMs Electronic voting
machines (EVMs) were introduced in a limited way in Indian elections in
1982, and they have been in universal use since the general elections of
2004, when paper ballots were phased out completely.

It is
about time this country reformed its voting system to ensure that the
electoral verdicts reflect the true will of the people of the country.
1. The Whole World has Discarded Similar EVMs
2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional and Illegal Too!
3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe
4. Nor is The Hardware
5. EVMs are Sitting Ducks
6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern
7. Storage and Counting are Concerns
8. Vote of No Confidence
9. EC is Clueless on Technology
10. Trust Deficit1.

The Whole World has Discarded Similar EVMs.

The electronic voting machines used in this country’s elections are
internationally known as Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) voting
machines which record votes directly in electronic memory.

Similar voting machines have been banned in many countries such as
Germany, the Netherlands, Irelands etc. and such machines are allowed in
most states of the US only with a paper back up. Potential dangers of
“vote fraud” and more importantly, lack of transparency and
verifiability associated with them prompted ban or restrictions of their
use. Developed nations like the United Kingdom and France and advanced
countries in our region like Japan and Singapore have so far stuck to
voting on paper ballots, owing to their simplicity, verifiability and
voter confidence in the system. This country is an exception to this
international trend and we continue to use these voting machines long
discarded by the world due to lack of awareness and appreciation of the
lay public of the concerns.

2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional
and Illegal Too! This country’s EVMs may also be held unconstitutional
because they infringe upon the fundamental rights of the voters. In this
country, Right to vote is a legal right but how that vote should be
exercised by a voter is his/ her individual expression covered by
Article 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution, which guarantees fundamental
rights to the citizens. In the 2002 case pertaining to disclosure of
assets and the criminal background of candidates, the Supreme Court
ruled that voters have a right to know the antecedents of the
contesting candidates and this is fundamental and basic for survival of
democracy. Accordingly, a voter has the right to know that his vote
which he exercised as a part of freedom of expression has really gone in
favour of the candidate whom he/she has chosen. This right, fundamental
in nature, is absent in the electronic voting system.

In the
traditional paper ballot system, that fundamental right was preserve
because a voter knew exactly how his/ her vote was recorded and
Universal use of EVMs in Indian elections is illegal too! In 1984, the
Supreme Court of India held that the use of electronic voting machines
in elections was “illegal” as the Representation of People (RP) Act,
1951 did not permit use of voting machines in elections. Later, the R.P.
Act was amended in 1989 incorporating Section 61A. However, the
amendment says voting machines “may be adopted in such constituency or
constituencies as the Election Commission may, having regard to the
circumstances of each case, specify.” Violating the provisions of the
R.P Act, the Election Commission has conducted 2004 and 2009 nationwide
general elections only using electronic voting machines. Going by the
1984 judgment of the Supreme Court, parliamentary elections of 2004 and
2009 may be held illegal.

3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe.

The electronic voting machines are safe and secure only if the source code used in the EVMs is genuine.

Shockingly, the EVM manufacturers, the BEL and ECIL, have shared the
‘top secret’ EVM software program with two foreign companies, Microchip
(USA) and Renesas (Japan) to copy it onto microcontrollers used in EVMs.
This process could have been done securely in-house by the Indian
Worse, when the foreign companies deliver microcontrollers fused with
software code to the EVM manufacturers, the EVM manufacturers cannot
“read back” their contents as they are either OTP-ROM or masked chips.

Amusingly, the software given to foreign companies is not even made
available with the Election Commission, ostensibly for security reasons.
With such ridiculous decisions, the Election Commission and the public
sector manufacturers have rendered security of the EVMs a mockery.
Adopting an open standards policy by making the software public and
allowing parties to test the software installed in the EVMs would have
offered better.

4. Nor is The Hardware. The danger for EVM manipulations is not just from its software.

Even the hardware isn’t safe. Dr. Alex Halderman, professor of computer
science in the University of Michigan says, “EVMs used in the West
require software attacks as they are sophisticated voting machines and
their hardware cannot be replaced cheaply. In contrast, the Indian EVMs
can easily be replaced either in part or as wholesale units.” One
crucial part that can be faked is microcontrollers used in the EVMs in
which the software is copied. EVM manufacturers have greatly facilitated
fraud by using generic microcontrollers rather than more secure ASIC or
FPGA microcontrollers. Not just only microcontrollers, mother boards
(cards which contain microcontrollers) and entire EVMs can be replaced.
Neither the Election Commission nor the manufacturers have undertaken
any hardware or software audit till date. As a result, such manipulation
attempts would go undetected. To detect such fraud, the upgraded EVMs
have a provision to interface with an Authentication Unit that would
allow the manufacturers to verify whether the EVM being used in the
election is the same that they have supplied to the Election Commission.
The EVM manufacturers developed an “Authentication Unit” engaging the
services of Secure Spin, a Bangalore based software services firm.

The Unit was developed and tested in 2006 but when the project was
ready for implementation, the project was mysteriously shelved at the
instance of the Election Commission. Several questions posed to the
Election Commission for taking this decision went unanswered. 5. EVMs
are Sitting Ducks. This country’s EVMs can be hacked both before and
after elections to alter election results. Apart from manipulating the
EVM software and replacing many hardware parts discussed above,
discussions with knowledgeable sources revealed that our country’s EVMs
can be hacked in many ways. I mention just two of them below. Each EVM
contains two EEPROMs inside the Control Unit in which the voting data
is stored.

They are completely unsecured and the data inside
EEPROMs can be manipulated from an external source. It is very easy to
read (data from) the EEPROMs and manipulate them. The second and the
most deadly way to hack our country’s EVMs is by inserting a chip with
Trojan inside the display section of the Control unit. This requires
access to the EVM for just two minutes and these replacement units can
be made for a few hundred rupees. Bypassing completely all inbuilt
securities, this chip would manipulate the results and give out “fixed”
results on the EVM screen. The Election Commission is completely
oblivious to such possibilities. A demonstration of these
vulnerabilities is on the cards.

6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern.
Personal accounts from some well placed political sources and experts
say that there are some “insiders” demanding vast sums (Rs. 5 Crore for
each assembly constituency) to fix election results. Who are these
insiders? Unlike in the traditional ballot system where only the
election officials were the “insiders”, electronic voting machine regime
has spawned a long chain of insiders, all of whom are outside the ambit
and control of the Election Commission of this country. There is every
possibility that some of these “insiders” are involved in murky
activities in fixing elections. The whole world—except us in this
country–is alive to the dangers of insider fraud in elections. The
“insiders” include the public sector manufacturers of this country’s
electronic voting machines namely, the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)
and Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL), the foreign companies
supplying micro controllers, private players (some of which are
allegedly owned by some political leaders) for carrying out checking and
maintenance of electronic voting machines during.

7. Storage
and Counting are Concerns. The EVMs are stored at the district
headquarters or in a decentralized manner in different locations.
Election Commission’s concern for EVM safety becomes apparent only
during elections, where as security experts say that voting machines
must remain in a secure environment throughout their life cycle. There
could be many malpractices associated with electronic counting.
“Everybody watches polling closely. Nobody watches counting as
closely),” says Bev Harris, an American activist. Our Election
Commission takes three months to conduct parliamentary elections but
wants counting to be over in just three hours! In the rush to declare
results and the winners, several serious lapses go unnoticed in the
counting process. As a result, parties cannot give it the kind of
attention that this activity deserves.

Massive discrepancies
between votes polled and counted in a large number of polling stations
across the country raise serious concerns in this regard.

8. Vote
of No Confidence.The political class cutting across all sides of the
divide has just one verdict: “we don’t trust the EVMs”. This vote of “no
confidence” stems from the personal experiences of parties and leaders
as well as the nature of results thrown up by the EVMs. Parties are
looking at EVMs with great suspicion and dread the prospect of EVMs
“defeating” them.This mistrust in EVMs is not confined to any single
party and is all pervasive. Almost all mainstream political parties,
including the BJP, Congress, left parties, regional parties like the
Telugu Desam party (TDP), AIADMK, Samajwadi party, Rastriya Lok Dal
(RLD), Janata Dal (United) etc. have all expressed reservation about
EVMs in the aftermath of 2009 Lok Sabha polls. Even the Congress party
that decisively won the 2009 general elections alleged that the EVMs
have been manipulated in Orissa. Today, it is difficult to find parties
that vouch for the continued use of EVMs in Indian elections. On the
contrary, there is a flood of opposition to the EVMs from the political
class.

9. EC is Clueless on Technology.The Election Commission
has adopted the EVM technology about which it has practically no
knowledge.

As a result, it has little control over many aspects
of the election process. None of the election commissioners, neither the
present commissioners nor their predecessors, have proper understanding
of the EVM technology. The only source of technical understanding for
the Election Commission is a Committee of experts led by its chairman,
Prof. P.V.Indiresan. Even the Expert Committee seems very weak in its
capacities and understanding. Alex Halderman, professor of computer
science at the University of Michigan and an expert on the security of
voting systems who was present in New Delhi for the launch of the book,
Democracy at Risk, Can We Trust our EVMS? commented, “When I read the
2006 technical report prepared by the Expert Committee of the Election
Commission. I scribbled on it that there was a cause for alarm and
quickly decided to agree to come here.” That speaks volumes for the
quality and rigor of security testing done on the Country’s EVMs.

10. Trust Deficit. Election Commission’s conduct in the wake of the
serious reservations expressed by people has been unbecoming of a
constitutional body. It has uttered many lies – our EVMs are “tamper
proof”, they are “different” etc. etc. It has refused to provide any
clarifications sought to the petitioners in the Supreme Court, despite a
reference from the Supreme Court of India. It has taken several
questionable decisions for which it has refused to offer any
explanations. For instance, it does not explain why old EVMs were used
in Lok Sabha elections despite the recommendations of its own Expert
Committee.

It does not explain why as many as 4.48 Lakh new EVMs
(which are more secure as per the Expert Committee) were not used in any
Congress party or UPA ruled states? Why and where it had allowed use of
state government owned EVMs? The non-transparent conduct of Election
Commission in the use of EVMs and the farce of an “enquiry” it has
conducted following serious reservations on EVMs does not inspire
confidence in its unbiased functioning.

How EVM Works and how can changed it’s functionality Watch this video [youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″]

- See more at: http://kohram.in/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms/… youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″ - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlCOj1dElDY

This country’s EVMs are Vulnerable to Fraud-Contrary to claims by our
country,s election authorities, the paperless electronic voting systems
used in India suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access
to the machines could allow criminals to alter election results.

In this video, we demonstrate two kinds of attacks against a real
Indian EVM. One attack involves replacing a small part of the machine
with a look-alike component that can be silently instructed to steal a
percentage of the votes in favor of a chosen candidate. These
instructions can be sent wirelessly from a mobile phone. Another attack
uses a pocket-sized device to change the votes stored in the EVM between
the election and the public counting session, which in India can be
weeks later.These attacks are neither complicated nor difficult to
perform, but they would be hard to detect or defend against. The best
way to prevent them is to count votes using paper ballots that voters
can see. indiaEVM.org

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=br2Mjt1BecI
- EVMs Can Be Tampered - Says Net India - Net India company says that
the Electronic Voting Machines EVMs which are used in polling stations
can be tampered in favor of the candidates. Watch this to find out
more…..To watch live news, videos subscribe to CVR News @ https://www.youtube.com/user/CVRNewsO…- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1xov8mrLZc -

EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr Subramanian
Swamyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3THfIvvxPY - EVMs can be tampered,
experts say - Electronic voting machines could be easily tampered to
manipulate elections results, a group of foreign experts said at a
seminar in Dhaka on Tuesday. A standing committee member of the main
opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Abdul Moyeen Khan, in the
seminar said that the party would make some prototypes of the EVMs the
Election Commission made to show the people how the device could be
tampered.

Non-governmental organisation Centre for Sustainable
Development organised the seminar, ‘Electronic voting machines: use and
abuse,’ at the Lake Shore hotel in the city. The organisation’s
secretary general Mahfuzullah conducted the seminar and its president
Anwar Hashim, also a former ambassador, presided over the programme.
Computer science professor in the University of California Mathew Allen
Bishop, senior software architect of Yahoo in India Shashank Shekhar and
research and development director of Hewlett Packard of the United
States Shawn Islam made presentation in the seminar highlighting how
EVMs could be tampered. All the three experts said the EVMs could be
tampered in several ways in a short span of time to manipulate the
elections results in favour of a certain candidate if the manipulators
would get physical access to EVMs. Citing an example of the flaws of the
EVM used in the United States and in other parts of the world, Bishop
said the EVMs, electronic devices which need software to function, could
be easily tampered. Bishop, however, asked the authorities concerned to
look into certain issues before using EVMs. ‘When votes are counted,
how do you know that the button pushed to vote for scales on the ballot
unit is in fact counted as a vote for scales?’ he said. Bishop also
said, ‘How do you know that the software is correct? There are no bugs
that affect the vote counting?

How do you know that the software on the EPROM chip is the version that is supposed to be used? There was no malware?’

He said the security of the software running the EVM must be part of
the inbuilt design of the device. Earlier, Shawn Islam,m a
Bangladeshi-American, demonstrated how a vote cast for a candidate could
be stored for the candidate the voter did not vote for through software
manipulation effected beforehand. Both of the experts said that there
be a system of paper trail of the votes cast so that the voters could
see that their votes were stored for the candidate they voted for.’But,’
Shawn Islam added, ‘the EVMs developed by Bangladesh do not have any
option to add the paper trail system.’ He claimed that the EVM developed
in Bangladesh have plenty of problems. Shashank said that there was no
electronic device in the world which could not be tampered. All of the
experts said that the device must be tested by a third party before its
use.

In reply to a question whether the EVM can be manipulated
with remote control devise without physical intervention once EVMs are
tested and certified by the experts of the political parties just before
the elections, Shawn said, ‘You must have physical interventions to
manipulate it if the EVM does not belong to any wireless network.’

When a reporter asked Abdul Moyeen Khan whether the BNP would accept it
if EVMs were tested by their experts, the BNP leader parried the answer
saying that the party would develop some EVM prototypes to show how
they could be tampered.

Representatives from the Bangladesh
Nationalist Party, including its acting secretary general Mirza Fakhrul
Islam Alamgir, the chairperson’s advisers Iqbal Hasan Mahmud, Sabiuddin
Ahmed, Ruhal Alam and opposition chief whip Zainul Abdin Farroque,
attended. Speaking on the occasion, former Dhaka University
vice-chancellor Moniruzzaman Mia, BRAC University professor Piash Karim
and Sushaner Janya Nagarik secretary Badiul Alam Majumder stressed the
need for building trust among political parties before introducing any
new device in the elections process.The country’s two major political
camps are now at loggerheads over the introduction of EVMs in the next
polls. The ruling Awami League-led alliance said that it would extend
all cooperation to the E C in using EVMs in the next general elections
while the opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party-led alliance vowed to
resist the move.Attachments area- Preview YouTube video India’s EVMs are
Vulnerable to Fraud
-Preview YouTube video EVMs Can Be Tampered -
Says Net India Preview YouTube video EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr
Subramanian Swamy


How can Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) be manipulated ?
- Part 1 -


Voting is a fundamental right - The heart of democracy is
voting . The heart of voting is TRUST that each vote is recorded and
counted with accuracy and impartiality . The purpose of an election is
not to name the winner, but it is to convince the losers that they lost
. - (Dr. Dan Wallach, Computer security expert, Rice University ).

Voting is a statutory right under the Representation of People Act 1950
and fundamental rights in India under Article 19(1)(a) to know the
antecedent of the candidates contesting for the election. A voter has
the right to know whether his / her vote has been recorded and counted .
Can a voter in India today know whether his /her vote has been recorded
or counted . with accuracy and impartiality If so , where is the proof
and where is the accountability ? Does EVMs answer these questions ?

What is EVM ?

India’s Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) have two main components (1)
CONTROL UNIT, used by poll workers, which stores and accumulates votes,
and (2) a BALLOT UNIT, located in the election booth, which is used by
voters. These units are connected by a 5 m cable, which has one end
permanently fixed to the ballot unit. The system is powered by a battery
pack inside the control unit. The ballot unit has 16 candidate buttons.
If any are unused, they are covered with a plastic masking tab inside
the unit.

When there are more than 16 candidates, an additional ballot unit can be
connected to a port on the underside of the first ballot unit. Up to
four ballot units can be chained together in this way, for a maximum of
64 candidates. A four-position slide switch in the ballot unit selects
its position in the chain. The Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and
Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL) are the manufacturers of EVMs in
India and the foreign companies in US and Japan supplying
microcontrollers,

When EVMs were first used ?

The electronic voting machines (EVMs) used in Indian elections are
internationally known as Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) voting
machines which record votes directly in electronic memory . Electronic
voting machines were first introduced in India in 1982 in assembly
elections on a limited basis. One such constituency where they were used
was the Parur Assembly constituency in the state of Kerala. In 50 of
the 84 polling stations, electronic voting machines were used.

EVMs have been in universal use in India since the general elections of
2004, when paper ballots were phased out completely. They have been
deployed in all
assembly polls and the general elections in 2009. Advantages of EVM
Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) have revolutionised the Indian
election process. The advantages of electronic voting machines is
simplicity of the procedure, the ease of tabulation of ballots into
results and the faster and more accurate results .

It’s easy to see the utility of the machine- it eliminates invalid
votes, ends booth capturing, and makes counting easier and faster. “It
is tamper-proof,
error-free and easy to operate, ” says the EC\’s manual for returning
officers states. Is it legal to use EVM in India ? In 1984, the Supreme
Court of India held that the use of electronic voting machines in
elections was “illegal” as the Representation of People (RP) Act, 1951
did not permit use of voting machines in elections.

Later, the R.P. Act was amended in 1989 incorporating Section 61A.
However, the amendment says voting machines “may be adopted in such
constituency or constituencies as the Election Commission may, having
regard to the circumstances of each case, specify.” Violating the
provisions of the R.P Act, the Election Commission has conducted 2004
and 2009 nationwide general elections only using electronic voting
machines. Many legal experts say that going by the 1984 judgment of the
Supreme Court, parliamentary elections of 2004 and 2009 may be held
illegal. (GVL Narasimha Rao
http://www.indianevm.com/articles/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms.pdf).
( http://www.indianevm.com/blogs/?cat=3).

It will be interesting to know whether ECI specifically issue
notification for use of EVM in the general election of Manipur-2012.
What happens when we caste our votes ?
The general process of electronic voting on the most common EVMs models
goes something like this:

1. The voter checks in with the voter’s ID with poll workers . The
polling personnel and the agents verify the name and identify the voter .
They obtained signature or thumb print of the voter . To prevent double
voting, they mark the voter’s right index finger with indelible ink

2. Next, a poll worker presses the BALLOT button on the control unit to
allow one vote. This causes a green READY light to glow on the ballot
unit.

3. The voter enters the polling booth and presses the button for the
candidate of his or her choice. A red light next to the candidate button
glows, the ready light turns off, and the control unit emits a loud
beep to indicate that the vote has been cast. The red light then turns
off automatically. This process repeats for each voter.

4. At the end of the poll, the presiding officer removes a plastic cap
on the control unit and presses the CLOSE button, which prevents the EVM
from accepting further votes. The ballot unit is disconnected and the
control unit is placed in storage until the public count, which may
occur weeks later.

5. On the counting day, the control units are delivered to a counting
centre. In public view, an election official breaks a seal on the
control unit and presses the RESULT button . The display on the control
unit shows a sequence of outputs: the number of candidates, the total
votes, and the number of votes received by each candidate.

6. The Counting officials manually record the totals from each machine
and add them together to determine the results of the election. The
machines are then placed in storage until the next election.

Disadvantages of EVM :

Some disadvantages of electronic voting can include viruses and hacking,
as well physical tampering. Despite elaborate safeguards, India’s EVMs
are vulnerable to serious attacks.

1. EVM Software Isn’t Safe The electronic voting machines are
safe and secure only if the source code used in the EVMs is genuine.
Shockingly,
the EVM manufacturers, the BEL and ECIL have shared the ‘top secret’ EVM
software program with two foreign companies, Microchip (USA) and
Renesas (Japan) to copy it onto microcontrollers used in EVMs. This
process could have been done securely in-house by the Indian
manufacturers. Worse, when the foreign companies deliver
microcontrollers fused with software code to the EVM manufacturers, the
EVM manufacturers cannot “read back” their contents as they are either
OTP-ROM or masked chips. Amusingly, the software given to foreign
companies is not even made available with the Election Commission,
ostensibly for security reasons. With such ridiculous decisions, the
Election Commission and the public sector manufacturers have rendered
security of the EVMs a mockery. (GVL Narasimha
Rao-http://www.indianevm.com/articles/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms.pdf)

2. EVM hardware Isn’t Safe The danger for EVM manipulations is
not just from its software. Even the hardware isn’t safe. Dr. Alex
Halderman, professor of computer science in the University of Michigan
says, “EVMs used in the West require software attacks as they are
sophisticated voting machines and their hardware cannot be replaced
cheaply. In contrast, the Indian EVMs can easily be replaced either in
part or as wholesale units.” One crucial part that can be faked is
microcontrollers used in the EVMs in which the software is copied. EVM
manufacturers have greatly facilitated fraud by using generic
microcontrollers rather than more secure ASIC or FPGA microcontrollers.

Not just only microcontrollers, mother boards (cards which contain
microcontrollers) and entire EVMs can be replaced. Neither the Election
Commission nor the manufacturers have undertaken any hardware or
software audit till date. As a result, such manipulation attempts would
go undetected. To detect such fraud, the upgraded EVMs have a provision
to interface with an Authentication Unit that would allow the
manufacturers to verify whether the EVM being used in the election is
the same that they have supplied to the Election Commission. The EVM
manufacturers developed an “Authentication Unit” engaging the services
of SecureSpin, a Bangalore based software services firm. The Unit was
developed and tested in 2006 but when the project was ready for
implementation, the project was mysteriously shelved at the instance of
the Election Commission. Several questions posed to the Election
Commission for taking this decision went unanswered. (GVL Narasimha
Rao-http://www.indianevm.com/articles/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms.pdf)

3. Vulnerability to hacking: The Indian EVMs can be hacked both
before and after elections to alter election results. Apart from
manipulating
the EVM software and replacing many hardware parts discussed above,
Indian EVMs can be hacked in many ways. To possibilities may be
mentioned :- Each EVM contains two EEPROMs inside the Control Unit in
which the voting data is stored. They are completely unsecured and the
data inside EEPROMs can be manipulated from an external source. It is
very easy to read (data from) the EEPROMs and manipulate them (GVL
Narasimha
Rao-http://www.indianevm.com/articles/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms.pdf)

The second and the most deadly way to hack Indian EVMs is by inserting a
chip with Trojan inside the display section of the Control unit. This
requires access to the EVM for just two minutes and these replacement
units can be made for a few hundred rupees. Bypassing completely all
inbuilt securities, this chip would manipulate the results and give out
“fixed” results on the EVM screen. The Election Commission is completely
oblivious to such possibilities. (
http://www.indianevm.com/articles/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms.pdf)

Contrary to claims by Indian election authorities, these paperless EVMs
suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access to the
machines could allow dishonest election “Insiders ” or other criminals
to alter election results. There are allegations that some “insiders”
demanding vast sums (Rs. 5 Crore or more for each assembly constituency)
to fix election results.

Who are these insiders?

Unlike in the traditional ballot system where only the election
officials were the “insiders”, electronic voting machine regime has
spawned a long chain of insiders, all of whom are outside the ambit and
control of the Election Commission of India. There is every possibility
that some of these “insiders” are involved in murky activities in
fixing elections. The whole world- except us in India–is alive to the
dangers of insider fraud in elections. The “insiders” include the public
sector manufacturers of India’s electronic voting machines namely, the
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and Electronics Corporation of India
(ECIL), the foreign companies supplying microcontrollers, private
players (some of which are allegedly owned by some political leaders)
for carrying out checking and maintenance of electronic voting machines
during elections.
(http://www.indianevm.com/articles/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms.pdf)

A team of researchers showed precisely how a display component could be
replaced with a fake substitute programmed to steal a percentage of the
votes in favour of a chosen candidate. They also demonstrated how stored
votes could be changed between the election and the public counting
session, which in India, can be weeks later, with a pocket-sized device.
The team, comprising Hyderabad-based NetIndia, Dr J Alex Halderman,
professor & noted expert on electronic voting security from the
University of Michigan and Holland-based security expert Rop Gonggrijp,
was instrumental in the ban on EVMs in the Netherlands.

To be continued…

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