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2573 Tue 27 Mar 2018 LESSON http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters. http://www.buddha-vacana.org/ BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:11 pm

2573 Tue 27  Mar 2018 LESSON

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally
the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so;
certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to
Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali
Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses.
The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from
Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these
are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as
to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the
stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/

BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxCDUurBDr8&t=8s
Ajahn Brahmali explains, the pali word anicca is usually translated in english as “Impermanence”
Ajahn Brahmali explains, the pali word anicca is usually translated in english as “Impermanence”
Dhamma Talk BSWA
Published on Apr 26, 2016
Impermanence | by Ajahn Brahmali
As Ajahn Brahmali explains, the pali word anicca is usually translated
in english as “impermanence”, in can also mean unreliable or
uncertainty. These english words can all describe this concept of
‘anicca’, which is central to the Buddhist teaching, that ALL phenomena
are anicca. Whilst this may seem obvious to many, to really see the
truth of the full extent of anicca in our lives is very difficult. To
really understand anicca is to be free of all attachment and suffering.
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This
website is dedicated to those who wish to understand better the words
of the Buddha by learning the basics of Pali language, but who don’t
have much time available for it. The idea is that if their purpose is
merely to get enabled to read the Pali texts and have a fair feeling of
understanding them, even if that understanding does not cover all the
minute details of grammatical rules, they don’t really need to spend
much time struggling with a discouraging learning of tedious grammatical
theory involving such things as numerous declensions and conjugations.

In
that case, it is enough to limit themselves to simply learn the meaning
of the most important Pali words, because the repeated experience of
reading provides an empirical and intuitive understanding of the most
common sentence structures. They are thus enabled to become autodidacts,
choosing the time, duration, frequency, contents and depth of their own
study.

Their understanding of the Buddha Vacana will become much
more precise as they effortlessly learn and memorize the words and the
important formulae that are fundamental in the Buddha’s teaching, by
ways of regular reading. Their learning and the inspiration they get
from it will grow deeper as their receptivity to the messages of the
Teacher will improve.

Disclaimer: This website is created by an
autodidact and is meant for autodidacts. The webmaster has not followed
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presented here is totally free from errors. Those who want academic
precision may consider joining a formal Pali course. In case the readers
notice any mistake, the webmaster will be grateful if they report it
via the mailbox mentioned under ‘Contact’.

Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Note: plain texts

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html
 Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]

The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas.

Dīgha Nikāya
    [dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the
Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions to
the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.
Majjhima Nikāya
   
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the
Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.
Saṃyutta Nikāya
   
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to
their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than
three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively
short.
Aṅguttara Nikāya

    [aṅg: factor | uttara:
additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups
called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses consisting of
enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the precedent
nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

Khuddaka Nikāya

   
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is
considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna,
Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the
ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their
authenticity is more questionable.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/formulae.html

Pali Formulae

The
view on which this work is based is that the passages of the suttas
which are reported to be the most often repeated by the Buddha in all
the four Nikāyas can be taken as indicating what he considered as being
the most worthy of interest in his teaching, and at the same time as
what represents with most accuracy his actual words. Eight of them are
expounded in the Gaṇaka-Moggallāna Sutta (MN 107) and described as the
Sekha Paṭipadā or Path for one under Training, which practically leads
the neophyte all the way to the fourth jhāna.

Sekha Paṭipadā - The Path for one under Training

Twelve
formulae that define step by step the main practices prescribed by the
Buddha. It is of fundamental importance for anyone wishing to progress
successfully, because it contains the instructions that will enable the
meditator to set up the indispensable conditions for an efficient
practice.

Ānāpānassati - Awareness of the Breath
    The
practice of ānāpānassati is highly recommended by the Buddha for all
kinds of wholesome purposes and here you can understand quite precisely
the instructions he gives.
Anussati - The Recollections
    Here we have the standard description of the Buddha (≈140 occ.), the Dhamma (≈90 occ.) and the Sangha (≈45 occ.).
Appamāṇā Cetovimutti - The boundless liberations of the mind
   
The Buddha often praises the practice of the four appamāṇā cetovimutti,
which are reputed for bringing protection against dangers and for being
a way leading to Brahmaloka.
Arahatta - Arahantship
    This is the stock formula by which the attainment of arahantship is described in the suttas.
Ariya Sīlakkhandha - The noble aggregate of virtue
    Various rules to be followed by bhikkhus.
Arūpajjhānā - The Formless Jhānas
   
Here are the stock formulae describing the absorptions of samādhi
beyond the fourth jhāna, which are referred to in late Pali litterature
as arūpajjhānas.
Āsavānaṃ Khayañāṇa - Knowledge of the destruction of the āsavas
    Knowledge of the destruction of the āsavas: arahantship.
Bhojane Mattaññutā - Moderation in food
    Moderation in food: knowing the proper amount to eat.
Cattāro Jhānā - The four jhānas
    The four jhānas: having a pleasant abiding.
Indriyesu Guttadvāratā - Surveillance at the entrance of sense faculties
    Guard at the entrance of sense faculties: sense restraint.
Jāgariyaṃ Anuyoga - Dedication to wakefulness
    Dedication to wakefulness: day and night.
Kammassakomhi - I am my own kamma
   
This formula explicits one of the foundation stones of the Buddha’s
teaching: a subjective version of the law of cause and effect.
Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna - Removal of hindrances
    Removal of the hindrances: overcoming obstructing mental states.
Pabbajjā - The going forth
    The going forth: how one decides to renounce the world.
Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa - Knowledge of the recollection of former living places
    Knowledge of the recollection of former living places: remembering one’s past lives.
Satipaṭṭhāna - Presence of Awareness
    These are the formulae by which the Buddha defines in brief what the four satipaṭṭhānas are (≈33 occ.).
Satisampajañña - Mindfulness and thorough understanding
    Mindfulness and thorough understanding: an uninterrupted practice.
Satta saddhammā - Seven good qualities
   
Seven fundamental qualities that have to be mastered by the trainee in
order to be successful. Four of these qualities appear also among the
five spiritual indriyas and the five balas.
Sattānaṃ Cutūpapātañāṇa - Knowledge of the rebirth of diceased beings
    Knowledge of the rebirth of diceased beings.
Sīlasampatti - Accomplishment in virtue
    Accomplishment in virtue: a careful observance of the Pātimokkha rules.
Vivitta Senāsanena Bhajana - Resorting to secluded dwellings
   
The choice of a proper place and the adoption of the proper physical
and mental posture is another sine qua non condition of successful
practice.
Bodhi leaf

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha.html

Pātimokkha
— The Bhikkhu’s guidelines —

These
are the 227 guidelines that every bhikkhu must learn by heart in Pali
language in order to be able to recite them. Here a semantic analysis of
each guideline will (hopefully) be provided.

Pārājika 1

   
Should any bhikkhu — participating in the training and livelihood of
the bhikkhus, without having renounced the training, without having
declared his weakness — engage in sexual intercourse, even with a female
animal, he is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha/par1.html

    Tree >> Pātimokkha

Pārājika 1

yo
pana bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā·s·ājīva·samāpanno sikkhaṃ a·paccakkhāya
du·b·balyaṃ an·āvi·katvā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya antamaso
tiracchāna·gatāya·pi, pārājiko hoti a·saṃvāso.

Should any
bhikkhu — participating in the training and livelihood of the bhikkhus,
without having renounced the training, without having declared his
weakness — engage in sexual intercourse, even with a female animal, he
is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

yo pana bhikkhu     Should any bhikkhu
bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā·s·ājīva·samāpanno     participating in the training and livelihood of the bhikkhus,
sikkhaṃ a·paccakkhāya     without having renounced the training,
du·b·balyaṃ an·āvi·katvā     without having declared his weakness
methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya     engage in sexual intercourse,
antamaso tiracchāna·gatāya·pi,     even with a female animal,
pārājiko hoti a·saṃvāso.     he is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

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Dīgha Nikāya

Majjhima Nikāya

Saṃyutta Nikāya

Aṅguttara Nikāya

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Tree
Dīgha Nikāya
— The long discourses —
[ dīgha: long ]

The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses supposedly given by the Buddha.

Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
    Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) {excerpts} - word by word
   
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of
his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very
important set of instructions for us nowadays.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) - word by word
    This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.

——————oooOooo——————

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/majjhima.html
Tree>> Sutta Piṭaka

Majjhima Nikāya
— The discourses of medium length —
[ majjhima: medium ]

The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

Sabbāsava Sutta (MN 2) - enhanced translation
    Very interesting sutta, where the different ways by which the āsavas, fermentating defilements of the mind, are dispelled.
Bhayabherava Sutta (MN 4) - enhanced translation
    What would it take to live in solitude in the wilderness, completely free from fear? The Buddha explains.
Vattha Sutta (MN 7) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
   
We find here a rather standard list of sixteen defilements (upakkilesa)
of the mind, and an explanation of a mechanism by which one gets these
‘confirmed confidences’ in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha that
are factors of stream-entry.
Mahādukkhakkhandha Sutta (MN 13) - enhanced translation
   
On the assāda (allure), ādīnava (drawback) and nissaraṇa (emancipation)
of kāma (sensuality), rūpa (form) and vedanā (feeling). A lot of very
useful matter to ponder over.
Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta (MN 27) - enhanced translation
   
The Buddha explains how the fact that he is actually an enlightened
being must be taken on faith or as a conjecture until a certain stage is
reached, and that any claim of such a knowledge without that
realization is be worthless.
Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43) {excerpt} - word by word
   
Sāriputta answers various interesting questions asked by āyasmā
Mahākoṭṭhika, and in this excerpt, he explains that Vedanā, Saññā and
Viññāṇa are not clearly delineated but deeply interwoven.
Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
   
The bhikkhuni Dhammadinnā answers a series of interesting questions
asked by Visākha. Among other things, she gives the 20-fold definition
of sakkāyadiṭṭhi.
Sekha Sutta (MN 53) - enhanced translation
   
The Buddha asks Ānanda to expound the Sekha Paṭipadā, of which he gives a
surprising version, from which Satisampajañña and Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna
are curiously replaced by a series of seven ‘good qualities’, and which
is illustrated by a telling simile.
Potaliya Sutta (MN 54) - enhanced translation
    A series of seven standard similes to explain the drawbacks and dangers of giving in to sensuality.
Bahuvedanīya Sutta (MN 59) {excerpt} - word by word
   
In this short excerpt, the Buddha defines the five kāmaguṇās and makes
an important comparison with another type of pleasure.
Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN 70) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
    This sutta contains a definition of dhammānusārī and saddhānusārī.
Bāhitikā Sutta (MN 88) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
   
The King Pasenadi of Kosala is eager to understand what is recommended
or not by wise ascetics and brahmans, and he asks series of questions to
Ānanda which allow us a better grasp of the meaning of the words kusala
(wholesome) and akusala (unwholesome).
Ānāpānassati Sutta (MN 118) - word by word
   
The famous sutta about the practice of ānāpānassati, and how it leads
to the practice of the four satipaṭṭhānas and subsquently to the
fulfillment of the seven bojjhaṅgas.
Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta (MN 137) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
   
In this deep and very interesting sutta, the Buddha defines among other
things what are the investigations of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral
mental feelings, and also defines the expression found in the standard
description of the Buddha: ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’.
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta (MN 152) - word by word
   
This sutta offers three approaches to the practice of sense restraint,
that contain additional instructions complementing the Indriyesu
Guttadvāratā formulae.

——————oooOooo——————

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/samyutta.html

Tree
>> Sutta Piṭaka
Saṃyutta Nikāya
— The classified discourses —
[ saṃyutta: group ]

The
discourses of the Saṃyutta Nikāya are divided according to their theme
in 56 saṃyuttas, which are themselves grouped in five vaggas.

Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 12.2) - word by word
    A detailed explanation of paṭicca samuppāda, with a definition of each of the twelve links.
Cetanā Sutta (SN 12.38) - enhanced translation
    Here the Buddha explains how cetanā, together with pondering and anusaya, act as a basis for viññāṇa.
Upādāna Sutta (SN 12.52) - enhanced translation
   
This is a very enlightening lesson that reveals by which psychological
mechanism one gives in to craving, and explains how it can be easily
replaced by wholesome considerations to get rid of it.
Puttamaṃsūpama Sutta (SN 12.63) - enhanced translation
    The Buddha offers here four impressing and inspiring similes to explain how the four āhāras should be regarded.
Sanidāna Sutta (SN 14.12) - enhanced translation
   
A wonderful explanation of how perceptions turn into actions, further
enlightened by the simile of the blazing torch. Remain diligently
mindful to dispel unwholesome thoughts!
Āṇi Sutta (SN 20.7) - word by word
   
A very important thing is reminded to us by the Buddha: for our own
benefit as well as for the benfit of the generations yet to come, we
must give most importance to his own actual words, and not so much to
whoever else pretends nowadays or has pretended in the past to be a
proper (Dhamma) teacher.
Samādhi Sutta (SN 22.5) - word by word
   
The Buddha exhorts his followers to develop concentration so that they
can practice insight into the arising and passing away of the five
aggregates, after which he defines what he means by arising and passing
away of the aggregates, in terms of dependent origination.
Paṭisallāṇa Sutta (SN 22.6) - without translation
   
The Buddha exhorts his followers to practice seclusion so that they can
practice insight into the arising and passing away of the five
aggregates, after which he defines what he means by arising and passing
away of the aggregates, in terms of dependent origination.
Upādāparitassanā Sutta (SN 22.8) - word by word
    The arising and cessation of suffering takes place in the five aggregates.
Nandikkhaya Sutta (SN 22.51) - word by word
    How to operate the destruction of delight.
Anattalakkhana Sutta (SN 22.59) - word by word
    In this very famous sutta, the Buddha expounds for the first time his teaching on anatta.
Khajjanīya Sutta (SN 22.79) {excerpt} - word by word
    This sutta provides a succinct definition of the five khandhas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 29.1) - enhanced translation
    The different types of nāgas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 30.1) - enhanced translation
    The different types of supaṇṇas (aka garudas).
Suddhika Sutta (SN 31.1) - enhanced translation
    The different types of gandhabba devas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 32.1) - enhanced translation
    The different types of cloud devas.
Samāpattimūlakaṭhiti Sutta (SN 34.11) - enhanced translation
    Attaining concentration vs maintaining concentration.
Pubbesambodha Sutta (SN 35.13) - word by word
   
The Buddha defines what he means by allure, drawback and emancipation
in the case of the internal sense spheres, and then declares that his
awakening was nothing more nor less than understanding them.
Abhinanda Sutta (SN 35.20) - word by word
    There is no escape for whoever delights in sense objects.
Migajāla Sutta (SN 35.46) - enhanced translation
   
Why is true solitude so hard to find? The Buddha explains why, no
matter where you go, your most annoying companions always tag along.
Sabbupādānapariññā Sutta (SN 35.60) - word by word
   
The Buddha, while expounding the complete understanding of all
attachment, gives a deep and yet very clear explanation: contact arises
on the basis of three phenomena.
Migajāla Sutta Sutta (SN 35.64) {excerpt} - word by word
   
Some neophytes (and we may often count ourselves among them) sometimes
want to believe that it is possible to delight in sensual pleasures
without giving rise to attachment nor suffering. The Buddha teaches
Migajāla that this is downright impossible.
Adantāgutta Sutta (SN 35.94) - word by word
   
Here is one of those advises which are so easy to understand with the
intellect, yet so difficult to understand at deeper levels because our
wrong views constantly interfere in the process. Therefore we need to
get it repeated often, even though that may seem boring to some.
Pamādavihārī Sutta (SN 35.97) - word by word
    What makes the difference between one who lives with negligence and one who lives with vigilance.
Sakkapañhā Sutta Sutta (SN 35.118) - word by word
   
The Buddha gives a rather simple answer to Sakka’s question: what is
the reason why some people attain the final goal while others don’t?
Rūpārāma Sutta (SN 35.137) - word by word
   
The Buddha explains for us once more, in yet another way, the cause and
the cessation of suffering. It takes place right in the middle of what
we keep doing all day and all night.
Aniccanibbānasappāya Sutta (SN 35.147) - word by word
   
Here are hardcore vipassanā instructions dealing with the perception of
impermanence for advanced meditators who are looking forward to
attaining Nibbāna.
Ajjhattānattahetu Sutta (SN 35.142) - word by word
   
How investigating the causes for the arising of the sense organs, in
which the characteristic of nonself may be easier to understand, allows a
transfer of this understanding to their case.
Samudda Sutta (SN 35.229) - enhanced translation
    What the ocean in the discipline of the noble ones is. Beware not to sink in it!
Pahāna Sutta (SN 36.3) - enhanced translation
    The relation between the three types of vedanā and three of the anusayas.
Daṭṭhabba Sutta (SN 36.5) - enhanced translation
    How the three types of vedanā (feelings) should be seen.
Salla Sutta (SN 36.6) - enhanced translation
   
When shot by the arrow of physical pain, an unwise person makes matters
worse by piling mental anguish on top of it, just as if he had been
shot by two arrows. A wise person feels the sting of one arrow alone.
Anicca Sutta (SN 36.9) - enhanced translation
   
Seven characteristics of vedanā (feelings), which are also applicable
to the other four khandhas (SN 22.21) and each of the twelve links of
paṭicca·samuppāda (SN 12.20).
Phassamūlaka Sutta (SN 36.10) - word by word
    The three types of feelings are rooted in three types of contacts.
Aṭṭhasata Sutta (SN 36.22) - enhanced translation
   
The Buddha expounds vedanās in seven different ways, analysing them
into two, three, five, six, eighteen, thirty six or one hundred and
eight categories.
Nirāmisa Sutta (SN 36.31) {excerpt} - word by word
   
We can understand here that pīti, though being often listed as a
bojjhaṅga, can also sometimes be akusala. This passage also includes a
definition of the five kāmaguṇā.
Dhammavādīpañhā Sutta (SN 38.3) - enhanced translation
    Who professes the Dhamma in the world (dhamma·vādī)? Who practices well (su·p·paṭipanna)? Who is faring well (su·gata)?
Dukkara Sutta (SN 39.16) - enhanced translation
    What is difficult to do in this Teaching and Discipline?
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 45.8) - word by word
    Here the Buddha defines precisely each factor of the eightfold noble path.
Āgantuka Sutta (SN 45.159) - enhanced translation
   
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas
as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Kusala Sutta (SN 46.32) - word by word
    All that is advantageous unite in one thing.
Āhāra Sutta (SN 46.51) - enhanced translation
   
The Buddha describes how we can either “feed” or “starve” the
hindrances and the factors of enlightenment according to how we apply
our attention.
Saṅgārava Sutta (SN 46.55) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
   
A beautiful series of similes to explain how the five nīvaraṇas
(hindrances) affect the purity of the mind and its ability to perceive
the reality as it is.
Sati Sutta (SN 47.35) - word by word
    In this sutta, the Buddha reminds the bhikkhus to be satos and sampajānos, and then defines these two terms.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40) - word by word
    The satipaṭṭhānas taught in short.
Daṭṭhabba Sutta (SN 48.8) - enhanced translation
    Each of the five spiritual indriyas is said to be seen in a fourfold dhamma.
Saṃkhitta Sutta (SN 48.14) - enhanced translation
    Fulfilling them is all we have to do, and this is the measure of our liberation.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 48.38) - enhanced translation
    Here the Buddha defines the five sensitive indriyas.
Uppaṭipāṭika Sutta (SN 48.40) - enhanced translation
   
This sutta draws an interesting parallel between the cessation of the
feeling faculties and the successive attainments of jhānas.
Sāketa Sutta (SN 48.43) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
   
In this sutta, the Buddha states that the balas and the indriyas can be
considered as one and the same thing or as two different things.
Patiṭṭhita Sutta (SN 48.56) - enhanced translation
    There is one mental state through which all the five spiritual faculties are perfected.
Bīja Sutta (SN 49.24) - enhanced translation
    A beautiful simile that illustrates how fundamental virtue is for the practice of the four right strivings.
Gantha Sutta (SN 50.102) - enhanced translation
   
This sutta is based on the interesting list of the four ‘bodily knots’,
and promotes the development of the five spiritual strengths.
Viraddha Sutta (SN 51.2) - enhanced translation
    Whoever neglects these neglects the noble path.
Chandasamādhi Sutta (SN 51.13) - enhanced translation
    This sutta explains clearly the meaning of the formulae describing the practice of the iddhi·pādas.
Samaṇabrāhmaṇa Sutta (SN 51.17) - enhanced translation
   
Wether in the past, in the future or at present, whoever wields
supernormal powers has developped and assiduously practiced four things.
Vidhā Sutta (SN 53.36) - enhanced translation
   
The jhānas are recommended to get rid of the three types of conceit,
which are related to comparing oneself with others. It makes it plain
that if there is any hierarchy in the Sangha, it is only for practical
purposes, and it is not to be taken as being representative of any
reality. It is not quite clear whether this is one sutta repeating 16
times the same thing, or 16 suttas grouped together, or 4 suttas
containing each 4 repetitions.
Padīpopama Sutta (SN 54.8) - word by word
   
Here the Buddha explains ānāpānassati and recommands it for various
purposes: from abandoning gross impurities, through developing all the
eight jhānas.
Saraṇānisakka Sutta (SN 55.24) - enhanced translation
   
In this interesting discourse, the Buddha states that one does not even
have to have gained strong confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha
to become a stream-winner at the time of death.
Mahānāma Sutta (SN 55.37) - enhanced translation
    What it means to be a lay lay disciple, endowed with virtue, conviction, generosity and discernment.
Aṅga Sutta (SN 55.50) - word by word
    The four sotāpattiyaṅgas (factors for stream-entry).
Samādhi Sutta (SN 56.1) - word by word
   
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice samādhi, for it leads to
understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Paṭisallāna Sutta (SN 56.2) - word by word
   
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice paṭisallāna, for it leads
to understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11) - word by word
   
This is certainly the most famous sutta in the Pali litterature. The
Buddha expounds the four ariya-saccas for the first time.
Saṅkāsanā Sutta (SN 56.19) - enhanced translation
   
The teaching of the four noble truths, however boring it may seem to
the wandering mind, is actually very deep and the mind could spend the
whole time investigating it.
Siṃsapāvana Sutta (SN 56.31) - word by word
   
The famous sutta where the Buddha states that he has no interest in any
teachings which are not immediately connected with attaining the goal.
Daṇḍa Sutta (SN 56.33) - enhanced translation
    The telling simile of the stick.

——————oooOooo——————

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html
Tree>> Sutta Piṭaka
Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

The
Aṅguttara Nikāya contains thousands of short discourses, which have the
particularity to be structured as enumerations. It is divided into
eleven sections, the first dealing with enumerations of one item, the
second with those of two items etc. The Buddha, having never made use of
writing, asked his listeners to be attentive and to memorize his
instructions. In order to make his words as clear as possible and to
facilitate this memorization, he often presented his teaching in the
form of enumerations.

Nipātas
1.     Ekaka Nipāta              7.     Sattaka Nipāta
2.     Duka Nipāta              8.     Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
3.     Tika Nipāta              9.     Navaka Nipāta
4.     Catuka Nipāta              10.     Dasaka Nipāta
5.     Pañcaka Nipāta              11.     Ekādasaka Nipāta
6.     Chakka Nipāta

——————oooOooo——————
1. Ekaka Nipāta

Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10) - word by word
    There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20) - word by word
    The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30) - word by word
  Adanta Vagga (AN 1.31-40) - enhanced translation
    The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Udakarahaka Suttas (AN 1.45 & 46) - enhanced translation
    The difference between a clear mind and a muddy one.
Mudu Sutta (AN 1.47) - enhanced translation
    A simile for a mind that’s pliant.
Lahuparivatta Sutta (AN 1.48) - enhanced translation
    The Buddha, normally so adept at finding similes, is here at a loss.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55) - word by word
    Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73) - word by word
    What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Pamāda Suttas (AN 1.58-59) - enhanced translation
    Nothing is so disadvantageous as this.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97) - word by word
    The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Kāyagatāsati Vagga (AN 1.563-574) {excerpts} - enhanced translation
    The Buddha speaks in high praise of the mindfulness directed to the body.

——————oooOooo——————

2. Duka Nipāta

Appaṭivāna Sutta (AN 2.5) - enhanced translation
    How we ought to train ourselves if we wish to reach awakening.
Cariya Sutta (AN 2.9) - enhanced translation
   
What is it, after all, that guarantees harmony, politeness, honesty,
brotherhood in a word peace within a given society? The Buddha explains
here which are the two guardians of the world.
Ekaṃsena Sutta (AN 2.18) - enhanced translation
    Here is one thing that the Buddha declares categorically.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32) - word by word
    Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.

——————oooOooo——————

3. Tika Nipāta

Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66) - word by word
   
In this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only
our own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by
others, even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Sāḷha Sutta (AN 3.67) - enhanced translation
    The advice given here is very similar to that given to the Kalamas.
Aññatitthiya Sutta (AN 3.69) - enhanced translation
   
The three roots of the unwholesome are explained with their respectve
characteristic, the cause of their arising, and the way to bring about
their cessation.
Uposatha Sutta (AN 3.71) - enhanced translation
    In this sutta, the Buddha defines how lay people should practice Uposatha and describes the different types of devas.
Sīlabbata Sutta (AN 3.79) - enhanced translation
    Ānanda explains by which very simple creteria rites and rituals can be judged as beneficial or not.
Samaṇa Sutta (AN 3.82) - enhanced translation
    Here are the three ascetics tasks of an ascetic.
Vajjiputta Sutta (AN 3.85) - enhanced translation
   
A certain monk cannot train with so many rules. The Buddha explains him
how he can do without them, and it works out rather well.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90) - word by word
    The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Accāyika Sutta (AN 3.93) - enhanced translation
    Three urgent tasks of an ascetic which are like three urgent tasks of a farmer.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91) - word by word
    Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Paṃsudhovaka Sutta (AN 3.102) - few info·bubbles
   
In this sutta, the Buddha compares the removal of mental impurities
through the practice to the work of a goldsmith. It is particularly
interesting, because it provides a gradual exposition of the impurities
one has to deal with during the practice, which gives an useful
reference.
Nimitta Sutta (AN 3.103) - few info·bubbles
    Do you
find yourself nodding off or becoming overly agitated during your
meditation practice? This is a very useful discourse for the meditators
who wish to balance the two corresponding spiritual faculties of effort
and concentration, together with equanimity. Many of us would benefit
substantially from applying properly these instructions.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108) - word by word
   
Here the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline
of the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing
and smiling.
Atitti Sutta (AN 3.109) - enhanced translation
    Three wrong things, of which many are unfortunately fond, that can never bring about satiety.
Nidāna Sutta (AN 3.112) - enhanced translation
    Six causes, three wholesome and three unwholesome, to the arising of kamma.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164) - word by word
    It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.

——————oooOooo——————
4. Catukka Nipāta

Yoga Sutta (AN 4.10) - enhanced translation
    What the Buddha means when he talks about yoga and yogakkhema (rest from the yoke).
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13) - word by word
    In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - enhanced translation
    Four simple practices that make one incapable of falling away, right in the presence of Nibbāna.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41) - word by word
   
The four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite
obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and
paññā.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49) - word by word
    In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Appamāda Sutta (AN 4.116) - simple translation
    Four instances in which one should practice with assiduity.
Ārakkha Sutta (AN 4.117) - simple translation
    Four things to be undertaken with assiduity, mindfulness while protecting the mind.
Mettā Sutta (AN 4.125) - enhanced translation
   
Here the Buddha explains what kind of rebirth one who thoroughly
practices the four Brahmavihāras can expect, and the great advantage of
being his disciple.
Asubha Sutta (AN 4.163) - enhanced translation
   
The four ways of practicing, according to the type of practice chosen
and the intensity or weakness of strengths and spiritual factulties.
Abhiññā Sutta (AN 4.254) - without translation
   
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas
as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Arañña Sutta (AN 4.262) - enhanced translation
    What sort of person is fit to live in the wilderness?

——————oooOooo——————

5. Pañcaka Nipāta

Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.2) - without translation
   
Here the Buddha defines in detail what he calls the five Sekha-balas
(strenghs of one in training). This sutta is easily understandable
without requiring a parallel translation, if you refer to the Satta
saddhammā Formulae as will be suggested in the text. The Pali-English
Dictionary is also available, just in case.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14) - word by word
    Here are defined the five balas.
Samādhi Sutta (AN 5.27) - enhanced translation
    Five uplifting knowledges that occur to one who practices the boundless concentration.
Akusalarāsi Sutta (AN 5.52) - enhanced translation
    Speaking rightly, what should be called ‘accumulation of demerit’?
Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhāna Sutta (AN 5.57) {excerpt} - word by word
    How to consider one’s own kamma.
Anāgatabhaya Sutta (AN 5.80) - enhanced translation
   
The Buddha reminds the monks that the practice of Dhamma should not be
put off for a later date, for there are no guarantees that the future
will provide any opportunities for practice.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.89) - without translation
   
The Buddha reminds us of five things that deteriorate the practice,
which for anyone wishing to progress in the training are nearly as
important to know about, remember and integrate into our lifestyles as
the knowledge of the five standard nīvaraṇas.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.90) - enhanced translation
    Five attitudes that lead to the deterioration of the practice.
Sutadhara Sutta (AN 5.96) - enhanced translation
    Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Kathā Sutta (AN 5.97) - enhanced translation
    Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Āraññaka Sutta (AN 5.98) - enhanced translation
    Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Andhakavinda Sutta (AN 5.114) - enhanced translation
    Five things that the Buddha exhorted his newly ordained monks to do.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.149) - without translation
    Five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.150) - without translation
    Another set of five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Vaṇijjā Sutta (AN 5.177) - enhanced translation
    The Buddha specifies here five trades which should not be carried on by his lay followers, among which the business of meat.
Gihī Sutta (AN 5.179) - enhanced translation
   
In this sutta, the Buddha gives greater precision about the way in
which the four usual sotāpattiyaṅgas have to be internalized in order to
constitute the proper conditions for sotāpatti.
Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN 5.200) - enhanced translation
    This sutta declines five types of nissāraṇas.
Yāgu Sutta (AN 5.207) - enhanced translation
    The Buddha gives five advantages of eating rice-gruel.
Dantakaṭṭha Sutta (AN 5.208) - enhanced translation
    The Buddha gives five reasons to use a tooth-cleaner.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209) - word by word
   
This sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist
traditions: the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to
perform any melodic chanting.
Muṭṭhassati Sutta (AN 5.210) - enhanced translation
    The disadvantages of falling asleep without proper sati and sampajañña, and the respective advantages of doing so with them.
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.245) - enhanced translation
    Another sutta about the five dangers of duccarita and five advantages of sucarita.
Sivathika Sutta (AN 5.249) - enhanced translation
    Five ways in which an ill-conducted person can be similar to a charnel ground where people throw dead bodies.
Puggalappasāda Sutta (AN 5.250) - enhanced translation
    Here is a rare warning given by the Buddha about the dangers of placing confidence in anyone.
Rāgassa abhiññāya Sutta (AN 5.303) - enhanced translation
    Five things to be practiced for the direct knowledge of rāga.

——————oooOooo——————

6. Chakka Nipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta (AN 6.14) - few info·bubbles
   
Sāriputta explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose
death will be unauspicious and one whose death will be auspicious.
Anutappiya Sutta (AN 6.15) - few info·bubbles
   
Sāriputta explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose
death will be remorseful and one whose death will be remorseless.
Maraṇassati Sutta (AN 6.20) - enhanced translation
    This sutta explains in detail how to practice the mindfulness of death.
Sāmaka Sutta (AN 6.21) - few info·bubbles
   
Prompted by the intervention of a deva, the Buddha reveals the six
ageless ways by which bhikkhus deteriorate in kusala dhammas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 6.22) - few info·bubbles
    Six dhammas connected to non-deterioration. Another set of very useful dhammas for keen practitioners.
Himavanta Sutta (AN 6.24) - enhanced translation
    Six qualities undowed with which a meditator would reportedly break into pieces the Himalayas.
Anussatiṭṭhāna Sutta (AN 6.25) - enhanced translation
    This sutta defines what are the six subjects of recollection.
Sekha Sutta (AN 6.31) - without translation
    The Buddha explains which are the six dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
Nāgita Sutta (AN 6.42) - enhanced translation
   
While dwelling in a forest grove, the Buddha speaks in praise of
modesty, contentment, unentanglement, and seclusion in the wilderness.
Dhammika Sutta (AN 6.54) - plain texts
   
In this sutta, the word tathāgata is not used to designate the Buddha
but in the common sense, which allows us a better grasp of its meaning.
Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63) - plain texts
   
This sutta provides an interesting systematic analysis of Kāma, Vedanā,
Saññā, Āsavā, Kamma and Dukkha. Each of these terms is defined and then
described witht the pattern of the four ariya-saccas.
Anavatthitā Sutta (AN 6.102) - enhanced translation
    Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anicca.
Atammaya Sutta (AN 6.104) - enhanced translation
    Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anatta.
Assāda Sutta (AN 6.112) - enhanced translation
    How to eradicate the view of enjoyment, the view of self, and wrong view in general.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118) - word by word
   
It is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits
without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.

——————oooOooo——————

7. Sattaka Nipāta

Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.11) - plain texts
    Here are listed the seven anusayas.
Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.12) - enhanced translation
    On abandoning the seven anusaya (obsessions or latent tendencies).
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.27) - enhanced translation
    Seven perceptions that lead to the long-term welfare of the bhikkhus and prevent their decline.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.28) - enhanced translation
    Seven points on which a bhikkhu in training may decline or not.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.29) - enhanced translation
    Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may decline or not.
Vipatti Sutta (AN 7.30) - enhanced translation
    Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her failure or success.
Parābhava Sutta (AN 7.31) - enhanced translation
    Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her ruin or prosperity.
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.49) - enhanced translation
    Seven inner reflections that are well worth pursuing.
Nagaropama Sutta (AN 7.67) - plain texts with Pali Formulae
   
Here the Buddha uses an enlightening simile to explain how seven good
qualities that should be mastered by the trainee in order to be
successful work together to prevent the troops of Māra (ie. akusala
dhammas) from entering the fortress of the mind.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83) - word by word
    Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.

——————oooOooo——————
8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta

Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt} - word by word
   
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce sense
desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions. This
sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt} - word by word
    Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Anuruddhamahāvitakka Sutta (AN 8.30) - few info·bubbles
   
Seven wise thoughts which are truly worth understanding and remembering
occur to ven. Anuruddha. The Buddha comes to him to teach him the
eighth, endowed with which he will attain arahantship. The Buddha then
explains in detail the meaning of those thoughts.
Abhisanda Sutta (AN 8.39) - enhanced translation
    Here are eight ways in which all serious disciples of the Buddha create much merit for themselves.
Duccaritavipāka Sutta (AN 8.40) - few info·bubbles
    This sutta describes the kind of suffering which one undergoes owing to the non observance of the main precepts.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53) - word by word
   
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Dīghajāṇu Sutta (AN 8.54) {excerpt} - plain texts
    Among other things, the Buddha defines in this sutta what he means by generosity.
Vimokkha Sutta (AN 8.66) - enhanced translation
    An explanation of the eight vimokkhas (liberations).
Parihāna Sutta (AN 8.79) - without translation
    The Buddha explains which are the eight dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.

——————oooOooo——————

9. Navaka Nipāta

Nāga Sutta (AN 9.40) - plain texts
   
This sutta, colored with subtle humor, explains how a bhikkhu of
heightened mind is comparable to a solitary elephant, both of whom are
usually called Nāga.
Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41) {excerpt} - plain texts
    Here saññā·vedayita·nirodha, the cessation of saññā and vedanā is presented as a ninth jhāna.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63) - word by word
    What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64) - word by word
    How to remove the five hindrances.

——————oooOooo——————

10. Dasaka Nipāta

Saṃyojana Sutta (AN 10.13) - plain texts
    This very short sutta lists the ten saṃyojanas.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25) - word by word
    This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Girimānanda Sutta (AN 10.60) - enhanced translation
   
In order to help Girimānanda recovering from a grave illness, the
Buddha gives a great teaching reviewing ten types of very useful
perceptions that can be developped.
Kathāvatthu Sutta (AN 10.69) {excerpt} - plain texts
    The Buddha reminds the bhikkhus what they should not talk about and what they should talk about.
Cunda Sutta (AN 10.176) - some info·bubbles
   
The buddha explains a deeper meaning of purity, in kāya, vācā and mana,
not in rites or rituals and demonstrates that the former underlies the
latter, whose inefficiency is made obvious.

——————oooOooo——————

11. Ekādasaka Nipāta

30/03/2555
Mettā Sutta (AN 11.15) - few info·bubbles
    Eleven good results that come out of the practice of mettā.

——————oooOooo——————
http://www.thefullwiki.org/Tipitaka

Tipitaka: Wikis


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Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Pāli Canon article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon

The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as
preserved in the Pali
language
.[1] It is
the only completely surviving early Buddhist canon, and one of
the first to be written down.[2] It was
composed in North India, and preserved orally until it was
committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist
Council
in Sri Lanka
in the 1st century BCE, approximately three hundred years
after the death of Shakyamuni.[3][4][5] The
Pali Canon was first printed in the nineteenth century[6], and is
now also available in electronic form and on the Internet.

The Pāli Canon falls into three general categories, called
pitaka (piṭaka, basket) in Pali. Because of this,
the canon is traditionally known as the Tipitaka
(Tipiṭaka; three baskets). The
three pitakas are as follows:[7]

  1. Vinaya
    Pitaka
    , dealing with rules for monks and nuns
  2. Sutta Pitaka,
    discourses, mostly ascribed to the Buddha, but some to
    disciples
  3. Abhidhamma Pitaka, variously
    described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics etc.

The Vinaya Pitaka and the Sutta Pitaka are remarkably similar to
the works of other early Buddhist schools. The
Abhidhamma Pitaka however is a strictly Theravada collection, and
has little in common with the Abhidhamma works recognized by other
Buddhist schools[8].

Contents

The
Canon in the tradition

Theravāda

  Asokanpillar-crop.jpg  

Countries

  Sri
Lanka

Cambodia • Laos
Burma • Thailand
 

Texts

 

Pali Canon
Commentaries
Subcommentaries

 

History

 

Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Early schools • Sthavira
Asoka • Third
Council

Vibhajjavada
Mahinda • Sanghamitta
Dipavamsa • Mahavamsa
Buddhaghosa

 

Doctrine

 

Saṃsāra • Nibbāṇa
Middle
Way

Noble
Eightfold Path

Four Noble
Truths

Enlightenment Stages
Precepts • Three Jewels

 

The Canon is traditionally described by the Theravada as the Word of the Buddha
(Buddhavacana), though this is obviously not intended in a literal
sense, since it includes teachings by disciples.[9]

The traditional Theravadin (Mahaviharin) interpretation of the Pali
Canon is given in a series of commentaries covering nearly the whole
Canon, compiled by Buddhaghosa (fl. 4th–5th century CE) and later monks, mainly
on the basis of earlier materials now lost. Subcommentaries have been
written afterwards, commenting further on the Canon and its
commentaries. The traditional Theravadin interpretation is
summarized in Buddhaghosa’s Visuddhimagga.[10]

An official view is given by a spokesman for the Buddha Sasana
Council of Burma:[11] the
Canon contains everything needed to show the path to nirvana; the commentaries and
subcommentaries sometimes include much speculative matter, but are
faithful to its teachings and often give very illuminating
illustrations. In Sri Lanka and Thailand, “official” Buddhism has in large
part adopted the interpretations of Western scholars.[12]

Although the Canon has existed in written form for two
millennia, its earlier oral nature has not been forgotten in actual
Buddhist practice within the tradition: memorization and recitation
remain common. Among frequently recited texts are the Paritta. Even lay people
usually know at least a few short texts by heart and recite them
regularly; this is considered a form of meditation, at least if one
understands the meaning. Monks are of course expected to know quite
a bit more (see Dhammapada below for an example). A Burmese
monk named Vicittasara even learnt the entire Canon by heart for
the Sixth Council (again according
to the usual Theravada numbering).[13]
Recitation is in Pali as the ritual language.[14]

The relation of the scriptures to Buddhism as it actually exists
among ordinary monks and lay people is, as with other major
religious traditions, problematical: the evidence suggests that
only parts of the Canon ever enjoyed wide currency, and that
non-canonical works were sometimes very much more widely used; the
details varied from place to place.[15] Dr Rupert Gethin says
that the whole of Buddhist history may be regarded as a working out
of the implications of the early scriptures.[16]

Origins

According to a late part of the Pali Canon, the Buddha taught
the three pitakas.[17] It is
traditionally believed by Theravadins that most of the Pali Canon
originated from the Buddha and his immediate disciples. According
to the scriptures, a council was
held shortly after the
Buddha’s passing
to collect and preserve his teachings. It was
recited orally from the 5th century BCE to the first century BCE, when it was written down.
The tradition holds that only a few later additions were made.

Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically
“Theravadin”, but is instead the collection of teachings that this
school preserved from the early, non-sectarian body of teachings.
According to Peter Harvey, it contains material which is at odds
with later Theravadin orthodoxy. He states that “the Theravadins,
then, may have added texts to the Canon for some time, but
they do not appear to have tampered with what they already had from
an earlier period.”[18] A
variety of factors suggest that the early Sri Lankan Buddhists
regarded canonical literature as such and transmitted it
conservatively.[19]


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Attribution according to
scholars

The views of scholars concerning the attribution of the Pali
Canon can be grouped into three categories:

  1. Attribution to the Buddha himself.
  2. Attribution to the period of pre-sectarian Buddhism.
  3. Agnosticism.

Scholars have both supported and opposed the various existing
views.

1. Views
concerning attribution to the Buddha himself

Various scholars have voiced that some of the contents of the
Pali Canon (and its main teachings) can be attributed to Gautama
Buddha. Richard Gombrich thinks that the main
preachings of the Buddha (as in the Vinaya and Sutta Pitaka) probably go back to the
Buddha individually.[20] Some
scholars argue that the teachings are coherent and cogent, and must
be the work of a single genius: the Buddha himself, not a committee
of followers after his death.[21][22]

J.W. de Jong has stated that parts of the Pali Canon could very
well have been proclaimed by the Buddha, and subsequently
transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified
in fixed formulas.[23] A.
Wynne has said that the Pali Canon includes texts which go back to
the very beginning of Buddhism, which perhaps include the substance
of the Buddha’s teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his
words.[24]

A.K. Warder has stated that there is no evidence to suggest that
the shared teaching of the early schools was formulated by anyone
else than the Buddha and his immediate followers.[25]

Some scholars say that little or nothing goes back to the
Buddha.[26] Prof.
Ronald Davidson has little confidence that much, if any, of
surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word of the historical
Buddha[27] Some
of these scholars argue that[28] some
passages contradict the main teachings, and that the Buddha must
have been consistent. Some believe only one of the variant
teachings can have been the teaching of the Buddha, and that if the
Buddha had taught the main teachings, contradictory teachings would
never have got in. Some believe that because of this, the Buddha
must have taught the divergent teachings, and that the main
teachings were elaborated by his followers after his death.


2. Views concerning attribution to the period of pre-sectarian
Buddhism

Most scholars do agree that there was a rough body of sacred
literature that a relatively early community maintained and
transmitted[29] Much
of the Pali Canon is found also in the scriptures of other early
schools of Buddhism, parts of whose versions are preserved, mainly
in Chinese. Many scholars have argued that this shared material can
be attributed to the period of Pre-sectarian Buddhism. This is
the period before the early
schools
separated in about the fourth or third century BCE.

3. Views concerning
agnosticism

Some scholars see the Pali Canon as expanding and changing from
an unknown nucleus.[30]
Arguments given for an agnostic attitude include that the evidence
for the Buddha’s teachings dates from (long) after his death.

Some scholars have said that the application of text-critical
methods derived from Biblical criticism is invalidated by
the fact that the Bible was a written text while the Pali Canon was
oral.[31]

Some scholars have stated that it would be hypocritical to
assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest
Buddhism[32].

Dr Gregory Schopen,[33]
argues[34] that
it is not until the fifth to sixth centuries CE that we can know
anything definite about the contents of the Canon. This position
did not attract much support, and was criticized by A. Wynne.[35]

The Earliest books of the
Pali Canon

Different positions have been taken on what are the earliest
books of the Canon. The majority of Western scholars consider the
earliest identifiable stratum to be mainly prose works,[36] the
Vinaya (excluding the Parivara[37]) and
the first four nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka,[38] and
perhaps also some short verse works[39] such
as the Suttanipata.[40]
However, some scholars, particularly in Japan, maintain that the
Suttanipata is the earliest of all Buddhist scriptures, followed by
the Itivuttaka and Udana.[41]
However, some of the developments in teachings may only reflect
changes in teaching that the Buddha himself adopted, during the 45
years that the Buddha was teaching.[42]

Most of the above scholars would probably agree that their early
books include some later additions.[43] On
the other hand, some scholars have claimed[44] that
central aspects of late works are or may be much earlier.

According to the Sinhalese chronicles, the Pali Canon was
written down in the reign of King Vattagamini (Vaṭṭagāmiṇi) (1st century BCE) in Sri Lanka, at the Fourth Buddhist council. Most
scholars hold that little if anything was added to the Canon after
this,[45]
though Schopen questions this.

Texts and
translations

The climate of Theravada
countries is not conducive to the survival of manuscripts. Apart
from brief quotations in inscriptions and a two-page fragment from
the eighth or ninth century found in Nepal, the oldest manuscripts known are from late
in the fifteenth century,[46] and
there is not very much from before the eighteenth.[47]

The first complete printed edition of the Canon was published in
Burma in 1900, in 38 volumes.[48] The
following editions of the Pali text of the Canon are readily
available in the West:

  • Pali
    Text Society
    edition, 1877–1927 (a few volumes subsequently
    replaced by new editions), 57 volumes including indexes, individual
    volumes also (for sale) separately.

    • The Pali scriptures and some Pali commentaries were digitized
      as an MS-DOS/extended ASCII compatible database through cooperation
      between the Dhammakaya
      Foundation
      and the Pali Text Society in 1996 as PALITEXT
      version 1.0: CD-ROM Database of the Entire Buddhist Pali Canon

      ISBN 978-9748235875.[49] The
      Dhammakaya Foundation are currently negotiating with the Pali Text
      Society to make available an updated database which adds the
      English translations and Windows/Unicode compatibility.
  • Thai edition, 1925–28, 45 volumes; more accurate than the PTS
    edition, but with fewer variant readings;[50]

  • Sixth Council edition, Rangoon, 1954–56, 40
    volumes; more accurate than the Thai edition, but with fewer
    variant readings;[51]

    • electronic transcript by Vipassana Research Institute available
      online in searchable database free of charge, or
      on CD-ROM (p&p only) from the Institute
    • Another transcript of this edition, produced under the
      patronage of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, World Tipitaka
      Edition, 2005, 40 volumes, published by the Dhamma Society Fund, claims to include the full
      extent of changes made at the Sixth Council,
      and therefore reflect the results of the council more accurately
      than some existing Sixth Council editions. Available for viewing
      online (registration required) at e-Tipiṭaka Quotation WebService.
  • Sinhalese (Buddha Jayanti) edition, 1957–?1993, 58 volumes
    including parallel Sinhalese translations, searchable, free of
    charge (not yet fully proofread.) Available at Journal of Buddhist Ethics

    • Transcript in BudhgayaNews Pali Canon.
      In this version it is easy to search for individual words across
      all 16,000+ pages at once and view the contexts in which they
      appear.

No one edition has all the best readings, and scholars must
compare different editions.[52]

Translation: Pali Canon in English Translation, 1895- ,
in progress, 43 volumes so far, Pali Text Society, Bristol; for
details of these and other translations of individual books see the
separate articles. In 1994, the then President of the Pali Text
Society stated that most of these translations were
unsatisfactory.[53]
Another former President said in 2003 that most of the translations
were done very badly.[54] The
style of many translations from the Canon has been criticized[55] as “Buddhist Hybrid English”, a
term invented by Paul Griffiths for translations from Sanskrit. He
describes it as “deplorable”, “comprehensible only to the initiate,
written by and for Buddhologists”.[56]

Selections: see List of Pali Canon
anthologies
.

Contents
of the Canon

Pali Canon

    Vinaya Pitaka    
   
                                       
Sutta-
vibhanga
Khandhaka Pari-
vara
               
   
    Sutta
Pitaka
   
   
                                                      
Digha
Nikaya
Majjhima
Nikaya
Samyutta
Nikaya
                     
   
   
                                                                     
Anguttara
Nikaya
Khuddaka
Nikaya
                           
   
    Abhidhamma Pitaka    
   
                                                           
Dhs. Vbh. Dhk.
Pug.
Kvu. Yamaka Patthana
                       
   
         

As noted above, the Canon consists of three pitakas.

Details are given below. For more complete information, see
standard references on Pali literature.[57]

Vinaya
Pitaka

The first category, the Vinaya Pitaka, is mostly concerned with
the rules of the sangha, both monks and nuns. The
rules are preceded by stories telling how the Buddha came to lay
them down, and followed by explanations and analysis. According to
the stories, the rules were devised on an ad hoc basis as the
Buddha encountered various behavioral problems or disputes among
his followers. This pitaka can be divided into three parts.

  • Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga) Commentary on the Patimokkha, a basic code
    of rules for monks and nuns that is not as such included in the
    Canon. The monks’ rules are dealt with first, followed by those of
    the nuns’ rules not already covered.
  • Khandhaka Other
    rules grouped by topic in 22 chapters.
  • Parivara (parivāra)
    Analysis of the rules from various points of view.

Sutta
Pitaka

The second category is the Sutta Pitaka (literally “basket of
threads”, or of “the well spoken”; Sanskrit: Sutra Pitaka,
following the former meaning) which consists primarily of accounts
of the Buddha’s teachings. The Sutta Pitaka has five subdivisions
or nikayas.

  • Digha Nikaya
    (dīghanikāya) 34 long discourses.[58] Joy
    Manné argues[59] that
    this book was particularly intended to make converts, with its high
    proportion of debates and devotional material.
  • Majjhima
    Nikaya
    152 medium-length discourses.[60]
    Manné argues[61]
    that this book was particularly intended to give a solid grounding
    in the teaching to converts, with a high proportion of sermons and
    consultations.
  • Samyutta
    Nikaya
    (saṃyutta-) Thousands of short discourses
    in fifty-odd groups by subject, person etc. Bhikkhu Bodhi, in
    his translation, says this nikaya has the most detailed
    explanations of doctrine.
  • Anguttara
    Nikaya
    (aṅguttara-) Thousands of short discourses
    arranged numerically from ones to elevens. It contains more
    elementary teaching for ordinary people than the preceding
    three.
  • Khuddaka
    Nikaya
    A miscellaneous collection of works in prose or
    verse.

Abhidhamma
Pitaka

The third category, the Abhidhamma Pitaka (literally
“beyond the dhamma”, “higher dhamma” or “special dhamma”, Sanskrit:
Abhidharma Pitaka), is a collection of
texts which give a systematic philosophical description of the
nature of mind, matter and time. There are seven books in the
Abhidhamma Pitaka.

  • Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -saṅgaṇī) Enumeration, definition and
    classification of dhammas
  • Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) Analysis of 18 topics by
    various methods, including those of the Dhammasangani
  • Dhatukatha
    (dhātukathā) Deals with interrelations between ideas from the
    previous two books
  • Puggalapannatti (-paññatti)
    Explanations of types of person, arranged numerically in lists from
    ones to tens
  • Kathavatthu
    (kathā-) Over 200 debates on points of doctrine
  • Yamaka Applies to 10
    topics a procedure involving converse questions (e.g. Is X Y? Is Y
    X?)
  • Patthana (paṭṭhāna) Analysis of 24 types of
    condition[62]

The traditional position is that the Abhidhamma is the absolute
teaching, while the suttas are adapted to the hearer. Most scholars
describe the abhidhamma as an attempt to systematize the teachings
of the suttas: Harvey,[61]
Gethin.[63]
Cousins says that where the suttas think in terms of sequences or
processes the abhidhamma thinks in terms of specific events or
occasions.[64]

Comparison with other
Buddhist canons

The other two main canons in use at the present day are the
Tibetan Kangyur and the Chinese Buddhist Canon. The former is in
about a hundred volumes and includes versions of the Vinaya Pitaka
and the Dhammapada (the latter by the title Udanavarga)
and of parts of some other books. The standard modern edition of
the latter is the Taisho published in Japan, which is in a hundred much larger volumes.
It includes both canonical and non-canonical (including Chinese and
Japanese) literature and its arrangement does not clearly
distinguish the two. It includes versions of the Vinaya Pitaka, the
first four nikayas, the Dhammapada, the Itivuttaka and the
Milindapanha and of parts of some other books. These Chinese and
Tibetan versions are not usually translations of the Pali and
differ from it to varying extents, but are recognizably the “same”
works. On the other hand, the Chinese abhidharma books are
different works from the Pali Abhidhamma Pitaka, though they follow
a common methodology.

Looking at things from the other side, the bulk of the Chinese
and Tibetan canons consists of Mahayana sutras and tantras, which, apart from a few tantras,[65] have
no equivalent in the Pali Canon.

Notes

  1. ^
    Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London,
    2006, page 3
  2. ^
    Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University
    Press, 1990, page 3.
  3. ^
    If the language of the Pāli canon is north Indian in origin,
    and without substantial Sinhalese additions, it is likely that the
    canon was composed somewhere in north India before its introduction
    to Sri Lanka
    How old is the Sutta Pitaka?, Alexander Wynne,
    St. Johns’ College, 2003
  4. ^
    Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv
    Councils, Buddhist
  5. ^
    A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edn, page 307. American
    Asiatic Association, Asia Society, Asia: Journal of the
    American Asiatic Association
    , p724.
  6. ^
    Bechert & Gombrich, The World of Buddhism, Thames & Hudson,
    1984, page 293
  7. ^
    Gombrich, page 4
  8. ^
    “Buddhism.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite.
    Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  9. ^
    Gombrich, page 20
  10. ^
    Gombrich, pages 153-4
  11. ^
    Morgan, Path of the Buddha, Ronald Press, New York, 1956,
    pages v, 71
  12. ^
    Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
    Studies
    , volume 28 (part 2), page 302
  13. ^
    Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma, Cornell University
    Press, Ithaca, New York, 1975, page 266
  14. ^
    Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edn, volume
    9, Elsevier, Amsterdam/Oxford, 2006
  15. ^
    Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV, pages
    103f
  16. ^
    Gethin, Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press,
    1998, page 43
  17. ^
    Book of the Discipline, volume VI, page 123
  18. ^
    Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press, 1995, page
    9.
  19. ^
    Alexander Wynne, The origin of Buddhist meditation.
    Routledge, 2007, page 4.
  20. ^
    I am saying that there was a person called the Buddha, that the
    preachings probably go back to him individually… that we can
    learn more about what he meant, and that he was saying some very
    precise things.
    source: http://www.ordinarymind.net/Interviews/interview_jan2003.htm
  21. ^
    Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London,
    2006, pages 20f
  22. ^
    While parts of the Pali Canon clearly originated after the time
    of the Buddha, much must derive from his teaching.
    —An
    introduction to Buddhism, Peter Harvey, 1990, p.3
  23. ^
    the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings
    could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha],
    transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified
    in fixed formulas.
    J.W. De Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of
    Buddhism
    , in The Eastern Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25
  24. ^
    If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to
    establish what texts go back to the very beginning of Buddhism,
    texts which perhaps include the substance of the Buddha’s teaching,
    and in some cases, maybe even his words
    , How old is the
    Suttapitaka? Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003.
    [www.ocbs.org/research/Wynne.pdf]
  25. ^
    there is no evidence to suggest that it was formulated by anyone
    else than the Buddha and his immediate followers. AK Warder, Indian
    Buddhism, 1999, 3rd edition, inside flap.
  26. ^
    Skorupski, Buddhist Forum, volume I, Heritage, Delhi/SOAS,
    London,1990, page 5
  27. ^
    Prof. Ronald Davidson states, “we have little confidence that much,
    if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word of the
    historical Buddha’” Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric
    Buddhism
    . pg 147. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN
    0231126182.
  28. ^
    see Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
    Studies
    , vol 21, part 1, page 11 for some of this
  29. ^
    Prof. Ronald Davidson states, “most scholars agree that there was a
    rough body of sacred literature (disputed) that a relatively early
    community (disputed) maintained and transmitted.” Davidson, Ronald
    M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism. pg 147. Columbia University
    Press, 2003. ISBN 0231126182.
  30. ^
    an article in the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism
    (2004), page 10
  31. ^
    Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalawa Saddhatissa ed
    Dhammapala, Gombrich & Norman, University of Jayawardenepura,
    Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, 1984, pages 56, 67
  32. ^
    It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said
    about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism … the basic ideas of
    Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been
    proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his
    disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas.
    J.W. De
    Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of Buddhism, in The Eastern
    Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25
  33. ^
    Professor of Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Buddhist Studies at the
    University of Texas at Austin
  34. ^
    Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks, University of Hawai’i Press, 1997, page 24
    (reprinted from Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik,
    volume 10 (1985))
  35. ^
    How old is the Suttapiṭaka? The relative value of textual and
    epigraphical sources for the study of early Indian Buddhism
    -
    Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003. [1](pdf)
  36. ^
    A. K. Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, Pali Text
    Society, page viii
  37. ^
    L. S. Cousins in Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalava
    Saddhatissa
    , ed Dhammapala, Gombrich and Norman, University of
    Jayewardenepura, 1984, page 56
  38. ^
    The World of Buddhism, ed Bechert and Gombrich, Thames and
    Hudson, London, 1984, page 78; Gethin, pages 42f
  39. ^
    Gethin, The Buddha’s Path to Awakening, E. J. Brill,
    Leiden, 1992
  40. ^
    Cousins, loc. cit.
  41. ^
    Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Japan, 1980, reissued by
    Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1987, 1989, page 27
  42. ^
    as the Buddha taught for 45 years, some signs of development in
    teachings may only reflect changes during this period.
    - An
    introduction to Buddhism, Peter Harvey, 1990, p.3
  43. ^
    Bechert and Gombrich; Warder, Introduction to Path of
    Discrimination
    , 1982, Pali Text Society, page xxix
  44. ^
    Cousins, “Pali oral literature”, in Buddhist Studies, ed
    Denwood and Piatigorski, Curzon Press, London, 1982/3; Harvey, page
    83; Gethin, page 48; The Guide, Pali Text Society, page
    xxvii
  45. ^
    Harvey, page 3; Warder, Path of Discrimination, Pali Text
    Society, pages xxxixf; Gethin, Path, page 8
  46. ^
    Hinüber, Handbook of Pali Literature, Walter de Gruyter,
    Berlin, 1996, page 5.
  47. ^
    Pali Text Society Home Page
  48. ^
    Günter Grönbold, Der buddhistische Kanon: eine
    Bibliographie
    , Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1984, page 12; as
    noted there and elsewhere, the 1893 Siamese edition was
    incomplete
  49. ^
    Mark Allon (1997) “An Assessment of the Dhammakaya CD-ROM: Palitext
    Version 1.0.” Buddhist Studies (Bukkyō Kenkyū) 26: 109–29.
  50. ^
    Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, PTS, page 382
  51. ^
    Hamm in German Scholars on India, volume I, ed Cultural
    Department of the German Embassy in India, pub Chowkhamba Sanskrit
    Series Office, Varanasi, 1973, translated from Zeitschrift der
    Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft
    , 1962
  52. ^
    Cone, Dictionary of Pali, volume I, PTS, 2001
  53. ^
    Memoirs of the Chuo Academic Research Institute, No. 23,
    Dec. 1994, page 12, reprinted in Norman, Collected Papers,
    volume VI, 1996, Pali Text Society, Bristol, page 80
  54. ^
    Interview with professor
    Richard Gombrich for Ordinary Mind - An Australian Buddhist Review
    issue No 21
  55. ^
    Journal of the Pali Text Society, Volume XXIX, page
    102
  56. ^
    Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
    Studies
    , 4.2 (1981)
  57. ^
    Norman, Pali Literature, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden,
    1983; Hinüber,op. cit.
  58. ^
    Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, appendix
  59. ^
    Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV
  60. ^ Harvey,
    appendix
  61. ^ a
    b
    loc. cit.
  62. ^
    Harvey, page 83
  63. ^
    Foundations, page 44
  64. ^
    “Pali oral literature”, page 7
  65. ^
    Most notably, a version of the Atanatiya Sutta (from the Digha
    Nikaya) is included in the tantra (Mikkyo, rgyud) divisions of the
    Taisho and of the Cone, Derge, Lhasa, Lithang, Narthang and Peking
    (Qianlong) editions of the Kangyur: Skilling, Mahasutras,
    volume I, Parts I & II, 1997, Pali Text Society, Bristol, pages
    84n, 553ff, 617ff.

See also

External
links

English
translations

Pali Canon
Online

This site also offers a down loadable program which installs the
entire Pali Tipitaka on your desktop for offline viewing.

Pali
Dictionary

Further
reading

In addition to Ko Lay’s book above, two other books are devoted
to detailed accounts of the Canon:

  • History of Pali Literature, B. C. Law, volume I
  • Analysis of the Pali
    Canon
    , Russell Webb, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy,
    Sri Lanka