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LESSON 3548 Mon 28 Dec 2020 Free Online Step by Step Guide and Practice to Attain Anibal the Eternal Bliss in Buddha’s Own Words for Devotees Attired in White Cloth Covered from Head to Toe in Pure White Snow Fall Environment as in Fourth Jhana Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe” in 116 Classical Languages White Home, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru, Magadhi karnataka State, Prabuddha Bharat International.https://sehen.site/en/f-chn?f=Josey-Antony# Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta 29) Classical English, Roman, 08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans
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Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta
29) Classical English, Roman,
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans



Friends

December
25, 1927 Dr Ambedkar burned Manusmriti as a symbol of rejection of the
religious basis of untouchability. The event was arranged during the
Mahad Satyagraha. Satyagraha was a fight to assert the “Untouchables”
right to access public water, & to embrace humanity & dignity.

Image may contain: 2 people, people standing

25th December 1927, Manusmriti Dahan Divas: A historical day to remember


Friends

Prabuddha
Bharat witnessed a milestone event of burning Manusmriti in public on
December 25, exactly 92 years ago. Under the leadership of ‘The father
of Modern India’ Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, thousands gathered in a small
town called Mahad in Konkan, a coastal region of Maharashtra to show
their hatred towards the Hindu religious text Manusmriti, that brutally
treats women and ‘Aboriginal’ (SC/STs).
Repeated attempts by the RSS-driven Sangh Parivar to appropriate Dr BR Ambedkar throw up contradictions and evasions.
Why did Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar publicly burn the Manu Smruti on Dec. 25, 1927?
This
story was first published on January 26, 2016. (Towards Equality: Why
did Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar publicly burn the Manu Smruti on December 25,
1927?). We are re-publishing it today, December 24, 2017.
Manusmruti Dahan Din
Eight-eight
(now 89!) years ago, on December 25, 1927, huge strides were made in
the movement for self-dignity of Dalits. Under the leadership of Dr
Babasaheb Ambedkar, a small town/village, Mahad in Konkan, the coastal
region of Maharashtra, made history.
Manusmurti
Dahan Din. The day that the text of caste Hindus epitomizing hegemony,
indignity and cruelty to Dalits and mlecchas (that included women) was
publicly burned in a specially constructed symbolic funeral pyre before
Dr Ambedkar and thousands of volunteers gathered to protest and agitate.
The
Mahad satyagraha (peaceful agitation and protest) had been organised so
that Dalits (untouchables) could drink from the Mahad (Chavadar) water
tank, a public water source open to all. A previous legal notification
of the Collectorate authorised free access to all. Despite the existence
of this order, caste hegemony and oppression had not created conditions
for access to this facility for the oppressed. On the eve of the
protest, caste Brahmins had obtained a stay order from a local court
against untouchables accessing water from the tank!
Pressure
of an unimaginable kind was put by caste Hindus to somehow abort the
protest. This included tightening access to any public ground for the
proposed meeting. Finally, a local gentleman Mr. Fattekhan, who happened
to be a Muslim, gave his private land for the protest, extending
solidarity with the struggle. Arrangements for food and water as also
other supplies had to be made meticulously by the organisers facing a
revolt in the village. A pledge of sorts had to be taken by the
volunteers who participated in the protest. This pledge vowed the
following:
I do not believe on Chaturvarna based on birth.
I do not believe in caste distinctions.
I believe that untouchability is an anathema to Hinduism and I will honestly try my best to completely destroy it.
I will not follow any restrictions about food and drink among at least all Hindus.
I believe that untouchables must have equal rights to access to temples, water sources, schools and other amenities.
The
arrival of Dr. Ambedkar to the site of the protest was cloaked in high
drama, faced with the possibilities of all kinds of sabotage from other
sections of society. He came from Bombay on the boat “Padmavati” via
Dasgaon port, instead of Dharamtar (the road journey), despite the
longer distance. This was a well-planned strategy, because, in the event
of boycott by bus owners, the leaders could walk down five miles to
Mahad.
In
front of the pandal where Dr Ambedkar made his soul-stirring address,
the “vedi” (pyre) was created beforehand to burn the Manusmruti. Six
people had been labouring for two days to prepare it. A pit six inches
deep and one and half foot square was dug in, and filled with
sandlewood pieces.
On its four corners, poles were erected, bearing banners on three sides. The banners said,
1. “Manusmruti chi dahan bhumi”, i.e. Crematorium for Manusmruti.
2. Destroy Untouchability and
3. Bury Brahmanism.
It
was on December 25, 1927, in the late evening, at the conference, that
the resolution to burn the Manusmruti was moved by Brahmin associate of
Ambedkar, Gangadhar Neelkanth Sahastrabuddhe and was seconded by PN
Rajabhoj, an untouchable leader. Thereafter, the book Manusmruti was
kept on this pyre and burned. The Brahmin associate of Ambedkar,
Gangadhar Neelkanth Sahastrabuddhe and five six other Dalit sadhus
completed the task. At the pandal, the only photo placed was that of
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. This has been interpreted to mean that, at
this stage the Dalit leadership, including Dr. Ambedkar had yet to be
disillusioned with Gandhi.
In
his presidential speech Ambedkar said that the aim of the movement was
not only to gain access to the water or the temple or to remove the
barriers to commensality; the aim was to break down the varna system
which supported inequality in society. He then told his audience about
the French Revolution, and explained the main points of the Charter of
Human Rights enunciated by the French Revolutionary Council. He pointed
out the danger of seeking temporary and inadequate solutions by relating
how the rebellion of the plebians of Rome against the patricians
failed, primarily because the plebians sought only to gain a tribune of
their choice instead of seeking to abolish the system dividing society
into patricians and plebians.
In
the February 3, 1928 issue of the Bahishkrit Bharat (his own newspaper)
he explained the action saying that his reading of the Manusmriti had
convinced him that it did not even remotely support the idea of social
equality.
The
root of untouchabilty lies in prohibition of inter-caste marriages,
that we have to break, said Ambedkar in that historic speech. He
appealed to higher varnas to let this “Social Revolution” take place
peacefully, discard the sastras, and accept the principle of justice,
and he assured them peace from our side. Four resolutions were passed
and a Declaration of Equality was pronounced. After this, the copy of
the Manusmruti was burned
One
sees here a definite broadening of the goal of the movement. In terms
of the ultimate goal of equality and of the eradication of the varna
system, the immediate programme of drinking water from the Mahad water
reservoir was a symbolic protest, to herald the onset of a continuing
struggle for dignity.
The other crucial points of Dr. Ambedkar’s speech were:
“…So
long as the varna system exists the superior status of the Brahmans is
ensured….Brahmans do not have the same love of their country that the
Samurai of Japan had. Hence one cannot expect them to give up their
special social privileges as the Samurai did in the interest of social
equality and national unity of Japan. We cannot expect this of the
non-Brahman class either. The non-Brahman classes like the Marathas and
others are an intermediate category between those who hold the reins of
power and those who are powerless. Those who wield power can
occasionally be generous and even self-sacrificing. Those who are
powerless tend to be idealistic and principled because even to serve
their own interest they have to aim at a social revolution. The
non-Brahman class comes in between; it can neither be generous nor
committed to any principles. Hence they are preoccupied in maintaining
their distance from the untouchables instead of with achieving equality
with Brahmans. This class is weak in its aspiration for a social
revolution…..We should accept that we are born to achieve this larger
social purpose and consider that to be our life’s goal. Let us strive to
gain that religious merit. Besides, this work (of bringing about a
social revolution) is in our interest and it is our duty to dedicate
ourselves to remove the obstacles in our path.
There
was a strong reaction in the section of the press, perceived to be
dominated by the entrenched higher caste interests. Dr Ambedkar was
called “Bheemaasura” by one newspaper. Dr. Ambedkar justified the
burning of Manusmruti in various articles that he penned after the
satyagraha. I n the February 3, 1928 issue of the Bahishkrit Bharat (his
own newspaper) he explained the action saying that his reading of the
Manusmriti had convinced him that it did not even remotely support the
idea of social equality. To burn a thing was to register a protest
against the idea it represented. By so doing one expected to shame the
person concerned into modifying his behaviour. He said further that it
would be futile to expect that any person who revered the Manusmriti
could be genuinely interested in the welfare of the Untouchables. He
compared the burning of the Manusmriti to the burning of foreign cloth
recommended by Gandhi. Protests the world over had used the burning of
an article that symbolised oppression to herald a struggle. This was
what the Manusmurti Dahan was.
| SabrangIndia
| SabrangIndia
Bangaru
Laxman’s statement, after he formally took over as the president of the
BJP, that “Nagpur is a place of both Ambedkar and Hegdewar” must have
come as a surprise to the upper caste leaders of the RSS, particularly
its chief, KS Sudharshan, who must all be Ambedkar haters. Nagpur,
ironic…


Friends
The Status Of Women As Depicted By Manu In The Manusmriti
August 27, 2011by Hirday N. Patwari
The
Manusmriti also known as Manav Dharam Shastra, is the earliest metrical
work on Brahminical Dharma in Hinduism. According to Hindu mythology,
the Manusmriti is the word of Brahma, and it is classified as the most
authoritative statement on Dharma .The scripture consists of 2690
verses, divided into 12 chapters. It is presumed that the actual human
author of this compilation used the eponym ‘Manu’, which has led the
text to be associated by Hindus with the first human being and the first
king in the Indian tradition.
Although
no details of this eponymous author’s life are known, it is likely that
he belonged to a conservative Brahman class somewhere in Northern
India. Hindu apologists consider the Manusmriti as the divine code of
conduct and, accordingly, the status of women as depicted in the text
has been interpreted as Hindu divine law. While defending Manusmriti as
divine code of conduct for all including women, apologists often quote
the verse: “yatr naryasto pojyantay, ramantay tatr devta [3/56] (where
women are provided place of honor, gods are pleased and reside there in
that household), but they deliberately forget all those verses that are
full of prejudice, hatred and discrimination against women.
Here are some of the ‘celebrated’ derogatory comments about women in the Manusmriti :
1.
“Swabhav ev narinam …..” – 2/213. It is the nature of women to seduce
men in this world; for that reason the wise are never unguarded in the
company of females.
2.
“Avidvam samlam………..” – 2/214. Women, true to their class character,
are capable of leading astray men in this world, not only a fool but
even a learned and wise man. Both become slaves of desire.
3.
“Matra swastra ………..” – 2/215. Wise people should avoid sitting alone
with one’s mother, daughter or sister. Since carnal desire is always
strong, it can lead to temptation.
4.
“Naudwahay……………..” – 3/8. One should not marry women who has have
reddish hair, redundant parts of the body [such as six fingers], one
who is often sick, one without hair or having excessive hair and one who
has red eyes.
5.
“Nraksh vraksh ………..” – 3/9. One should not marry women whose names are
similar to constellations, trees, rivers, those from a low caste,
mountains, birds, snakes, slaves or those whose names inspires terror.
6.
“Yasto na bhavet ….. …..” – 3/10. Wise men should not marry women who
do not have a brother and whose parents are not socially well known.
7.
“Uchayangh…………….” – 3/11. Wise men should marry only women who are free
from bodily defects, with beautiful names, grace/gait like an elephant,
moderate hair on the head and body, soft limbs and small teeth.
8.
“Shudr-aiv bharya………” – 3/12.Brahman men can marry Brahman, Kshatriya,
Vaish and even Shudra women but Shudra men can marry only Shudra women.
9.
“Na Brahman kshatriya..” – 3/14. Although Brahman, Kshatriya and Vaish
men have been allowed inter-caste marriages, even in distress they
should not marry Shudra women.
10.
“Heenjati striyam……..” – 3/15. When twice born [dwij=Brahman, Kshatriya
and Vaish] men in their folly marry low caste Shudra women, they are
responsible for the degradation of their whole family. Accordingly,
their children adopt all the demerits of the Shudra caste.
11.
“Shudram shaynam……” – 3/17. A Brahman who marries a Shudra woman,
degrades himself and his whole family ,becomes morally degenerated ,
loses Brahman status and his children too attain status of shudra.
12.
“Daiv pitrya………………” – 3/18. The offerings made by such a person at the
time of established rituals are neither accepted by God nor by the
departed soul; guests also refuse to have meals with him and he is bound
to go to hell after death.
13.
“Chandalash ……………” – 3/240. Food offered and served to Brahman after
Shradh ritual should not be seen by a chandal, a pig, a cock,a dog, and a
menstruating women.
14.
“Na ashniyat…………….” – 4/43. A Brahman, true defender of his class,
should not have his meals in the company of his wife and even avoid
looking at her. Furthermore, he should not look towards her when she is
having her meals or when she sneezes/yawns.
15.
“Na ajyanti……………….” – 4/44. A Brahman in order to preserve his energy
and intellect, must not look at women who applies collyrium to her eyes,
one who is massaging her nude body or one who is delivering a child.
16.
“Mrshyanti…………….” – 4/217. One should not accept meals from a woman who
has extra marital relations; nor from a family exclusively
dominated/managed by women or a family whose 10 days of impurity because
of death have not passed.
17.
“Balya va………………….” – 5/150. A female child, young woman or old woman is
not supposed to work independently even at her place of residence.
18.
“Balye pitorvashay…….” – 5/151. Girls are supposed to be in the custody
of their father when they are children, women must be under the custody
of their husband when married and under the custody of her son as
widows. In no circumstances is she allowed to assert herself
independently.
19.
“Asheela kamvrto………” – 5/157. Men may be lacking virtue, be sexual
perverts, immoral and devoid of any good qualities, and yet women must
constantly worship and serve their husbands.
20.
“Na ast strinam………..” – 5/158. Women have no divine right to perform
any religious ritual, nor make vows or observe a fast. Her only duty is
to obey and please her husband and she will for that reason alone be
exalted in heaven.
21.
“Kamam to………………” – 5/160. At her pleasure [after the death of her
husband], let her emaciate her body by living only on pure flowers,
roots of vegetables and fruits. She must not even mention the name of
any other men after her husband has died.
22.
“Vyabhacharay…………” – 5/167. Any women violating duty and code of
conduct towards her husband, is disgraced and becomes a patient of
leprosy. After death, she enters womb of Jackal.
23.
“Kanyam bhajanti……..” – 8/364. In case women enjoy sex with a man from a
higher caste, the act is not punishable. But on the contrary, if women
enjoy sex with lower caste men, she is to be punished and kept in
isolation.
24.
“Utmam sevmansto…….” – 8/365. In case a man from a lower caste enjoys
sex with a woman from a higher caste, the person in question is to be
awarded the death sentence. And if a person satisfies his carnal desire
with women of his own caste, he should be asked to pay compensation to
the women’s faith.
25.
“Ya to kanya…………….” – 8/369. In case a woman tears the membrane [hymen]
of her Vagina, she shall instantly have her head shaved or two fingers
cut off and made to ride on Donkey.
26.
“Bhartaram…………….” – 8/370. In case a women, proud of the greatness of
her excellence or her relatives, violates her duty towards her husband,
the King shall arrange to have her thrown before dogs at a public place.
27.
“Pita rakhshati……….” – 9/3. Since women are not capable of living
independently, she is to be kept under the custody of her father as
child, under her husband as a woman and under her son as widow.
28.
“Imam hi sarw………..” – 9/6. It is the duty of all husbands to exert
total control over their wives. Even physically weak husbands must
strive to control their wives.
29.
“Pati bharyam ……….” – 9/8. The husband, after the conception of his
wife, becomes the embryo and is born again of her. This explains why
women are called Jaya.
30.
“Panam durjan………” – 9/13. Consuming liquor, association with wicked
persons, separation from her husband, rambling around, sleeping for
unreasonable hours and dwelling -are six demerits of women.
31.
“Naita rupam……………” – 9/14. Such women are not loyal and have extra
marital relations with men without consideration for their age.
32.
“Poonshchalya…………” – 9/15. Because of their passion for men, immutable
temper and natural heartlessness, they are not loyal to their husbands.
33.
“Na asti strinam………” – 9/18. While performing namkarm and jatkarm,
Vedic mantras are not to be recited by women, because women are lacking
in strength and knowledge of Vedic texts. Women are impure and represent
falsehood.
34.
“Devra…sapinda………” – 9/58. On failure to produce offspring with her
husband, she may obtain offspring by cohabitation with her
brother-in-law [devar] or with some other relative [sapinda] on her
in-law’s side.
35.
“Vidwayam…………….” – 9/60. He who is appointed to cohabit with a widow
shall approach her at night, be anointed with clarified butter and
silently beget one son, but by no means a second one.
36.
“Yatha vidy……………..” – 9/70. In accordance with established law, the
sister-in-law [bhabhi] must be clad in white garments; with pure intent
her brother-in-law [devar] will cohabitate with her until she conceives.
37.
“Ati kramay……………” – 9/77. Any women who disobey orders of her
lethargic, alcoholic and diseased husband shall be deserted for three
months and be deprived of her ornaments.
38.
“Vandyashtamay…….” – 9/80. A barren wife may be superseded in the 8th
year; she whose children die may be superseded in the 10th year and she
who bears only daughters may be superseded in the 11th year; but she
who is quarrelsome may be superseded without delay.
39.
“Trinsha……………….” – 9/93. In case of any problem in performing religious
rites, males between the age of 24 and 30 should marry a female between
the age of 8 and 12.
40.
“Yambrahmansto…….” – 9/177. In case a Brahman man marries Shudra woman,
their son will be called ‘Parshav’ or ‘Shudra’ because his social
existence is like a dead body.
The Status Of Women As Depicted By Manu In The Manusmriti | Nirmukta
The Status Of Women As Depicted By Manu In The Manusmriti | Nirmukta
Hindu
apologists consider the Manusmriti as the divine code of conduct and,
accordingly, the status of women as depicted in the text has been
interpreted as Hindu divine law.


https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sltp/DN_I_utf8.html#pts.211

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Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta

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Practice a Sutta a Day Keeps Dukkha Away

DN
11
PTS:
D i 211
Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta
translated
from the Pali by
Thanissaro
Bhikkhu    © 1997–2011    I have heard that on one
occasion the Blessed One was staying at Nalanda in Pavarika’s mango grove.

Then
Kevatta the householder approached the Blessed One and, on arrival,
having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to
the Blessed One:
“Lord, this Nalanda is powerful, both prosperous and
populous, filled with people who have faith in the Blessed One. It
would be good if the Blessed One were to direct a monk to display a
miracle of psychic power from his superior human state so that Nalanda
would to an even greater extent have faith in the Blessed One.”   

When
this was said, the Blessed One said to Kevatta the householder,
“Kevatta, I don’t teach the monks in this way: ‘Come, monks, display a
miracle of psychic power to the lay people clad in white.’”    A second
time… A third time, Kevatta the householder said to the Blessed One: “I
won’t argue with the Blessed One, but I tell you: Lord, this Nalanda is
powerful, both prosperous and populous, filled with people who have
faith in the Blessed One. It would be good if the Blessed One were to
direct a monk to display a miracle of psychic power from his superior
human state so that Nalanda would to an even greater extent have faith
in the Blessed One.”   

A third time, the Blessed One said to
Kevatta the householder, “Kevatta, I don’t teach the monks in this way:
‘Come, monks, display a miracle of psychic power to the lay people clad
in white.’   

“Kevatta, there are these three miracles that I
have declared, having directly known and realized them for myself. Which
three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the
miracle of instruction.

The Miracle of Psychic Power    “And what
is the miracle of psychic power? There is the case where a monk wields
manifold psychic
powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been
many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through
walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out
of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as
if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a
winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and
moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.   

“Then
someone who has faith and conviction in him sees him wielding manifold
psychic powers… exercising influence with his body even as far as the
Brahma worlds. He reports this to someone who has no faith and no
conviction, telling him, ‘Isn’t it awesome. Isn’t it astounding, how
great the power, how great the prowess of this contemplative. Just now I
saw him wielding manifold psychic powers… exercising influence with his
body even as far as the Brahma worlds.’   

“Then the person
without faith, without conviction, would say to the person with faith
and with conviction: ‘Sir, there is a charm called the Gandhari charm by
which the monk wielded manifold psychic powers… exercising influence
with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.’ What do you think,
Kevatta — isn’t that what the man
without faith, without conviction, would say to the man with faith and with conviction?”   

“Yes, lord, that’s just what he would say.”   

“Seeing
this drawback to the miracle of psychic power, Kevatta, I feel
horrified, humiliated, and disgusted with the miracle of psychic
power.   

The Miracle of Telepathy   

“And what is the
miracle of telepathy? There is the case where a monk reads the minds,
the mental events, the thoughts, the ponderings of other beings, other
individuals, [saying,] ‘Such is your thinking, here is where your
thinking is, thus is your mind.’   


“Then
someone who has faith and conviction in him sees him reading the minds…
of other beings… He reports this to someone who has no faith and no
conviction, telling him, ‘Isn’t it awesome. Isn’t it astounding, how
great the power, how great the prowess of
this contemplative. Just now I saw him reading the minds… of other beings…’   

“Then
the person without faith, without conviction, would say to the person
with faith and with conviction: ‘Sir, there is a charm called the Manika
charm by which the monk read the minds… of other beings…’ What do you
think, Kevatta — isn’t that what the man without faith, without
conviction, would say to the man with faith
and with conviction?”   
“Yes, lord, that’s just what he would say.”   

“Seeing
this drawback to the miracle of telepathy, Kevatta, I feel horrified,
humiliated, and disgusted with the miracle of telepathy.   
The
Miracle of Instruction    “And what is the miracle of instruction? There
is the case where a monk gives instruction in this way:
‘Direct your
thought in this way, don’t direct it in that. Attend to things in this
way, don’t attend to them in that. Let go of this, enter and remain in
that.’ This, Kevatta, is called the miracle of instruction.   

“Furthermore, there is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened.

He
teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle,
admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its
particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.   

“A
householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction
in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty
path.

The life gone forth is like the open air. It is not easy
living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure,
like a polished
shell. What if I were to shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre
robes, and go forth from the household life into homelessness?’   

“So
after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves
his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard,
puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into
homelessness.   

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives
restrained by the rules of the monastic code, seeing danger in the
slightest faults. Consummate in his virtue, he guards the doors of his
senses, is possessed of mindfulness and alertness, and is content.

The Lesser Section on Virtue   

“And
how is a monk consummate in virtue? Abandoning the taking of life, he
abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his
knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of
all living beings.

This is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not
given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives
not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure.

This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual
act that is the villager’s way. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds
to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. This, too,
is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning divisive speech he
abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell
there to break those people apart from these people here.

What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there.

Thus
reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are
united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks
things that create concord.

This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that
are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart,
that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large. This, too,
is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains
from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is
in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words
worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with
the goal.

This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.   

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.   

“He
abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching
shows.    “He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying
himself with scents and cosmetics.   

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.   

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.   

“He
abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat… women and girls… male
and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and pigs… elephants, cattle,
steeds, and mares… fields and property.   


“He
abstains from running messages… from buying and selling… from dealing
with false scales, false metals, and false measures… from bribery,
deception, and fraud.   

“He abstains from mutilating,
executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.   
“This, too, is part of his virtue.

The Intermediate Section on Virtue    “Whereas some priests and
contemplatives,
living off food given in faith, are addicted to damaging seed and plant
life such as these — plants propagated from roots, stems, joints,
buddings, and seeds — he abstains from damaging seed and plant life such
as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.       

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to consuming stored-up goods such as these — stored-up food,
stored-up drinks, stored-up clothing, stored-up vehicles, stored-up
bedding, stored-up scents, and stored-up meat — he abstains from
consuming stored-up goods such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to watching shows such as these — dancing, singing,
instrumental music, plays, ballad recitations, hand-clapping, cymbals
and drums, magic lantern scenes, acrobatic and conjuring tricks,
elephant fights, horse fights, buffalo fights, bull fights, goat fights,
ram fights, cock fights, quail fights; fighting with staves, boxing,
wrestling, war-games, roll calls, battle arrays, and regimental reviews —
he abstains from watching shows such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to heedless and idle games such as these — eight-row chess,
ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch, spillikins, dice, stick
games, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing through toy pipes, playing
with toy plows, turning somersaults, playing with toy windmills, toy
measures, toy chariots, toy bows, guessing letters drawn in the air,
guessing thoughts, mimicking deformities — he abstains from heedless and
idle games such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to high and luxurious furnishings such as these — over-sized
couches, couches adorned with carved animals, long-haired coverlets,
multi-colored patchwork coverlets, white woolen coverlets, woolen
coverlets embroidered with flowers or animal figures, stuffed quilts,
coverlets with fringe, silk coverlets embroidered with gems; large
woolen carpets; elephant, horse, and chariot rugs, antelope-hide rugs,
deer-hide rugs; couches with awnings, couches
with red cushions for
the head and feet — he abstains from using high and luxurious
furnishings such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these
— rubbing powders into the body, massaging with oils, bathing in
perfumed water, kneading the limbs, using mirrors, ointments, garlands,
scents, creams, face-powders, mascara, bracelets, head-bands, decorated
walking sticks, ornamented water-bottles, swords, fancy sunshades,
decorated sandals, turbans,
gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed white
robes — he abstains from using scents, cosmetics, and means of
beautification such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to talking about lowly topics such as these — talking about
kings, robbers, ministers of state; armies, alarms, and battles; food
and drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, and scents; relatives;
vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women and heroes;
the gossip of the street and the well; tales of the dead; tales of
diversity [philosophical discussions of the past and future], the
creation of the world and of the sea, and talk of whether things exist
or not — he abstains from talking about lowly topics such
as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to debates such as these — ‘You understand this doctrine and
discipline? I’m the one who understands this doctrine and discipline.
How could you understand this doctrine and discipline? You’re practicing
wrongly. I’m practicing rightly. I’m being consistent. You’re not. What
should be said first you said last. What should be said last you said
first. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your
doctrine has been overthrown. You’re defeated. Go and try to salvage
your doctrine; extricate yourself if you can!’ — he abstains from
debates such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue. 

 
“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to running messages and errands for people such as
these — kings, ministers of state, noble warriors, priests,
householders, or youths [who say], ‘Go here, go there, take this there,
fetch that here’ — he abstains from running messages and
errands for people such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, engage
in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and pursuing gain with
gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and persuading [improper ways
of trying to gain material support from donors] such as these. This,
too, is part of his virtue.   

The Great Section on Virtue   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:   
reading marks on the limbs [e.g., palmistry];
reading omens and signs;
interpreting celestial events [falling stars, comets];
interpreting dreams;
reading marks on the body [e.g., phrenology];
reading marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
offering fire oblations, oblations from a ladle, oblations of husks, rice
powder, rice grains, ghee, and oil;
offering oblations from the mouth;
offering blood-sacrifices;
making predictions based on the fingertips;
geomancy;
laying demons in a cemetery;
placing spells on spirits;
reciting house-protection charms;
snake charming, poison-lore, scorpion-lore, rat-lore, bird-lore, crow-lore;
fortune-telling based on visions;
giving protective charms;
interpreting the calls of birds and animals —    he abstains from wrong
livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
determining lucky and unlucky gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears,
arrows, bows, and other weapons; women, boys, girls, male slaves, female
slaves; elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows,
goats, rams,
fowl, quails, lizards, long-eared rodents, tortoises, and other animals —
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:   
the rulers will march forth;
the rulers will march forth and return;
our rulers will attack, and their rulers will retreat;
their rulers will attack, and our rulers will retreat;
there will be triumph for our rulers and defeat for their rulers;
there will be triumph for their rulers and defeat for our rulers;
thus there will be triumph, thus there will be defeat —    he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:   
there will be a lunar eclipse;
there will be a solar eclipse;
there will be an occultation of an asterism;
the sun and moon will go their normal courses;
the sun and moon will go astray;
the asterisms will go their normal courses;
the asterisms will go astray;
there will be a meteor shower;
there will be a darkening of the sky;
there will be an earthquake;
there will be thunder coming from a clear sky;
there will be a rising, a setting, a darkening, a brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms;
such
will be the result of the lunar eclipse… the rising, setting,
darkening, brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms —    he abstains
from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:   
therewill be abundant rain; there will be a drought;
there will be plenty; there will be famine;
there will be rest and security; there will be danger;
there will be disease; there will be freedom from disease;
or
they earn their living by counting, accounting, calculation, composing
poetry, or teaching hedonistic arts and doctrines —   
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:   
calculating
auspicious dates for marriages, betrothals, divorces; for collecting
debts or making investments and loans; for being attractive or
unattractive; curing women who have undergone miscarriages or abortions;
reciting spells to bind a man’s tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make
him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness;
getting oracular answers to questions addressed to a mirror, to a young girl, or to a spirit medium;
worshipping the sun, worshipping the Great Brahma, bringing
forth flames from the mouth, invoking the goddess of luck —   
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   


“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:   
promising
gifts to devas in return for favors; fulfilling such promises;
demonology;
teaching house-protection spells;
inducing virility and impotence;
consecrating sites for construction;
giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing;
offering sacrificial fires;
preparing emetics, purgatives, expectorants, diuretics, headache cures;
preparing
ear-oil, eye-drops, oil for treatment through the nose, collyrium, and
counter-medicines; curing cataracts, practicing surgery, practicing as a
children’s doctor, administering medicines and treatments to cure their
after-effects —
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“A monk thus consummate
in
virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through virtue. Just
as a head-anointed noble warrior king who has defeated his
enemies
sees no danger anywhere from his enemies, in the same way the monk thus
consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through
virtue.

Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is
inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless. This is how a
monk is consummate in virtue.

Sense Restraint   

“And how
does a monk guard the doors of his senses? On seeing a form with the
eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to
dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil, unskillful
qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a sound
with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On tasting a flavor
with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation with the body… On
cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or
details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint
over the
faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or
distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the
sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being
blameless.

This is how a monk guards the doors of his senses.

Mindfulness & Alertness   

“And
how is a monk possessed of mindfulness and alertness? When going
forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward and
looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when carrying his
outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating, drinking,
chewing, and tasting… when urinating and defecating… when walking,
standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up,
talking, and remaining silent, he acts with alertness.

This is how a monk is possessed of mindfulness and alertness.
Contentedness   

“And
how is a monk content? Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its
wings as its only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to
provide for his body and almsfood to provide for his hunger. Wherever he
goes, he takes only his barest necessities along. This is how a monk is
content.

Abandoning the Hindrances   

“Endowed with this
noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense
faculties, this noble mindfulness and alertness, and this noble
contentment, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a forest, the shade of a
tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle
grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his
alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body
erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.   

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness.

He
cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he
dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the
welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and
anger. Abandoning sloth & drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness
devoid of sloth & drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light.
He cleanses his mind of sloth & drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness
and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He
cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety.

Abandoning
uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no
perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his
mind of uncertainty.   

“Suppose that a man, taking a loan, invests it in his business affairs. His business affairs succeed.

He
repays his old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his
wife. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, taking a loan, I invested
it in my business affairs. Now my business affairs have succeeded. I
have repaid my old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining my wife.’

Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.   

“Now
suppose that a man falls sick — in pain and seriously ill. He does not
enjoy his meals, and there is no strength in his body. As time passes,
he eventually recovers from that sickness. He enjoys his meals and there
is strength in his body. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, I was
sick… Now I am recovered from that sickness. I enjoy my meals and there
is strength in my body.’ Because of that he would experience joy and
happiness.

“Now suppose that a man is bound in prison. As time
passes, he eventually is released from that bondage, safe and sound,
with no loss of property.

The thought would occur to him,
‘Before, I was bound in prison. Now I am released from that bondage,
safe and sound, with no loss of my property.’ Because of that he would
experience joy and happiness.

“In the same way, when these five
hindrances are not abandoned in himself, the monk regards it as a debt, a
sickness, a prison, slavery, a road through desolate country. But when
these five hindrances are abandoned in himself, he regards it as
unindebtedness, good health, release from prison, freedom, a place of
security.

Seeing that they have been abandoned within him, he
becomes glad. Glad, he becomes enraptured. Enraptured, his body grows
tranquil. His body tranquil, he is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling
pleasure, his mind becomes concentrated.

The Four Jhanas

“Quite
withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities,
he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from
withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation.

He
permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the
rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. Just as if a skilled bathman
or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and
knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his
ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and
without — would nevertheless not drip;
even so, the monk permeates… this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal.

There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“Furthermore,
with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and
remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure,
unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation —
internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this
very body with the rapture and pleasure
born of composure. Just like a lake with spring-water welling
up
from within, having no inflow from the east, west, north, or south, and
with the skies supplying abundant showers time and again, so that the
cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and
pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of
the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates…
this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is
nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of
composure.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“And
furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous,
mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters &
remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare,
‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’
He permeates
and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure
divested of rapture. Just as in a lotus pond, some of the
lotuses,
born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish
without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and
pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their
tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water;
even so, the monk permeates… this very body with the pleasure divested
of rapture.

There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“And
furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as with the
earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in
the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither-pleasure nor stress. He sits, permeating the body with a pure,
bright awareness.
Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to
foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to
which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating
the body with a pure, bright awareness.

There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.


Insight Knowledge

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He
discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed
of the
four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice
and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution,
and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and
bound up here.’ Just as if there were a beautiful beryl gem of the
purest water — eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate
in all its aspects, and going through the middle of it was a blue,
yellow, red, white, or brown thread — and a man with good eyesight,
taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it thus: ‘This is a beautiful
beryl gem of the purest water, eight faceted, well polished, clear,
limpid, consummate in all its aspects. And this, going through the
middle of it, is a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’

In
the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge and
vision. He discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed
of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished
with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing,
dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported
here and bound up here.’

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

The Mind-made Body

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made
body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of
the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its
faculties.

Just as if a man were to draw a reed from its sheath. The thought would occur to him: ‘This is the sheath, this is the reed.

The
sheath is one thing, the reed another, but the reed has been drawn out
from the sheath.’ Or as if a man were to draw a sword from its
scabbard.
The thought would occur to him: ‘This is the sword, this is the
scabbard. The sword is one thing, the scabbard another, but the sword
has been drawn out from the scabbard.’ Or as if a man were to pull a
snake out from its slough. The thought would occur to him: ‘This is the
snake, this is the slough. The snake is one thing, the slough another,
but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.’ In the same way —
with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to creating a
mind-made body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with
form, made of the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its
faculties.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

Supranormal Powers

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the modes of supranormal
powers.

He wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one
he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He
vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if
through space. He dives in and out of the earth
as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land.

Sitting
cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand
he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful.

He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

Just as a skilled potter or his assistant could craft from
well-prepared clay whatever kind of pottery vessel he likes, or
as a skilled ivory-carver or his assistant could craft from well-prepared
ivory any kind of ivory-work he likes, or as a skilled goldsmith
or
his assistant could craft from well-prepared gold any kind of gold
article he likes; in the same way — with his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable,
steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and
inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers… He exercises influence
with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

Mind Reading

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other
beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness.

He
discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without
passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a
mind with aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without
aversion.

He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with
delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He
discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as
a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and
an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind.

He discerns an
excelled mind [one that is not at the most excellent level] as an
excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns
a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind
as an unconcentrated mind.

He discerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind.

Just
as if a young woman — or man — fond of ornaments, examining the
reflection of her own face in a bright mirror or a bowl of clear water
would know ‘blemished’ if it were blemished, or ‘unblemished’ if it were
not. In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and
bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and
attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and
inclines it to
knowledge of the awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of
other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own
awareness.

He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with
passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion… a
released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an
unreleased mind.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

Recollection of Past Lives

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
recollection of past lives (lit: previous homes).

He recollects
his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births,
four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one
thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many
aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and
expansion, [recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a
clan, had such an appearance.

Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life.

Passing
away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name,
belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such
my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life.

Passing
away from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold
past lives in their modes and details. Just as if a man were to go from
his home village to another village, and then from that village to yet
another village, and then from that village back to his home village.

The thought would occur to him, ‘I went from my home village to that village over there.

There
I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked in such a way, and
remained silent in such a way. From that village I went to that village
over there, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked
in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I
came back home.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable,
steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk
directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.

He recollects his manifold past lives… in their modes and details.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.


The Ending of Mental Fermentations

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of
the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to
be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This
is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of
stress…  These are mental fermentations…

This
is the origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of
fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of
fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from
the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the
fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge,
‘Released.’
He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task
done. There is nothing further for this world.’ Just as if there
were
a pool of water in a mountain glen — clear, limpid, and unsullied —
where a man with good eyesight standing on the bank could see shells,
gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting,
and it would occur to him, ‘This pool of water is clear, limpid, and
unsullied.

Here are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also
these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ In the same way — with
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of
the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to
be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the
cessation
of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of
stress… These are mental fermentations… This is the origination of
fermentations…
This is the cessation of fermentations… This is the
way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing,
thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the
fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release,
there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended,
the holy life fulfilled, the task done.

There is nothing further for this world.’

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“These are the three miracles that I declare, Kevatta, having directly known and realized them for myself.

Conversations with the Gods

“Once,
Kevatta, this train of thought arose in the awareness of a certain monk
in this very community of monks: ‘Where do these four great elements —
the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, and the wind
property — cease without remainder?’ Then he attained to such a state
of concentration that the way leading to the gods appeared in his
centered mind. So he approached the gods of
the retinue of the Four
Great Kings and, on arrival, asked them, ‘Friends, where do these four
great elements — the earth property, the liquid property, the fire
property, and the wind property — cease without remainder?’

“When
this was said, the gods of the retinue of the Four Great Kings said to
the monk, ‘We also don’t know where the four great elements… cease
without remainder. But there are the Four Great Kings who are higher and
more sublime than we.

They should know where the four great elements… cease without remainder.’

“So
the monk approached the Four Great Kings and, on arrival, asked them,
‘Friends, where do these four great elements… cease without remainder?’

“When
this was said, the Four Great Kings said to the monk, ‘We also don’t
know where the four great elements… cease without remainder. But there
are the gods of the Thirty-three who are higher and more sublime than
we. They should know…’

“So the monk approached the gods of the
Thirty-three and, on arrival, asked them, ‘Friends, where do these four
great elements… cease without remainder?’

“When this was said,
the gods of the Thirty-three said to the monk, ‘We also don’t know where
the four great elements… cease without remainder. But there is Sakka,
the ruler of the gods, who is higher and more sublime than we. He should
know… ‘

“So the monk approached Sakka, the ruler of the gods,
and, on arrival, asked him, ‘Friend, where do these four great elements…
cease without remainder?’

“When this was said, Sakka, the ruler
of the gods, said to the monk, ‘I also don’t know where the four great
elements… cease without remainder. But there are the Yama gods who are
higher and more sublime than I. They should know…’…

“The Yama gods said, ‘We also don’t know… But there is the god named Suyama… He should know…’…

“Suyama said, ‘I also don’t know… But there is the god named Santusita… He should know…’…

“Santusita said, ‘I also don’t know… But there are the Nimmanarati gods…
They should know…’… 


“The Nimmanarati gods
said, ‘We also don’t know… But there is the god named Sunimmita…
He should know…’…
“Then
the Great Brahma, taking the monk by the arm and leading him off to one
side, said to him, ‘These gods of the retinue of Brahma believe, “There
is nothing that the Great Brahma does not know.

There is nothing that the Great Brahma does not see.

There is nothing of which the Great Brahma is unaware.

There
is nothing that the Great Brahma has not realized.” That is why I did
not say in their presence that I, too, don’t know where the four great
elements… cease without remainder.

So you have acted wrongly, acted incorrectly, in bypassing the
Blessed
One in search of an answer to this question elsewhere. Go right back to
the Blessed One and, on arrival, ask him this question. However he
answers it, you should take it to heart.’

“Then — just as a
strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm — the
monk disappeared from the Brahma world and immediately appeared in front
of me. Having bowed down to me, he sat to one side. As he was sitting
there he said to me, ‘Lord, where do these four great elements — the
earth property, the liquid property,
the fire property, and the wind property — cease without remainder?’

King Ashoka’s gift of life for trees

And
the exemplar who has made officialdom take a relook at at its
chopping-happy ways is none other than fabled Mauryan emperor Ashoka.The
whole world will incorporate Ashokan principles in nurturing and
safeguarding roadside fruit-bearing saplings/trees in urban and
non-urban areas.Mauryan emperor was the first to promote and champion
the concept of roadside trees.“At a time when we are losing our trees on
an everyday basis,we should go back and observe what he did.

Taking
a cue from Ashoka, If you look at the areas which once covered by the
Mauryan kingdom, or Delhi, world will appreciate the importance of
roadside trees,”“Ashokan principles will help the forest department in
conserving trees for longer periods.

He deliberately chose one
species for each road. Mixing of species at close intervals can affect
the survival of trees. We will focus on a single species for an entire
stretch.”

“Ashoka vested the ownership of roadside trees in the
local people. While the government will oversee the nurturing of the
sapling, the ownership of the tree at a later stage will be given over
to the locals.”

“It is not possible to completely ban cutting of
trees, but (with the new measures) it will be minimised to a great
extent.”Forests provide the basic life support system to all the living
beings of mother earth including mankind.

Forest ecosystems
provide fresh air, water resources, fertile soil for sustenance of
agriculture, bio-diversity, climate change mitigation and numerous other
ecosystem services.

Vast sections of rural society, including a majority of the tribals, are directly dependent on forests for their livelihood.

World
Forest Departments have the primary mandate of protecting the forests
and wildlife, conserving the rich biodiversity of the world and ensuring
that the ecological balance of the forest eco-systems is maintained.

All the world forest Departments must be headed by Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Head of Forest Force(HOFF).

The Departments must have working strength including World Forest Service Officers and officers/ field staff of various cadres.
The
world a network of Protected Areas with Tiger Reserves, Wildlife
Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and 1 Community Reserve.

The
work carried out by the Departments can be broadly classified into the
following categories: regulatory, protection, conservation and
sustainable management.

As part of the regulatory functions, the
departments must enforce provisions of various legislations such as
World Forest Act, Wildlife Protection Act, Forest (Conservation) Act,
World Preservation of Trees Act, etc. and corresponding rules.
Protection functions include, boundary consolidation, protection of
forest areas from encroachment, illicit-felling, mitigation of
human-wildlife conflict, undertaking fire prevention and control
measures etc.

The conservation functions include taking up of
plantation works, soil-moisture conservation and watershed development
works for water security, conservation of rare, endangered and
threatened (RET) species and conducting awareness activities to
sensitize all sections of the society on the importance of forests,
wildlife and biodiversity. In territorial areas, the departments must
also be involved in sustainable extraction and marketing of timber and
other forest produce as per the specifications of the Working Plans.

The
Departments must also be engaged on a large scale in promoting
agro-forestry through incentivization to support farmer’s income.


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140408122316.htm

Humans
are unique in their ability to acquire language. But how? A new study
published in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences shows
that we are in fact born with the basic fundamental knowledge of
language, thus shedding light on the age-old linguistic “nature vs
nurture” debate.

While languages differ from each other in many ways, certain aspects appear to be shared across languages.

These aspects might stem from linguistic principles that are active in all human brains.

A natural question then arises: are infants born with knowledge of how the human words might sound like?

Are
infants biased to consider certain sound sequences as more word-like
than others? “The results of this new study suggest that, the sound
patterns of human languages are the product of an inborn biological
instinct, very much like birdsong,” said Prof. Iris Berent of
Northeastern University in Boston, who co-authored the study with a
research team from the International School of Advanced Studies in
Italy, headed by Dr. Jacques Mehler.

The study’s first author is
Dr. David Gómez.BLA, ShBA, LBAConsider, for instance, the
sound-combinations that occur at the beginning of words.

While
many languages have words that begin by bl (e.g., blando in Italian,
blink in English, and blusa in Spanish), few languages have words that
begin with lb. Russian is such a language (e.g., lbu, a word related to
lob, “forehead”), but even in Russian such words are extremely rare and
outnumbered by words starting with bl. Linguists have suggested that
such patterns occur because human brains are biased to favor syllables
such as bla over lba.

In line with this possibility, past
experimental research from Dr. Berent’s lab has shown that adult
speakers display such preferences, even if their native language has no
words resembling either bla or lba. But where does this knowledge stem
from? Is it due to some universal linguistic principle, or to adults’
lifelong experience with listening and producing their native language?
The Experiment
These
questions motivated our team to look carefully at how young babies
perceive different types of words. We used near-infrared spectroscopy, a
silent and non-invasive technique that tells us how the oxygenation of
the brain cortex (those very first centimeters of gray matter just below
the scalp) changes in time, to look at the brain reactions of Italian
newborn babies when listening to good and bad word candidates as
described above (e.g., blif, lbif).Working with Italian newborn infants
and their families, we observed that newborns react differently to good
and bad word candidates, similar to what adults do.

Young
infants have not learned any words yet, they do not even babble yet, and
still they share with us a sense of how words should sound.

This
finding shows that we are born with the basic, foundational knowledge
about the sound pattern of human languages.It is hard to imagine how
differently languages would sound if humans did not share such type of
knowledge. We are fortunate that we do, and so our babies can come to
the world with the certainty that they will readily recognize the sound
patterns of words-no matter the language they will grow up with.

How many languages are there in the world?

7,117 languages are spoken today.

That
number is constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the
world’s languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves
are in flux.
 
They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whoselives are shaped by our rapidly changing world.
This is a fragile time:
Roughly
40% of languages are now endangered, often with less than 1,000
speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more than
half the world’s population.

When a just born baby is kept
isolated without anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it
will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical
Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit, Classical
Hela Basa (Hela Language), Classical Pāḷi which are the same. Buddha
spoke in Magadhi.

All the 7111 languages and dialects are off
shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in
nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living speices
have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116languages are
translated by https://translate.google.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_language

The
origin of language and its evolutionary emergence in the human species
have been subjects of speculation for several centuries. The topic is
difficult to study because of the lack of direct evidence.


Consequently,
scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences
from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological
evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language
acquisition and comparisons between human language and systems of
communication existing among animals (particularly other primates). Many
argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the
origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about
the implications and directionality of this connection.’

Language origin hypotheses

Early speculations

 I
cannot doubt that language owes its origin to the imitation and
modification, aided by signs and gestures, of various natural sounds,
the voices of other animals, and man’s own instinctive cries.
 — Charles Darwin, 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.

In
1861, historical linguist Max Müller published a list of speculative
theories concerning the origins of spoken language: Bow-wow. The bow-wow
or cuckoo theory, which Müller attributed to the German philosopher
Johann Gottfried Herder, saw early words as imitations of the cries of
beasts and birds. Pooh-pooh. The pooh-pooh theory saw the first words as
emotional interjections and exclamations triggered by pain, pleasure,
surprise, etc. Ding-dong. Müller suggested what he called the ding-dong
theory, which states that all things have a vibrating natural resonance,
echoed somehow by man in his earliest words. Yo-he-ho.

The
yo-he-ho theory claims language emerged from collective rhythmic labor,
the attempt to synchronize muscular effort resulting in sounds such as
heave alternating with sounds such as ho. Ta-ta.

This did not feature in Max Müller’s list, having been proposed in 1930 by Sir Richard Paget.

According
to the ta-ta theory, humans made the earliest words by tongue movements
that mimicked manual gestures, rendering them audible.Most scholars
today consider all such theories not so much wrong—they occasionally
offer peripheral insights—as naïve and irrelevant.The problem with these
theories is that they are so narrowly mechanistic. They assume that
once our ancestors had stumbled upon the appropriate ingenious mechanism
for linking sounds with meanings, language automatically evolved and
changed.


King Ashoka’s gift of life for trees
And
the exemplar who has made officialdom take a relook at its
chopping-happy ways is none other than fabled Mauryan emperor
Ashoka.https://www.counterview.net/2020/12/farmers-stir-82-groups-from-25.html?
Mad
murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) must be forced to quit the
country as he gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs and
agitate to bring back Ballot Papers to save Democracy.
Farmers’ stir:
82 groups from 25 countries ask Mad Murderer of democratic institutions
(Modi) who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs to repeal
3 laws
Thursday, December 17, 2020

International
organisations and individuals from more than 25 countries, extending
their solidarity to the ongoing farmers’ agitation, have called it “a
beacon of hope to the millions who have been ridden over roughshod by
the current government”, said Countries’ premier civil society network,
National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM), distributing a statement
by tens of groups from across the world.
The statement, signed by
82 people’s organisations, civil society groups, social movements and
concerned individuals, said, they consider the enactment of the three
farm laws as “subversion of democratic norms”. Calling the three laws
“pro-corporate” against “farmers, workers and toiling masses”, the
signatories urged the Government of India (GoI) to talk to farmers and
repeal the three laws immediately.

The statement comes close on
the heel of the wide global coverage of the agitation in international
media and demonstrations organized in several European and North
American cities by Indian diaspora and others, as also questions raised
in the British Parliament on the way the farmers’ protests have been
treated by the GoI.

Text:

We stand in solidarity with the
ongoing historic farmers protest in India and extend support to their
demands. On June 5, 2020, amidst the spread of Covid-19 pandemic, the
Government of India hastily passed three ordinances namely Farmers’
Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020;
Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and
Farm Services Act, 2020; and Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act,
2020.
By September 2020, these ordinances were made into law without
sufficient parliamentary discussion or any talks with the farmer’s
representative and its possible ramifications on their lives.

It
is worrying to see the subversion of democratic norms and enactment of
pro-corporate laws against farmers, workers and toiling masses. India
already witnessed a huge humanitarian crisis in wake of the strict
lockdown and millions of migrant workers, small and marginal farmers
were left to fend for themselves, as the institutional mechanisms were
not set in place to safeguard them.
There is an unfolding economic
crisis but rather than taking steps to help people, another set of
anti-people laws have been passed further affecting millions of people
again.
The farms bills are going to affect not only the farmers of
India but also the agricultural workers, small traders, and common
people and promote large scale corporate control of the farming sector
impacting the food security and sovereignty.

Farmers and workers
have been protesting these laws since its inception and then passage in
the Parliament. With the demand to repeal these three farm laws,
Thousands of farmers from across India started their march towards Delhi
on November 25, 2020. They were stopped at the State borders, brutally
lathi charged, and faced tear gas shells and water cannons on the way.
They
are camping for two weeks now at the borders of Delhi and were joined
by trade unions, small traders associations, feminist organisations and
others in their call for all India strike on December 8th. Support from
different parts of the world has been pouring in too and farmers protest
have also stood with the political prisoners in the country ,
broadening the ambit of the struggle for social justice.
We urge the
Modi to talk to farmers and repeal these anti farmer laws. We stand in
solidarity with the farmers and agrarian workers in their strike for
justice, freedom and sovereignty,


08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans,


Tweet:

Stembriewe ter vervanging van EVM’s om demokrasie, vryheid, gelykheid, vryheid en broederskap te red. Plant vrugte wat bome dwarsoor die wêreld dra, om honger dood te maak, pyn en vrees te verwyder en om welsyn, geluk en vrede vir alle samelewings te bewerkstellig en om die ewige geluk te verkry.

Dr B.R. Ambedkar donder ‘Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.’ (Ek sal Prabuddha Bharat Boeddhisties maak)

Nou donder alle Aboriginal Awakened Societies ‘Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Prapanchmay karunge.’ (Ons sal die wêreld Prabuddha Prapanch maak)
Mense het begin terugkeer na hul oorspronklike Boeddhisme. Die hele wêreld sal die leerstellings van die Ontwaakte volg met bewustheid vir hul geluk, welsyn en vrede om hulle in staat te stel om die Ewige Geluk as hul finale doel te bereik.

Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: Aan Kevatta

Gratis aanlyn-stap-vir-stap gids en praktyk om Nibbana die ewige geluk te verkry in Boeddha se eie woorde vir toegewydes geklee in ‘n wit doek bedek van kop tot tone in ‘n spierwit sneeuvalomgewing soos in die vierde Jhana-praktyk
‘n Sutta per dag hou Dukkha weg
DN
11
PTS:
D i 211
Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: Aan Kevatta
vertaal
uit die Pali deur
Thanissaro
Bhikkhu © 1997–2011 Ek het dit op een gehoor
geleentheid het die geseënde in Nalanda in Pavarika se mangobos gebly.

Toe het Kevatta, die huisbewoner, die Geseënde genader en met sy aankoms neergebuig en eenkant gaan sit. Terwyl hy daar sit, sê hy vir die Geseënde:
‘Here, hierdie Nalanda is kragtig, welvarend en bevolk, gevul met mense wat in die Geseënde vertrou. Dit sou goed wees as die Geseënde ‘n monnik sou beveel om ‘n wonderwerk van psigiese krag uit sy voortreflike menslike staat te vertoon, sodat Nalanda in nog groter mate in die Geseënde sou vertrou. ‘

Toe dit gesê is, het die Geseënde aan die huisbewoner Kevatta gesê: ‘Kevatta, ek leer die monnike nie op hierdie manier nie:’ Kom, monnike, toon ‘n wonder van psigiese krag aan die leke wat wit geklee is. ‘’ A ‘n tweede keer … ‘n Derde keer het Kevatta, die huisbewoner, vir die Geseënde gesê: ‘Ek sal nie met die Geseënde redeneer nie, maar ek sê vir u: Here, hierdie Nalanda is kragtig, welvarend en bevolk, gevul met mense wat geloof het in die Geseënde. Dit sou goed wees as die Geseënde ‘n monnik sou aanwys om ‘n wonderwerk van psigiese krag vanuit sy voortreflike menslike staat te openbaar, sodat Nalanda in nog groter mate vertroue in die Geseënde sou hê. ‘

‘N Derde keer het die Geseënde aan Kevatta, die huisbewoner, gesê: “Kevatta, ek leer die monnike nie op hierdie manier nie:’ Kom, monnike, toon ‘n wonder van psigiese krag aan die leke wat wit geklee is. ‘

‘Kevatta, daar is hierdie drie wonderwerke wat ek verklaar het, omdat ek dit regstreeks self geken en besef het. Watter drie? Die wonder van psigiese krag, die wonder van telepatie en die wonder van onderrig.

Die wonder van psigiese krag “En wat is die wonder van psigiese krag? Daar is die geval waar ‘n monnik veelvoudig psigies gebruik
magte. Hy was een en word baie; omdat hy baie was, word hy een. Hy verskyn. Hy verdwyn. Hy gaan ongehinderd deur mure, walle en berge asof deur die ruimte. Hy duik in en uit die aarde asof dit water is. Hy loop op water sonder om te sink asof dit droëland is. Hy sit kruisbeen soos ‘n gevleuelde voël deur die lug. Met sy hand raak hy aan en streel selfs die son en maan, so magtig en kragtig. Hy oefen invloed uit met syne
liggaam selfs tot by die Brahma-wêrelde.

‘Dan sien iemand wat geloof en oortuiging in hom het, veelvuldige psigiese kragte uitoefen … wat sy liggaam beïnvloed tot in die Brahma-wêreld. Hy rapporteer dit aan iemand wat geen geloof en geen oortuiging het nie en sê vir hom: ‘Is dit nie wonderlik nie? Is dit nie verstommend nie, hoe groot die krag, hoe groot die bekwaamheid van hierdie kontemplatiewe nie. Net nou het ek gesien hoe hy veelvuldige psigiese kragte beoefen … met sy liggaam invloed uitoefen tot in die Brahma-wêreld. ‘

“Dan sou die persoon sonder geloof, sonder oortuiging, met vertroue en oortuiging vir die persoon sê: ‘Meneer, daar is ‘n bekoring genaamd die Gandhari-bekoring waardeur die monnik veelvoudige psigiese kragte uitgeoefen het … met sy liggaam invloed uitoefen, selfs tot by die Brahma-wêrelde. ‘Wat dink jy, Kevatta - is dit nie die man nie?
sou hy sonder geloof, sonder oortuiging met geloof en oortuiging aan die man sê? ”

‘Ja, heer, dit is net wat hy sou sê.’

‘As ek hierdie nadeel aan die wonder van psigiese krag sien, Kevatta, voel ek verskrik, verneder en walglik van die wonder van psigiese krag.

Die wonder van telepatie

“En wat is die wonder van telepatie? Daar is die geval waar ‘n monnik die gedagtes, die geestelike gebeure, die gedagtes, die nadenke van ander wesens, ander individue lees, [sê:] ‘So is jou denke, hier is jou denke, dus is jou gedagtes.’


‘Dan sien iemand wat geloof en oortuiging in hom het, die gedagtes van ander wesens lees … Hy rapporteer dit aan iemand wat geen geloof en geen oortuiging het nie en sê vir hom:’ Is dit nie wonderlik nie? Is dit nie verstommend nie, hoe groot die krag, hoe groot die bekwaamheid van
hierdie kontemplatiewe. Netnou het ek gesien hoe hy die gedagtes lees … van ander wesens … ‘

“Dan sou die persoon sonder geloof, sonder oortuiging, met vertroue en oortuiging vir die persoon sê: ‘Meneer, daar is ‘n bekoring genaamd die Manika-bekoring waardeur die monnik die gedagtes lees … van ander wesens …’ Wat dink u, Kevatta - is dit nie wat die man sonder geloof, sonder oortuiging, die man met geloof sou sê nie?
en met oortuiging? ”
‘Ja, heer, dit is net wat hy sou sê.’

‘Toe ek hierdie nadeel aan die wonderwerk van telepatie sien, voel ek verskrik, verneder en walglik van die wonderwerk van telepatie.
Die wonder van onderrig “En wat is die wonder van onderrig? Daar is die geval waar ‘n monnik op hierdie manier instruksies gee:
‘Rig u gedagte op hierdie manier, rig dit nie daarin nie. Sorg na dinge op hierdie manier, moenie daarin aandag gee nie. Laat dit los, gaan in en bly daarin. ’Dit, Kevatta, word die wonder van onderrig genoem.

‘Verder is daar die geval waar ‘n Tathagata in die wêreld verskyn, waardig en tereg selfwakker.

Hy leer die Dhamma bewonderenswaardig in sy begin, bewonderenswaardig in sy middel, bewonderenswaardig aan die einde. Hy verkondig die heilige lewe sowel in sy besonderhede as in sy wese, heeltemal volmaak, oortreflik suiwer.

‘’ N Seun van ‘n huishouding of huisbewoner, wat die Dhamma hoor, kry oortuiging in die Tathagata en weerspieël: ‘Die huishoudelike lewe is beperkend, ‘n stowwerige pad.

Die voortgaande lewe is soos die buitelug. Dit is nie maklik om tuis te leef om die heilige lewe heeltemal perfek, heeltemal suiwer, soos ‘n gepoleerde, te beoefen nie
dop. Wat as ek my hare en baard afskeer, die oker aantrek
klere, en gaan uit die huishoudelike lewe na dakloosheid? ’

“Na ‘n geruime tyd laat vaar hy dan sy rykdom, groot of klein; verlaat sy familielid, groot of klein; skeer sy hare en baard af, trek die okerkleed aan en gaan uit die huishoudelike lewe in dakloosheid.

‘As hy so uitgegaan het, leef hy ingehou deur die reëls van die kloosterkode en sien gevaar in die kleinste foute. Volledig in sy deug, bewaak hy die deure van sy sintuie, is hy bewus en waaksaam en is tevrede.

Die kleiner afdeling oor deug

‘En hoe is ‘n monnik op grond van volkome voltrek? As hy die neem van die lewe laat vaar, onthou hy hom van die neem van die lewe. Hy woon met sy staaf neergelê, sy mes neergelê, nougeset, barmhartig, medelydend vir die welsyn van alle lewende wesens.

Dit is deel van sy deug.

“Hy laat vaar die neem van wat nie gegee word nie, en neem dit weg om te neem wat nie gegee word nie. Hy neem slegs wat gegee word, aanvaar net wat gegee word, leef nie deur diefstal nie, maar deur middel van ‘n self wat rein geword het.

Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Die ontbering laat vaar, hy leef ‘n selibate lewe, afsydig, en weerhou hom van die seksuele daad wat die dorpenaar se manier is. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

“Hy laat vals spraak af, en weerhou hom van vals spraak. Hy praat die waarheid, hou die waarheid vas, is vas, betroubaar, geen bedrieër van die wêreld nie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘As hy verdeeldheidsrede laat vaar, onthou hy hom van verdeeldheid. Wat hy hier gehoor het, sê hy nie daar om daardie mense van hierdie mense af te breek nie.

Wat hy daar gehoor het, sê hy nie hier om hierdie mense van die mense daar af te breek nie.

Om sodoende diegene te versoen wat uitmekaar gebreek het of die wat verenig is, vas te hou, is hy lief vir ooreenstemming, is verheug oor ooreenstemming, geniet dit eensgesind, spreek dinge wat ooreenstemming skep.

Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Hy beledig beledigende woorde, en weerhou hom van beledigende spraak. Hy spreek woorde wat strelend vir die oor is, wat liefdevol is, wat na die hart gaan, wat beleefd, aantreklik en aangenaam vir mense in die algemeen is. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

“Hy laat ledige gesels weg, en hy onthou van ledige gesels. Hy praat in seisoen, praat wat feitelik is, wat ooreenstem met die doel, die Dhamma en die Vinaya. Hy praat woorde waardevol, seisoenaal, redelik, omskryf, verbind met die doel.

Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Hy onthou dat hy die saad- en plantlewe nie skade berokken nie.

‘Hy eet net een keer per dag, en weerhou hom van die aandmaal en eet op die verkeerde tyd van die dag.

‘Hy onthou van dans, sang, instrumentale musiek en om nie programme te kyk nie. ‘Hy hou daarvan om kranse te dra en homself met geure en skoonheidsmiddels te verfraai.

‘Hy onthou van hoë en luukse beddens en sitplekke.

‘Hy onthou dat hy nie goud en geld aanvaar nie.

‘Hy onthou dat hy ongekookte graan aanvaar … rou vleis … vrouens en meisies … slawe en slavinne … bokke en skape … hoenders en varke … olifante, beeste, perde en merries … velde en eiendom.


‘Hy weerhou daarvan om boodskappe uit te voer … van koop en verkoop … van valse weegskaal, valse metale en valse maatreëls … van omkopery, misleiding en bedrog.

‘Hy onthou van verminking, teregstelling, gevangenisstraf, roof op roof, plundering en geweld. ‘Dit is ook deel van sy deug.

Die tussentydse afdeling oor deugsaamheid “Terwyl sommige priesters en
nadenke, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, is verslaaf aan die beskadiging van saad en plantlewe soos hierdie - plante wat voortplant uit wortels, stingels, gewrigte, ontluikings en sade - hy onthou nie van die beskadiging van saad en plantlewe soos hierdie nie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan die verbruik van opgegaarde goed soos hierdie - opgegaarde kos, opgeboude drankies, opgebergde klere, opgebergde voertuie, opgebergde beddegoed , opgegaarde geure en opgegaarde vleis - hy onthou dat hy sulke goed opgeberg het.
Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan die sien van programme soos hierdie - dans, sang, instrumentale musiek, toneelstukke, ballade-voordragte, handeklap, simbale en tromme, towerlantertonele, akrobaties en optower truuks, olifantgevegte, perdegevegte, buffelgevegte, bulgevegte, bokgevegte, ramgevegte, haangevegte, kwartelgevegte; veg met stokke, boks, worstel, oorlogspeletjies, oproepe, gevegsarrays en regiment-resensies - hy hou nie daarvan om programme soos hierdie te kyk nie.
Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan agtelose en ledige speletjies soos hierdie - agt-ry skaak, tien-ry skaak, skaak in die lug, hopscotch, spillikins, dobbelsteen, stokkiespeletjies, hand -foto’s, balspeletjies, deur speelgoedpype blaas, met speelgoedploeë speel, kiekels draai, speel met windpompe van speelgoed, speelgoedmaatreëls, speelgoedwaens, speelgoedboë, raai letters in die lug, raai gedagtes, boots die misvormings na - hy onthou agtelose en ledige speletjies soos hierdie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan hoë en luukse meubels soos hierdie - oormatige rusbanke, banke versier met gekerfde diere, langhaarbedekkings, veelkleurige lappieskomberse, wit wolbedekkings , wolbedekkies geborduur met blomme of dierlike figure, opgestopte dekbedstukke, bedekkings met rand, sybedekkies geborduur met edelstene; groot wol matte; olifant-, perd- en strydwa-matte, wildsbok-matte, hert-en-matte; rusbanke met afdakke, rusbanke
met rooi kussings vir die kop en voete - hy onthou nie van hoë en luukse meubels soos hierdie nie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan geure, skoonheidsmiddels en skoonheidsmiddele soos hierdie: poeiers in die liggaam vryf, met olies masseer, in geparfumeerde water bad, die ledemate knie, spieëls gebruik , salf, kranse, geure, ys, gesigpoeiers, maskara, armbande, kopbande, versierde wandelstokke, versierde waterbottels, swaarde, fyn sonskerms, versierde sandale, tulbande,
juwele, yak-stert-fluitjies, lang rande wit klere - hy onthou nie van die gebruik van geure, skoonheidsmiddels en verfraaiingsmiddele soos hierdie nie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan praatjies oor geringe onderwerpe soos hierdie - praat oor konings, rowers, staatsministers; leërs, alarms en gevegte; kos en drank; klere, meubels, kranse en geure; familielede; voertuie; dorpe, dorpe, stede, die platteland; vroue en helde; die skinder van die straat en die put; verhale van die dooies; verhale oor diversiteit [filosofiese besprekings oor die verlede en die toekoms], die skepping van die wêreld en die see, en praat oor of daar dinge bestaan ​​al dan nie - hy hou nie daarvan om oor nederige onderwerpe soos
soos hierdie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan debatte soos hierdie -’ Verstaan ​​u hierdie leer en dissipline? Ek is die een wat hierdie leer en dissipline verstaan. Hoe kon u hierdie leer en dissipline verstaan? Jy oefen verkeerd. Ek oefen reg. Ek is konsekwent. Jy is nie. Wat eers gesê moet word, het u laaste gesê. Wat laaste gesê moet word, het u eers gesê. Wat u so lank geneem het om uit te dink, is weerlê. U leerstelling is omvergewerp. Jy is verslaan. Gaan probeer u leerstelling red; trek jouself uit as jy kan! ’- hy onthou van debatte soos hierdie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.


“Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, verslaaf is aan boodskappe en opdragte vir mense soos hierdie - konings, predikante van die staat, edele krygers, priesters, huisbewoners of jongmense [wat sê] ‘Gaan hierheen , gaan soontoe, neem dit daarheen, haal dit hier ‘- hy onthou van die boodskappe en
opdragte vir mense soos hierdie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, besig is met planne, oorreed, wenke, verkleineer en wins met wins beoefen, onthou hy hom van vorms van planne en oortuiging [onbehoorlike maniere om materiële ondersteuning van donateurs te probeer verkry] soos hierdie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

Die groot afdeling oor deug

“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers leef van voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, behou hulle hulself deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos:
leesmerke op die ledemate [bv. palmkunde];
leesvoortekens en tekens;
interpretasie van hemelse gebeure [sterre, komete];
interpretasie van drome;
leesmerke op die liggaam [bv. frenologie];
leesmerke op lap wat deur muise geknaag word;
vuuroffers aanbied, spysoffers van skottels, skulpoffers, rys
poeier, ryskorrels, ghee en olie;
spysoffer uit die mond;
bloedoffers bring;
voorspellings maak op grond van die vingerpunte;
geomansie;
demone in ‘n begraafplaas lê;
toor op geeste;
voordrag van huisbeskermings;
slang sjarmant, giflore, skerpioen-lore, rot-lore, voël-lore, kraai-lore;
fortuinvertelling gebaseer op visioene;
beskermende bekoorlikhede;
die oproepe van voëls en diere te interpreteer - hy onthou van verkeerdheid
lewensonderhoud, van geringe kunste soos hierdie.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en kontemplatiewe, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, hulself handhaaf deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos: om gelukkige en ongelukkige juwele, klere, stokke, swaarde, spiese, pyle, boë en ander wapens te bepaal; vrouens, seuns, meisies, slawe, slawe; olifante, perde, buffels, bulle, koeie,
bokke, ramme, hoenders, kwartels, akkedisse, langoor knaagdiere, skilpaaie en ander diere - hy onthou van verkeerde lewensonderhoud, van nederige kunste soos hierdie.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, hulself handhaaf deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos voorspel:
die heersers sal optrek;
die heersers sal optrek en terugkeer;
ons heersers sal aanval, en hulle heersers sal terugtrek;
hulle heersers sal aanval, en ons heersers sal terugtrek;
daar sal ‘n triomf wees vir ons heersers en ‘n nederlaag vir hul heersers;
daar sal ‘n triomf wees vir hulle heersers en ‘n nederlaag vir ons heersers;
dus sal daar triomf wees, dus sal daar ‘n nederlaag wees - hy onthou van verkeerde lewensonderhoud, van nederige kunste soos hierdie.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, hulself handhaaf deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos voorspel:
daar sal ‘n maansverduistering wees;
daar sal ‘n sonsverduistering wees;
daar sal ‘n okkultasie van ‘n asterisme wees;
die son en die maan gaan normaalweg;
die son en die maan sal verdwaal;
die sterretjies sal normaalweg gaan;
die sterretjies sal afdwaal;
daar sal ‘n meteoorreën wees;
daar sal ‘n verdonkering van die hemel wees;
daar sal ‘n aardbewing wees;
daar sal donderweer uit ‘n helder lug kom;
daar sal ‘n opkomende, ‘n ondergaande, ‘n verdonkering, ‘n verheldering van die son, maan en sterretjies wees;
dit sal die gevolg wees van die maansverduistering … die opkoms, ondergang, verdonkering, verheldering van die son, maan en sterretjies - hy onthou van verkeerde lewensonderhoud, van nederige kunste soos hierdie.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers, wat leef in voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, hulself handhaaf deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos voorspel:
daar sal oorvloed reën wees; daar sal droogte wees;
daar sal oorvloed wees; daar sal hongersnood wees;
daar sal rus en veiligheid wees; daar sal gevaar wees;
daar sal siekte wees; daar sal vry wees van siektes;
of hulle verdien hul brood deur te tel, boek te hou, te bereken, poësie te komponeer of om hedonistiese kunsies en leerstellings te onderrig -
hy onthou van verkeerde lewensonderhoud, van nederige kunste soos hierdie.

“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers leef van voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, behou hulle hulself deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos:
die berekening van gunstige datums vir huwelike, verlowings, egskeidings; vir die invordering van skuld of die maak van beleggings en lenings; omdat dit aantreklik of onaantreklik is; die genesing van vroue wat miskrame of aborsies ondergaan het; towerspreuke voordra om die tong van ‘n man te bind, sy kake lam te maak, om beheer oor sy hande te laat verloor of doofheid te bewerkstellig;
om antwoorde te kry op vrae wat aan ‘n spieël, ‘n jong meisie of ‘n geestesmedium gerig word;
aanbid die son, aanbid die Groot Brahma, bring
vlamme uit die mond, en roep die godin van geluk op -
hy onthou van verkeerde lewensonderhoud, van nederige kunste soos hierdie.


“Terwyl sommige priesters en bepeinsers leef van voedsel wat in die geloof gegee word, behou hulle hulself deur verkeerde lewensonderhoud, deur sulke nederige kunste soos:
belowend
geskenke aan devas in ruil vir gunste; die nakoming van sulke beloftes;
demonologie;
onderrig vir huisbeskermings;
induseer viriliteit en impotensie;
inwydingspersele vir konstruksie;
seremoniële mondspoelmiddels en seremoniële bad;
offerbrande;
voorbereiding van emetika, purgeermiddels, ekspektorante, diuretika, hoofpynkure;
voorbereiding van oorolie, oogdruppels, olie vir behandeling deur die neus, kollyrium en teenmedisyne; genesing van katarakte, chirurgie beoefen, as kinderdokter oefen, medisyne en behandelings toedien om hul newe-effekte te genees -
hy onthou van verkeerde lewensonderhoud, van nederige kunste soos hierdie. Ook dit is deel van sy deug.

‘’ N Monnik is dus volmaak
in deug sien geen gevaar nêrens van sy selfbeheersing deur deug nie. Net soos ‘n hoofgesalfde edele vegterskoning wat syne verslaan het
vyande sien nêrens gevaar van sy vyande nie, op dieselfde manier sien die monnik sodoende in sy deug geen gevaar nêrens van sy selfbeheersing deur deug nie.

Hy is toegerus met hierdie edele versameling van deug en is innerlik sensitief vir die plesier om onberispelik te wees. Dit is hoe ‘n monnik volwaardig is.

Sinbeperking

‘En hoe beskerm ‘n monnik die deure van sy sintuie? As hy ‘n vorm met die oog sien, begryp hy geen tema of besonderhede waardeur hy - as hy sonder beperking oor die fakulteit van die oog sou woon - slegte, onvaardige eienskappe soos hebsug of nood hom kan aanval nie. Om ‘n geluid met die oor te hoor … As jy ‘n reuk met die neus ruik … Om ‘n smaak met die tong te proe … As hy ‘n tasbare gevoel met die liggaam aanraak … As hy ‘n idee met die intellek ken, begryp hy geen tema of detail nie waardeur - as hy sonder beperking sou woon
oor die vermoë van die intellek - slegte, onvaardige eienskappe soos hebsug of nood kan hom aanval. Hy is toegerus met hierdie edele selfbeheersing oor die sinvolle vermoëns en is innerlik sensitief vir die plesier om onberispelik te wees.

Dit is hoe ‘n monnik die deure van sy sintuie bewaak.

Mindfulness & Alertness

“En hoe besit ‘n monnik bewustheid en waaksaamheid? As hy vorentoe gaan en terugkeer, tree hy met waaksaamheid op. As u na buite kyk en wegkyk … wanneer u sy ledemate buig en uitsteek … as u sy buitekleed, sy bo-kleed en sy bak dra … as u eet, drink, kou en proe … as u urineer en ontlas … wanneer u loop, staan, sit, aan die slaap raak, wakker word,
praat, en swyg, tree hy met waaksaamheid op.

Dit is hoe ‘n monnik bewus en waaksaam is.
Inhoud

‘En hoe is ‘n monnik inhoud? Net soos ‘n voël, waar hy ook al gaan, met sy vlerke as enigste las vlieg; so is hy ook tevrede met ‘n stel klere om vir sy liggaam te sorg en aalmoesvoedsel om vir sy honger te sorg. Waar hy ook al gaan, neem hy net sy naaste benodigdhede saam. Dit is hoe ‘n monnik tevrede is.

Die hindernisse te laat vaar

“Hy is toegerus met hierdie edele versameling van deug, hierdie edele beheersing oor die sinvolle vermoëns, hierdie edele bewustheid en waaksaamheid, en hierdie edele tevredenheid, hy soek ‘n afgesonderde woning: ‘n bos, die skaduwee van ‘n boom, ‘n berg, ‘n glans, ‘n heuwelgrot, ‘n karnelgrond, ‘n oerwoudbos, die buitelug, ‘n hoop strooi. Na sy maaltyd, terug van sy aalmoese, gaan sit hy, kruis sy bene, hou sy lyf vas
regop, en bring bewustheid na vore.

‘Hy laat gierigheid met betrekking tot die wêreld weg, en hy woon by ‘n bewustheid sonder hebsug.

Hy maak sy gedagtes skoon van hebsug. Hy verlaat slegte wil en woede, en hy bly by ‘n bewustheid sonder slegte wil, simpatiek met die welsyn van alle lewende wesens. Hy maak sy gedagtes skoon van slegte wil en woede. As hy luiheid en slaperigheid verlaat, woon hy met ‘n bewustheid sonder luiaardheid, bedagsaam, waaksaam en waarnemend vir lig. Hy maak sy gedagtes skoon van luiaardheid en slaperigheid. Onrustigheid en angs laat vaar, woon hy ongestoord, sy gedagtes innerlik stil. Hy reinig sy gedagtes van rusteloosheid en angs.

Onsekerheid laat vaar, maar hy bly oor onsekerheid heen, sonder enige benoudheid met betrekking tot vaardige geestelike eienskappe. Hy maak sy gedagtes skoon van onsekerheid.

“Gestel ‘n man, wat ‘n lening neem, belê dit in sy sakesake. Sy sakesake slaag.

Hy betaal sy ou skuld terug en daar is ekstra oor vir die onderhoud van sy vrou. Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Voordat ek ‘n lening aangegaan het, het ek dit in my sakesake belê. Nou het my sakesake geslaag. Ek
my ou skuld terugbetaal het en daar is nog oor om my vrou te onderhou. ‘

Daarom sou hy vreugde en geluk ervaar.


“Veronderstel nou dat ‘n man siek word - in pyn en ernstig siek. Hy geniet nie sy maaltye nie, en daar is geen krag in sy liggaam nie. Na verloop van tyd herstel hy uiteindelik van die siekte. Hy geniet sy maaltye en daar is krag in sy liggaam. Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Voorheen was ek siek … Nou is ek van die siekte herstel. Ek geniet my maaltye en daar is krag in my liggaam. ’Daarom sou hy vreugde en geluk ervaar.

“Veronderstel nou dat ‘n man in die tronk is. Namate die tyd verbygaan, word hy uiteindelik vry van die slawerny, veilig en gesond, sonder verlies aan eiendom.

Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Voorheen was ek in die tronk gebind. Nou is ek vry en veilig van daardie slawerny, sonder verlies van my eiendom. ’Daarom sou hy vreugde en geluk ervaar.

‘Op dieselfde manier, as hierdie vyf hindernisse nie in homself verlaat word nie, beskou die monnik dit as ‘n skuld, ‘n siekte, ‘n gevangenis, slawerny, ‘n weg deur ‘n verlate land. Maar wanneer hierdie vyf hindernisse in homself laat vaar word, beskou hy dit as onskuld, goeie gesondheid, vrylating uit die tronk, vryheid, ‘n plek van veiligheid.

Toe hy sien dat hulle in hom verlaat is, word hy bly. Bly, hy raak betower. Betower, sy liggaam raak rustig. Sy liggaam is rustig, hy is sensitief vir plesier. Hy voel plesierig en raak gekonsentreerd.

Die vier Jhanas

“Hy is heeltemal onttrek van sensualiteit, onttrek aan ongeskoolde geestelike eienskappe, en gaan in en bly in die eerste jhana: wegraping en plesier gebore uit onttrekking, gepaard met gerigte denke en evaluering.

Hy deurdring en deurdring, vul hierdie liggaam vol met die wegraping en plesier wat uit onttrekking gebore is. Net asof ‘n bekwame badman of badmanleerling badpoeier in ‘n koperbak gaan gooi en aanmekaar knie, dit weer en weer met water besprinkel, sodat sy bal badpoeier - versadig, vogbelaai, binne en buite deurdring - nogtans nie drup nie;
nogtans deurdring die monnik … hierdie liggaam met die wegraping en plesier wat uit onttrekking gebore is.

Daar is niks van sy hele liggaam wat nie deur die wegraping en plesier gebore word nie.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

‘Verder, met die stilbly van gerigte gedagtes en evaluasies, betree hy en bly hy in die tweede jhana: wegraping en plesier gebore uit kalmte, eenwording van bewustheid vry van gerigte denke en evaluering - interne versekering. Hy deurdring en deurdring, vul dit en vul hierdie liggaam met die wegraping en plesier
gebore uit kalmte. Net soos ‘n meer met bronwaterput
van binne af, sonder instroom van die ooste, weste, noorde of suide, en met die wolke wat weer en weer groot reën bied, sodat die koel bron van water wat binne-in die meer opkom, sal deurdring en deurdring, genoeg word en vul dit met koel water, en daar is geen deel van die meer wat deur die koel waters oorval word nie; nogtans deurdring die monnik … hierdie liggaam met die wegraping en plesier wat uit kalmte gebore is. Daar is niks van sy hele liggaam wat deur die wegraping en plesier uit kalmte gebore word nie.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

‘En verder, met die vervaag van die wegraping, bly hy gelyk, bedag en waaksaam en voel hy plesier met die liggaam. Hy betree en bly in die derde jhana, waarvan die edele verklaar: ‘Gelyke en bedagsaam, hy het ‘n aangename blywende.’
Hy deurdring en deurdring, vul en vul hierdie einste liggaam met die plesier wat weggeruk word. Net soos in ‘n lotusdam, maak sommige van die
lotusse, gebore en in die water groei, bly gedompel in die water en floreer sonder om uit die water op te staan, sodat dit deurtrek en deurdring, gevul is en gevul is met koel water van hul wortels tot by hul punte, en niks van daardie lotusse nie. sonder koel water sal wees; nogtans deurdring die monnik … hierdie liggaam met die plesier wat wegrap word.

Daar is niks van sy hele liggaam wat nie oorval is van plesier wat van die wegraping ontneem word nie.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

“En verder, met die versaking van plesier en spanning - soos met die vroeëre verdwyning van opgewondenheid en nood - betree hy en bly hy in die vierde jhana: suiwerheid van gelykheid en bewustheid, nie-plesier of spanning. Hy sit en deurdring die liggaam met ‘n suiwer, helder bewustheid.
Net asof ‘n man van kop tot voet met ‘n wit lap bedek sit, sodat daar geen deel van sy liggaam is waarheen die wit lap nie uitsteek nie; nogtans sit die monnik en dring die liggaam deur met ‘n suiwer, helder bewustheid.

Daar is niks van sy hele liggaam wat deur die suiwer, helder bewustheid oorval word nie.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.


Insig Kennis

‘Met sy gedagtes wat so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurdringbaarheid bereik is, rig en neig hy dit tot kennis en visie. Hy onderskei: ‘Hierdie liggaam van my is toegerus met vorm, saamgestel
van die vier primêre elemente, gebore uit moeder en vader, gevoed met rys en pap, onderhewig aan ongelykheid, vryf, druk, ontbind en versprei. En hierdie bewussyn van my word hier ondersteun en hier vasgebind. ‘Net asof daar ‘n pragtige beriel-juweel van die suiwerste water was - agt gefasetteerde, goed gepoleer, helder, helder, volkome in al sy aspekte en deur die middel van dit was ‘n blou, geel, rooi, wit of bruin draad - en ‘n man met ‘n goeie sig, wat dit in sy hand geneem het, sou daarop nadink: ‘Dit is ‘n pragtige berieljuweel van die suiwerste water, agt fasette, goed gepoleer, helder, helder, volledig in al sy aspekte. En dit, deur die middel daarvan, is ‘n blou, geel, rooi, wit of bruin draad. ‘

Op dieselfde manier - met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurlatbaarheid bereik - rig en neig die monnik dit tot kennis en visie. Hy onderskei: ‘Hierdie liggaam van my is toegerus met vorm, saamgestel uit die vier primêre elemente, gebore uit moeder en vader, gevoed met rys en pap, onderhewig aan ongelykheid, vryf, druk, ontbinding en verspreiding. En hierdie bewussyn van my word hier ondersteun en hier gebind. ‘

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

Die verstandelike liggaam

“Met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurdringbaarheid, rig en neig hy dit tot die skep van ‘n verstandelike liggaam. Vanuit hierdie liggaam skep hy ‘n ander liggaam, toegerus met vorm, gemaak van die verstand, volledig in al sy dele, nie minderwaardig in sy
fakulteite.

Net asof ‘n man ‘n riet uit sy skede sou trek. Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Dit is die skede, dit is die riet.

Die skede is een ding, die riet iets anders, maar die riet is uit die skede getrek. ’Of asof iemand die swaard daaruit sou trek
skede. Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Dit is die swaard, dit is die skede. Die swaard is een ding, die skede is die ander, maar die swaard is uit die skede getrek. ’Of asof ‘n man ‘n slang uit sy sloot sou haal. Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Dit is die slang, dit is die sloeg. Die slang is een ding, die slog ‘n ander, maar die slang is uit die sloot getrek. ‘Op dieselfde manier - met sy gedagtes dus gekonsentreerd, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig, en tot ondeurstelbaarheid bereik, rig en neig die monnik hom tot die skep van ‘n verstandelike liggaam. Vanuit hierdie liggaam skep hy ‘n ander liggaam, toegerus met vorm, gemaak van die verstand, volledig in al sy dele, nie minderwaardig in sy vermoëns nie.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

Supranormale magte

“Met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot onveranderlike bereiking, rig en neig hy dit tot die maniere van bo-normale kragte.

Hy het veelvuldige bo-normale magte. Hy was een en word baie; omdat hy baie was, word hy een. Hy verskyn. Hy verdwyn. Hy gaan ongehinderd deur mure, walle en berge asof deur die ruimte. Hy duik in en uit die aarde
asof dit water is. Hy loop op water sonder om te sink asof dit droëland is.

Hy sit kruisbeen soos ‘n gevleuelde voël deur die lug. Met sy hand raak hy aan en streel selfs die son en maan, so magtig en kragtig.

Hy oefen invloed uit met sy liggaam tot in die Brahma-wêreld.

Net soos ‘n vaardige pottebakker of sy assistent daaruit kan werk
goed voorbereide klei van watter aardewerkpot hy ook al hou, of
as ‘n bekwame ivoorkerwer of sy assistent goed voorberei kon maak
ivoor enige soort ivoorwerk waarvan hy hou, of as bekwame goudsmid
of sy assistent enige goudproduk waarvan hy hou, uit goed voorbereide goud kan vervaardig; op dieselfde manier - met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurlatbaarheid bereik - rig en neig die monnik dit na die wyses van bo-normale kragte … Hy oefen invloed uit met sy liggaam selfs so ver as die Brahma-wêrelde.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.


Gedagtes lees

“Met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurlatbaarheid bereik, rig en neig hy dit tot kennis van die bewustheid van ander wesens. Hy ken die bewustheid van ander
wesens, ander individue, wat dit met sy eie bewustheid omvat het.

Hy onderskei ‘n verstand met passie as ‘n verstand met passie, en ‘n verstand sonder passie as ‘n verstand sonder passie. Hy onderskei ‘n verstand met afkeer as ‘n verstand met afkeer, en ‘n verstand sonder afkeer as ‘n verstand sonder afkeer.

Hy onderskei ‘n verstand met dwaling as ‘n verstand met dwaling, en ‘n verstand sonder dwaling as ‘n verstand sonder dwaling. Hy onderskei ‘n beperkte verstand as ‘n beperkte verstand, en ‘n verstrooide verstand as ‘n verstrooide verstand. Hy onderskei ‘n vergrote verstand as ‘n vergrote verstand, en ‘n vergroot verstand as ‘n onvergrote verstand.

Hy onderskei ‘n uitnemende verstand [een wat nie op die beste vlak is nie] as ‘n uitnemende verstand, en ‘n onoortreflike verstand as ‘n onoortreflike verstand. Hy onderskei ‘n gekonsentreerde verstand as ‘n gekonsentreerde verstand, en ‘n ongekonsentreerde verstand as ‘n ongekonsentreerde verstand.

Hy onderskei ‘n vrygestelde verstand as ‘n vrygestelde verstand, en ‘n onbevryde verstand as ‘n onbevryde verstand.

Net asof ‘n jong vrou - of ‘n man - lief is vir ornamente, wat die weerkaatsing van haar eie gesig in ‘n helder spieël of ‘n bak helder water sou ondersoek, sou ‘gebrek’ wees as dit gebreek sou word, of ‘onbesmet’ as dit nie was nie. Op dieselfde manier - met sy gemoed so gekonsentreerd, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurlatbaarheid bereik - rig die monnik en
neig dit tot kennis van die bewustheid van ander wesens. Hy ken die bewustheid van ander wesens, ander individue, omdat hy dit met sy eie bewustheid omvat het.

Hy onderskei ‘n verstand met passie as ‘n verstand met passie, en ‘n verstand sonder passie as ‘n verstand sonder passie … ‘n vrygestelde verstand as ‘n vrygestelde verstand, en ‘n onbevryde verstand as ‘n onbevryde verstand.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

Herinnering aan vorige lewens

“Met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot onverstoorbaar bereik, rig en neig hy dit tot kennis van die herinnering aan vorige lewens (lett: vorige huise).

Hy herinner aan sy veelvuldige lewens in die verlede, dit wil sê een geboorte, twee geboortes, drie geboortes, vier, vyf, tien, twintig, dertig, veertig, vyftig, honderd, duisend, honderdduisend, baie eeue van kosmiese inkrimping, baie eeue van kosmiese uitbreiding, baie eeue van kosmiese inkrimping en uitbreiding, [onthou], ‘Daar het ek so ‘n naam gehad, het tot so ‘n clan behoort, so ‘n voorkoms gehad.

So was my kos, so my ervaring van plesier en pyn, so die einde van my lewe.

Toe ek van daardie toestand af weg is, het ek weer daar opgestaan. Daar het ek ook so ‘n naam gehad, tot so ‘n familie behoort, so ‘n voorkoms gehad. So was my kos, so my ervaring van plesier en pyn, so die einde van my lewe.

Toe ek van die toestand verbygegaan het, het ek hier weer opgestaan. ’Hy onthou dus sy veelvuldige lewens in die verlede in hul wyses en besonderhede. Net asof ‘n man van sy tuisdorp na ‘n ander dorp sou gaan, en dan van daardie dorp na ‘n ander dorp, en dan van daardie dorp terug na sy tuisdorp.

Die gedagte sou by hom opkom: ‘Ek het van my tuisdorp na daardie dorp daar gegaan.

Daar het ek so gestaan, so gesit, so gepraat en so gebly. Van daardie dorp af het ek na daardie dorp daar gegaan, en daar het ek op so ‘n manier gestaan, op so ‘n manier gesit, op so ‘n manier gesels en op so ‘n manier stilgebly. Van daardie dorp af het ek teruggekeer huis toe. ’Op dieselfde manier - met sy gemoed so gekonsentreerd, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigsaam, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurdringbaarheid - die monnik
rig en neig dit tot kennis van die herinnering aan vorige lewens.

Hy onthou sy menigvuldige lewens in die verlede … in hul wyses en besonderhede.

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.


Die einde van geestelike gistings

“Met sy gemoed so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig en tot ondeurdringbaarheid, rig en neig die monnik hom tot die kennis van die einde van die geestelike gistings. Hy onderskei, soos dit gekom het, dat ‘Dit is spanning … Dit is die oorsprong van spanning … Dit
is die staking van spanning … Dit is die manier wat lei tot die staking van
spanning … Dit is geestelike fermentasies …

Dit is die oorsprong van gistings … Dit is die staking van die gistings … Dit is die manier wat lei tot die staking van die gistings. ‘Sy hart, dus wetende, dus sien, word bevry van die gisting van sensualiteit, die gisting van wording, die gisting van onkunde. Met vrylating is daar die kennis,
‘Vrygestel.’ Hy onderskei dat ‘Die geboorte is beëindig, die heilige lewe vervul, die taak verrig. Daar is niks verder vir hierdie wêreld nie. ’Net asof daar
was ‘n poel water in ‘n bergglans - helder, helder en onopgevaar - waar ‘n man met ‘n goeie sig op die oewer kon sien, skulpe, gruis en klippies, en ook visse visse wat rondswem en rus, en dit sou voorkom vir hom: ‘Hierdie waterpoel is helder, helder en onbesoedel.

Hier is hierdie skulpe, gruis en klippies, en ook hierdie vissies wat swem en rus. ‘Op dieselfde manier - met sy verstand so gekonsentreer, gesuiwer en helder, onberispelik, vry van gebreke, buigbaar, smeebaar, bestendig, en tot onverstoorbaarheid bereik - die monnik rig en neig dit tot die kennis van die einde van die geestelike fermentasies. Hy onderskei, soos dit gekom het, dat ‘Dit is spanning … Dit is die oorsprong van spanning … Dit is die staking
van spanning … Dit is die manier wat lei tot die staking van spanning … Dit is geestelike fermentasies … Dit is die oorsprong van fermentasies …
Dit is die staking van fermentasies … Dit is die manier wat lei tot die staking van fermentasies. ’Sy hart, dus wetende, dus sien, word bevry van die fermentasie van sensualiteit, die fermentasie van wording, die fermentasie van onkunde. Met vrylating is daar die kennis, ‘Vrygelaat.’ Hy onderskei dat ‘Geboorte beëindig is, die heilige lewe vervul is, die taak verrig.

Daar is niks verder vir hierdie wêreld nie. ‘

‘Dit word ook die wonder van onderrig genoem.

‘Dit is die drie wonderwerke wat ek verklaar, Kevatta, nadat ek dit direk geken en self besef het.

Gesprekke met die gode

‘Eens, Kevatta, het hierdie gedagtegang ontstaan ​​in die bewustheid van ‘n sekere monnik in hierdie gemeenskap van monnike:’ Waar stop hierdie vier groot elemente - die aarde-eiendom, die vloeibare eiendom, die vuur-eiendom en die wind-eiendom - sonder res? ’Toe bereik hy so ‘n toestand van konsentrasie dat die weg na die gode in sy gesentreerde gedagtes verskyn. Daarom het hy die gode van God genader
die gevolg van die Four Great Kings en by aankoms aan hulle gevra: ‘Vriende, waar hou hierdie vier groot elemente - die aarde-eiendom, die vloeibare eiendom, die vuur-eiendom en die wind-eiendom op - sonder res? ‘

‘Toe dit gesê is, het die gode van die gevolg van die Four Great Kings vir die monnik gesê:’ Ons weet ook nie waar die vier groot elemente … sonder ophou ophou nie. Maar daar is die Four Great Kings wat hoër en subliemer is as ons.

Hulle moet weet waar die vier groot elemente … sonder ophou ophou. ‘

‘Die monnik het dus die Four Great Kings genader en by aankoms hulle gevra:’ Vriende, waar hou hierdie vier groot elemente op… sonder res? ‘

‘Toe dit gesê is, het die Four Great Kings vir die monnik gesê:’ Ons weet ook nie waar die vier groot elemente … sonder ophou ophou nie. Maar daar is die gode van die drie en dertig wat hoër en verhewe is as ons. Hulle moet weet … ‘

‘Die monnik het dus die gode van die Dertig-en-dertig genader en by aankoms hulle gevra:’ Vriende, waar hou hierdie vier groot elemente op… sonder res? ‘

‘Toe dit gesê word, sê die gode van die Dertig-en-dertig vir die monnik:’ Ons weet ook nie waar die vier groot elemente … sonder ophou ophou nie. Maar daar is Sakka, die heerser van die gode, wat hoër en subliemer is as ons. Hy moet weet … ‘

‘Die monnik het Sakka, die heerser van die gode, genader en by aankoms hom gevra:’ Vriend, waar hou hierdie vier groot elemente op… sonder res? ‘

‘Toe dit gesê is, het Sakka, die heerser van die gode, vir die monnik gesê:’ Ek weet ook nie waar die vier groot elemente … sonder ophou ophou nie. Maar daar is die Yama-gode wat hoër en subliemer is as ek. Hulle moet weet … ‘…

‘Die Yama-gode het gesê:’ Ons weet ook nie … Maar daar is die god met die naam Suyama … Hy moet weet … ‘…

‘Suyama het gesê:’ Ek weet ook nie … Maar daar is die god met die naam Santusita … Hy moet weet … ‘…

‘Santusita het gesê:’ Ek weet ook nie … Maar daar is die Nimmanarati-gode …
Hulle moet weet … ‘…
‘Die Nimmanarati-gode
het gesê: ‘Ons weet ook nie … Maar daar is die god met die naam Sunimmita …
Hy moet weet … ‘…


‘Toe neem die Groot Brahma die monnik aan die arm en lei hom eenkant toe en sê vir hom:’ Hierdie gode van die gevolg van Brahma glo: ‘Die Groot Brahma weet niks.

Daar is niks wat die Groot Brahma nie sien nie.

Daar is niks waarvan die Groot Brahma onbewus is nie.

Daar is niks wat die Groot Brahma nie besef nie. ” Daarom het ek nie in hul teenwoordigheid gesê dat ek ook nie weet waar die vier groot elemente … sonder ophou ophou nie.

U het dus verkeerd opgetree, verkeerd opgetree deur die
Geseënde op soek na ‘n antwoord op hierdie vraag elders. Gaan dadelik terug na die Geseënde en vra hom by aankoms. Hoe hy dit ook al antwoord, moet u dit ter harte neem. ‘

‘Toe, net soos ‘n sterk man sy buigarm sou uitsteek of sy uitgebreide arm sou buig, verdwyn die monnik uit die Brahma-wêreld en verskyn dadelik voor my. Nadat hy voor my neergebuig het, gaan hy eenkant sit. Terwyl hy daar sit, sê hy vir my: ‘Here, waar kom hierdie vier groot elemente: die aarde, die vloeibare eiendom,
die vuur-eiendom, en die wind-eiendom - sonder ophou staak? ’

Koning Ashoka se geskenk van lewe vir bome

En die voorbeeld wat die amptelike rykdom laat kyk het na sy kap-gelukkige maniere, is niemand anders nie as die fabelagtige Mauryan-keiser Ashoka. Die hele wêreld sal Ashokan-beginsels gebruik om die vrugtige boompies / bome langs die pad te versorg en te beskerm in stedelike en nie-stedelike lande. Die Mauriese keiser was die eerste wat die konsep van bome langs die pad bevorder en bevorder het. ‘Op ‘n tydstip waarop ons ons bome op ‘n alledaagse basis verloor, moet ons teruggaan en kyk wat hy gedoen het.

As u ‘n aanduiding neem van Ashoka, as u kyk na die gebiede wat eens deur die koninkryk van Mauryan of Delhi bedek is, sal die wêreld die belangrikheid van bome langs die pad waardeer, ‘’ ‘Ashokan-beginsels sal die bosafdeling help om bome langer te bewaar.

Hy het doelbewus een spesie vir elke pad gekies. Die meng van spesies met kort tussenposes kan die oorlewing van bome beïnvloed. Ons sal vir ‘n hele stuk lank op ‘n enkele spesie konsentreer. ‘

“Ashoka het die plaaslike inwoners die eienaarskap van bome langs die pad gelê. Terwyl die regering toesig sal hou oor die versorging van die boompie, sal die eienaarskap van die boom in ‘n later stadium aan die plaaslike inwoners oorgedra word. ‘

‘Dit is nie moontlik om die kap van bome heeltemal te verbied nie, maar (met die nuwe maatreëls) sal dit tot ‘n groot mate geminimaliseer word.’ Woude bied die basiese lewensondersteuningstelsel aan al die lewende wesens van moederaarde, ook die mensdom.

Bos-ekosisteme bied vars lug, waterbronne, vrugbare grond om die landbou te onderhou, bio-diversiteit, die versagting van klimaatsverandering en talle ander ekosisteemdienste.

Groot dele van die landelike samelewing, insluitend ‘n meerderheid van die stamme, is direk afhanklik van woude vir hul bestaan.

Wêreldbosafdelings het die primêre mandaat om die woude en natuurlewe te beskerm, die ryk biodiversiteit van die wêreld te bewaar en te verseker dat die ekologiese balans van die bos-ekostelsels gehandhaaf word.

Die hoofbosdepartemente moet gelei word deur die hoofhoofbewaarder van die bosse, hoof van die bosmag (HOFF).

Die departemente moet werksmag hê, insluitend beamptes van die wêreldbosdiens en beamptes / veldpersoneel van verskillende kaders.
Die wêreld is ‘n netwerk van beskermde gebiede met tierreservate, wildreservate, bewaringsreservate en 1 gemeenskapsreservaat.

Die werk wat deur die departemente gedoen word, kan in die volgende kategorieë ingedeel word: regulering, beskerming, bewaring en volhoubare bestuur.

As deel van die reguleringsfunksies moet die departemente bepalings van verskillende wetgewing toepas, soos die Wet op die Wêreldbos, die Wet op die beskerming van natuurlewe, die Wet op die bewaring van die bos, die Wet op die behoud van die bome, ensovoorts, en ooreenstemmende reëls. Beskermingsfunksies sluit in: konsolidering van die grens, beskerming van bosgebiede teen oorskryding, onwettige kap, versagting van konflik tussen mens en natuur, onderneem van brandvoorkomings- en beheermaatreëls, ens.

Die bewaringsfunksies sluit in die opneem van plantwerke, bewaring van grondvog en die ontwikkeling van waterskeidings vir watersekuriteit, bewaring van skaars, bedreigde en bedreigde (RET) spesies en die uitvoer van bewusmakingsaktiwiteite om alle dele van die samelewing sensitief te maak vir die belangrikheid van woude, natuurlewe en biodiversiteit. In territoriale gebiede moet die departemente ook betrokke wees by die volhoubare ontginning en bemarking van hout en ander bosprodukte volgens die spesifikasies van die werkplanne.

Die departemente moet ook op groot skaal besig wees met die bevordering van landbou-bosbou deur aansporing om die boer se inkomste te ondersteun.


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140408122316.htm

Mense is uniek in hul vermoë om taal te verwerf. Maar hoe? ‘N Nuwe studie wat in die Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences gepubliseer is, toon dat ons in werklikheid gebore is met die basiese basiese kennis van taal, en sodoende lig werp op die eeue-oue taalkundige’ nature vs nurture’-debat.

Alhoewel tale op baie maniere van mekaar verskil, blyk dit dat sekere aspekte in verskillende tale gedeel word.

Hierdie aspekte kan spruit uit taalbeginsels wat aktief is in alle menslike breine.

‘N Natuurlike vraag ontstaan: word babas gebore met die kennis van hoe die menslike woorde kan klink?

Is babas bevooroordeeld om sekere klankreekse meer woordagtig te wees as ander? “Die resultate van hierdie nuwe studie dui daarop dat die klankpatrone van menslike tale die produk is van ‘n ingebore biologiese instink, baie soos voëlgesang,” sê prof. Iris Berent van die Noordoostelike Universiteit in Boston, wat die studie saam met ‘n navorsingspan van die International School of Advanced Studies in Italië, onder leiding van dr Jacques Mehler.

Die eerste skrywer van die studie is dr. David Gómez. BLA, ShBA, LBAC. Kyk byvoorbeeld na die klankkombinasies wat aan die begin van woorde voorkom.

Alhoewel baie tale woorde het wat begin met bl (bv. Blando in Italiaans, blink in Engels en blusa in Spaans), het min tale woorde wat begin met lb. Russies is so ‘n taal (bv. Lbu, ‘n woord wat met lob verband hou) , “voorkop”), maar selfs in Russies is sulke woorde buitengewoon skaars en word hulle oortref deur woorde wat begin met bl. Taalkundiges het voorgestel dat sulke patrone voorkom omdat menslike breine bevooroordeeld is om lettergrepe soos bla bo lba te bevoordeel.

In ooreenstemming met hierdie moontlikheid, het vorige eksperimentele navorsing van Dr. Berent se laboratorium getoon dat volwassenesprekers sulke voorkeure toon, selfs al het hulle moedertaal geen woorde wat lyk soos bla of lba nie. Maar waar kom hierdie kennis vandaan? Is dit te danke aan een of ander universele taalbeginsel, of aan volwassenes se lewenslange ervaring met die luister en die vervaardiging van hul moedertaal?
Die eksperiment
Hierdie vrae het ons span gemotiveer om mooi te kyk hoe jong babas verskillende soorte woorde ervaar. Ons het naby-infrarooi spektroskopie gebruik, ‘n stille en nie-indringende tegniek wat ons vertel hoe die oksigenasie van die breinkorteks (daardie heel eerste sentimeter grysstof net onder die kopvel) mettertyd verander om na die breinreaksies van Italiaanse pasgeborenes te kyk. babas wanneer hulle na goeie en slegte woordkandidate luister soos hierbo beskryf (bv. blif, lbif). In samewerking met Italiaanse pasgebore babas en hul gesinne het ons opgemerk dat pasgeborenes anders reageer op goeie en slegte woordkandidate, soortgelyk aan wat volwassenes doen.

Jong babas het nog geen woorde geleer nie, hulle babbel nog nie eens nie, en tog vertel hulle hoe woorde moet klink.

Hierdie bevinding toon dat ons gebore is met die basiese, grondliggende kennis van die klankpatroon van menslike tale. Dit is moeilik om voor te stel hoe anders tale sou klink as mense nie so ‘n soort kennis deel nie. Ons is gelukkig dat ons dit doen, en so kan ons babas met die sekerheid na die wêreld kom dat hulle die klankpatrone van woorde maklik sal herken, ongeag die taal waarmee hulle sal opgroei.

Hoeveel tale is daar in die wêreld?

7 117 tale word vandag gepraat.

Hierdie getal is voortdurend in beweging, want ons leer elke dag meer oor die tale van die wêreld. En verder is die tale self in toom.

Hulle is lewendig en dinamies, gepraat deur gemeenskappe wat deur ons vinnig veranderende wêreld gevorm word.
Dit is ‘n brose tyd:
Ongeveer 40% van die tale word nou bedreig, met minder as 1 000 sprekers oor. Intussen beslaan net 23 tale meer as die helfte van die wêreldbevolking.

Wanneer ‘n pasgebore baba geïsoleer word sonder dat iemand met die baba kommunikeer, sal dit na ‘n paar dae ‘n menslike natuurlike (Prakrit) taal praat, bekend as Klassieke Magahi Magadhi / Klassieke Chandaso-taal / Magadhi Prakrit, Klassieke Hela Basa (Hela-taal), Klassieke Pāḷi wat dieselfde is. Boeddha het in Magadhi gepraat.

Al die 7111 tale en dialekte is buite die opname van Klassieke Magahi Magadhi. Daarom is almal klassiek van aard (Prakrit) van mense, net soos alle ander lewende spesies hul eie tale vir kommunikasie het. 116taal word vertaal deur https://translate.google.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_language

Die oorsprong van taal en die evolusie daarvan in die menslike spesie word al eeue lank bespiegel. Die onderwerp is moeilik om te bestudeer vanweë die gebrek aan direkte bewyse.


Gevolglik moet geleerdes wat die oorsprong van taal wil bestudeer, afleidings maak uit ander soorte bewyse, soos die fossielverslag, argeologiese bewyse, hedendaagse taaldiversiteit, studies oor taalverwerwing en vergelykings tussen menslike taal en kommunikasiesisteme wat bestaan ​​onder diere (veral ander primate). Baie beweer dat die oorsprong van taal waarskynlik nou verband hou met die oorsprong van moderne menslike gedrag, maar daar is weinig ooreenstemming oor die implikasies en rigtinggewendheid van hierdie verband. ‘

Hipotese van taaloorsprong

Vroeë bespiegelinge

Ek kan nie betwyfel dat taal sy oorsprong te danke het aan die nabootsing en aanpassing, aangehelp deur tekens en gebare, van verskillende natuurklanke, die stemme van ander diere en die mens se eie instinktiewe krete.
- Charles Darwin, 1871. Die afkoms van die mens, en seleksie in verhouding tot seks.

In 1861 publiseer die historiese taalkundige Max Müller ‘n lys van spekulatiewe teorieë oor die oorsprong van die gesproke taal: Bow-wow. Die bow-wow- of koekoekteorie, wat Müller aan die Duitse filosoof Johann Gottfried Herder toegeskryf het, het vroeë woorde gesien as nabootsings van die uitroep van diere en voëls. Pooh-pooh. Die pooh-pooh-teorie het die eerste woorde gesien as emosionele tussenwerpe en uitroepe wat veroorsaak word deur pyn, plesier, verbasing, ens. Ding-dong. Müller het voorgestel wat hy die ding-dong-teorie noem, waarin staan ​​dat alle dinge ‘n vibrerende natuurlike resonansie het, het die mens op een of ander manier in sy vroegste woorde weergalm. Yo-he-ho.

Die yo-he-ho-teorie beweer dat taal ontstaan ​​het uit kollektiewe ritmiese arbeid, die poging om spierinspanning te sinchroniseer, wat gelei het tot klanke soos hewig afwisselend met klanke soos ho. Ta-ta.

Dit verskyn nie in die lys van Max Müller nie, wat in 1930 deur Sir Richard Paget voorgestel is.

Volgens die ta-ta-teorie het mense die eerste woorde met behulp van tongbewegings gemaak wat handgebare nageboots het, en dit hoorbaar gemaak het. Die meeste geleerdes beskou alle sulke teorieë vandag nie soveel as verkeerd nie - hulle bied perifere insigte soms naïef en irrelevant. met hierdie teorieë is dat hulle so eng meganisties is. Hulle neem aan dat sodra ons voorouers afgekom het op die toepaslike vernuftige meganisme om klanke met betekenisse te koppel, het taal outomaties ontwikkel en verander.
https://countercurrents.org/2020/12/rss-affiliate-backs-protesting-farmers-says-new-acts-only-favour-companies/ The Devil haal die Skrif aan.

Paulo Freire noem sulke skandelike dade ‘valse vrygewigheid’. Wanneer die onderdrukker deur die verset bedreig word, sal hy sulke goedkoop taktieke gebruik om die verset uit te stel. As die onderdruktes swig, sal nie onderdruktes of onderdrukkers bevry word nie.

Toe BJP in opposisie was, het dieselfde RSS met verwysing na
https://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20100828/1575461.html
gesê
RSS gee voorkeur aan stembriewe op papier, EVM’s wat aan openbare ondersoek onderwerp word. Die RSS het die verkiesingskommissie (EG) gevra om terug te keer na beproefde papierstemme. en onderwerp EVM’s aan die publiek of hierdie toestelle peuterbestand is. In ‘n hoofartikel getiteld ‘Kan ons ons EVM’s vertrou?’, Het The Organizer, die RSS-mondstuk, opgemerk dat dit ‘n feit was dat ‘n absoluut peuterbestande masjien tot op hede nog nie uitgevind is nie en dat die geloofwaardigheid van enige stelsel afhang van ‘deursigtigheid, verifieerbaarheid en betroubaarheid as op blinde en atavistiese geloof in die onfeilbaarheid daarvan. Die kwessie is nie ‘n ‘private aangeleentheid’ nie en dit betrek die toekoms van Indië. Selfs al was die EVM’s eg, was daar geen rede vir die EG om daaroor te raak nie, het die koerant kommentaar gelewer. Die Regering en die EG kan nie die Indiese demokrasie as enigste opsie voor die kieser EVM’s as ‘n voldonge feit oplê nie. Daar was foute soos die vang van stalletjies, tuig, valse stemming, knoeiery en die stemming van die stembriewe in die stemstelsel van die stemlokale wat daartoe gelei het dat die land oorgegaan het na die EVM’s, en al hierdie probleme was ook relevant in EVM’s. Rigging was moontlik selfs in die telstadium. Wat die stembriewe kieservriendelik gemaak het, was dat alle afwykings voor die publieke oog plaasgevind het en dus oop vir regstellings, terwyl die manipulasies in die EVM’s heeltemal in die hande van die bevoegdhede is en die politieke aanstellings wat die stelsel beman, het die koerant gesê. .


Die EVM het slegs een voordeel - ’spoed’, maar die voordeel word ondermyn deur die verskuilde peilings wat soms oor drie tot vier maande versprei is. ‘’ Dit het die pret van die verkiesingsproses al doodgemaak, ‘’ het die koerant opgemerk. Van die dosyn algemene verkiesings wat in die land gehou is, was slegs twee deur die EVM’s, en in plaas daarvan om die twyfel wat deur gerekende instellings en kundiges uitgespreek is, rasioneel aan te spreek, het die regering sy kritici stilgemaak deur ‘intimidasie en arrestasies op valse aanklagte’, het die koerant opgemerk. , herinner aan die inhegtenisneming van die tegnokraat Hari Prasad in Hyederabad deur die Mumbai-polisie. Prasad se navorsing het bewys dat die EVM’s ‘kwesbaar vir bedrog’ was. Die owerhede wil ‘n boodskap stuur dat enigiemand wat die EG uitdaag, die risiko loop van vervolging en teistering. Die meeste lande regoor die wêreld het agterdogtig na die EVM’s gekyk en lande soos Nederland, Italië, Duitsland en Ierland het almal teruggekeer na stembriewe wat EVM’s vermy, omdat dit ‘maklik was om te vervals, die afluistering gevaar het en nie deursigtigheid gehad het nie’. Demokrasie is te kosbaar om aan grille of ‘n ondeursigtige vestiging en netwerk van onveilige gizmos oorgedra te word. ‘’ Vir die gesondheid van die Indiese demokrasie is dit beter om terug te keer na beproefde metodes, anders kan verkiesings in die toekoms ‘n klug wees, ‘’ het die hoofartikel gesê.

- (UNI) - 28DI28.xml Met verwysing na https://www.freepressjournal.in/analysis/rss-doesnt-see-eye-to-eye-with-bjp-on-farmers-protest-writes-bhavdeep -kang Na die gekke moordenaar van demokratiese instellings (Modi) se eerste gesukkel van die Master Key deur die bedrog-EVM’s te peuter ower het begin met ‘n geskil tussen RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) frontale organisasies en die BJP (Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths) oor die ordonnansie op die verkryging van grond van 2014. Ses jaar later is hulle weer eens oor die plaasbeleid, met die Swadeshi Jagran Manch. (SJM) en die Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) eis ‘n wettige waarborg vir prysondersteuning vir produsente. Vervang die bedrog-EVM’s heeltemal deur stembriewe soos voorgestel deur die RSS wat die BJP op afstand beheer, maar nie nou nie. Die enigste beste oplossing is om die net 0,1% onverdraagsame, gewelddadige, militante, nommer een terroriste van die wêreld af te dwing, wat ooit geskiet het, gepeupel het, gekke, verstandelik vertraagde buitelanders wat uit Bene Israel, Tibet, Afrika, Oos-Europa, Wes-Duitsland geskop is. , Noord-Europa, Suid-Rusland, Hongarye, ens., Chitpavan-brahmane van RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) wat die eie vleeseters van eie moeder op ‘n afstand beheer, Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) onder leiding van Mad Moordenaar van demokratiese instellings (Modi) wat probeer om manusmriti-gebaseerde hindutvasthan te vestig, het opgehou met Prabuddha Bharat






Buddhism Songs - Greatest Buddha Music of All Time - Dharani - Mantra for Buddhist, Sound of Buddha

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7,117 languages are spoken today.

That
number is constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the
world’s languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves
are in flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whose
lives are shaped by our rapidly changing world. This is a fragile time:
Roughly 40% of languages are now endangered, often with less than 1,000
speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more than
half the world’s population.
When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit)
language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language
/

Magadhi Prakrit,

Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),


Classical Pāḷi


which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and
dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them
are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other
living speices have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116
languages are translated by
https://translate.google.com


103) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,


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in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,

03)Magadhi Prakrit,



04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

05) Classical Pāḷi

06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,

13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,
26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština


27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman,
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

57) Classical Kinyarwanda
58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
61) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
62) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

63) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

64) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
65) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

66) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
67) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
68) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

70) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
71) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
73) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

74) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

75) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
76) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,
77) Classical Odia (Oriya)
78) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
79) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
80) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
81) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
82) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
83) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
84) Classical Russian-Классический русский,

85) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
86) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
87) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
88) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
89) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,

90) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
91) Classical Sindhi,
92) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
93) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

94) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

95) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
96) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
97) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
98) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

99) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
100) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
101) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
102) Classical Tatar
103) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
104) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
105) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
106) Classical Turkmen
107) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
108) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو

109) Classical Uyghur,

110) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,

111) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ,

112) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,

113) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,


114) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
115) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
116) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu


Even
manusmriti will be rewritten for Discovery of Aboriginal Awakened One
Societies Universe for the welfare, happiness, peace for all societies
and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal as enshrined in
the marvelous, modern Constitution with full freedom, equality,
liberty, and fraternity exposing the foreigners kicked out from Bene
Israel, Tibet, Africa Etc., chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks
(RSS) who are attempting to nullify the Constitution with their
chitpavan brahminised parliamentarians, executives,judges, cheating
election commissioners and the PRESSTITUTE media.99.9% All Aboriginal
Awakened Societies are aware of the fact that Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi) of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) Private
Limited remotely controlled by just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant,
ever shooting, mob lunching, number one terrorists of the world,
lunatic, mentally retarded, foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel,
Tibet, Africa etc., chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) only
will win all elections as long as the Fraud EVMs (Evil Voting Machines)
are used. Like USA of Ballot Papers are used chitpavan brahmins will
get only 0.1% votes. If the foreigners chitpavan brahmins are forced to
quit Prabuddha Bharat democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity as
enshrined in our marvelous modern Constitution will be saved.

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