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LESSON 3532 Sat 12 Dec 2020 Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist) Logo Now All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch) People have started returning back to their original home Buddhism. The whole world will follow the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness for their happiness, welfare and peace to enable them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Logo Dhammānupassī Sutta - Observing dhammas —in 29) Classical English,Roman,51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico, 52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語, 53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa, 54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ, 55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ, 56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ, 57) Classical Kinyarwanda 58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어, 59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî), 60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
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LESSON 3532 Sat  12  Dec  2020


Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist)

Logo


Now
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)

People
have started returning back to their original home Buddhism. The whole
world will follow the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness for
their happiness, welfare and peace to enable them to attain Eternal
Bliss as their Final Goal.




Logo
Dhammānupassī Sutta  - Observing dhammas —in 29) Classical English,Roman,51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,

52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

57) Classical Kinyarwanda

58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,

Tree

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/


https://www.buddha-vacana.org/wbw.html
Friends29) Classical English,Roman

dhammānupassī sutta — observing dhammas — in buddha’s own words —in Classical Italian-Italiano classico
It
is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits
without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing kāya in kāya internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without
having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to
remain observing kāya in kāya internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing kāya in kāya internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing kāya in kāya internally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing kāya in kāya externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without
having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to
remain observing kāya in kāya internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing kāya in kāya externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing kāya in kāya externally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible
to remain observing kāya in kāya internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without
having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to
remain observing kāya in kāya internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing kāya in kāya internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing kāya in kāya internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā internally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain
observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā internally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā externally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible
to remain observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without
having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to
remain observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain
observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing citta in citta internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to remain observing citta in citta internally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing citta in citta internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing citta in citta internally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing citta in citta externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to remain observing citta in citta externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing citta in citta externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing citta in citta externally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible
to remain observing citta in citta internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without
having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to
remain observing citta in citta internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing citta in citta internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing citta in citta internally and externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas externally.
There are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas externally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, without abandoning which it is not possible
to remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Without
having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is not possible to
remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally.
There
are, bhikkhus, six dhammas, abandoning which it is possible to remain
observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally.
Which
six? Delight in activities, delight in conversations, delight in sleep,
delight in socialization, lack of indriyesu guttadvāratā and lack of
bhojane mattaññutā.
Having abandoned these six dhammas, bhikkhus, it is possible to remain observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally.
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Read,
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Buddha for Happiness, Welfare, Peace of All Sentient, Non Sentient
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Philanthropic
rich and poor farmers unite to serve peoples’ welfare, happiness &
peace ignoring Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) remotely
controlled by just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one
terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded foreigners chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS)
kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe, Western
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anger, jealousy, delusion, Stupidity which are defilement of the mind
requiring treatment in mental asylums Know The Bread He Eats is Grown in
My Punjab,’ Says 70-Year-Old Farmer.
Adani,Ambani &other corporates had an eye on massive food grain market of India.They had few problems:
Problem 1 :
States
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It was difficult for corporates to handle so many states with so many
different regulations & taxes
Mad murderer of democratuc institutions and Master of diluting institutions (Modi) Solution:
Took control from states and made 1 act for whole country. Corporates happy now.
Problem 2:
Corporates
will buy crops and store them. But Essential Commodity act will stop
them for storing crops for long time, as it increase prices in market.
Modi Solution:
Food crops will not come under Essential Commodity act and can be stored for longer period. Corporates again happy.
Problem 3
It was hard to determine that what type of crop will be grown by farmers.
Modi Solution:
Contract farming for farmers where they will be told by corporates to grow what kind of crop. Corporates again happy.
Problem 4 :
How Corporates will handle court cases if anything goes wrong against farmers.
Modi Solution:
Farmers cannot go to courts. They will go to SDM and DC. All
Corporates are again happy as they can bribe them easily.
And They say bills are in favour of farmers. ….
This is what the farmers are protesting against.
All
Aboriginal Awakened societies will demand for Ballot Papers instead of
the fraud EVMs for justice and save democracy. Automatically all
societies will get the benefit by way of distribution of wealth
proportionately among all societies for their welfare, happiness and
peace.
Modi
(Mad murderer of democratic institutions) is diverting the attention of
masses from one issue to another. While the farmers are intensifying
their struggle against the Modi, he announces about Covid Vaccine, as if
he is a medical chief. Once he declared that it was his hindutva which
did the first human organ transplantation when shiva transplanted
elephant head on human body.
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dhammānupassī Sutta - osservando dhamma - Nelle parole del Buddha -In classico italiano-Italiano classico
Vale
la pena di aver ripetuto il messaggio dato in questo sutta: Sei senza
abbandonare le abitudini che non è possibile mettere in pratica le
satipaṭṭhānas correttamente. Un po ‘di pulizia può essere consigliabile
qui.
Ci sono, monaci, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile rimanere osservare adorammo adorato internamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Senza
aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere
osservare adorato adoravano internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, monaci, sei dhamma, abbandonando quale è possibile rimanere osservare adorammo adorato internamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Dopo aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere osservare adorammo adorato internamente.
Ci sono, monaci, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile rimanere osservare adorammo adorato esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Senza
aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere
osservare adorato adoravano internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, monaci, sei dhamma, abbandonando quale è possibile rimanere osservare adorammo adorato esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Dopo aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere osservare adorammo adorato esternamente.
Ci
sono, monaci, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile
rimanere osservando adorato adorato internamente ed esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Senza
aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere
osservare adorato adoravano internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, monaci, sei dhamma, abbandonando quale è possibile rimanere osservare adorato adoravano internamente ed esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Dopo aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere osservare adorato adoravano internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā internamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Senza aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā internamente.
Ci
sono, monaci, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere
osservazione vedanā in vedanā internamente ed esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Dopo aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā internamente.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Senza aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā esternamente.
Ci sono, monaci, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Dopo aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā esternamente.
Ci
sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile
rimanere osservazione vedanā in vedanā internamente ed esternamente.
Quale
sei? Delight in attività, delizia nelle conversazioni, la gioia nel
sonno, la gioia di socializzazione, la mancanza di indriyesu
guttadvāratā e la mancanza di mattaññutā bhojane.
Senza
aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere
osservazione vedanā in vedanā internamente ed esternamente.
Ci
sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere
osservando vedana in vedana internamente ed esternamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo
abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile continuare ad
osservare vedana in vedana internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile rimanere osservando citta in citta internamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Senza aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere ad osservare citta in citta internamente.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere osservando citta in citta internamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere interiormente osservando citta in citta.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonare i quali non è possibile rimanere esternamente osservando citta in citta.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Senza aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere esternamente osservando citta in citta.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere osservando esternamente citta in citta.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere esternamente osservando citta in citta.
Ci
sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonarli non è possibile rimanere
osservando citta in citta internamente ed esternamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Senza
aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere
ad osservare citta in citta internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere osservando citta in citta internamente ed esternamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile continuare ad osservare citta in citta internamente ed esternamente.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonarli non è possibile rimanere ad osservare i dhamma all’interno dei dhamma.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Senza aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile continuare ad osservare i dhamma all’interno dei dhamma.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere ad osservare internamente i dhamma nei dhamma.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile continuare a osservare internamente i dhamma nei dhamma.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonarli non è possibile rimanere ad osservare i dhamma esternamente nei dhamma.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Senza aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere esternamente ad osservare i dhamma nei dhamma.
Ci sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere ad osservare i dhamma esternamente nei dhamma.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile rimanere esternamente ad osservare i dhamma nei dhamma.
Ci
sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, senza abbandonarli non è possibile rimanere
ad osservare i dhamma nei dhamma internamente ed esternamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Senza
aver abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, non è possibile rimanere
ad osservare i dhamma all’interno e all’esterno dei dhamma.
Ci
sono, bhikkhu, sei dhamma, abbandonando i quali è possibile rimanere ad
osservare i dhamma in dhamma internamente ed esternamente.
Quali
sei? Gioia delle attività, gioia delle conversazioni, gioia del sonno,
gioia della socializzazione, mancanza di indriyesu guttadvāratā e
mancanza di bhojane mattaññutā.
Avendo
abbandonato questi sei dhamma, bhikkhu, è possibile continuare ad
osservare i dhamma nei dhamma internamente ed esternamente.
Università di ricerca e pratica online gratuita
per
Discovery of Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DAOAU)
Per
il benessere, la felicità, la pace di tutti gli esseri senzienti e non
senzienti e affinché raggiungano la pace eterna come obiettivo finale.
a
KUSHINARA
NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA-è una Pagoda Dia All White di 18 piedi con un
tavolo o, ma assicurati di avere sopra il livello della testa in base al
solito uso della stanza.
in
116 LINGUE CLASSICHE e pianificando di proiettare Therevada Tipitaka
con le stesse parole del Buddha e Luoghi Importanti come Lumbini,
Bodhgaya, Saranath, Kushinara, Etc., in una visione circolare 3D a 360
gradi simile a Circarama
A
CASA BIANCA
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Stato di Magadhi Karnataka
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Possiate
voi, i membri della vostra famiglia e tutti gli esseri senzienti e non
senzienti essere sempre felici, sani e al sicuro!
La
pillola per invertire l’invecchiamento sarebbe disponibile al pubblico
entro cinque anni e costerà ogni giorno lo stesso di una tazza di caffè,
afferma il ricercatore.
Leggere,
praticare, diffondere le proprie parole del Risvegliato con
consapevolezza del Buddha per la felicità, il benessere, la pace di
tutti gli esseri senzienti e non senzienti e affinché raggiungano la
beatitudine eterna come obiettivo finale.
Agricoltori
filantropici ricchi e poveri si uniscono per servire il benessere, la
felicità e la pace delle persone ignorando Pazzo assassino delle
istituzioni democratiche (Modi) controllato a distanza da appena lo 0,1%
di intolleranti, violenti, militanti, terroristi numero uno al mondo,
mai sparati, linciaggi di massa, pazzi , stranieri mentalmente ritardati
chitpavan bramini di Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) cacciati da Bene Israel,
Tibet, Africa, Europa orientale, Germania occidentale, Nord Europa,
Russia meridionale, Ungheria ecc., pieni di odio, rabbia, gelosia,
delusione, stupidità che sono contaminazioni della mente che richiedono
cure nei manicomi sanno che il pane che mangia viene coltivato nel mio
Punjab “, dice un contadino di 70 anni.
Adani, Ambani e altre società avevano un occhio di riguardo sull’enorme mercato dei cereali in India e avevano pochi problemi:
Problema 1:
Gli
stati avevano regole e regolamenti diversi per acquistare cereali dagli
agricoltori. Era difficile per le aziende gestire così tanti stati con
così tante normative e tasse diverse
Assassino pazzo delle istituzioni democratiche e Maestro delle istituzioni diluenti (Modi) Soluzione:
Ha preso il controllo degli stati e ha fatto 1 atto per l’intero paese. Imprese felici ora.
Problema 2:
Le
aziende acquisteranno i raccolti e li immagazzineranno. Ma Essential
Commodity Act li fermerà per immagazzinare i raccolti per lungo tempo,
poiché aumenterà i prezzi sul mercato.
Soluzione Modi:
Le
colture alimentari non rientreranno nella legge sui prodotti essenziali
e possono essere conservate per un periodo più lungo. Imprese di nuovo
felici.
Problema 3
È stato difficile stabilire quale tipo di raccolto sarà coltivato dagli agricoltori.
Soluzione Modi:
Coltivazione
a contratto per gli agricoltori in cui verrà detto loro dalle aziende
di coltivare il tipo di raccolto. Imprese di nuovo felici.
Problema 4:
Come le aziende gestiranno i casi giudiziari se qualcosa va storto contro gli agricoltori.
Soluzione Modi:
Gli agricoltori non possono andare in tribunale. Andranno a SDM e DC. Tutti
Le aziende sono di nuovo felici perché possono corromperle facilmente.
E dicono che i conti sono a favore degli agricoltori. ….
Questo è ciò contro cui protestano gli agricoltori.
Tutte
le società aborigene risvegliate chiederanno schede elettorali invece
delle frodi EVM per la giustizia e salvare la democrazia.
Automaticamente tutte le società trarranno vantaggio dalla distribuzione
della ricchezza proporzionalmente tra tutte le società per il loro
benessere, felicità e pace.
Modi
(folle assassino delle istituzioni democratiche) sta distogliendo
l’attenzione delle masse da una questione all’altra. Mentre i contadini
intensificano la loro lotta contro i Modi, annuncia di Covid Vaccine,
come se fosse un capo medico. Una volta dichiarò che era il suo hindutva
a eseguire il primo trapianto di organi umani quando Shiva trapiantò la
testa di elefante sul corpo umano.
Ultimo film 3D di Buddha con visione circolare a 360 gradi con musica, canzoni, in classico italiano-italiano classico,
360 / VR Video Tour (No Commentary) from Inside & outside The Colosseum - Rome, Italy
383
65
Share
Save
Viajero 360
2.04K subscribers
For an Improved version of this video with 4k pictures please click here:
———————————————————————–
For
more information on the Colosseum, including opening hours, ticket
prices and how to get there please visit my website here: http://www.viajero360.com/colosseum/
———————————————————————–
Also
known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, the Colosseum is located at the
center of the city of Rome and just east of the Roman Forum. It was
built around 70 AD and is the largest amphitheater ever built.
If you just want to see just the videos, they start at 0:47, 1:45, 5:30, 7:41 and 9:48.
———————————————————————–
For this video I used the Ricoh THETA S 360 camera, which you can get from amazon here https://amzn.to/2uVciCm
———————————————————————–
Music Provided by NoCopyrightSounds
NCS: Infinity [Album Mix]
Tracklist:
00:00 Tobu - Candyland
00:44 LarsM - Lovers
1:15 William Ekh - Adventures (feat. Alexa Lusader)
1:46 Distrion & Alex Skrindo - Entropy
2:18 Different Heaven - Nekozilla
3:02 Distrion & Electro-Light - Rubik
3:31 Ash O’Connor & Curbi - Steeper
4:18 Ash O’Connor - You
5:41 JPB - Levitate (feat. Joe Erickson)
6:32 Disfigure - Hollah!
7:18 Mendum - Elysium
8:26 Vidya Vidya - Safari Fruits
9:00 JPB - High
9:40 Electro-Light - Symbolism
11:17 Alan Walker - Force
360 / VR Video Tour (No Commentary) from Inside & outside The Colosseum - Rome, Italy
For
an Improved version of this video with 4k pictures please click here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uziUas-Ypls&feature=youtu.be
———————-…


52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,

https://giphy.com/gifs/happy-project-danshiproject-SWj7tpMc4AEJLbdtaH

danshi-project happy かわいい 音楽 楽しい GIF

Friends
dhammānupassīsutta—ダルマを観察する—仏陀自身の言葉で—古典的な日本語-個人的な慣語
この経典で与えられたメッセージを繰り返すことは価値がありますsatipaṭṭhānasを適切に実践することは不可能である放棄せずに6つの習慣。ここではかなりのクリーニングをお勧めします。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、内部でカヤのカヤを観察し続けることは不可能です。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内外のカヤでカヤを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内部でカヤのカヤを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、内部でカヤのカヤを観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、外部からカヤのカヤを観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内外のカヤでカヤを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、外部からカヤのカヤを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、外部からカヤのカヤを観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、内外のカヤでカヤを観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内外のカヤでカヤを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内外のカヤでカヤを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄した後も、内外のカヤでカヤを観察し続けることができます。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、内部でヴェダナのヴェダナを観察し続けることは不可能です。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内部でヴェダナのヴェダナを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内外のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、内部でvedanāのvedanāを観察し続けることが可能です
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、外部からヴェダナのヴェダナを観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、外部からヴェダナのヴェダナを観察し続けることはできません。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、外部のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、外部のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、内外のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることは不可能です。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内外のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内外のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄した後も、内外のヴェダナでヴェダナを観察し続けることができます。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄せずに、内部でシッタのシッタを観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内部でシッタのシッタを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内部でシッタのシッタを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、内部でシッタのシッタを観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、外部からシッタのシッタを観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、外部からシッタのシッタを観察し続けることはできません。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、外部からシッタのシッタを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、外部からシッタのシッタを観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、内外のシッタのシッタを観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内外のシッタのシッタを観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内外のシッタのシッタを観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、内外のシッタのシッタを観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄せずに、法の内部で法を観察し続けることは不可能です。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの六つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、法の内部で法を観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、法の内部で法を観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、内部の法で法を観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄せずに、外部の法で法を観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、外部の法で法を観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、外部の法で法を観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、外部の法で法を観察し続けることが可能です。
比丘には6つの法がありますが、それを放棄することなく、内外の法で法を観察し続けることはできません。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄しなければ、内外の法の中で法を観察し続けることは不可能です。
比丘には6つの法があり、それを放棄して、内外の法の中に法を観察し続けることができます。
どれ6つ?活動の喜び、会話の喜び、睡眠の喜び、社交の喜び、indriyesuguttadvāratāの欠如、bhojanemattaññutāの欠如。
これらの6つの法、比丘を放棄したので、内部と外部の法で法を観察し続けることが可能です。
無料のオンライン研究と実践大学
にとって
気づきの宇宙で目覚めた者の発見(DAOAU)
すべての感覚的および非感覚的存在の福祉、幸福、平和のために、そして彼らが最終目標として永遠の平和を達成するために。
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA-テーブル付きの直径18フィートのオールホワイトパゴダですが、通常の部屋の使用法に基づいて、必ず頭上に配置してください。
116の古典的な言語で、上座部仏教を仏陀自身の言葉で投影し、ルンビニ、ブッダガヤ、サラナート、クシナラなどの重要な場所を、サーカラマに似た3D360度の円のビジョンで投影することを計画しています
ホワイトホーム
668、5Aメインロード、8thクロス、HAL IIIステージ、
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
マガヒーカルナータカ州
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
あなた、あなたの家族、そしてすべての衆生と非衆生がこれまでに幸せで、元気で、安全でありますように!
老化を逆転させるピルは5年以内に一般に利用可能になり、コーヒー1杯と同じ費用が毎日かかると研究者は述べています。
幸福、福祉、すべての感覚的、非感覚的存在の平和のために、そして彼らが最終目標として永遠の至福を達成するために、仏陀を意識して目覚めた人の自分の言葉を読み、実践し、広めます。
慈善の金持ちと貧しい農民は、わずか0.1%の不寛容、暴力、過激、世界一のテロリストによって遠隔操作された民主的機関(モディ)の狂った殺人者を無視して、人々の福祉、幸福、平和に奉仕するために団結します。
、精神薄弱の外国人、Rowdy Swayam Sevaks(RSS)のchitpavan
brahminsが、ベネイスラエル、チベット、アフリカ、東ヨーロッパ、西ドイツ、北ヨーロッパ、南ロシア、ハンガリーなどから追い出され、憎しみ、怒り、嫉妬、妄想、愚かさに満ちている精神薄弱の治療を必要とする心の汚れです。彼が食べるパンは私のパンジャブで育ちます」と70歳の農夫は言います。
アダニ、アンバニなどの企業は、インドの巨大な食用穀物市場に目を向けていましたが、問題はほとんどありませんでした。
問題1:
州には、農家から食用穀物を購入するためのさまざまな規則と規制がありました。非常に多くの異なる規制や税金を伴う非常に多くの州を企業が扱うことは困難でした
民主主義機関の狂った殺人者と希釈機関のマスター(モディ)解決策:
州から支配権を握り、全国で1つの行為を行いました。企業は今幸せです。
問題2:
企業は作物を購入して保管します。しかし、エッセンシャルコモディティ法は、市場での価格を上昇させるため、作物を長期間保管することを阻止します。
モディソリューション:
食用作物は必須商品法の対象とはならず、長期間保管することができます。企業は再び幸せです。
問題3
農民がどのような種類の作物を栽培するかを決めるのは困難でした
モディソリューション:
企業からどのような作物を栽培するかを指示される農家向けの契約農業。企業は再び幸せです。
問題4:
農民に対して何か問題が発生した場合、企業が訴訟をどのように処理するか。
モディソリューション:
農民は法廷に行くことができません。彼らはSDMとDCに行きます。すべて
企業は簡単に賄賂を受け取ることができるので、再び満足しています。
そして彼らは法案が農民に有利であると言います。 …。
これは農民が抗議しているものです。
すべてのアボリジニの目覚めた社会は、正義と民主主義を救うために、詐欺EVMの代わりに投票用紙を要求するでしょう。自動的にすべての社会は、福祉、幸福、平和のためにすべての社会に比例して富を分配することによって利益を得るでしょう。
モディ(民主主義機関の狂った殺人者)は、大衆の注意をある問題から別の問題にそらしている。農民たちがモディとの闘いを激化させている間、彼はまるで彼が医療責任者であるかのように、コビッドワクチンについて発表します。シヴァが象の頭を人体に移植したときに最初の人間の臓器移植を行ったのは彼のヒンドゥトヴァであると彼が宣言した後。
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***[360°音楽 8D] ヘッドセットを着用することを忘れないでください😱- ベスト8Dの中毒😱 -Alan Walker***ヨーロッパやアメリカのポップミュージックのベスト:https://goo.gl/wqN89L****今、流行のクラブミュージックや定番人気曲を心….


53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,

Friends
dhammānupassī sutta - ngamati dhammas - nganggo tembung buddha dhewe — ing basa Jawa Klasik-Klasik Jawa
Pantese
dibaleni pesen sing diwenehake ing sutta iki: enem kebiasaan tanpa
ninggali sing ora bisa ngetrapake satipaṭṭhānas kanthi bener. Cukup
sawetara reresik luwih becik disaranake ing kene.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa ninggali sing ora bisa tetep ngawasi kāya ing kāya kanthi internal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nglirwakake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngamati kāya ing njero internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi kāya ing njero internal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi kāya ing kāya kanthi internal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa ninggali sing ora bisa tetep ngawasi kāya ing kāya kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nglirwakake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngamati kāya ing njero internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi kāya ing kāya kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi kāya ing kāya kanthi eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nglirwakake, ora bisa tetep ngamati kāya ing njero internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nglirwakake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngamati kāya ing njero internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, nem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi kāya ing njero internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi kāya ing njero internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nilarake, lan ora bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā kanthi internal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilarake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā kanthi internal.
Ana, bhikkhus, nem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngati-ati babagan vedanā ing njero vedanā.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nilarake, lan ora bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilar enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā kanthi eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, nem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Amarga wis nilar enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā kanthi eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa ninggali, ora bisa tetep ngati-ati ing vedanā ing njero njero eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilarake enem dhammas, bhikkhus kasebut, ora bisa tetep ngamati vedanā ing vedanā kanthi njero lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, nem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi vedanā ing vedanā internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngati-ati vedanā ing vedanā internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nilarake, lan ora bisa tetep ngerteni citta ing njero kutha.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nglirwakake enem dhammas, bhikkhus kasebut, ora bisa tetep ngerteni citta ing kutha internal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngerteni citta ing njero kutha.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga terus ngerteni citta ing kutha internal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nilarake, lan ora bisa tetep ngerteni citta ing citta kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilarake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngawasi citta ing citta kanthi eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngamatake citta ing citta eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngati-ati ing citta ing njaba.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa ninggali sing ora bisa tetep ngerteni citta ing sitta internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nglirwakake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngamati citta ing kutha internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, nem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngerteni citta ing sitta internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga terus ngerteni citta ing citta internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nglirwakake, ora bisa tetep ngamati dhammas ing dhammas kanthi internal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilar enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngawasi dhammas ing dhammas kanthi internal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngamati dhammas ing dhammas kanthi internal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi dhammas ing dhammas kanthi internal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa nglirwakake, ora bisa tetep ngamati dhammas ing dhammas kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilarake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, ora bisa tetep ngawasi dhammas ing dhammas kanthi eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhamama, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngawasi dhammas ing dhammas kanthi eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi dhammas ing dhammas kanthi eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhammas, tanpa ninggali, ora bisa tetep ngamati dhammas ing dhammas internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Tanpa nilarake enem dhammas, bhikkhus kasebut, ora bisa tetep ngamati dhammas ing dhammas internal lan eksternal.
Ana, bhikkhus, enem dhamama, sing ditinggalake supaya bisa tetep ngamati dhammas ing dhammas internal lan eksternal.
Enem
endi? Seneng ing kegiyatan, seneng ngobrol, seneng turu, seneng
sosialisasi, kekurangan indriyesu guttadvāratā lan kekurangan bhojane
mattaññutā.
Ninggalake enem dhammas, bhikkhus iki, bisa uga tetep ngawasi dhammas ing dhammas ing njero lan eksternal.
Universitas Riset lan Praktek Online Gratis
kanggo
Discovery of Awakened One with Awcious Universe (DAOAU)
Kanggo
Kesejahteraan, Kabahagiaan, Katentreman Kabeh makhluk lan Non-Sentient
lan supaya bisa entuk Katentreman Langgeng minangka Tujuan Akhir.
ing
KUSHINARA
NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA-yaiku Pagoda Putih Kabeh 18 kaki kanthi meja
utawa, nanging manawa sampeyan duwe level ndhuwur sirah adhedhasar
panggunaan ruangan biasane.
ing
taun 116 BAHASA KLASIK lan rencana proyek Provada Tipitaka nganggo
tembung Buddha lan Tempat Penting kayata Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Saranath,
Kushinara, Etc., ing visi lingkaran 360 derajat 3D sing padha karo
Circarama
Ing
RUMAH PUTIH
668, 5A dalan utama, Salib 8, Panggung HAL III,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Negara Magadhi Karnataka
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Muga-muga
sampeyan, anggota kulawarga lan kabeh makhluk sing ana gandhengane lan
ora ana gandhengane bakal seneng, tentrem lan aman!
Pil
kanggo mbalikke tuwa bakal kasedhiya kanggo umum sajrone limang taun
lan regane saben dina padha karo secangkir kopi, ujare peneliti.
Maca,
Praktek, Nyebarake Tembung Sing Dhewe Sing Bangkit Kanthi Ngelingake
Buddha babagan Kabahagiaan, Kesejahteraan, Katentreman Kabeh Wong Anyar,
Wong Ora Entuk lan supaya Entuk Kebahagiaan Abadi minangka Tujuan
Akhir.
Petani
sing sugih Filanropik lan miskin nyawiji kanggo ngladeni kesejahteraan,
kabegjan & perdamaian masarakat tanpa pamrih saka Mad pembunuh
institusi demokratis (Modi) sing dikontrol adoh saka mung 0,1%
intoleransi, kasar, militan, teroris nomer siji ing donya, sing nate
nembak, nglarani, , brahmana chitpavan wong asing sing cacat mental saka
Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) diwiwiti saka Bene Israel, Tibet, Afrika,
Eropa Wétan, Jerman Kulon, Eropa Lor, Rusia Selatan, Hongaria dll. yaiku
ngrusak pikiran sing mbutuhake perawatan ing suaka mental Ngerti Roti
sing Dipangan Ditanam ing Punjab, ‘ujare Petani Umur 70 taun.
Adani, Ambani & perusahaan liyane ngupayakake pasar gandum panganan gedhe ing India. Dheweke duwe sawetara masalah:
Masalah 1:
Negara
duwe aturan & peraturan sing beda kanggo tuku pari-parian panganan
saka petani. Perusahaan dadi angel kanggo nangani akeh negara kanthi
macem-macem peraturan & pajak
Pembunuh gila institusi demokratis lan Solusi Master lembaga pengencer (Modi):
Ngontrol negara lan nggawe 1 tumindak kanggo kabeh negara. Perusahaan saiki seneng.
Masalah 2:
Perusahaan
bakal tuku palawija lan disimpen. Nanging tumindak Komoditas Penting
bakal mandheg nyimpen produk ing wektu sing suwe, amarga bisa nambah
rega ing pasar.
Solusi Modi:
Tanduran panganan ora bakal ditindakake kanthi tumindak Komoditas Penting lan bisa disimpen luwih suwe. Kopral maneh seneng.
Masalah 3
Sampeyan angel nemtokake manawa jinis panen apa sing bakal ditandur karo para tani.
Solusi Modi:
Pertanian kontrak kanggo petani sing bakal dikongkon perusahaan kanggo nanem jinis apa. Kopral maneh seneng.
Masalah 4:
Kepiye Kopral bakal nangani kasus pengadilan yen ana petani sing salah.
Solusi Modi:
Petani ora bisa menyang pengadilan. Dheweke bakal pindhah menyang SDM lan DC. Kabeh
Korporat seneng maneh amarga bisa nyogok kanthi gampang.
Lan Dheweke ujar manawa tagihan luwih disenengi para petani. ….
Iki sing diprotes para petani.
Kabeh
masarakat Aborigin Awakened bakal nuntut Kertas Kertas Balok tinimbang
EVM penipuan kanggo keadilan lan nylametake demokrasi. Kanthi otomatis
kabeh masarakat bakal entuk mupangat kanthi cara mbagi bandha kanthi
proporsional ing antarane kabeh masarakat kanggo kesejahteraan, kabegjan
lan perdamaian.
Modi
(Mad pembunuh institusi demokratis) ngalihake perhatian masarakat saka
siji masalah menyang masalah liyane. Nalika para petani nambah
perjuangan nglawan Modi, dheweke ngumumake babagan Vaksin Covid,
kaya-kaya dheweke minangka kepala medis. Sawise dheweke ujar manawa
dheweke minangka hindutva sing nggawe transplantasi organ manungsa
pertama nalika siwa transplantasi kepala gajah ing awak manungsa.
Film
3D 360 derajat paling apik kanthi wawasan 70mm film Buddha kanthi efek
swara stereo 16D, lagu lan joget tanpa headphone nganggo basa
Jawa-Klasik Jawa klasik
Meditation VR: Thailand, Chiang Mai & Pai Nature - 360 VR Video
VR Gorilla - Virtual Reality & 360 Videos
35.4K subscribers
Please
enjoy this episode of ‘Meditation VR’ in which we select the most
relaxing scenes from each destination we’ve visited in this longer
format type of video.
In this episode: Chiang Mai & Pai in northern Thailand.
More episodes following soon!! Please feel free to subscribe to our channel to stay tuned 🙂.
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VR
Gorilla is an Amsterdam based virtual reality production studio. We aim
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want to give you new experiences and take you places you have never
been. We want to tell stories like you’ve never seen and heard them
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Meditation VR: Thailand, Chiang Mai & Pai Nature - 360 VR Video


54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,

https://giphy.com/gifs/gerhardfunk-3d-walk-cycle-icosahedron-3xz2BCmCSOW9wSOw1O

3d walk cycle GIF by Gerhard Funk

dhammānupassī sutta - ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು - ಬುದ್ಧನ ಸ್ವಂತ ಮಾತುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ-ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ-

ಸೂತದಲ್ಲಿ ನೀಡಿರುವ ಸಂದೇಶವನ್ನು ಪುನರಾವರ್ತಿಸುವುದು ಯೋಗ್ಯವಾಗಿದೆ:
ಸತಿಪಾಹಾನಗಳನ್ನು ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ ಮಾಡಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗದ ಆರು ಅಭ್ಯಾಸಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ.
ಕೆಲವು ಸ್ವಚ್ cleaning ಗೊಳಿಸುವಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಸಲಹೆ ಮಾಡಬಹುದು.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳಿಯಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕೈಯಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳಿಯಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿದೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳಿಯಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕೈಯಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿದೆ.
ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲದ ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕೈಯಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಕಾಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕೈಯಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನನ್ನು ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ವೇದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ವೇದಾನವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳಿಯಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿದೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ಬಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಟ್ಟರೆ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು,
ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ
ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಖುಸ್ ಎಂಬ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಸಿಟ್ಟಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಟ್ಟಾವನ್ನು ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿದೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲದ ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳ ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸದೆ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳು ಇವೆ, ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿ ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು.
ಯಾವ
ಆರು? ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ನಿದ್ರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಸಮಾಜೀಕರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂತೋಷ, ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೆಸು ಗುಟ್ಟದ್ವರತ ಕೊರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭೋಜನೆ ಮಟ್ಟಾ ññ ಟಾ
ಕೊರತೆ.
ಈ ಆರು ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳನ್ನು ತ್ಯಜಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಆಂತರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಧಮ್ಮಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನದಲ್ಲಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿದೆ.
ಉಚಿತ ಆನ್‌ಲೈನ್ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯ
ಗಾಗಿ
ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಯೂನಿವರ್ಸ್ (DAOAU) ನೊಂದಿಗೆ ಜಾಗೃತಗೊಂಡವರ ಅನ್ವೇಷಣೆ
ಕಲ್ಯಾಣ, ಸಂತೋಷ, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಮನೋಭಾವದ ಮತ್ತು ಮನೋಭಾವವಿಲ್ಲದವರ ಶಾಂತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಿಮ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿ ಶಾಶ್ವತ ಶಾಂತಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯುವುದು.
ನಲ್ಲಿ
ಕುಶಿನಾರಾ
ನಿಬ್ಬಾನಾ ಭೂಮಿ ಪಗೋಡಾ-ಇದು 18 ಅಡಿಗಳಷ್ಟು ಡಯಾ ಆಲ್ ವೈಟ್ ಪಗೋಡಾ ಟೇಬಲ್ ಅಥವಾ,
ಆದರೆ ಕೋಣೆಯ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಬಳಕೆಯ ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ ತಲೆ ಮಟ್ಟಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನದನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಲು
ಮರೆಯದಿರಿ.
116
ಕ್ಲಾಸಿಕಲ್ ಭಾಷೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಥೆರೆವಾಡಾ ಟಿಪಿಟಾಕಾವನ್ನು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಸ್ವಂತ
ಮಾತುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಲುಂಬಿನಿ, ಬೋಧಗಯಾ, ಸರನಾಥ್, ಕುಶಿನಾರಾ, ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ ಪ್ರಮುಖ
ಸ್ಥಳಗಳಲ್ಲಿ 3 ಡಿ 360 ಡಿಗ್ರಿ ವೃತ್ತದ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸರ್ಕರಾಮಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಲುತ್ತದೆ
ನಲ್ಲಿ
ಬಿಳಿ ಮನೆ
668, 5 ಎ ಮುಖ್ಯ ರಸ್ತೆ, 8 ನೇ ಕ್ರಾಸ್, ಎಚ್‌ಎಎಲ್ III ಹಂತ,
ಪ್ರಭುದ್ಧ ಭಾರತ್ ಪುನಿಯಾ ಭೂಮಿ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು
ಮಗಧಿ ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ರಾಜ್ಯ
ಪ್ರಭುದ್ಧ ಭಾರತ್
ನೀವು, ನಿಮ್ಮ ಕುಟುಂಬ ಸದಸ್ಯರು ಮತ್ತು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಮನೋಭಾವದ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂವೇದನಾಶೀಲ ಜೀವಿಗಳು ಎಂದೆಂದಿಗೂ ಸಂತೋಷದಿಂದ, ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸುರಕ್ಷಿತವಾಗಿರಲಿ!
ವಯಸ್ಸಾದ
ರಿವರ್ಸ್ ಮಾಡುವ ಮಾತ್ರೆ ಐದು ವರ್ಷಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕರಿಗೆ ಲಭ್ಯವಿರುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು
ಪ್ರತಿದಿನ ಒಂದು ಕಪ್ ಕಾಫಿಯಂತೆಯೇ ಖರ್ಚಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ಸಂಶೋಧಕ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಎಚ್ಚರಗೊಂಡವರ
ಸ್ವಂತ ಮಾತುಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಿ, ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ ಮಾಡಿ, ಜಾಗೃತಿಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಬುದ್ಧನನ್ನು ಸಂತೋಷ,
ಕಲ್ಯಾಣ, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಶಾಂತಿಯ ಶಾಂತಿ, ಪ್ರಜ್ಞೆಯಿಲ್ಲದ ಜೀವಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಿಮ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿ
ಶಾಶ್ವತ ಆನಂದವನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯುವುದು.
ಕೇವಲ
0.1% ಅಸಹಿಷ್ಣುತೆ, ಹಿಂಸಾತ್ಮಕ, ಉಗ್ರಗಾಮಿ, ವಿಶ್ವದ ಪ್ರಥಮ ಭಯೋತ್ಪಾದಕರಿಂದ
ದೂರದಿಂದಲೇ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸಲ್ಪಡುವ ಪ್ರಜಾಪ್ರಭುತ್ವ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳ (ಮೋದಿ) ಹುಚ್ಚು
ಕೊಲೆಗಾರನನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಲಕ್ಷಿಸಿ ಲೋಕೋಪಕಾರಿ ಶ್ರೀಮಂತ ಮತ್ತು ಬಡ ರೈತರು ಜನರ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣ,
ಸಂತೋಷ ಮತ್ತು ಶಾಂತಿಯನ್ನು ಪೂರೈಸಲು ಒಂದಾಗುತ್ತಾರೆ. , ಬುದ್ಧಿಮಾಂದ್ಯ ವಿದೇಶಿಯರು
ರೌಡಿ ಸ್ವಯಂ ಸೇವಕರ (ಆರ್‌ಎಸ್‌ಎಸ್) ಚಿಟ್‌ಪವನ್ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣರು ಬೆನೆ ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್,
ಟಿಬೆಟ್, ಆಫ್ರಿಕಾ, ಪೂರ್ವ ಯುರೋಪ್, ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಜರ್ಮನಿ, ಉತ್ತರ ಯುರೋಪ್, ದಕ್ಷಿಣ
ರಷ್ಯಾ, ಹಂಗೇರಿ ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಗಳಿಂದ ದ್ವೇಷ, ಕೋಪ, ಅಸೂಯೆ, ಭ್ರಮೆ, ಮೂರ್ಖತನ ಮಾನಸಿಕ
ಆಶ್ರಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆಯ ಅಗತ್ಯವಿರುವ ಮನಸ್ಸಿನ ಅಪವಿತ್ರತೆಯೆಂದರೆ ಅವನು ತಿನ್ನುವ
ಬ್ರೆಡ್ ಅನ್ನು ನನ್ನ ಪಂಜಾಬ್‌ನಲ್ಲಿ ಬೆಳೆದಿದೆ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿಯಿರಿ ‘ಎಂದು 70 ವರ್ಷದ ರೈತ
ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಅದಾನಿ, ಅಂಬಾನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ಭಾರತದ ಬೃಹತ್ ಆಹಾರ ಧಾನ್ಯ ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಕಣ್ಣಿಟ್ಟಿದ್ದರು. ಅವರಿಗೆ ಕೆಲವು ಸಮಸ್ಯೆಗಳಿವೆ:
ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ 1:
ರೈತರಿಂದ
ಆಹಾರ ಧಾನ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಖರೀದಿಸಲು ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳು ವಿಭಿನ್ನ ನಿಯಮಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು
ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದವು. ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ಹಲವು ವಿಭಿನ್ನ ನಿಯಮಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ತೆರಿಗೆಗಳನ್ನು
ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಅನೇಕ ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುವುದು ಕಷ್ಟಕರವಾಗಿತ್ತು
ಪ್ರಜಾಪ್ರಭುತ್ವ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳ ಹುಚ್ಚು ಕೊಲೆಗಾರ ಮತ್ತು ದುರ್ಬಲಗೊಳಿಸುವ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳ ಮಾಸ್ಟರ್ (ಮೋದಿ) ಪರಿಹಾರ:
ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳಿಂದ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣವನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಂಡು ಇಡೀ ದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ 1 ಕಾಯ್ದೆ ಮಾಡಿದೆ. ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ಈಗ ಸಂತೋಷವಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ.
ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ 2:
ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು
ಬೆಳೆಗಳನ್ನು ಖರೀದಿಸಿ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಆದರೆ ಎಸೆನ್ಷಿಯಲ್ ಕಮೊಡಿಟಿ ಆಕ್ಟ್
ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬೆಲೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸುವುದರಿಂದ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲದವರೆಗೆ ಬೆಳೆಗಳನ್ನು
ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.
ಮೋದಿ ಪರಿಹಾರ:
ಆಹಾರ ಬೆಳೆಗಳು ಅಗತ್ಯ ಸರಕು ಕಾಯ್ದೆಯಡಿ ಬರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ ಮತ್ತು ಅದನ್ನು ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲದವರೆಗೆ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸಬಹುದು. ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ಮತ್ತೆ ಸಂತೋಷಗೊಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ.
ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ 3
ರೈತರು ಯಾವ ರೀತಿಯ ಬೆಳೆ ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ ಎಂದು ನಿರ್ಣಯಿಸುವುದು ಕಷ್ಟಕರವಾಗಿತ್ತು.
ಮೋದಿ ಪರಿಹಾರ:
ರೈತರಿಗೆ ಗುತ್ತಿಗೆ ಕೃಷಿ, ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವ ರೀತಿಯ ಬೆಳೆ ಬೆಳೆಯಬೇಕೆಂದು ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳಿಗೆ ತಿಳಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ಮತ್ತೆ ಸಂತೋಷಗೊಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ.
ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ 4:
ರೈತರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಏನಾದರೂ ತಪ್ಪಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಪ್ರಕರಣಗಳನ್ನು ಹೇಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಮೋದಿ ಪರಿಹಾರ:
ರೈತರು ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯಗಳಿಗೆ ಹೋಗಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ. ಅವರು ಎಸ್‌ಡಿಎಂ ಮತ್ತು ಡಿಸಿಗೆ ಹೋಗುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಎಲ್ಲಾ
ಕಾರ್ಪೊರೇಟ್‌ಗಳು ಮತ್ತೆ ಸಂತೋಷವಾಗಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಸುಲಭವಾಗಿ ಲಂಚ ನೀಡಬಹುದು.
ಮತ್ತು ಬಿಲ್‌ಗಳು ರೈತರ ಪರವಾಗಿವೆ ಎಂದು ಅವರು ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ. ….
ಇದನ್ನೇ ರೈತರು ಪ್ರತಿಭಟಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ.
ಎಲ್ಲಾ
ಮೂಲನಿವಾಸಿ ಜಾಗೃತ ಸಮಾಜಗಳು ನ್ಯಾಯಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ವಂಚನೆ ಇವಿಎಂಗಳ ಬದಲು ಬ್ಯಾಲೆಟ್
ಪೇಪರ್‌ಗಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಒತ್ತಾಯಿಸುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಜಾಪ್ರಭುತ್ವವನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.
ಸ್ವಯಂಚಾಲಿತವಾಗಿ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಸಮಾಜಗಳು ತಮ್ಮ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣ, ಸಂತೋಷ ಮತ್ತು ಶಾಂತಿಗಾಗಿ ಎಲ್ಲಾ
ಸಮಾಜಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ಸಂಪತ್ತನ್ನು ಪ್ರಮಾಣಾನುಗುಣವಾಗಿ ವಿತರಿಸುವ ಮೂಲಕ ಲಾಭವನ್ನು
ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತವೆ.
ಮೋದಿ
(ಪ್ರಜಾಪ್ರಭುತ್ವ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳ ಹುಚ್ಚು ಕೊಲೆಗಾರ) ಜನಸಾಮಾನ್ಯರ ಗಮನವನ್ನು ಒಂದು
ವಿಷಯದಿಂದ ಇನ್ನೊಂದಕ್ಕೆ ತಿರುಗಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಮೋದಿಯವರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ರೈತರು ತಮ್ಮ
ಹೋರಾಟವನ್ನು ತೀವ್ರಗೊಳಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೆ, ಅವರು ವೈದ್ಯಕೀಯ ಮುಖ್ಯಸ್ಥರಂತೆ ಕೋವಿಡ್ ಲಸಿಕೆ
ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಘೋಷಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಒಮ್ಮೆ ಅವನು ತನ್ನ ಹಿಂದುತ್ವ ಎಂದು ಘೋಷಿಸಿದನು, ಶಿವನು ಆನೆಯ
ತಲೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾನವ ದೇಹದ ಮೇಲೆ ಕಸಿ ಮಾಡಿದಾಗ ಮೊದಲ ಮಾನವ ಅಂಗಾಂಗ ಕಸಿ ಮಾಡಿದನು.
ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ
ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಡ್ಫೋನ್ ಇಲ್ಲದೆ 16 ಡಿ ಸ್ಟಿರಿಯೊ ಸೌಂಡ್ ಎಫೆಕ್ಟ್ ಸಂಗೀತ, ಹಾಡು
ಮತ್ತು ನೃತ್ಯ ಹೊಂದಿರುವ 70 ಎಂಎಂ ಬುದ್ಧ ಚಲನಚಿತ್ರಗಳು ಇತ್ತೀಚಿನ ಅತ್ಯುತ್ತಮ 3D 360
ಡಿಗ್ರಿ ಸರ್ಕಲ್ ದೃಷ್ಟಿ
ಮೋದಿಗೆ ವಿದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಬುದ್ಧ, ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಯುದ್ಧ ಮಂತ್ರ: ಡಾ. ಕನ್ಹಯ್ಯ ಕುಮಾರ್
Vartha Bharati
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ಮೋದಿಗೆ ವಿದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಬುದ್ಧ, ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಯುದ್ಧ ಮಂತ್ರ: ಡಾ. ಕನ್ಹಯ್ಯ ಕುಮಾರ್

55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

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Skateboarding Frontside360Kickflip GIF - Skateboarding Frontside360Kickflip GIFs

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Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастамай, іштегі қаяда каяны сақтау мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, каядағы ішкі және сыртқы бақылауды сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бихиктер, алты дамма бар, оларды тастап кетуге болады, оларды іштей қаяда сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, іштегі қаяда каяны сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастамай, каяны сырттай бақылап отыру мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, каядағы ішкі және сыртқы бақылауды сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дхамма бар, оларды тастаудан тыс жерде каяны сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартқаннан кейін, каяны сырттай бақылап отыра беруге болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастамай-ақ, каяда ішкі және сырттай байқау мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, каядағы ішкі және сыртқы бақылауды сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастап кетуге болады, олар каяда іштей де, сырттай да сақтала береді.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, каядағы ішкі және сыртқы бақылауды сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастамай, веденада іштей веденаны сақтап қалу мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, іштей веденада веденаны сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тарту, олардан веденада ішкі және сыртқы веденаны сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, іштей веденада веденаны сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастамай, веденада веденаны сақтап қалу мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, веденаны веденадан тыс сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тарту, олардан веденада веденаны сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, веденаны сырттай қадағалап отыра беруге болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастамай, веденаны ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтап қалу мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, веденаны ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтап қалу мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тарту, олардан веденада ішкі және сыртқы веденаны сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, веденаны ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастаусыз, циттада циттаның сақталуы мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, циттаны іштей сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тартуға болады, оларды циттада іштей сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты дамманы, бикхустарды тастағаннан кейін, циттаны іштей сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастаусыз циттада циттаның сақталуы мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпай, циттада циттаның сақталуын сырттай сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тартуға болады, оларды циттада сырттай бақылап отыруға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты дамманы, бикхустарды тастағаннан кейін, циттаны сырттай бақылап отыруға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастаусыз, циттаны ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтау мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, циттада ішкі және сыртқы бақылауларды сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастап кетуге болады, оларды циттада ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартқаннан кейін, циттаны ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастап кетпестен, даммада іштей даммаларды байқау мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, даммада іштей даммалықты сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастап кетуге болады, оларды даммада іштей сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, даммалардың ішіндегі даммалардың сақталуын сақтауға болады.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды қалдырмай, даммадағы сырттай байқау мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бхикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, даммада сырттай бақылап отыру мүмкін емес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, оларды тастап кетуге болады, оларды даммада сыртынан байқауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Осы алты даммадан, бикхустардан бас тартқаннан кейін, даммадағы сырттай байқауға болады.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тартпай-ақ, даммалардың ішіндегі және сыртындағы даммалардың сақталуы мүмкін емес.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартпастан, даммадағы ішкі және сыртқы бақылауларды сақтау мүмкін емес.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, олардан бас тарту, оларды даммада ішкі және сыртқы жағынан сақтауға болады.
Қандай
алтау? Іс-әрекеттен рахаттану, әңгімелерден ләззат алу, ұйқыдан ләззат
алу, әлеуметтену ләззаты, индриесу гуттадваратаның болмауы және bhojane
mattaññuta жетіспеушілігі.
Бхикхус деген алты даммадан бас тартқаннан кейін, даммадағы ішкі және сыртқы бақылауларды сақтауға болады.
Тегін онлайн-зерттеу және тәжірибелік университет
үшін
Оянғанның хабардар әлеммен ашылуы (DAOAU)
Барлық
сезімтал және бейресми тіршілік иелерінің амандығы, бақыты, тыныштығы
үшін және олардың түпкі мақсаты ретінде мәңгілік бейбітшілікке қол
жеткізу.
кезінде
KUSHINARA
NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA - бұл 18 футтық Dia All White Pagoda, үстелі бар,
бірақ бөлменің әдеттегі қолданылуына байланысты бас деңгейінен жоғары
болуын ұмытпаңыз.
116
КЛАССИКАЛЫҚ ТІЛДЕРДЕ және Будданың сөзімен Therevada Tipitaka жобасын
және Ларбини, Бодхгая, Саранат, Кушинара және т.б маңызды жерлерді
жобалауды жоспарлап отырмыз.
At
АҚ ҮЙ
668, 5А негізгі жол, 8-ші кросс, HAL III кезең,
Прабудда Бхарат Пуния Бхуми Бенгалуру
Карадака штатының Магади
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Сіз, сіздің жанұяңыздың мүшелері және барлық тіршілік иелері бақытты, бақытты және қауіпсіз болсын!
Қартаюды
қалпына келтіруге арналған таблетка бес жыл ішінде көпшілікке қол
жетімді болады және оның құны күн сайын бір кесе кофемен тең болады,
дейді зерттеуші.
Будданың
бақыт, игілік, бейбітшілік пен сезімнің болмысы және олардың түпкі
мақсаты ретінде мәңгілік бақытқа жету үшін Будданың хабардарлығын оқып,
оқы, тәжірибе жаса, өз сөздерін тарат.
Филантроптық
байлар мен кедей фермерлер халықтың әл-ауқатына, бақыты мен
бейбітшілігіне қызмет ету үшін бірігіп, әлемнің 0,1% төзімсіз,
зорлықшыл, жауынгер, бірінші нөмірлі лаңкестерімен қашықтан басқарылатын
демократиялық институттардың (Моди) ессіз кісі өлтірушісіне назар
аудармайды Роуди Свейам Севакстың (RSS) ақыл-есі кем шетелдіктердің
британдықтары Бене Израильден, Тибеттен, Африкадан, Шығыс Еуропадан,
Батыс Германиядан, Солтүстік Еуропадан, Оңтүстік Ресейден, Венгриядан
және т.б қуып шықты, олар жеккөрушілікке, ашуланшақтыққа, қызғанышқа,
алдануға, ақымақтыққа толы Психикалық баспанада емдеуді қажет ететін
ақыл-ойды ластау, ол жейтін нанды менің Пенджабымда өсіретінін біліңіз, -
дейді 70 жастағы фермер.
Адани, Амбани және басқа корпорациялар Үндістанның жаппай азық-түлік нарығына назар аударды, олардың проблемалары аз болды:
Мәселе 1:
Мемлекеттерде
фермерлерден азық-түлік дәндерін сатып алудың әртүрлі ережелері мен
ережелері болды. Корпорацияларға әртүрлі ережелер мен салықтармен
көптеген штаттарды басқару қиынға соқты
Demokratuc институттарының жынды өлтірушісі және сұйылтатын институттардың шебері (Modi) Шешім:
Штаттардан бақылау алып, бүкіл ел үшін 1 акт жасады. Корпораттар қазір бақытты.
2-мәселе:
Корпораттар
дақылдарды сатып алып, сақтайды. Бірақ маңызды тауар актісі оларды
дақылдарды ұзақ уақыт сақтау үшін тоқтатады, өйткені бұл нарықтағы
бағаны өсіреді.
Modi шешімі:
Азық-түлік
дақылдары маңызды тауарлық-материалдық құндылықтар актісіне енбейді
және оларды ұзақ уақыт сақтауға болады. Корпораттар тағы да қуанышты.
3-мәселе
Фермерлер қандай дақылдың түрін өсіретінін анықтау қиын болды.
Modi шешімі:
Фермерлерге
келісімшарттық шаруашылық жүргізу, онда оларға корпорациялар қандай
дақыл өсіру керектігін айтады. Корпораттар тағы да қуанышты.
4-мәселе:
Егер фермерлерге қатысты бірдеңе дұрыс болмаса, корпоративтер сот істерін қалай қарайды.
Modi шешімі:
Фермерлер сотқа жүгіне алмайды. Олар SDM және DC-ге барады. Бәрі
Корпораттар қайтадан қуанады, өйткені олар оңай пара бере алады.
Олар заң жобалары фермерлердің пайдасына дейді. ….
Бұған фермерлер наразылық білдіруде.
Барлық
аборигендер оянған қоғамдар әділеттілік пен демократияны сақтау үшін
алаяқтық EVM орнына бюллетеньдер талап етеді. Автоматты түрде барлық
қоғамдар өздерінің әл-ауқаттары, бақыттары мен бейбітшіліктері үшін
байлықты барлық қоғамдар арасында пропорционалды түрде бөлу арқылы пайда
көреді.
Моди
(демократиялық институттардың ессіз кісі өлтірушісі) бұқараның назарын
бір мәселеден екінші мәселеге аударуда. Фермерлер Модиге қарсы күресті
күшейтіп жатқанда, ол медициналық басшы сияқты, Ковид вакцинасы туралы
хабарлайды. Бірде ол шива пілдің басын адам ағзасына ауыстырған кезде
адам ағзасын алғашқы трансплантациялауды өзінің хиндутвасы жасады деп
мәлімдеді.
Ең
жақсы 3D 360 градус шеңбер көрінісі, 70 мм Будда фильмдері, 16D стерео
дыбыстық эффект музыкасы, әні мен биі, құлаққапсыз классикалық
қазақша-Классикалық қазақ
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RT на русском
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самых почитаемых буддийских святынь. Кроме того, узнаем, где на
Шри-Ланке растут деревья, посаженные Юрием Гагариным и Николаем II.
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Шри-Ланка 360: храм зуба Будды в Канди и дерево Николая II
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новой серии нашего панорамного путешествия по Шри-Ланке, мы посетим
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56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

https://tenor.com/view/surf-wave-ocean-surfs-up-loop-gif-5633119

Surf Wave GIF - Surf Wave Ocean GIFs




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រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
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មានភិក្ខុ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ដោយបោះបង់វាដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅក្យាខាងក្នុង។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានបោះបង់ចោលធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលកៃយ៉ានៅក្យាខាងក្នុង។
មានភិក្ខុ ៦ អង្គដោយមិនបោះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅខាយ៉ាខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
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ដោយមិនបានបោះបង់ចោលនូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើទៅបានទេដោយនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅខាយ៉ាទាំងខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
មានធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងធម៌ ៦ បោះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅខាយ៉ាខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
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ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសម្រុះសម្រួលកាយ៉ានៅខាយ៉ាខាងក្រៅ។
មានភិក្ខុ ៦ អង្គដោយមិនបោះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅកាយ៉ាខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានបោះបង់ចោលនូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើទៅបានទេដោយនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅខាយ៉ាទាំងខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
មានព្រះសង្ឃប្រាំមួយធម៌ដែលបោះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលកាយ៉ានៅកាយ៉ាទាំងខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានបោះបង់ចោលធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលកៃយ៉ានៅខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
មានភិក្ខុ ៦ អង្គដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅvedanāខាងក្នុង។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានបោះបង់ចោលនូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើទៅបានក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលvedanāនៅក្នុងvedanāខាងក្នុង។
មានភិក្ខុ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ដោយបោះបង់វាដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅក្នុងvedanāខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានបោះបង់ចោលធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅvedanāខាងក្នុង។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលvedanāនៅ vedan ។ ខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុមិនអាចនៅតែសង្កេតឃើញវណ្ណយុត្តិនៅvedanāខាងក្រៅបានឡើយ។
មានព្រះសង្ឃ ៦ ធម៌ដែលបោះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅvedanāខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានបោះបង់ចោលធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅខាងក្រៅvedanā។
មានភិក្ខុ ៦ អង្គដោយមិនបោះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែសង្កេតមើលវត្តីនៅវត្តីខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានបោះបង់ចោលនូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅក្នុងvedanāខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
មានភិក្ខុ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ដោយបោះបង់វាដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលvedanāនៅក្នុងvedanāខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់ធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលvedanāក្នុងvedanāខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពរក្សាការសម្ងាត់តាត្រៅក្នុងតាបសខាងក្នុង។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

បើមិនបានលះបង់ធម៌ទាំង ៦ នេះទេភិក្ខុមិនអាចរក្សាការសម្ងាត់តាត្រៅក្នុងតាបសខាងក្នុងបានឡើយ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្នុង។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្នុង។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពរក្សាការសម្ងាត់តាបសនៅខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

បើមិនបានលះបង់ធម៌ទាំង ៦ នេះទេភិក្ខុមិនអាចធ្វើអ្វីបានទេដោយនៅតែសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅនៅត្មាតខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងតាត្រៅខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ទាំង ៦ នេះគឺភិក្ខុមិនអាចធ្វើការសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅបានឡើយ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការសង្កេតមើលតាត្រៅក្នុងត្មាតខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានបោះបង់ចោលនូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើទៅបានក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលព្រះធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្រៅឡើយ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីនៅតែសង្កេតឃើញធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្នុង។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែរក្សានូវធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្រៅបាន។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ទាំង ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើទៅបានដោយនៅតែសង្កេតមើលព្រះធម៌នៅខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីរក្សានូវធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងដោយមិនលះបង់ចោលដែលមិនមានលទ្ធភាពនៅតែរក្សានូវធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ខាងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅបាន។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយមិនបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ទាំង ៦ យ៉ាងនេះគឺមិនអាចធ្វើទៅបានក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលនូវព្រះធម៌ទាំងក្នុងនិងក្រៅ។
ម្នាលភិក្ខុទាំងឡាយធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងលះបង់ចោលដែលអាចធ្វើទៅបានដើម្បីរក្សានូវធម៌ក្នុងធម៌ទាំងក្នុងនិងខាងក្រៅ។
តើប្រាំមួយមួយណា?

រីករាយនឹងសកម្មភាពរីករាយក្នុងការសន្ទនារីករាយក្នុងការគេងរីករាយក្នុងសង្គមនិយមខ្វះ
indriyesu guttadvāratāនិងកង្វះ bhojane mattaññutā។

ដោយបានលះបង់នូវធម៌ ៦ យ៉ាងនេះ, ភិក្ខុអាចធ្វើបានក្នុងការឃ្លាំមើលនូវព្រះធម៌ទាំងក្នុងនិងក្រៅ។
សាកលវិទ្យាល័យស្រាវជ្រាវនិងអនុវត្តតាមអ៊ិនធឺរណែតឥតគិតថ្លៃ
សម្រាប់
របកគំហើញនៃការភ្ញាក់ដឹងខ្លួនជាមួយសកលការយល់ដឹង (DAOAU)
សម្រាប់សុខុមាលភាពសុភមង្គលសន្តិភាពនៃអ្នកចូលរួមនិងអ្នកមិនមែនជាអ្នករងគ្រោះហើយសម្រាប់ពួកគេដើម្បីទទួលបាននូវសន្តិភាពជារៀងរហូតជាគោលដៅចុងក្រោយ។
នៅ
វត្តគូស៊ីនណាអាប៊ីបាណាបាហ៊ីមភីហ្សា
- គឺជាវត្តដំរីសមានកំពស់ ១៨
ហ្វីតដែលមានតុរឺក៏ប៉ុន្តែត្រូវប្រាកដថាមានកំរិតក្បាលខាងលើដោយផ្អែកលើការប្រើប្រាស់បន្ទប់ធម្មតា។
ក្នុងភាសាចំនួន
១១៦
ភាសាហើយគ្រោងនឹងដាក់គម្រោងអ៊ីវ៉ាដាទិព្វតាតាដោយសំដីផ្ទាល់របស់ព្រះពុទ្ធនិងកន្លែងសំខាន់ៗដូចជាលេមនីនីប៊ូដហ្គាយ៉ាសារ៉ាណាតឃ្យូទីណាជាដើមដោយចក្ខុវិស័យរង្វង់
៣៦០ ដឺក្រេស្រដៀងនឹងចក្ខុវិស័យ
នៅ
ផ្ទះពណ៌ស
៦៦៨, ផ្លូវធំ ៥ អា, ផ្លូវលេខ ៨, ដំណាក់កាល HAL III,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
រដ្ឋ Magadhi Karnataka
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
សូមអោយសមាជិកក្រុមគ្រួសារនិងក្រុមអ្នកផ្ញើរនិងអ្នកដែលមិនមែនជាអ្នកផ្ញើមកទាំងអស់មានសេចក្តីសុខសុភមង្គលនិងសុវត្ថិភាពជារៀងរហូត។
អ្នកស្រាវជ្រាវនិយាយថាថ្នាំគ្រាប់ដើម្បីបន្ថយភាពចាស់អាចមានដល់សាធារណជនក្នុងរយៈពេល ៥ ឆ្នាំហើយចំណាយដូចគ្នារាល់ថ្ងៃដូចកាហ្វេមួយពែងដែរ។
អានអនុវត្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយពាក្យសម្ដីផ្ទាល់ខ្លួនរបស់អ្នកដែលភ្ញាក់ដឹងខ្លួនដោយដឹងអំពីព្រះពុទ្ធដើម្បីសុភមង្គលសុខុមាលភាពសន្តិភាពសម្រាប់អ្នកដែលមិនមែនជាអ្នកផ្ញើសារហើយសម្រាប់ពួកគេដើម្បីទទួលបានសេចក្តីសុខអស់កល្បជានិច្ចជាគោលដៅចុងក្រោយ។
កសិករសំបូរបែបនិងកសិករក្រីក្របានរួបរួមគ្នាបម្រើសេវាកម្មសុខុមាលភាពសុភមង្គលនិងសន្តិភាពដោយមិនអើពើនឹងឃាតករឆ្កួត
ៗ នៃស្ថាប័នប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ (ម៉ូឌី) ដែលគ្រប់គ្រងពីចម្ងាយត្រឹមតែ ០,១%
ប៉ុណ្ណោះដែលមិនអត់ឱនអំពើហឹង្សាសកម្មប្រយុទ្ធសកម្មប្រយុទ្ធភេរវករលេខមួយនៃពិភពលោកដែលមិនធ្លាប់មានការបាញ់ប្រហារក្រុមចោរប្លន់។
ដោយមានការរំជួលចិត្តដល់ជនបរទេសដែលមានចិត្តសប្បុរសព្រាហ្មណ៍ព្រាហ្មណ៍
Swayam Sevaks (RSS)
បានបណ្តេញចេញពីអ៊ីស្រាអែលទីបេអាហ្វ្រិកអឺរ៉ុបខាងកើតអឺរ៉ុបខាងលិចអាល្លឺម៉ង់ខាងជើងអឺរុបខាងត្បូងរូស្ស៊ីហុងគ្រី។

ដែលជាភាពស្មោកគ្រោកនៃចិត្តដែលត្រូវការការព្យាបាលនៅក្នុងកន្លែងជ្រកកោនខាងផ្លូវចិត្ត។
ដឹងថានំប៉័ងដែលគាត់បរិភោគគឺធំធាត់នៅតំបន់ផុនចាបរបស់កសិករដែលមានអាយុ ៧០
ឆ្នាំ។

Adani, Ambani និងសាជីវកម្មផ្សេងទៀតបានយកចិត្តទុកដាក់លើទីផ្សារគ្រាប់ធញ្ញជាតិដ៏ធំរបស់ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា។ ពួកគេមានបញ្ហាតិចតួច:
បញ្ហាទី ១៖
រដ្ឋមានច្បាប់និងបទប្បញ្ញត្តិផ្សេងៗគ្នាក្នុងការទិញធញ្ញជាតិពីកសិករ។

វាពិបាកសម្រាប់ក្រុមហ៊ុនក្នុងការគ្រប់គ្រងរដ្ឋជាច្រើនដែលមានបទប្បញ្ញត្តិនិងពន្ធខុសគ្នាច្រើន

ឃាតករឆ្កួតនឹងស្ថាប័នប្រជាធិបតេយ្យប្រជាធិបតេយ្យនិងជាសាស្រ្តាចារ្យនៃស្ថាប័នរលាយ (ម៉ូឌី) ដំណោះស្រាយ៖
បានគ្រប់គ្រងពីរដ្ឋនានានិងបានធ្វើសកម្មភាពមួយសម្រាប់ប្រទេសទាំងមូល។ សាជីវកម្មរីករាយឥឡូវនេះ។
បញ្ហាទី ២៖
សាជីវកម្មនឹងទិញដំណាំហើយរក្សាទុកវា។

ប៉ុន្តែសកម្មភាពទំនិញសំខាន់នឹងបញ្ឈប់ពួកគេសម្រាប់ការរក្សាទុកដំណាំក្នុងរយៈពេលយូរព្រោះវាបង្កើនតម្លៃទីផ្សារ។

ដំណោះស្រាយម៉ូឌី៖
ដំណាំចំណីអាហារនឹងមិនស្ថិតនៅក្រោមសកម្មភាពរបស់ទំនិញសំខាន់និងអាចរក្សាទុកបានយូរ។ សាជីវកម្មរីករាយម្តងទៀត។
បញ្ហាទី ៣
វាពិបាកក្នុងការកំណត់ថាតើដំណាំប្រភេទណាដែលនឹងត្រូវដាំដុះដោយកសិករ។
ដំណោះស្រាយម៉ូឌី៖
ធ្វើកិច្ចសន្យាកសិកម្មសម្រាប់កសិករដែលជាកន្លែងដែលក្រុមហ៊ុននឹងត្រូវប្រាប់ដោយសាជីវកម្មឱ្យដាំដំណាំប្រភេទណា។ សាជីវកម្មរីករាយម្តងទៀត។
បញ្ហាទី ៤៖
តើសាជីវកម្មនឹងដោះស្រាយរឿងក្តីយ៉ាងដូចម្តេចប្រសិនបើមានអ្វីមិនត្រឹមត្រូវប្រឆាំងនឹងកសិករ។
ដំណោះស្រាយម៉ូឌី៖
កសិករមិនអាចទៅតុលាការបានទេ។ ពួកគេនឹងទៅអេសអឹមអេសនិងឌីស៊ី។ ទាំងអស់
សាជីវកម្មមានភាពសប្បាយរីករាយជាថ្មីម្តងទៀតព្រោះពួកគេអាចសូកពួកគេបានយ៉ាងងាយស្រួល។
ហើយពួកគេនិយាយថាវិក័យប័ត្រគឺពេញចិត្តកសិករ។ …។
នេះជាអ្វីដែលកសិករកំពុងតវ៉ា។
សង្គមអរូបីអរគ្រប់រូបនឹងទាមទារសន្លឹកឆ្នោតជំនួសការក្លែងបន្លំ
EVMs ដើម្បីយុត្តិធម៌និងជួយសង្គ្រោះប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ។
ដោយស្វ័យប្រវត្តសង្គមទាំងអស់នឹងទទួលបានអត្ថប្រយោជន៍ដោយវិធីនៃការបែងចែកទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិតាមសមាមាត្រក្នុងចំណោមសង្គមទាំងអស់សម្រាប់សុខុមាលភាពសុភមង្គលនិងសន្តិភាព។
ម៉ូឌី
(ឃាតករឆ្កួតនៃស្ថាប័នប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ)
កំពុងបង្វែរចំណាប់អារម្មណ៍របស់មហាជនពីបញ្ហាមួយទៅបញ្ហាមួយទៀត។
ខណៈពេលដែលកសិករកំពុងបង្កើនការតស៊ូរបស់ពួកគេប្រឆាំងនឹងម៉ូឌីគាត់ប្រកាសអំពីវ៉ាក់សាំង
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ពុទ្ធប្រវត្តិ ភាគទី០១ Story of The Buddha ​Part 01
Pen Sodaduong
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Pacifique
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Deep Forest
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Michel Sanchez, Éric Mouquet
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ពុទ្ធប្រវត្តិ ភាគទី០១ Story of The Buddha ​Part 01

57) Classical Kinyarwanda

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dhammānupassī sutta - kwitegereza dhammas - mumagambo ya buddha - muri Classic Kinyarwanda
Birakwiye
ko usubiramo ubutumwa bwatanzwe muri iyi sutta: ingeso esheshatu
utayiretse bidashoboka gukora satipaṭṭhānas neza. Hano hari isuku
irashobora kuba byiza hano.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utatereranye bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka gukomeza kuguma kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utatereranye bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere no hanze.
Hariho, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko twakomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko twakomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza kāya muri kāya imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko wakomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utatereranye bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko wakomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko wakomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza vedanā muri vedanā imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko twakomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko wakomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko wakomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza citta muri citta imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko twakomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma hanze.
Hariho, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko twakomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze guta dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, utayiretse bidashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Utarinze gutererana dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, ntibishoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere no hanze.
Hano, bhikkhus, dhamma esheshatu, kureka birashoboka ko twakomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere no hanze.
Nibihe
bitandatu? Kwishimira ibikorwa, kwishimira ibiganiro, kwishimira
ibitotsi, kwishimira gusabana, kubura indriyesu guttadvāratā no kubura
bhojane mattaññutā.
Tumaze kureka dhamma esheshatu, bhikkhus, birashoboka gukomeza kwitegereza dhamma muri dhamma imbere no hanze.
Kaminuza Yubuntu Kumurongo nubushakashatsi
Kuri
Ivumburwa Ryakangutse hamwe no Kumenya Isanzure (DAOAU)
Kubuzima
bwiza, umunezero, amahoro yibintu byose byunvikana kandi bidafite
ishingiro kandi kugirango bagere kumahoro ahoraho nkintego yanyuma.
kuri
KUSHINARA
NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA-ni metero 18 Dia All White Pagoda ifite ameza
cyangwa, ariko menya neza ko ufite hejuru yumutwe ushingiye
kumikoreshereze isanzwe yicyumba.
mu
ndimi 116 ZITANDUKANYE no guteganya umushinga Therevada Tipitaka
mumagambo ya Buda hamwe n’ahantu h’ingenzi nka Lumbini, Bodhgaya,
Saranath, Kushinara, Etc., mu cyerekezo cya 3D 360 cyerekezo gisa na
Circarama.
Kuri
URUGO RW’ABAZUNGU
668, 5Umuhanda munini, Umusaraba wa 8, Icyiciro cya HAL III,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Leta ya Magadhi Karnataka
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Turakwifuriza,
abagize umuryango wawe hamwe nibiremwa byose kandi bidafite ibyiyumvo
guhora wishimye, neza kandi ufite umutekano!
Umushakashatsi
avuga ko ibinini bigabanya gusaza byaboneka ku baturage mu myaka itanu
kandi bigatwara buri munsi nk’igikombe cy’ikawa.
Soma,
Witoze, Gukwirakwiza Amagambo Yumuntu Ukangutse Kumenya Buda
kubwibyishimo, imibereho myiza, amahoro yabantu bose bumva, badafite
imyumvire kandi kugirango bagere ku byishimo bidashira nkintego yanyuma.
Abahinzi
b’abakire n’abakene b’abagiraneza bishyize hamwe kugira ngo bakorere
imibereho myiza y’abaturage, umunezero n’amahoro birengagije umwicanyi
w’umwicanyi w’inzego za demokarasi (Modi) ugenzurwa kure na 0.1% gusa
kutihanganirana, urugomo, abarwanashyaka, abaterabwoba ba mbere ku isi,
bahora barasa, abambari, abasazi , abanyamahanga bafite ubumuga bwo mu
mutwe chitpavan brahmins ya Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) yirukanwe muri
Bene Isiraheli, Tibet, Afurika, Uburayi bwi Burasirazuba, Ubudage
bw’iburengerazuba, Uburayi bw’Amajyaruguru, Uburusiya bw’Amajyepfo,
Hongiriya n’ibindi, byuzuye urwango, umujinya, ishyari, kwibeshya,
Ubupfu. ibyo bikaba byanduza ibitekerezo bisaba kuvurwa mu buhungiro bwo
mu mutwe Menya umutsima arya yakuriye muri Punjab yanjye, ‘Umuhinzi
w’imyaka 70.
Adani, Ambani & abandi bafatanyabikorwa bari bafite ijisho ku isoko ry’ibiribwa binini byo mu Buhinde.Bagize ibibazo bike:
Ikibazo 1:
Ibihugu
byari bifite amategeko n’amabwiriza atandukanye yo kugura ingano
y’ibiribwa ku bahinzi. Byari bigoye ko abafatanyabikorwa bakora leta
nyinshi zifite amabwiriza menshi & imisoro
Umusazi umwicanyi wibigo bya demokarasi na Master of diluting ibigo (Modi) Igisubizo:
Yigaruriye leta kandi akora igikorwa 1 mugihugu cyose. Abakozi bishimye ubu.
Ikibazo 2:
Abashoramari
bazagura ibihingwa kandi babibike. Ariko Igikorwa Cyibanze cyibicuruzwa
bizabahagarika kubika imyaka igihe kirekire, kuko bizamura ibiciro
kumasoko.
Igisubizo cya ମୋଦି:
Ibihingwa byibiribwa ntabwo bizaza mubikorwa byingenzi kandi birashobora kubikwa igihe kirekire. Abakozi bongeye kwishima.
Ikibazo 3
Byari bigoye kumenya ubwoko bwibihingwa bizahingwa nabahinzi.
Igisubizo cya ମୋଦି:
Guhinga amasezerano kubuhinzi aho bazabwirwa nabafatanyabikorwa guhinga ubwoko bwibihingwa. Abakozi bongeye kwishima.
Ikibazo 4:
Uburyo Abashoramari bazakemura ibibazo byurukiko niba hari ibitagenda neza kubuhinzi.
Igisubizo cya ମୋଦି:
Abahinzi ntibashobora kujya mu nkiko. Bazajya kuri SDM na DC. Byose
Abashoramari bongeye kwishima kuko bashobora kubaha ruswa byoroshye.
Kandi Bavuga ko imishinga y’amategeko ishyigikiye abahinzi. ….
Nibyo abahinzi bigaragambyaga.
Imiryango
yose y’Aboriginal Awakened izasaba impapuro z’itora aho kuba uburiganya
EVMs kugirango ubutabera kandi bukize demokarasi. Mu buryo bwikora,
societe zose zizabona inyungu muburyo bwo kugabana umutungo ugereranije
mumiryango yose kugirango imibereho yabo, umunezero n’amahoro.
Modi
(Umusazi wica inzego za demokarasi) arimo ayobora ibitekerezo bya
rubanda kuva ku kibazo kimwe. Mu gihe abahinzi barimo gukaza umurego mu
kurwanya Kagame, aratangaza ku rukingo rwa Covid, nkaho ari umuyobozi
w’ubuvuzi. Amaze gutangaza ko hindutva ye ari yo yakoze transplantation
ya mbere yingingo zabantu mugihe shiva yateraga umutwe winzovu kumubiri
wumuntu.
Ibyiza
bya 3D 360 bigezweho byerekanwe 70 mm firime ya Buddha hamwe na 16D
stereo yijwi ryumuziki, indirimbo n’imbyino nta na terefone muri
Kinyarwanda ya kera
Inyamibwa Female dancing Igishakamba
INYAMIBWA AERG-UNR
469 subscribers
Inyamibwa
is A Cultural Troupe of Students Survivors Association (AERG).
Inyamibwa created in 1998 for the mission of entertaining Rwandan
society through traditional dances .
58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
https://tenor.com/view/movie-gif-4713542
Movie Time GIF - Movie GIFs
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dhammānupassī sutta — 법을 관찰하기 — 부처님의 말로 — in Classical Korean- 고전 한국어
이 경에 나오는 메시지를 반복 할 가치가 있습니다. 포기하지 않는 여섯 가지 습관은 satipaṭṭhānas를 제대로 수행 할 수 없습니다. 여기에서는 꽤 많은 청소가 권장 될 수 있습니다.
내부적으로 kāya에서 kāya를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한, 포기하지 않고 비구, 여섯 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 카야의 카야를 내부적으로나 외부 적으로 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
내부적으로 kāya에서 kāya를 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 6 개의 담마가 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고, 내부적으로 카야에서 카야를 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
외부 적으로 카야에서 카야를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한 비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 카야의 카야를 내부적으로나 외부 적으로 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
외부 적으로 kāya에서 kāya를 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고, 외부에서 카야의 카야를 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
내외 적으로 kāya에서 kāya를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한 비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 카야의 카야를 내부적으로나 외부 적으로 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
내외 적으로 카야에서 카야를 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리고, 내외 부적으로 kāya에서 kāya를 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
내부적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한 비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 내부적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
내외 적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고, 내부적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
vedanā에서 vedanā를 외부에서 관찰하는 것이 불가능한 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 vedanā의 vedanā를 외부에서 관찰하는 것을 유지할 수 없습니다.
외부 적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능한 비구, 6 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고 나면 외부에서 vedanā의 vedanā를 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
내외 적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한, 비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 vedanā의 vedanā를 내부와 외부에서 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
내외 적으로 vedanā에서 vedanā를 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리고 나면 베다 나에서 베다 나를 내부적으로나 외부 적으로 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
내부적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 내부적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
내부적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고 나면, 내부적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
비구, 6 개의 법이 있는데, 포기하지 않고서는 외부 적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수 없습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리지 않고서는 외부 적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수 없습니다.
비구, 여섯 가지 법, 포기하는 것이 있는데, 그것은 외부 적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고 나면, 외부 적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
내외 적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한 비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 안과 밖에서 안타를 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
비구, 여섯 가지 법이 있는데, 그것은 내외 부적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리고 나면, 내부적으로나 외부 적으로 citta에서 citta를 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
내부적으로 법에서 법을 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한, 포기하지 않고 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리지 않고서는 법 안에서 법을 내부적으로 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
내부적으로 법에서 법을 계속 관찰 할 수있는 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법, 비구를 버리고 나면, 법 안에서 법을 내부적으로 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
비구, 6 개의 법이 있는데, 포기하지 않고 외부 적으로 법의 법을 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리지 않고서는 법안의 법을 외부 적으로 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
비구, 6 개의 법이 있는데, 외부 적으로 법의 법을 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리고 나면, 법안의 법칙을 외부에서 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
내외 적으로 법안에서 법을 계속 관찰하는 것이 불가능한, 버리지 않고 비구, 6 개의 법이 있습니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리지 않고서는 법안의 법을 내외 부적으로 관찰하는 것이 불가능합니다.
비구, 6 개의 법이 있으며, 내외 부적으로 법에서 법을 계속 관찰하는 것이 가능합니다.
어느 여섯? 활동, 대화, 수면, 사회화, indriyesu guttadvāratā 부족, bhojane mattaññutā 부족.
이 여섯 가지 법칙 인 비구를 버리고 나면 법안에서 법을 내외 부적으로 계속 관찰 할 수 있습니다.
무료 온라인 연구 및 실습 대학
…에 대한
인식 우주 (DAOAU)와 함께 깨어 난 자의 발견
모든 지각있는 존재와 비 지각적인 존재의 복지, 행복, 평화를 위해 그리고 그들이 최종 목표로 영원한 평화를 이루기 위해.
…에서
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA는 테이블이있는 18 피트 Dia All White Pagoda입니다.하지만 방의 일반적인 사용을 기준으로 머리 높이 이상이 있어야합니다.
116
개의 고전 언어로되어 있고, 부처님의 말과 Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Saranath, Kushinara 등과 같은
중요한 장소에 Therevada Tipitaka를 Circarama와 유사한 3D 360도 원형 비전으로 투영 할 계획입니다.
에서
화이트 홈
668, 5A 주요 도로, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
프라 부다 바라트 푸 니야 부미 벵갈 루루
마가 디 카르 나 타카 주
프라 부다 바랏
당신, 당신의 가족, 모든 지각있는 존재와 비 지각적인 존재들이 행복하고 건강하며 안전하기를 바랍니다!
노화를 역전시키는 알약은 5 년 이내에 대중에게 제공 될 것이며 매일 커피 한 잔과 같은 비용이 든다고 연구원은 말합니다.
부처님이 행복, 복지, 모든 지각있는 존재, 지각없는 존재의 평화를 인식하고 최종 목표로 영원한 행복을 얻도록 깨달은 자의 자신의 말을 읽고, 연습하고, 전파하십시오.
자선
부자와 가난한 농부들이 단결하여 국민의 복지, 행복 및 평화를 위해 단결하며 단 0.1 % 편협하고 폭력적이며 전투 적이며 세계
1 위 테러리스트에 의해 원격 제어되는 민주 제도의 미친 살인자 (Modi)를 무시하고 총격, 폭도 린칭, 미치광이 베네
이스라엘, 티베트, 아프리카, 동유럽, 서독, 북유럽, 남 루시아, 헝가리 등에서 쫓겨 난 Rowdy Swayam Sevaks
(RSS)의 정신 지체 외국인 chitpavan brahmins, 증오, 분노, 질투, 망상, 어리 석음 정신 병원에서 치료가
필요한 마음의 더러움은 그가 먹는 빵이 내 펀 자브에서 자랍니다 ‘라고 70 세 농부는 말합니다.
Adani, Ambani 및 기타 기업들은 인도의 대규모 식품 곡물 시장을 주시했습니다.
문제 1 :
주에서는 농부들로부터 식량 곡물을 구입하는 데 다른 규칙과 규정이있었습니다. 기업이 다양한 규정과 세금으로 너무 많은 주를 처리하기가 어려웠습니다.
민주주의 기관의 미친 살인자이자 희석 기관의 마스터 (Modi) 솔루션 :
주로부터 통제권을 획득하고 전국을 위해 1 개의 행동을했습니다. 기업은 이제 행복합니다.
문제 2 :
기업은 작물을 사서 저장합니다. 그러나 Essential Commodity Act는 시장에서 가격을 올리기 때문에 오랫동안 작물을 저장하는 것을 막을 것입니다.
Modi 솔루션 :
식량 작물은 필수 상품 법에 속하지 않으며 더 오래 보관할 수 있습니다. 기업은 다시 행복합니다.
문제 3
농부들이 어떤 종류의 작물을 재배 할 것인지 결정하기가 어려웠습니다.
Modi 솔루션 :
기업이 어떤 종류의 작물을 재배하라고 지시하는 농부를위한 계약 농업. 기업은 다시 행복합니다.
문제 4 :
농민에게 문제가 생기면 Corporates가 법원 사건을 처리하는 방법.
Modi 솔루션 :
농부들은 법정에 갈 수 없습니다. 그들은 SDM과 DC로 갈 것입니다. 모두
기업들은 쉽게 뇌물을 줄 수 있기 때문에 다시 행복합니다.
그리고 그들은 법안이 농부들에게 유리하다고 말합니다. ….
이것이 농부들이 반대하는 것입니다.
모든 원주민 각성 사회는 정의와 민주주의를 위해 사기 EVM 대신 투표 용지를 요구할 것입니다. 자동적으로 모든 사회는 복지, 행복, 평화를 위해 모든 사회에 비례 적으로 부를 분배함으로써 이익을 얻게 될 것입니다.
Modi
(민주주의 제도의 미친 살인자)는 대중의 관심을 한 문제에서 다른 문제로 돌리고 있습니다. 농부들이 Modi에 대한 투쟁을
강화하는 동안 그는 마치 그가 의료 책임자 인 것처럼 Covid Vaccine에 대해 발표합니다. 시바가 코끼리 머리를 인체에
이식했을 때 최초의 인간 장기 이식을 한 것이 그의 힌두 트 바라고 선언 한 적이 있습니다.
최신 최고의 3D 360도 원형 비전 70mm 부처 영화, 16D 스테레오 사운드 효과 음악, 노래 및 춤, 헤드폰없는 클래식 한국어-고전 한국어
클래식음악듣기 : 한국인이 사랑하는 클래식 16곡
음악여우
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검색량 압도적 1위 쿠팡에서 쇼핑하기 : https://coupa.ng/bgKNio
1. Ennio Morricone: Gabriel’s oboe (OST-영화 ‘Mission’ - ‘Nella Fantasia’의 원곡)
2. Johan Pachelbel: Variations On The Cannon (캐논 변주곡)
3. Secret Garden: Serenade to spring (‘10월의 어느 멋진 날에 One Fine Day in October’ 원곡)
4. Chopin: Nocturne Opus 9 No. 2 (쇼팽 ‘야상곡’)
5. Jacques Offenbach: Les Larmes De Jacqueline (쟈클린의 눈물)
6. Andrew Lloyd Webber: Memory (OST-뮤지컬 ‘Cats’)
7. Michiru Ohsima: Kazabue 風笛 (OST-영화 ‘웰컴 투 동막골’)
8. Erik Satie : Je Te Veux 당신을 원해요 (OST-드라마 ‘노다메 칸타빌레’)
9. Fernando Sor: La Romanesca (OST-드라마 ‘꽃보다 남자’)
10. Ryo Yoshimata: 1997 Spring ((OST-영화 ‘냉정과 열정 사이’)
11. Bach: 플룻 소나타 2번 Eb장조 Siciliano
12. Vivaldi: 사계 중 ‘겨울’ (L’inverno) 2악장
13. Richard Clayderman: Les Fleurs Sauvages (야생화)
14. Yuhki Kuramoto ; Memory of Love (OST-드라마 ‘주몽’)
15. Chopin: Etude Op. 10-3 이별의 곡 (OST-영화 ‘제노바’)
16. Steve Barakatt: Rainbow Bridge
클래식음악듣기 : 한국인이 사랑하는 클래식 16곡
검색량
압도적 1위 쿠팡에서 쇼핑하기 : https://coupa.ng/bgKNio1. Ennio Morricone: Gabriel’s
oboe (OST-영화 ‘Mission’ - ‘Nella Fantasia’의 원곡) 2. Johan Pachelbel:
Variations On …

59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

https://giphy.com/gifs/pepsisummergram-pepsi-summergram-music-up-drama-down-LSulGJTxAWxsgkLy4X
stereo music up drama down GIF by Pepsi #Summergram
Friends


dhammānupassī sutta - çavdêriya şamayan - bi gotinên xwe yên Bûda - bi Kurdî ya Klasîkî (Kurmancî) -Kurdî (Kurmancî)
Hêja
ye ku hûn peyama ku di vê sutta de hatî dayîn dubare bikin: şeş adet
bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ku ne mumkune ku satipaṭṭhānas bi rêk û pêk
bikin. Pir paqijî dikare li vir were şîret kirin.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mumkune ku meriv li hundurê kiyayê li kya bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundur û derve li kāya-yê temaşe bike.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li hundurê kiyayê li kiyayê temaşe bike.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, mimkun e ku meriv li hundurê kiya-yê li kya-yê temaşevan bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berdin ne gengaz e ku meriv li derveyî kiyayê li kya bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundur û derve li kāya-yê temaşe bike.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li derveyî kiyayê li kiya bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
We dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, mimkun e ku meriv li derveyî kiyayê li kiyayê bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan bernedin ne mumkune ku meriv li hundur û derve li kiyayê mêze bike.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundur û derve li kāya-yê temaşe bike.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li hundir û derveyî kiyayê li kiya bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, mimkun e ku meriv li hundur û derveyî jî li kya-yê mêze bike.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mumkune ku meriv li hundurê vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku we dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundurê vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv bimîne û li hundurê û derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, gengaz e ku meriv li hundur vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mumkune ku meriv li derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, gengaz e ku meriv li derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berdin ne gengaz e ku meriv li hundur û derve li vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku we dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundur û li derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv bimîne û li hundurê û derveyî vedanā di vedanā de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, mimkun e ku meriv li hundur û derve li vedan and di vedanā de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mumkune ku meriv li nav citta li citta bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundurê citta li citta bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li hundurê citta li citta bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, gengaz e ku meriv li hundurê citta li citta bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mimkûn e ku meriv li derveyî citta li citta bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li derveyî citta li citta bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li derveyî citta li citta bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, gengaz e ku meriv li derveyî citta li citta bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mimkûn e ku meriv li citta navxweyî û derveyî çavdêriya citta bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berde, ne mumkune ku meriv li hundir û derveyî li citta bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan gengaz e ku meriv li citta navxweyî û derveyî çavdêriya citta bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Ku we dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berda, gengaz e ku meriv li citta navxweyî û derveyî çavdêriya citta bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan bernede ne mumkune ku meriv li dhammasên navxweyî temaşekirina dhammas bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammayan berde, bhikkhus, ne mumkune ku meriv bi domanî di dhammas de temaşekirina dimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan mimkun e ku hûn di dhammasên navxweyî de temaşekirina dhammas bimînin.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, gengaz e ku meriv li dhammasên navxweyî li temaşekirina dhammas bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan berde ne mimkûn e ku meriv li dervayê dhammayan çavdêriya xwe bike.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî ku dev ji van şeş dhammayan berde, bhikkhus, ne mumkune ku meriv li derveyî dhammayan di temaşekirinê de bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan mimkun e ku meriv li derveyî dhammayan di temaşekirinê de bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, mimkun e ku meriv li derva dhammasan li derveyî temaşekirinê bimîne.
Bhikkhus,
şeş dhammas hene, bêyî ku dev ji wan bernede ne mumkune ku meriv li
dhammayên navxweyî û derveyî temaşekirina dhammas bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Bêyî
ku dev ji van şeş dhammayan berde, bhikkhus, ne mumkune ku meriv li
dhammasên navxweyî û derveyî temaşekirina dhammas bimîne.
Bhikkhus, şeş dhammas hene, dev ji wan berdan mumkun e ku meriv li dhammayên navxweyî û derveyî temaşekirina dhammas bimîne.
Kîjan
şeş? Kêfa çalakiyan, zewqa sohbetan, kêfa xewê, kêfa civakbûnê, kêmbûna
indriyesu guttadvāratā û tunebûna bhojane mattaññutā.
Dev ji van şeş dhammas, bhikkhus berdaye, gengaz e ku meriv li dhammasên navxweyî û derveyî temaşekirina dhammasan bimîne.
Zanîngeha Lêkolîn û Pratîkê ya Serhêl Belaş
bo
Vedîtina Yekê akiyarbûyî Bi Gerdeya Hişyarbûnê (DAOAU)
Ji bo Refah, Bextewarî, Aştiya Hemî Heyînên Sentient û Ne-Sentient û ji bo wan Ku Armanca Dawîn Aştiya Eternal bigirin.
ba
KUSHINARA
NIBBANA BAGUMA PAGODA-18 Daxuyanî Hemî Pagoda Spî ya bi sifre an e, lê
pê ewle bin ku li jorê asta serî li gorî karanîna adetî ya jûreyê bin.
di
116 ZIMANN KLASICK and de û plansazkirina projeya Therevada Tipitaka bi
gotinên Buda û Cihên Girîng ên wekî Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Saranath,
Kushinara, û hwd., di 3D 360 dîmenê çemberê de dişibihe Circarama
Ba
XAN WH SPIT
668, Riya sereke 5A, Xaça 8emîn, Qonaxa HAL III,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Dewleta Magadhi Karnataka
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Bila hûn, endamên malbata we û hemî heyberên hişmend û nehşeng her dem bextewar, baş û ewledar bin!
Pişkek
ji bo berevajîkirina pîrbûnê dê di nav pênc salan de ji raya giştî re
peyda bibe û her roj heman fîncanek qehweyê digire, dibêje lêkolîner.
Xwendin,
Pratîk, Belavkirina Peyvên Xweyên Yê akiyarbûyî Bi Hişmendiya Bûda ji
bo Dilşadî, Refah, Aştiya Hemî Heywanên Nehfdar, Ne Sentient û ji bo wan
Ku Armanca Dawîn Bi Xweziya Xwezayî Bînin.
Cotkarên
dewlemend û belengaz ên filantropî dibin yek da ku ji mirovan re
xizmetê, bextewerî û aştiyê bikin. Ku mêrkujê saziyên demokratîk (Modi)
ji dûr ve tenê bi% 0,1 bêtehmul, şîdet, mîlîtan, numreya yek terorîstên
cîhanê, her dem gulebaran kirin, lînçkirina qelebalix, dîn , Brahîmên
biyanî yên paşverû yên derûnî yên Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) ji Bene
Israelsraîl, Tîbet, Afrîka, Ewropaya Rojhilat, Almanya Rojava, Ewropaya
Bakur, Rûsyaya Başûr, Macarîstan û hwd., tijî nefret, hêrs, çavnebarî,
derew, Bêaqilî yên ku qirêjbûna zêhnê ne ku hewceyê dermankirina di
asîmanên derûnî de ye Dizanin Nanê ku Ew Dixwîne Li Pencabê Min Hate
Çandin, ‘Dibêje Cotkarê 70-salî.
Çavên Adanî, Ambani û pargîdaniyên din li ser bazara genimê xwarinê ya Hindistanê bû. Wan çend pirsgirêk hebûn:
Pirsgirêk 1:
Dewletan
qaîde û rêzikên cûda hebûn ku genimên xwarinê ji cotkaran bikirin. Ji
bo pargîdaniyan zehmet bû ku gelek dewlet bi gelek rêzikname & bacên
cihêreng birêve bibin
Kujerê dîn ê saziyên demokratuc û Masterê saziyên dilopkirinê (Modi) Çareserî:
Kontrol ji dewletan girt û ji bo tevahiya welat 1 kiryar kir. Pargîdaniyên niha kêfxweş in.
Pirsgirêk 2:

pargîdanî berheman bikirin û wan tomar bikin. Lê çalakiya Essential
Commodity dê wan ji bo depokirina berheman ji bo demek dirêj rawestîne,
ji ber ku ew bihayan li sûkê zêde dike.
Çareseriya Modi:
Hilberên xwarinê dê nekevin bin bandora Essence Commodity û dikarin ji bo demek dirêjtir werin hilanîn. Corporates dîsa kêfxweş.
Pirsgirêk 3
Zehmet bû ku were destnîşankirin ka dê çi celeb berhem ji hêla cotkaran ve were çandin.
Çareseriya Modi:
Çandiniya
bi peyman ji bo cotkaran li ku derê dê ji hêla pargîdaniyan ve were
vegotin ku ew kîjan cûre çandinî bikin. Corporates dîsa kêfxweş.
Pirsgirêk 4:
Ger tiştek li dijî cotkaran xelet here dê Parêzer çawa dozên dadgehê birêve bibin.
Çareseriya Modi:
Cotkar nikarin biçin dadgehan. Ew ê biçin SDM û DC. Gişt
Poirket dîsa kêfxweş in ku ew dikarin wan bi hêsanî bertîl bikin.
They Ew dibêjin fatûre li gorî cotkaran in. ….
Ya ku cotkar li dijî vê derdikevin ev e.
Hemî
civakên Aborjînal enediyarbûyî dê li şûna EVM-yên sextekar ji bo
dadmendiyê û Hilbijartina demokrasiyê daxwaza Peldankên Hilbijartinê
bikin. Bixweber hemî civak dê bi riya dabeşkirina dewlemendiyê bi rêjeyî
di nav hemî civakan de ji bo xweşbînî, bextewarî û aştiya wan sûd
werbigirin.
Modi
(Kujerê dîn ê saziyên demokratîk) bala girseyan ji mijarekê
vediguhêzîne pirsgirêkek din. Dema ku cotkar li dijî Modi têkoşîna xwe
xurt dikin, ew li ser Vakslêdana Covid ragihand, wekî ku ew serokek
bijîşkî ye. Carekê wî daxuyand ku ew hindutva wî ye ku yekem neqilkirina
organa mirovî kir dema ku shiva serê fîl li laşê mirov reşand.
Fîlimên
herî baş ên 3D 360 ° dora dîtbarî ya fîlimên Buda yên 70 mm û bi
bandora dengê stereo 16D muzîk, stran û reqs bê serûber bi Kurdî
(Kurmancî) ya klasîk -Kurdî (Kurmancî)
2020 - Sitranên Nû - Popa Kurdî - Sê Sitran Taybetî - Hey Lê Rindê - Gula Min î - Tenê Tû Evîna Min.
ZOZAN ZAGROS MD KURDISTAN
16.6K subscribers
2020 - Sitranên Nû - Popa Kurdî - Sê Sitran Taybetî - Hey Lê Rindê - Gula Min î - Tenê Tû Evîna Min.
Ji kerema xwe pêşwazî ya qanala me bikin.
Bibin endamê qanala me û ji bo kilîbên nû me bişopin.
Amadekar-ZOZAN ZAGROS MEDîA KURDISTAN
2020 - Sitranên Nû - Popa Kurdî - Sê Sitran Taybetî - Hey Lê Rindê - Gula Min î - Tenê Tû Evîna Min.

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,

https://tenor.com/view/outreach360-strutting-gif-9057912
Outreach360 Strutting GIF - Outreach360 Strutting GIFs



Friends

dhammānupassī sutta - dhammas байкоо жүргүзүү - Будданын сөзү менен айтканда - Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз
Ушул сутта келтирилген кабарды кайталап айта кетүү керек: алты адатты таштабастан, сатипахандарга туура көнүгүү жасоого болбойт. Бул жерде бир аз тазалоо сунушталса керек.
Бихиктер, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, кайяны ичтен эле байкап калууга мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштабаса, каядагы ички жана сырткы көрүнүштөрдү сактоо мүмкүн эмес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишет, анткени кайяны ичтен эле байкап кала берсе болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштап, каядагы ички көрүнүштү байкап жүрө берсе болот.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, кайяны сыртынан байкоо менен сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштабаса, каядагы ички жана сырткы көрүнүштөрдү сактоо мүмкүн эмес.
Бихиктер, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап, кайяны сыртынан байкап кала берсе болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштап, каяны сыртынан байкап жүрө берсе болот.
Бийхус, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, кайяны ичтен жана сыртынан байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштабаса, каядагы ички жана сырткы көрүнүштөрдү сактоо мүмкүн эмес.
Бийхус, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишсе болот, алар кайяны ичтен жана сыртынан байкап кала берет.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштап, каяда ичтен жана сыртынан байкоо жүргүзсө болот.
Бийхус, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, веденада ички веденаны сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштабаса, веденаны веденада сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Вехананы ички жана тышкы сактоодо кала турган бихиктер, алты дамма бар.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты даммадан, бикхустардан баш тарткандан кийин, веденада ички веденаны сактаганга болот.
Веданига сырттан байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн болбогон, бикхулар, алты дамма бар.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштабаса, веденаны веденада сыртынан сактоо мүмкүн эмес.
Вехананы сыртынан байкап жүрө берсе болот, андан баш тарткан бихиктер, алты дамма бар.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштап, веденаны сыртынан байкоо менен сактоого болот.
Бийхус, алты дамма бар, аны таштабастан, веденаны ички жана сырткы көрүнүшүндө сактоо мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштабаса, веденаны веденада ички жана тышкы сактаганга болбойт.
Вехананы ички жана тышкы сактоодо кала турган бихиктер, алты дамма бар.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты даммадан, бикхустардан баш тарткандан кийин, веденаны ички жана сырткы көрүнүшүндө сактаганга болот.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, циттада циттага байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхус деген алты дамманы таштабасаңыз, циттадагы циталарды ички байкоо менен сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишет, аларды циттада ички сактоого болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхулар деген алты дамманы таштап, циттадагы циттаны ички байкоо менен сактап калууга болот.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, циттада циттага байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхус деген алты дамманы таштабасаңыз, циттага тыштан байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн эмес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишет, аларды тышта циттада сактоого болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхулар деген алты дамманы таштап, циттага тыштан байкоо салып турууга болот.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, циталардагы циттаны ички жана тышкы байкоо менен сактоо мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бикхус деген алты дамманы таштабастан, циттадагы циттаны ички жана тышкы байкоо менен сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Бикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишет, аларды циттада ички жана тышкы сактоого болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхусту таштап, циттада ичтен жана тыштан байкоо жүргүзүп турууга болот.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, даммалардын ичинде даммаларды байкап туруу мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхулар деген алты дамманы таштабастан, даммалардын ичиндеги даммаларды байкап туруу мүмкүн эмес.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишсе, алардын ичинен даммаларга байкоо жүргүзүп турушат.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхулар деген алты даммадан баш тарткандан кийин, даммалардын ичиндеги даммаларды байкап турууга болот.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, даммаларга тышкы байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бхикхулар деген алты дамманы таштабастан, даммалардагы сырткы көрүнүштөргө байкоо жүргүзүү мүмкүн эмес.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап, даммалардагы сырткы көрүнүштөрдө даммаларды байкап турууга болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштап, даммалардагы сырткы көрүнүштөргө байкоо салып турууга болот.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштабастан, даммалардагы даммаларды ички жана тышкы байкоо менен сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Бикхулар деген алты дамманы таштабастан, даммалардагы даммаларды ички жана тышкы байкоо менен сактап калуу мүмкүн эмес.
Бхикхулар, алты дамма бар, аларды таштап кетишсе, анда даммалардагы ички жана тышкы байкоолорду сактоого болот.
Кайсы алтоо? Иш-аракеттерден, баарлашуудан, уйкудан, социалдык чөйрөдөн ырахаттануу, индриесу гуттадваратанын жоктугу жана бхоян маттанингутанын жоктугу.
Ушул алты дамманы, бикхустарды таштап, даммалардагы ички жана тышкы байкоолорду сактоого болот.
Акысыз Онлайн изилдөө жана практика университети
үчүн
Ойгонгон Ааламдын Ачуусун Ачуу (DAOAU)
Бардык жан-дүйнөнүн жыргалчылыгы, бактысы, тынчтыгы жана түбөлүк тынчтыкка жетүү үчүн акыркы максат.
at
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA - бул 18 фут болгон Dia All White Pagoda столу менен же, бирок бөлмөнүн кадимки колдонулушунун негизинде баштын деңгээлинен жогору болушу керек.
116 КЛАССИКАЛЫК ТИЛДЕРДЕ жана Будданын сөзү менен Therevada Tipitaka жана Лумбини, Бодхгая, Саранат, Кушинара жана башкалар сыяктуу маанилүү жерлерди долбоорлоону пландаштырууда, Чаркарамага жакын 360 градустук айлананы көрүү
Ат
АК ҮЙ
668, 5А негизги жолу, 8-кесилиш, HAL III этап,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Магади Карнатака штаты
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Сиз, сиздин үй-бүлөңүздүн мүчөлөрү жана бардык жан-жаныбарлар бактылуу, бактылуу жана коопсуз болушсун!
Карылыкты калыбына келтирүүчү таблетка беш жылдын ичинде жалпыга жеткиликтүү болуп, күнүнө бир чыны кофе менен бааланат, дейт изилдөөчү.
Будданын бактылуулук, бакубатчылык, бардык жан-дүйнөнүн бейпилдиги жана сезимсиз жан-дүйнөсү үчүн тынчтыгын жана алардын түбөлүк бакытка жетиши үчүн, ойгонгон адамдын Өз сөзүн окуп, практикалап, жайылт.
Филантроптук бай жана кедей дыйкандар элдердин жыргалчылыгына, бактысына жана тынчтыкка кызмат кылуу үчүн биригишип, дүйнөнүн 0.1% чыдамсыз, зомбулуктуу, согушчан, террористтер тарабынан көзөмөлдөнүп турган демократиялык институттардын (Modi) жинди канкору, ар дайым ок атышуу, топтошуу, жинди болуу , Роуди Свейам Севакстын акыл-эс жагынан артта калган читаван брахмандары Бене Израильден, Тибеттен, Африкадан, Чыгыш Европадан, Батыш Германиядан, Түндүк Европадан, Түштүк Россиядан, Венгриядан ж.б.у.с. жек көрүү, ачуулануу, көрө албастык, алдануу, акылсыздык Акыл-эс борборунда дарыланууну талап кылган акыл-эс булганыч нерсе, Ал жеген нанды Менин Пенджабымда өстүрөрүн билип алыңыз, - дейт 70 жаштагы Фермер.
Адани, Амбани жана башка корпорациялар Индиянын ири азык-түлүк базарына көз салышып, бир нече көйгөйгө туш болушкан:
Маселе 1:
Дыйкандардан азык-түлүк дан сатып алуу үчүн мамлекеттерде ар кандай эрежелер жана эрежелер болгон. Корпорациялар үчүн көптөгөн ар кандай жоболор жана салыктар менен көптөгөн мамлекеттерди башкаруу кыйынга турду
Demokratuc институттарынын жинди канкору жана суюлтуучу институттардын кожоюну (Modi) Чечим:
Штаттардан көзөмөл алып, жалпы өлкө боюнча 1 акт түздү. Коррупционерлер азыр бактылуу.
Маселе 2:
Корпоративдер эгиндерди сатып алышат жана сакташат. Бирок Essential Commodity акты аларды эгиндерди узак убакытка чейин сактоону токтотот, анткени базардагы бааларды жогорулатат.
Modi Чечими:
Тамак-аш өсүмдүктөрү маанилүү товардык актыга кирбейт жана узак мөөнөткө сакталат. Коррупционерлер дагы бактылуу.
Маселе 3
Дыйкандар кайсы түшүмдүн түрүн өстүрөрүн аныктоо кыйынга турду.
Modi Чечими:
Фермерлерге келишимдик негизде чарба жүргүзүү, аларда корпоративдер кандай түшүм өстүрүү керектигин айтышат. Коррупционерлер дагы бактылуу.
Маселе 4:
Дыйкандарга кандайдыр бир туура эмес нерсе болуп калса, корпоративдик соттор кандайча сот ишин жүргүзөт.
Modi Чечими:
Фермерлер сотторго кайрыла алышпайт. Алар SDM жана DC шаарларына барышат. Баары
Коррупционерлер дагы бир жолу кубанып жатышат, анткени аларга оңой эле пара бере алышат.
Алар мыйзам долбоорлору дыйкандардын пайдасына дешет. ….
Дыйкандар буга нааразы болушууда.
Бардык аборигендер ойгонгон коомдор адилеттик жана демократияны сактап калуу үчүн алдамчылык EVMлердин ордуна Бюллетендерди талап кылышат. Автоматтык түрдө бардык коомдор өзүлөрүнүн жыргалчылыгы, бактысы жана тынчтыгы үчүн байлыкты бардык коомдорго пропорционалдуу бөлүштүрүү жолу менен пайда алышат.
Моди (демократиялык институттардын жинди канкору) көпчүлүктүн көңүлүн бир маселеден экинчи маселеге буруп жатат. Фермерлер Модиге каршы күрөштү күчөтүп жатканда, ал Ковид вакцинасы жөнүндө, ал медик болуп иштегендей жарыялайт. Бир жолу ал адамдын денесине шива пилдин башын отургузганда, адамдын органын биринчи жолу трансплантациялаганды өзүнүн хиндутвасы деп жарыялаган.
Эң мыкты 3D 360 градус тегерек көрүнүш, 70 мм Будда кинолору, 16D стерео үн эффект музыкасы, классикалык кыргыз тилинде наушниксиз ыр жана бий.
КАРА ЖОРГО - АСЕЛЬ КАСМАКУНОВА & ЭЛМУРАТ МАЙРАМБЕКОВ / ХИТ ЫР (НУКУРА КЫРГЫЗ БИЙ)
Кара Жорго
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КАРА ЖОРГО эң мыкты ырдап-бийлеген Асел Касмакунова, Элмурат Майрамбеков. ХИТ ЫР (НУКУРА КЫРГЫЗ БИЙ) КЫРГЫЗ БИЙИ
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Кыргызстан да КАРА ЖОРГО ну жарып чыгып. Кыргызстанда Кара жорго бийин таанытып жайылткан КАРА ЖОРГО №1 тобу. Асель Касмакунова, Элмурат Майрамбеков кыргыз бийи улгулуу бийлегенди жалпы элге уйротту десек так болот! Бул КАРА ЖОРГО клип официальный клип десем туура болот. Негизинен Асел Касмакунова Кыргызстан да КАРА ЖОРГО ну жарып ырдап чыкты. Кыргыз маданияты на чон салым кошту десек болот. Кара жорго, Чолпонум, Бий жарыш, Сынма бий, Комуз деми, кыргызча ЖАР ЖАР, КЕЧКИ ТУМАН, АМАН ЖАР, ОЗГОЧОМ ырлары н ырдайт. КАРА ЖОРГО Асель Касмакунова деп эл жакшы тааныйт. Асель КАСМАКУНОВА Туулган кун ырдаганы абдан жагымдуу болуптур! Хит ырлары 2020 га кирет деп ишенем. Асель КАСМАКУНОВА Уйлонуу тойлордо кыргызча ЖАРЖАР, болгондо дагы озгочо шандуу ЖАР ЖАР.
asel,kara jorgo,бийчи,кара жорго,Qara jorgo,этника,этнотанец,фольклор,folkdance,бишкек,комуз деми,комуз деми бийиси,комуз куусу,Асел касмакунова комуз деми,комуз куулор,хит ырлар,жандуу ырлар,жаны ырлар,ырчылар,той,жар жар кыргызча,бий,Жар Жар,кыргыз бийи кочмондор,кыргыз бийи кок бору,кыргыз бий флешмоб,кыргыз бийи комуз,кыргыз бийлери,кыргыз бийи детский,кыргыз бийи сармерден,кыргыз бийи современный,кыргыз бийи сардал кыз,кыргыз бийи салимар тобу
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КАРА ЖОРГО - АСЕЛЬ КАСМАКУНОВА & ЭЛМУРАТ МАЙРАМБЕКОВ / ХИТ ЫР (НУКУРА КЫРГЫЗ БИЙ)

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Friends LESSON 3531 Fri 11 Dec 2020 THE BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar LogoLogo Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist) Now All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch) People have started returning back to their original home Buddhism. The whole world will follow the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness for their happiness, welfare and peace to enable them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
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LESSON 3531 Fri 11 Dec  2020


THE BUDDHA
AND HIS DHAMMA
by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar


LogoLogo

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist)

Now
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)

People
have started returning back to their original home Buddhism. The whole
world will follow the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness for
their happiness, welfare and peace to enable them to attain Eternal
Bliss as their Final Goal.

Request
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Open Collections





UBC Theses and Dissertations


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Reinventing Buddhism : conversations and encounters in modern India, 1839 - 1956

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2016
Dhammānupassī Sutta  - Observing dhammas —in 29) Classical


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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_S2ugP78oUI

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist)
Now All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)
People have started returning back to their original home Buddhism. The whole world will follow the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness for their happiness, welfare and peace to enable them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA PART 1
THE BUDDHA
AND HIS DHAMMA
by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
The Great Stupa at Sarnath, near Varanasi, is said to mark the site where the Buddha preached his first sermon.
[*EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION*]
*AUTHOR’S UNPUBLISHED PREFACE*
*INTRODUCTION*
*PROLOGUE*
BOOK ONE: SIDDHARTH GAUTAMA — HOW A BODHISATTA BECAME THE BUDDHA
*Part I — From Birth to Parivraja*
*Part II — Renunciation for Ever*
*Part III — In Search of New Light*
*Part IV — Enlightenment and the Vision of a New Way*
*Part V — The Buddha and His Predecessors*
*Part VI — The Buddha and His Contemporaries*
*Part VII — Comparison and Contrast*
BOOK TWO: CAMPAIGN OF CONVERSION
*Part I — Buddha and His Vishad Yoga*
*Part II — The Conversion of the Parivrajakas*
*Part III — Conversion of the High and the Holy*
*Part IV — Call from Home*
*Part V — Campaign for Conversion Resumed*
*Part VI — Conversion of the Low and the Lowly*
*Part VII — Conversion of Women*
*Part VIII — Conversion of the Fallen and the Criminals*
BOOK THREE: WHAT THE BUDDHA TAUGHT
*Part I — His Place in His Dhamma*
*Part II — Different Views of the Buddha’s Dhamma*
*Part III — What is Dhamma*
*Part IV — What is Not Dhamma*
*Part V — What is Saddhamma*
BOOK FOUR: RELIGION AND DHAMMA
*Part I — Religion and Dhamma*
*Part II — How Similarities in Terminology Conceal Fundamental Difference*
*Part III — The Buddhist Way of Life*
*Part IV — His Sermons*
BOOK FIVE: THE SANGH
*Part I — The Sangh*
*Part II — The Bhikkhu: the Buddha’s Conception of Him*
*Part III — The Duties of the Bhikkhu*
*Part IV — The Bhikkhu and the Laity*
*Part V — Vinaya for the Laity*
BOOK SIX: HE AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES
*Part I — His Benefactors*
*Part II — His Enemies*
*Part III — Critics of His Doctrines*
*Part IV — Friends and Admirers*
BOOK SEVEN: THE WANDERER’S LAST JOURNEY
*Book Seven, Part I — The Meeting of those Near and Dear*
*Book Seven, Part II — Leaving Vaishali*
*Book Seven, Part III — His End*
BOOK EIGHT: THE MAN WHO WAS SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA
*Book Eight, Part I — His Personality*
*Book Eight, Part II — His Humanity*
*Book Eight, Part III — His Likes and Dislikes*
 
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Thus Have I Heard [English]
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All right reserved to: http://buddha-thushaveiheard.com
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Movie starts at 1:30
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Song
Lullaby From Hell
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Big Score Music
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BSC043 Masters of Horror Volume 3
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Song
Winter Waltz
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Kitaro
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Cirque Ingenieux
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Masanori Takahashi
Licensed to YouTube by
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Hanging Hits
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Epic Score
Album
Epic Textures 1
Licensed to YouTube by
HAAWK for a 3rd Party (on behalf of Epic Score); HAAWK Publishing, Sony ATV Publishing, and 3 Music Rights Societies
Song
Oaks
Artist
TUC
Album
Victoria Park
Licensed to YouTube by
[Merlin] Was Wordandsound Medien GmbH (on behalf of Analogue Attic), and 3 Music Rights Societies
Song
Magical Beginning
Artist
Big Score Music
Album
BSC029 Illusions Imagination Volume 2
Licensed to YouTube by
SourceAudio Holdings LLC (on behalf of Big Score Music); SourceAudio Holdings (music publishing), and 2 Music Rights Societies
Song
Sad Eyes
Artist
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BSC023 Big Screen Drama Volume 3
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dhammānupassī Sutta - breathnú dhammas - i bhfocail Buddha féin -i Classical Gaeilge-Indinéisis Clasaiceach
Is fiú a bheith á an teachtaireacht a thugtar sa Sutta arís agus arís eile: Sé nósanna gan thréigean nach bhfuil sé indéanta a chleachtadh na satipaṭṭhānas i gceart. Go leor d’fhéadfadh roinnt a ghlanadh inmholta anseo.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan thréigean nach bhfuil sé indéanta a bheith ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Gan a bheith tréigthe ar na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, ní féidir le fanacht ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, thréigean a bhfuil sé indéanta go bhfanfaidh breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Tar éis tréigthe na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, is féidir le fanacht ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan thréigean nach bhfuil sé indéanta a bheith ag breathnú worshipped worshipped go seachtrach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Gan a bheith tréigthe ar na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, ní féidir le fanacht ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, thréigean a bhfuil sé indéanta go bhfanfaidh breathnú worshipped worshipped go seachtrach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Tar éis tréigthe na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, is féidir le fanacht ag breathnú worshipped worshipped go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan thréigean nach bhfuil sé indéanta a bheith ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Gan a bheith tréigthe ar na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, ní féidir le fanacht ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, thréigean a bhfuil sé indéanta go bhfanfaidh breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Tar éis tréigthe na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, is féidir le fanacht ag breathnú worshipped worshipped hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan thréigean a nach féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā hinmheánach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Gan a bheith tréigthe ar na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, ní féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, thréigean a bhfuil sé indéanta go bhfanfaidh um fhaire vedanā in vedanā istigh agus taobh amuigh.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Tar éis tréigthe na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, is féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan thréigean a nach féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā go seachtrach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Gan a bheith tréigthe ar na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, ní féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, thréigean a bhfuil sé indéanta go bhfanfaidh um fhaire vedanā in vedanā go seachtrach.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Tar éis tréigthe na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, is féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan thréigean a nach féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā istigh agus taobh amuigh.
Cé acu sé? Delight i ngníomhaíochtaí, delight i gcomhráite, delight i codlata, delight i sóisialú, easpa guttadvāratā indriyesu agus easpa mattaññutā bhojane.
Gan a bheith tréigthe ar na sé dhammas, bhikkhus, ní féidir le fanacht um fhaire vedanā in vedanā istigh agus taobh amuigh.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar vedanā in vedanā go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar vedanā in vedanā go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhama, gan a thréigean nach féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Gan na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, ní féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhama, gan tréigean nach féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Gan na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, ní féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhama, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan a thréigean nach féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Gan na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, ní féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar citta i citta go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas ann, gan a thréigean nach féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Gan na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, ní féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhama, gan a thréigean nach féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Gan na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, ní féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhammas, gan a thréigean nach féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Gan na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, ní féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Tá, bhikkhus, sé dhama, ag tréigean ar féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Cén seisear? Aoibhneas i ngníomhaíochtaí, taitneamh a bhaint as comhráite, taitneamh a bhaint as codladh, sult a bhaint as sóisialú, easpa indriyesu guttadvāratā agus easpa ójane mattaññutā.
Tar éis na sé dhama seo, bhikkhus, a thréigean, is féidir fanacht ag breathnú ar dhammas i ndammas go hinmheánach agus go seachtrach.
Ollscoil Taighde agus Cleachtais Ar Líne saor in aisce
le haghaidh
Fionnachtana ar Dhúisigh le Cruinne Feasachta (DAOAU)
Ar mhaithe le Leas, Sonas, Síocháin Gach Duine Sentient agus Non Sentient agus dóibh Síocháin Shíoraí a Fháil mar Sprioc Deiridh.
ag
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA-is Dia 18 troigh Gach Pagoda Bán le tábla nó, ach bí cinnte go bhfuil sé os cionn leibhéal an chinn bunaithe ar ghnáthúsáid an tseomra.
i 116 TEANGA Clasaiceach agus ag pleanáil Therevada Tipitaka a theilgean i bhfocail Búda féin agus Áiteanna Tábhachtacha mar Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Saranath, Kushinara, Etc., i bhfís chiorcal 360 céim cosúil le Circarama
Ag
BAILE BÁN
668, 5A príomhbhóthar, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Stát Magadhi Karnataka
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Go n-éirí go geal libh, slán agus slán leat féin, le baill do theaghlaigh agus le gach duine mothaitheach agus neamhbhuíoch!
Bheadh ​​an piolla chun dul in aois a aisiompú ar fáil don phobal laistigh de chúig bliana agus chosnódh sé an rud céanna gach lá le cupán caife, a deir an taighdeoir.
Léigh, Cleachtadh, Scaip Focail Féin an Duine Múscailte le Feasacht ar an mBúda maidir le Sonas, Leas, Síocháin Gach Duine Seolta, Neamhbhiatach agus dóibh Blásta Síoraí a bhaint amach mar Sprioc Deiridh.
Aontaíonn feirmeoirí daonchairdiúla saibhir agus bochta le freastal ar leas, sonas agus síocháin daoine gan neamhaird a dhéanamh ar dhúnmharfóir Mad d’institiúidí daonlathacha (Modi) arna rialú go cianda ag sceimhlitheoirí 0.1% éadulaingt, foréigneach, cathach, uimhir a haon ar an domhan, ag lámhach riamh, ag slogadh slógtha, ag gealaí. , eachtrannaigh a cuireadh siar go meabhrach, chnuasaigh brahmins chitpavan de Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) ó Bene Israel, an Tibéid, an Afraic, Oirthear na hEorpa, Iarthar na Gearmáine, Tuaisceart na hEorpa, Rusia Theas, an Ungáir, lán le fuath, fearg, éad, meon, Stuamacht atá ag dul i gcion ar an intinn a éilíonn cóireáil i tearmainn mheabhracha Tá a fhios ag an Arán a Itheann sé i mo Punjab, ’a deir Feirmeoir 70 bliain d’aois.
Bhí súil ag Adani, Ambani & corparáidí eile ar mhargadh gráin bia ollmhór na hIndia. Ní raibh mórán fadhbanna acu:
Fadhb 1:
Bhí rialacha agus rialacháin éagsúla ag Stáit chun gráin bhia a cheannach ó fheirmeoirí. Ba dheacair do chorparáidí an oiread sin stát a láimhseáil leis an oiread sin rialachán agus cánacha éagsúla
Dúnmharfóir meánach institiúidí daonlathacha agus Réiteach Máistir institiúidí caolaithe (Modi):
Ghlac smacht ó stáit agus rinne sé gníomh amháin don tír ar fad. Corparáidí sásta anois.
Fadhb 2:
Ceannóidh corparáidí barra agus stórálfaidh siad iad. Ach cuirfidh gníomh Tráchtearraí Riachtanach stop leo barraí a stóráil ar feadh i bhfad, de réir mar a ardóidh sé praghsanna sa mhargadh.
Réiteach Modi:
Ní thiocfaidh barraí bia faoin acht Tráchtearraí Riachtanach agus is féidir iad a stóráil ar feadh tréimhse níos faide. Corparáidí sásta arís.
Fadhb 3
Ba dheacair a chinneadh cén cineál barr a fhásfaidh feirmeoirí.
Réiteach Modi:
Feirmeoireacht ar conradh d’fheirmeoirí áit a gcuirfidh corparáidí in iúl dóibh cén cineál barr a fhás. Corparáidí sásta arís.
Fadhb 4:
An chaoi a láimhseálfaidh Corparáidí cásanna cúirte má théann aon rud mícheart i gcoinne feirmeoirí.
Réiteach Modi:
Ní féidir le feirmeoirí dul chuig cúirteanna. Rachaidh siad chuig SDM agus DC. Gach
Tá corparáidí sásta arís mar is féidir leo iad a bhreabadh go héasca.
Agus Deir siad go bhfuil billí i bhfabhar feirmeoirí. ….
Seo a bhfuil na feirmeoirí ag agóid ina choinne.
Éileoidh gach cumann Dúchasach Dúisithe Páipéir Ballóide in ionad na EVManna calaoise ar son an cheartais agus sábhálfaidh siad an daonlathas. Go huathoibríoch gheobhaidh gach cumann an sochar trí dháileadh an rachmais go comhréireach i measc na sochaí uile as a leas, a sonas agus a síocháin.
Tá Modi (dúnmharfóir Mad ar institiúidí daonlathacha) ag tarraingt aird na maiseanna ó cheist amháin go ceist eile. Cé go bhfuil na feirmeoirí ag treisiú a streachailt in aghaidh an Modi, fógraíonn sé faoi Covid Vaccine, amhail is gur príomhfheidhmeannach míochaine é. Chomh luath agus a dhearbhaigh sé gurbh é a hindutva a rinne an chéad trasphlandú orgán daonna nuair a rinne Shiva ceann eilifint a thrasphlandú ar chorp an duine.
Beautiful Buddhist song
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ANNIHILATION OF CASTE PART 2
EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION
by Frances W. Pritchett, Columbia University
The source of the text for this electronic version was: Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, Vol. 11 (Bombay: Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, 1992). Our site also makes available, from the same series, Vol. 11 Supplement: Pali and Other Sources of The Buddha & His Dhamma with an Index, by Vasant Moon. The original publication was by Siddharth College Publications, Bombay, in 1957.
This electronic version has retained every word of the source text. Only the most obvious typos have been corrected. Punctuation, however, has not only been corrected where it was faulty, but has also sometimes been rearranged for greater ease of reading. Every word added by the editor is contained within square brackets. Only a small amount of standardization of spelling for a few key terms has been imposed: for example, where Dr. Ambedkar sometimes has “Gautama” and sometimes “Gotama” for the name of the Buddha, the former has been used throughout.
This very light editing means that many obvious errors of all kinds remain: for example, “It is he at whom the people are gazing at.” [I,2,2,3]. Sometimes “you” and “thou” forms have been used in the same sentence. Sometimes the grammar shifts midway in a sentence, so that it doesn’t work properly. These and many other small problems have not been fixed. Apart from one or two words, spelling of Pali terms has not been normalized, though it changes considerably from one part of the book to another. Word choice also changes: “bhikkhus,” “monks,” and “alms-men” all occur, as Dr. Ambedkar incorporates the language of different translations of different texts.
The reader should remember that Dr. Ambedkar compiled this book in haste, during the last years of his life, when he was chronically ill and also very busy. It was published posthumously.
This has been a fascinating text to work with. In places, it is eloquent and tremendously moving. If it is uneven, that is hardly surprising. It remains a testament to its author’s love not only for the figure of the Buddha, but for social justice, humane values, and a clear-eyed honesty in looking at life.
Image sources:
The Great Stupa at Sarnath has been adopted as the image source for this ebook. Here is where the particular images come from:
Cover image:
(downloaded June 2001) Photographer: Candy Lai
“unpublished preface” image:
“introduction” image:
Seller’s description: “‘Sarnat, a Boodh Monument near Benares,’ engraved by W.Taylor after a picture by W.Purser, published in The Indian Empire, London, about 1858.”
all other images are from the wonderful Berger Foundation collection:
UNPUBLISHED
PREFACE
April 6, 1956
[Text provided by Eleanor Zelliot, as prepared by Vasant Moon]
A question is always asked to me: how I happen[ed] to take such [a] high degree of education. Another question is being asked: why I am inclined towards Buddhism. These questions are asked because I was born in a community known in India as the “Untouchables.” This preface is not the place for answering the first question. But this preface may be the place for answering the second question.
The direct answer to this question is that I regard the Buddha’s Dhamma to be the best. No religion can be compared to it. If a modern man who knws science must have a religion, the only religion he can have is the Religion of the Buddha. This conviction has grown in me after thirty-five years of close study of all religions.
How I was led to study Buddhism is another story. It may be interesting for the reader to know. This is how it happened.
My father was a military officer, but at the same time a very religious person. He brought me up under a strict discipline. From my early age I found certain contradictions in my father’s religious way of life. He was a Kabirpanthi, though his father was Ramanandi. As such, he did not believe in Murti Puja (Idol Worship), and yet he performed Ganapati Puja–of course for our sake, but I did not like it. He read the books of his Panth. At the same time, he compelled me and my elder brother to read every day before going to bed a portion of [the] Mahabharata and Ramayana to my sisters and other persons who assembled at my father’s house to hear the Katha. This went on for a long number of years.
The year I passed the English Fourth Standard Examination, my community people wanted to celebrate the occasion by holding a public meeting to congratulate me. Compared to the state of education in other communities, this was hardly an occasion for celebration. But it was felt by the organisers that I was the first boy in my community to reach this stage; they thought that I had reached a great height. They went to my father to ask for his permission. My father flatly refused, saying that such a thing would inflate the boy’s head; after all, he has only passed an examination and done nothing more. Those who wanted to celebrate the event were greatly disappointed. They, however, did not give way. They went to Dada Keluskar, a personal friend of my father, and asked him to intervene. He agreed. After a little argumentation, my father yielded, and the meeting was held. Dada Keluskar presided. He was a literary person of his time. At the end of his address he gave me as a gift a copy of his book on the life of the Buddha, which he had written for the Baroda Sayajirao Oriental Series. I read the book with great interest, and was greatly impressed and moved by it.
I began to ask why my father did not introduce us to the Buddhist literature. After this, I was determined to ask my father this question. One day I did. I asked my father why he insisted upon our reading the Mahabharata and Ramayana, which recounted the greatness of the Brahmins and the Kshatriyas and repeated the stories of the degradation of the Shudras and the Untouchables. My father did not like the question. He merely said, “You must not ask such silly questions. You are only boys; you must do as you are told.” My father was a Roman Patriarch, and exercised most extensive Patria Pretestas over his children. I alone could take a little liberty with him, and that was because my mother had died in my childhood, leaving me to the care of my auntie.
So after some time, I asked again the same question. This time my father had evidently prepared himself for a reply. He said, “The reason why I ask you to read the Mahabharata and Ramayana is this: we belong to the Untouchables, and you are likely to develop an inferiority complex, which is natural. The value of [the] Mahabharata and Ramayana lies in removing this inferiority complex. See Drona and Karna–they were small men, but to what heights they rose! Look at Valmiki–he was a Koli, but he became the author of [the] Ramayana. It is for removing this inferiority complex that I ask you to read the Mahabharata and Ramayana.”
I could see that there was some force in my father’s argument. But I was not satisfied. I told my father that I did not like any of the figures in [the] Mahabharata. I said, “I do not like Bhishma and Drona, nor Krishna. Bhishma and Drona were hypocrites. They said one thing and did quite the opposite. Krishna believed in fraud. His life is nothing but a series of frauds. Equal dislike I have for Rama. Examine his conduct in the Sarupnakha [=Shurpanakha] episode [and] in the Vali Sugriva episode, and his beastly behaviour towards Sita.” My father was silent, and made no reply. He knew that there was a revolt.
This is how I turned to the Buddha, with the help of the book given to me by Dada Keluskar. It was not with an empty mind that I went to the Buddha at that early age. I had a background, and in reading the Buddhist Lore I could always compare and contrast. This is the origin of my interest in the Buddha and His Dhamma.
The urge to write this book has a different origin. In 1951 the Editor of the Mahabodhi Society’s Journal of Calcutta asked me to write an article for the Vaishak Number. In that article I argued that the Buddha’s Religion was the only religion which a society awakened by science could accept, and without which it would perish. I also pointed out that for the modern world Buddhism was the only religion which it must have to save itself. That Buddhism makes [a] slow advance is due to the fact that its literature is so vast that no one can read the whole of it. That it has no such thing as a bible, as the Christians have, is its greatest handicap. On the publication of this article, I received many calls, written and oral, to write such a book. It is in response to these calls that I have undertaken the task.
To disarm all criticism I would like to make it clear that I claim no originality for the book. It is a compilation and assembly plant. The material has been gathered from various books. I would particularly like to mention Ashvaghosha’s Buddhavita [=Buddhacharita], whose poetry no one can excel. In the narrative of certain events I have even borrowed his language.
The only originality that I can claim in [=is] the order of presentation of the topics, in which I have tried to introduce simplicity and clarity. There are certain matters which give headache[s] to the student of Buddhism. I have dealt with them in the Introduction.
It remains for me to express my gratitude to those who have been helpful to me. I am very grateful to Mr. Nanak Chand Rattua of Village Sakrulli and Mr. Parkash Chand of Village Nangal Khurd in the district of Hoshiarpur (Punjab) for the burden they have taken upon themselves to type out the manuscript. They have done it several times. Shri Nanak Chand Rattu took special pains and put in very hard labour in accomplishing this great task. He did the whole work of typing etc. very willingly and without caring for his health and [=or] any sort of remuneration. Both Mr. Nanak Chand Rattu and Mr. Parkash Chand did their job as a token of their greatest love and affection towards me. Their labours can hardly be repaid. I am very much grateful to them.
When I took up the task of composing the book I was ill, and [I] am still ill. During these five years there were many ups and downs in my health. At some stages my condition had become so critical that doctors talked of me as a dying flame. The successful rekindling of this dying flame is due to the medical skill of my wife and Dr. Malvankar. They alone have helped me to complete the work. I am also thankful to Mr. M. B. Chitnis, who took [a] special interest in correcting [the] proof and to go [=in going] through the whole book.
I may mention that this is one of the three books which will form a set for the proper understanding of Buddhism. The other books are: (i) Buddha and Karl Marx; and (ii) Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Ancient India. They are written out in parts. I hope to publish them soon.
B. R. Ambedkar
26 Alipur Road, Delhi
6-4-56
INTRODUCTION
Indications of a growth in the volume of interest in Buddhism are noticeable in some sections of the Indian people. Along with it there is naturally a growing demand for a clear and consistent statement of the life and teachings of the Buddha.
Anyone who is not a Buddhist finds it extremely difficult to present the life and teachings of the Buddha in a manner which would make it a consistent whole. Depending on the Nikayas, not only the presentation of a consistent story of the life of the Buddha becomes a difficult thing and the presentation of some parts of his teachings becomes much more so. Indeed it would not be an exaggeration to say that of all the founders of religions in the world, the presentation of the life and teachings of the founder of Buddhism presents a problem which is quite puzzling if not baffling. Is it not necessary that these problems should be solved, and the path for the understanding of Buddhism be made clear? Is it not time that those who are Buddhists should take up these problems, at least for general discussion, and throw what light they can on these problems?
With a view to raise a discussion on these problems, I propose to set them out here. The first problem relates to the main event in the life of the Buddha, namely, Parivraja. Why did the Buddha take Parivraja? The traditional answer is that he took Parivraja because he saw a dead person, a sick person and an old person. This answer is absurd on the face of it. The Buddha took Parivraja at the age of 29. If he took Parivraja as a result of these three sights, how is it he did not see these three sights earlier? These are common events occurring by hundreds, and the Buddha could not have failed to come across them earlier. It is impossible to accept the traditional explanation that this was the first time he saw them. The explanation is not plausible and does not appeal to reason. But if this is not the answer to the question, what is the real answer?
The second problem is created by the four Aryan Truths. Do they form part of the original teachings of the Buddha? This formula cuts at the root of Buddhism. If life is sorrow, death is sorrow, and rebirth is sorrow, then there is an end of everything. Neither religion nor philosophy can help a man to achieve happiness in the world. If there is no escape from sorrow, then what can religion do, what can Buddha do, to relieve man from such sorrow which is ever there in birth itself? The four Aryan Truths are a great stumbling block in the way of non-Buddhists accepting the gospel of Buddhism. For the four Aryan Truths deny hope to man. The four Aryan Truths make the gospel of the Buddha a gospel of pessimism. Do they form part of the original gospel, or are they a later accretion by the monks?
The third problem relates to the doctrines of soul, of karma and rebirth. The Buddha denied the existence of the soul. But he is also said to have affirmed the doctrine of karma and rebirth. At once a question arises. If there is no soul, how can there be karma? If there is no soul, how can there be rebirth? These are baffling questions. In what sense did the Buddha use the words karma and rebirth? Did he use them in a different sense than the sense in which they were used by the Brahmins of his day? If so, in what sense? Did he use them in the same sense in which the Brahmins used them? If so, is there not a terrible contradiction between the denial of the soul and the affirmation of karma and rebirth? This contradiction needs to be resolved.
The fourth problem relates to the Bhikkhu. What was the object of the Buddha in creating the Bhikkhu? Was the object to create a perfect man? Or was his object to create a social servant devoting his life to service of the people and being their friend, guide and philosopher? This is a very real question. On it depends the future of Buddhism. If the Bhikkhu is only a perfect man he is of no use to the propagation of Buddhism, because though a perfect man he is a selfish man. If, on the other hand, he is a social servant, he may prove to be the hope of Buddhism. This question must be decided not so much in the interest of doctrinal consistency but in the interest of the future of Buddhism.
If I may say so, the pages of the journal of the Mahabodhi Society make, to me at any rate, dull reading. This is not because the material presented is not interesting and instructive. The dullness is due to the fact that it seems to fall upon a passive set of readers. After reading an article, one likes to know what the reader of the journal has to say about it. But the reader never gives out his reaction. This silence on the part of the reader is a great discouragement to the writer. I hope my questions will excite the readers to come and make their contribution to their solution.
PROLOGUE
“From time to time men find themselves forced to reconsider current and inherited beliefs and ideas, to gain some harmony between present and past experience, and to reach a position which shall satisfy the demands of feeling and reflexion and give confidence for facing the future. If, at the present day, religion, as a subject of critical or scientific inquiry, of both practical and theoretical significance has attracted increasing attention, this can be ascribed to (a) the rapid progress of scientific knowledge and thought; (b) the deeper intellectual interest in the subject; (c) the widespread tendencies in all parts of the world to reform or reconstruct religion, or even to replace it by some body of thought, more ‘rational’ and ’scientific’ or less ’superstitious’; and (d) the effect of social, political, and international events of a sort which, in the past, have both influenced and been influenced by religion. Whenever the ethical or moral value of activities or conditions is questioned, the value of religion is involved; and all deep-stirring experiences invariably compel a reconsideration of the most fundamental ideas, whether they are explicitly religious or not. Ultimately there arise problems of justice, human destiny, God, and the universe; and these in turn involve problems of the relation between ‘religious’ and other ideas, the validity of ordinary knowledge, and practicable conceptions of ‘experience’ and ‘reality’.”
–From “Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics,” Vol. X, p. 669.
BOOK ONE: SIDDHARTH GAUTAMA — HOW A BODHISATTA BECAME THE BUDDHA
BOOK ONE: SIDDHARTH GAUTAMA — HOW A BODHISATTA BECAME THE BUDDHA
Book One, Part I—From Birth to Parivraja
1.*His Kula* — 2. *His Ancestry* — 3. *His Birth* — 4. *Visit by Asita* — 5. *Death of Mahamaya* — 6. *Childhood and Education* — 7. *Early Traits* — 8. *Marriage* — 9. *Father’s Plans to Save His Son* — 10. *The Failure of the Women to Win the Prince* — 11. *The Prime Minister’s Admonition to the Prince* — 12. *The Prince’s Reply to the Prime Minister* — 13. *Initiation into the Sakya Sangh* — 14. *Conflict with the Sangh* — 15. *Offer of Exile* — 16. *Parivraja—the Way Out* — 17. *Parting Words* — 18. *Leaving His Home* — 19. *The Prince and the Servant* — 20. *The Return of Channa* — 21. *The Family in Mourning*
§ 1. His Kula
1. Going back to the sixth century B.C., Northern India did not form a single Sovereign State.
2. The country was divided into many States, some large, some small. Of these, some were monarchical and some non-monarchical.
3. The monarchical States were altogether sixteen in number. They were known by the name[s] of Anga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vriji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Matsya, Saursena, Asmaka, Avanti, Gandhara, and Kambhoja.
4. The non-monarchical States were those of the Sakyas of Kapilvastu, the Mallas of Pava and Kushinara, the Lichhavis of Vaisali, the Videhas of Mithila, the Koliyas of Ramagam, the Bulis of Allakapa, the Kalingas of Resaputta, the Mauriyas of Pipphalvana, and the Bhaggas with their capital on Sumsumara Hill.
5. The monarchical States were known as Janapada, and the non-monarchical as Sangh or Gana.
6. Not much is known about the nature of the polity of the Sakyas of Kapilvatsu, whether it was republican or oligarchic.
7. This much, however, is definitely known, that there were many ruling families in the Republic of the Sakyas, and that they ruled in turns.
8. The head of the ruling family was known as Raja.
9. At the time of the birth of Siddharth Gautama, it was the turn of Suddhodana to be the Raja.
10. The Sakya State was situated in the northeast corner of India. It was an independent State. But at a later stage the King of Kosala had succeeded in establishing his paramountcy over it.
11. The result of this paramountcy was that the Sakya State could not exercise certain sovereign powers without the sanction of the King of Kosala.
12. Of the kingdoms then in existence, Kosala was a powerful kingdom. So was the kingdom of Magadha. Pasanedi, King of Kosala, and Bimbisara, King of Magadha, were the contemporaries of Siddharth Gautama.
§ 2. His Ancestry
1. The capital of the Sakyas was the city called Kapilavatsu, perhaps after the name of the great Rationalist Kapila.
2. There lived in Kapilavastu a Sakya, by name Jaya Sena. Sinahu was his son. Sinahu was married to Kaccana. Sinahu had five sons, Suddhodana, Dhotodana, Sakkodana, Suklodana, and Amitodana. Besides five sons, Sinahu had two daughters, Amita and Pamita.
3. The Gotra of the family was Aditya.
4. Suddhodana was married to Mahamaya. Her father’s name was Anjana, and mother’s Sulakshana. Anjana was a Koliya, and was residing in the village called Devadaha.
5. Suddhodana was a man of great military prowess. When Suddhodana had shown his martial powers, he was allowed to take a second wife, and he chose Mahaprajapati. She was the elder sister of Mahamaya.
6. Suddhodana was a wealthy person. The lands he held were very extensive, and the retinue under him was very large. He employed, it is said, one thousand ploughs to till the land he owned.
7. He lived quite a luxurious life and had many palaces.
§ 3. His Birth
1. To Suddhodana was born Siddharth Gautama, and this was the manner of Gautama’s birth.
2. It was a custom among the Sakyas to observe an annual midsummer festival which fell in the month of Ashad. It was celebrated by all the Sakyas throughout the State, and also by the members of the ruling family.
3. It was the usual practice to celebrate the festival for seven days.
4. On one occasion Mahamaya decided to observe the festival with gaiety, with splendour, with flowers, with perfume, but without drinking intoxicants.
5. On the seventh day she rose early, bathed in scented water, bestowed a gift of 4,00,000 pieces of money as alms, adorned herself with all precious ornaments, ate [the] choicest food, took upon herself the fast-day vows, and entered the splendidly adorned royal bedchamber to sleep.
6. That night Suddhodana and Mahamaya came together, and Mahamaya conceived. Lying on the royal bed, she fell asleep. While asleep she had a dream.
7. In her dreams she saw that the four world-guardians raised her as she was sleeping on her bed and carried her to the tableland of the Himalayas, placed her under a great sal tree, and stood on one side.
8. The wives of the four world-guardians then approached, and took her to the lake Mansarovar.
9. They bathed her, robed her in a dress, anointed her with perfumes, and decked her with flowers in a manner fit to meet some divinity.
10. Then a Bodhisatta, by name Sumedha, appeared before her saying, “I have decided to take my last and final birth on this earth, will you consent to be my mother?” She said, “Yes, with great pleasure.” At this moment Mahamaya awoke.
11. Next morning Mahamaya told her dream to Suddhodana. Not knowing how to interpret the dream, Suddhodana summoned eight Brahmins who were most famous in divination.
12. They were Rama, Dhaga, Lakkana, Manti, Yanna, Suyama, Subhoga, and Sudatta and prepared for them a befitting reception.
13. He caused the ground to be strewn with festive flowers, and prepared high seats for them.
14. He filled the bowls of the Brahmins with gold and silver, and fed them on cooked ghee, honey, sugar, and excellent rice and milk. He also gave them other gifts, such as new clothes and tawny cows.
15. When the Brahmins were propitiated, Suddhodana related to them the dream Mahamaya had [had], and said, ” Tell me what it means.”
16. The Brahmins said, “Be not anxious. You will have a son, and if he leads a householder’s life he will become a universal monarch, and if he leaves his home and goes forth into a homeless state, and becomes a sanyasi, he will become a Buddha, a dispeller of illusions in the world.”
17. Bearing the Bodhisatta in her womb like oil in a vessel for ten lunar months, Mahamaya, as her time of delivery was coming nearer, desired to go to her parents’ home for delivery. Addressing her husband, she said, ” I wish to go to Devadaha, the city of my father.”
18. “Thou knowest that thy wishes will be done,” replied Suddhodana. Having seated her in a golden palanquin borne by couriers, he sent her forth with a great retinue to her father’s house.
19. Mahamaya, on her way to Devadaha, had to pass through a pleasure-grove of sal trees and other trees, flowering and non-flowering. It was known as the Lumbini Grove.
20. As the palanquin was passing through it, the whole Lumbini Grove seemed like the heavenly Cittalata grove or like a banqueting pavilion adorned for a mighty king.
21. From the roots to the tips of the branches the trees were loaded with fruits, flowers and numberless bees of the fine colours, uttering curious sounds, and flocks of various kinds of birds, singing sweet melodies.
22. Witnessing the scene, there arose a desire in the heart of Mahamaya for halting and sporting therein for a while. Accordingly she told the couriers to take her in[to] the sal-grove and wait there.
23. Mahamaya alighted from her palanquin and walked up to the foot of a royal sal tree. A pleasant wind, not too strong, was blowing, and the boughs of the trees were heaving up and down, and Mahamaya felt like catching one of them.
24. Luckily one of the boughs heaved down sufficiently low to enable her to catch it. So she rose on her toes and caught the bough. Immediately she was lifted up by its upward movement, and being shaken, she felt the pangs of childbirth. While holding the branch of the sal tree she was delivered of a son in a standing position.
25. The child was born in the year 563 B.C. on the Vaishakha Paurnima day.
26. Suddhodana and Mahamaya were [=had been] married for a long time. But they had no issue. Ultimately [=finally] when a son was born to them, his birth was celebrated with great rejoicing, with great pomp and ceremony, by Suddhodana and his family and also by the Sakyas.
27. At the time of the birth of the child it was the turn of Suddhodana to be the ruler of Kapilavatsu, and as such [he] was in the enjoyment of the title of Raja. Naturally the boy was called Prince.
§ 4. Visit by Asita
1. At the moment when the child was born, there dwelt on the Himalayas a great sage named Asita.
2. Asita heard that the gods over the space of the sky were shouting the word “Buddha” and making it resound. He beheld them waving their garments and coursing hither and thither in delight. He thought, what if I were to go and find out the land in which he was born?
3. Surveying with his divine eyes the whole of the Jambudvipa, Asita saw that a boy was born in the house of Suddhodana, shining with all brilliance, and that it was over his birth that the gods were excited.
4. So the great sage Asita, with his nephew Nardatta, rose up and came to the abode of Raja Suddhodana, and stood at the door of his palace.
5. Now Asita, the sage, saw that at the door of Suddhodana’s palace many hundred thousand beings had assembled. So he approached the door-keeper and said, “Go, man, inform the Raja that a sage is standing at the door.”
6. Then the door-keeper approached Suddhodana and with clasped hands said, “Know, O Raja, that an aged sage, old and advanced in years, stands at the door, and says that he desires to see you.”
7. The king prepared a seat for Asita and said to the door-keeper, “Let the sage enter.” So coming out of the palace the door-keeper said to Asita, “Please go in.”
8. Now Asita approached King Suddhodana and, standing in front of him, said, “Victory, Victory, O Raja, may you live long, and rule thy kingdom righteously.”
9. Then Suddhodana in reverence to Asita fell at his feet and offered him the seat; and seeing him seated in comfort, Suddhodana said, “I do not remember to have seen thee before this, O Sage! With what purpose has thou come hither? What is the cause?”
10. Thereupon Asita said to Suddhodana, “A son is born to thee, O Raja! Desiring to see him, have I come.”
11. Suddhodana said, “The boy is asleep, O Sage! Will you wait for a while? ” The sage said, “Not long, O King, do such great beings sleep. Such good beings are by nature wakeful.”
12. Then did the child, out of compassion for Asita, the great sage, make a sign of awaking.
13. Seeing that the child had become awake, Suddhodana took the boy firmly in both hands and brought him into the presence of the sage.
14. Asita, observing the child, beheld that it was endowed with the thirty-two marks of a great man and adomed with the eighty minor marks, his body surpassing that of Sakra [and] Brahma, and his aura surpassing them a hundred thousand-fold [he] breathed forth this solemn utterance, “Marvellous, verily, is this person that has appeared in the world,” and rising from his seat clasped his hands, fell at his feet, made a rightwise circuit round, and taking the child in his own hand stood in contemplation.
15. Asita knew the old well-known prophecy that anyone endowed with the thirty-two marks of a great man, as Gautama was, has two careers open to him, and no third. “If he becomes a householder, he will become a universal monarch. But if he goes forth from the home to a homeless life, he will become a fully enlightened Buddha.”
16. Asita was sure that the child would not remain a householder.
17. And looking at the child he wept, and shedding tears, sighed deeply.
18. Suddhodana beheld Asita shedding tears, and sighing deeply.
19. Beholding him thus weeping, the hair of his body rose, and in distress Suddhodana said to Asita, “Why, O Sage, dost thou weep and shed tears, and sigh so deeply? Surely, there is no misfortune in store for the child.”
20. At this Asita said to the Raja, “O King, I weep not for the sake of the child. There will be no misfortune for him. But I weep for myself.”
21. “And why?” asked Suddhodana. Asita replied, “I am old, aged, advanced in years, and this boy will without doubt become a Buddha and attain supreme and complete enlightenment; and having done so, will turn the supreme wheel of the Doctrine that has not been turned before him by any other being in the world; for the weal and happiness of the world will he teach his Doctrine.”
22. “The religious life, the Doctrine, that he will proclaim will be good in the beginning, good in the middle, good in the end, complete in the letter and the spirit, whole and pure.”
23. “Just as an Oudumbara flower at some time and place arises in the world, even so at some time and place, after countless cycles, revered Buddhas arise in the world. So also, O Raja! this boy will without doubt obtain supreme, complete enlightenment, and having done so will take countless beings across the ocean of sorrow and misery to a state of happiness.”
24. ” But I shall not see that Buddha. Hence, O Raja, I weep, and in sadness I sigh deeply, for I shall not be able to reverence him.”
25. The king thereafter offered to the great sage Asita and Nardatta, his nephew, suitable food, and having given him robes, made a rightwise circuit round him.
26. Thereupon Asita said to Nardatta, his nephew, “When thou shalt hear, Nardatta, that the child has become a Buddha, then go and take refuge in his teachings. This shall be for thy weal and welfare and happiness.” So saying, Asita took leave of the Raja and departed for his hermitage.
§ 5. Death of Mahamaya
1. On the fifth day, the ceremony of name-giving took place. The name chosen for the child was Siddharth. His clan name was Gautama. Popularly, therefore, he came to be called Siddharth Gautama.
2. In the midst of rejoicing over the birth and the naming of the child, Mahamaya suddenly fell ill, and her illness became very serious.
3. Realising that her end was near, she called Suddhodana and Prajapati to her bedside and said, ” I am sure that the prophecy made by Asita about my son will come true. My regret is that I will not live to see it fulfilled.”
4. “My child will soon be a motherless child. But I am not worried in the least as to whether after me my child will be carefully nursed, properly looked after, and brought up in a manner befitting his future.”
5. “To you, Prajapati, I entrust my child; I have no doubt that you will be to him more than his mother.”
6. “Now do not be sorry. Permit me to die. God’s call has come, and His messengers are waiting to take me.” So saying, Mahamaya breathed her last. Both Suddhodana and Prajapati were greatly grieved and wept bitterly.
7. Siddharth was only seven days old when his mother died.
8. Siddharth had a younger brother, by name Nanda. He was the son of Suddhodana, born to Mahaprajapati.
9. He had also several cousins, Mahanama and Anuruddha, sons of his uncle Suklodan; Ananda, son of his uncle Amitodan; and Devadatta, son of his aunt Amita. Mahanama was older than Siddharth, and Ananda was younger.
10. Siddharth grew up in their company.
§ 6. Childhood and Education
1. When Siddharth was able to walk and speak, the elders of the Sakyas assembled and asked Suddhodana that the boy should be taken to the temple of the village goddess Abhya.
2. Suddhodana agreed, and asked Mahaprajapati to dress the boy.
3. While she was doing so the child Siddharth, with a most sweet voice, asked his aunt where he was being taken. On learning that he was being taken to the temple, he smiled. But he went, conforming to the custom of the Sakyas.
4. At the age of eight, Siddharth started his education.
5. Those very eight Brahmins whom Suddhodana had invited to interpret Mahamaya’s dream, and who had predicted his future, were his first teachers.
6. After they had taught him what they knew, Suddhodana sent for Sabbamitta of distinguished descent and of high lineage in the land of Uddikka, a philologist and grammarian, well read in the Vedas, Vedangas, and Upanishads. Having poured out water of dedication from a golden vase, Suddhodana handed over the boy to his charge, to be taught. He was his second teacher.
7. Under him Gautama mastered all the philosophic systems prevalent in his day.
8. Besides this, he had learned the science of concentration and meditation from one Bhardawaj, a disciple of Alara Kalam, who had his ashram at Kapilavatsu.
§ 7. Early Traits
1. Whenever he went to his father’s farm and found no work, he repaired to a quiet place, and practised meditation.
2. While everything for the cultivation of the mind was provided, his education in the military science befitting a Kshatriya was not neglected.
3. For Suddhodana was anxious not to make the mistake of having cultivated the mind of his son at the cost of his manliness.
4. Siddharth was of kindly disposition. He did not like exploitation of man by man.
5. Once he went to his father’s farm with some of his friends, and saw the labourers ploughing the land, raising bunds, cutting trees, etc., dressed in scanty clothes under a hot burning sun.
6. He was greatly moved by the sight.
7. He said to his friends, can it be right that one man should exploit another? How can it be right that the labourer should toil, and the master should live on the fruits of his labour?
8. His friends did not know what to say. For they believed in the old philosophy of life that the worker was born to serve, and that in serving his master he was only fulfilling his destiny.
9. The Sakyas used to celebrate a festival called Vapramangal. It was a rustic festival performed on the day of sowing. On this day, custom had made it obligatory on every Sakya to do ploughing personally.
10. Siddharth always observed the custom, and did engage himself in ploughing.
11. Though a man of learning, he did not despise manual labour.
12. He belonged to a warrior class, and had been taught archery and the use of weapons. But he did not like causing unnecessary injury.
13. He refused to join hunting parties. His friends used to say, “Are you afraid of tigers?” He used to retort by saying, “I know you are not going to kill tigers, you are going to kill harmless animals such as deer and rabbits.”
14. “If not for hunting, come to witness how accurate is the aim of your friends,” they said. Even such invitations Siddharth refused, saying, “I do not like to see the killing of innocent animals.”
15. Prajapati Gautami was deeply worried over this attitude of Siddharth.
16. She used to argue with him, saying, “You have forgotten that you are a Kshatriya and fighting is your duty. The art of fighting can be learned only through hunting, for only by hunting can you learn how to aim accurately. Hunting is a training ground for the warrior class.”
17. Siddharth often used to ask Gautami, “But, mother, why should a Kshatriya fight? And Gautami used to reply, “Because it is his duty.”
18. Siddharth was never satisfied by her answer. He used to ask Gautami, “Tell me, how can it be the duty of man to kill man?” Gautami argued, “Such an attitude is good for an ascetic. But Kshatriyas must fight. If they don’t, who will protect the kingdom?”
19. “But mother! If all Kshatriyas loved one another, would they not be able to protect their kingdom without resort to killing?” Gautami had to leave him to his own opinion.
20. He tried to induce his companions to join him in practising meditation. He taught them the proper pose. He taught them to fix their mind on a subject. He advised them to select such thoughts as “May I be happy, may my relations be happy, may all living animals be happy.”
21. But his friends did not take the matter seriously. They laughed at him.
22. On closing their eyes, they could not concentrate on their subject of meditation. Instead, some saw before their eyes deer for shooting or sweets for eating.
23. His father and his mother did not like his partiality for meditation. They thought it was so contrary to the life of a Kshatriya.
24. Siddharth believed that meditation on right subjects led to development of the spirit of universal love. He justified himself by saying, “When we think of living things, we begin with distinction and discrimination. We separate friends from enemies, we separate animals we rear from human beings. We love friends and domesticated animals and we hate enemies and wild animals.”
25. “This dividing line we must overcome. and this we can do when we in our contemplation rise above the limitations of practical life.” Such was his reasoning.
26. His childhood was marked by the presence of [a] supreme sense of compassion.
27. Once he went to his father’s farm. During recess he was resting under a tree. enjoying the peace and beauty of nature. While [he was] so seated, a bird fell from the sky just in front of him.
28. The bird had been shot at by an arrow which had pierced its body, and was fluttering about in great agony.
29. Siddharth rushed to the help of the bird. He removed the arrow, dressed its wound, and gave it water to drink. He picked up the bird, came to the place where he was [=had been] seated, and wrapped up the bird in his upper garment and held it next to his chest to give it warmth.
30. Siddharth was wondering who could have shot this innocent bird. Before long there came his cousin Devadatta, armed with all the implements of shooting. He told Siddharth that he had shot a bird flying in the sky, the bird was wounded but it flew some distance and fell somewhere there, and asked him if he had seen it.
31. Siddharth replied in the affirmative and showed him the bird, which had by that time [had] completely recovered.
32. Devadatta demanded that the bird be handed over to him. This Siddharth refused to do. A sharp argument ensued between the two.
33. Devadatta argued that he was the owner of the bird, because by the rules of the game, he who kills a game becomes the owner of the game.
34. Siddharth denied the validity of the rule. He argued that it is only he who protects that has the right to claim ownership. How can he who wants to kill be the owner?
35. Neither party would yield. The matter was referred to arbitration. The arbitrator upheld the point of view of Siddharth Gautama.
36. Devadatta became his permanent enemy. But Gautama’s spirit of compassion was so great that he preferred to save [=saving] the life of an innocent bird to securing the goodwill of his cousin.
37. Such were the traits of character found in the early life of Siddharth Gautama.
§ 8. Marriage
1. There was a Sakya by name Dandapani. Yeshodhara was his daughter. She was well known for her beauty and for her ’sila’.
2. Yeshodhara had reached her sixteenth year, and Dandapani was thinking about her marriage.
3. According to custom Dandapani sent invitations to young men of all the neighbouring countries, for the Swayamvar of his daughter.
4. An invitation was also sent to Siddharth Gautama.
5. Siddharth Gautama had completed his sixteenth year. His parents also were equally anxious to get him married.
6. They asked him to go to the Swayamvar and offer his hand to Yeshodhara. He agreed to follow his parents’ wishes.
7. From amongst the young men Yeshodhara’s choice fell on Siddharth Gautama.
8. Dandapani was not very happy. He felt doubtful about the success of the marriage.
9. Siddharth, he felt, was addicted to the company of saints and sages. He preferred loneliness. How could he be a successful householder?
10. Yeshodhara, who was determined to marry none but Siddharth, asked her father whether to be in the company of saints and sages was a crime. She did not think it was.
11. Knowing her daughter’s determination to marry no one but Siddharth Gautama, the mother of Yeshodhara told Dandapani that he must consent. Dandapani did.
12. The rivals of Gautama were not only disappointed, but felt that they were insulted.
13. They wanted that in fairness to them, Yeshodhara should have applied some test for her selection. But she did not.
14. For the time being they kept quiet, believing that Dandapani would not allow Yeshodhara to choose Siddharth Gautama, so that their purpose would be served.
15. But when Dandapani failed, they made bold and demanded [=to demand] that a test of skill in archery be prescribed. Dandapani had to agree.
16. At first Siddharth was not prepared for this. But Channa, his charioteer, pointed out to him what disgrace his refusal would bring upon his father, upon his family, and upon Yeshodhara.
17. Siddharth Gautama was greatly impressed by this argument, and agreed to take part in the contest.
18. The contest began. Each candidate showed his skill in turn.
19. Gautama’s turn came last. But his was the highest marksmanship.
20. Thereafter the marriage took place. Both Suddhodana and Dandapani were happy. So was [=were] Yeshodhara and Mahaprajapati.
21. After a long term of married life Yeshodhara gave birth to a son. He was named Rahula.
§ 9. Father’s Plans to Save His Son
1. While the king was happy to see his son married, and thus enter[ing] the life of a householder, the prophecy of the sage Asita continued to haunt him.
2. To prevent the prophecy from coming true, he thought of getting him engrossed in the pleasures and carnal joys of life.
3. With this object in view, Suddhodana built three luxurious palaces for his son to live in, one for summer, one for the rainy season, and one for winter, furnished with all the requirements and excitements for a full amorous life.
4. Each palace was surrounded by an extensive garden beautifully laid out with all kinds of trees and flowers.
5. In consultation with his family priest Udayin, he thought of providing a harem for the prince with very beautiful inmates.
6. Suddhodana then told Udayin to advise the girls how to go about the business of winning over the prince to the pleasures of life.
7. Having collected the inmates of the harem, Udayin first advised them how they should win over the prince.
8. Addressing them he said, “Ye are all skilled in all the graceful arts, ye are proficient in understanding the language of amorous sentiments, ye are possessed of beauty and gracefulness, ye are thorough masters in your own styles.
9. “With these graces of yours, ye are able to move even sages who have lost all their desires, and to ensnare even the gods, who are charmed by heavenly nymphs.
10. “By your skill in expressing the heart’s feelings, by your coquetry, your grace, and your perfect beauty, ye are able to enrapture even women–how much more easily, men.
11. “Thus, skilled as ye are, each set in your own proper sphere, it should not be beyond your reach to captivate and capture the prince and hold him in your bondage.
12. “Any timid action on your part would be fit for new brides whose eyes are closed through shame.
13. “What though this hero be great by his exalted glory, yet ‘great is the might of woman’. Let this be your firm resolve.
14. “In olden time a great seer, hard to be conquered even by gods, was spurned by a harlot, the beauty of Kasi, planting her feet upon him.
15. “And the great seer Visvamitra, though plunged in a profound penance, was carried captive for ten years in the forests by the nymph Ghritaki.
16. “Many such seers as these have women brought to naught–how much more, then, a delicate prince in the first flower of his age?
17. “This being so, boldly put forth your efforts, that the posterity of the king’s family may not be turned away from him.
18. “Ordinary women captivate simple men; but they are truly women, who subdue the nature of high and hard.”
§ 10. The Failure of the Women to Win the Prince
1. Having heard these words of Udayin, the women, stung to the heart, rose even above themselves for the conquest of the prince.
2. But even with their brows, their glances, their coquetries, their smiles, their delicate movements, the girls of the harem did not feel sure of themselves.
3. But they soon regained their confidence through the command of the family priest and the gentle temperament of the prince, and through the power of intoxication and of love.
4. The women then set upon their task and made the prince wander in the woods like an elephant in the forests of Himavat, accompanied by a herd of females.
5. Attended by women, he shone in that pleasant grove, as the sun surrounded by Apsaras in his royal garden.
6. There, some of them, urged by passion, pressed him with their full, firm bosoms in gentle collisions.
7. Others violently embraced him after pretending to stumble, then leaning on him with their shoulders drooping down, and with their gentle creeper-like arms.
8. Others with their mouths smelling of spirituous liquor, their lower lips red like copper, whispered in bis ear, “Let my secret be heard.”
9. Others, all wet with unguents, as if giving him a command, clasped his hand eagerly and said, “Perform thy rites of. adoration here.”
10. Another, with her blue garments continually slipping down in pretended intoxication, stood conspicuous with her tongue visible, like the night with its lightning lashing.
11. Others, with their golden ones tinkling, wandered about here and there, showing him their bodies veiled with thin cloth.
12. Others leaned, holding a mango bough in hand, displaying their bosoms like golden jars.
13. Some, coming from a lotus bed, carrying lotuses and with eyes like lotuses, stood like the lotus goddess Padma, by the side of that lotus-faced prince.
14. Another sang a sweet song easily understood, and with the proper gesticulations, rousing him, self-subdued though he was, by her glance, as saying, “O how thou art deluded!”
15. Another, having armed herself with her bright face, with its brow drawn to its full, imitated his action, as playing the hero.
16. Another, with beautiful, full bosoms, and having her earrings waving in the wind, laughed loudly at him, as if saying, “Catch me, sir, if you can!”
17. Some, as he was going away, bound him with strings of garlands; others punished him with words like an elephant-driver’s hook, gentle yet reproachful.
18. Another, wishing to argue with him, seizing a mango spray, asked, all bewildered with passion, “‘This flower, whose is it?”
19. Another, assuming a gait and attitude like that of a man, said to him, “You who are conquered. by a woman, go and conquer this earth!”
20. Then another, with rolling eyes, smelling a blue lotus, thus addressed the prince with words slightly indistinct in her excitement:
21. “See, my lord, this mango covered with its honey-scented flowers, where the bird kokila sings, as if imprisoned in a golden cage.
22. “Come and see this Asoka tree, which augments lovers’ sorrows, where the bees make a noise as if they were scorched by fire.
23. “Come and see this Tilaka tree, embraced by a slender mango branch, like a man in a white garment by a woman decked with yellow ungents.
24. “Behold the kurubaka in flower, bright like fresh resin-juice, which bends down as if it felt reproached by the colour of women’s nails.
25. “Come and see this young Asoka, covered all over with new shoots, which stands as if it were ashamed at the beauty of our hands.
26. “See this lake surrounded by the Sinduvara shrubs growing on its banks, like a fair woman reclining, clad in fine white cloth.
27. “See the imperial power of females–yonder Ruddygoose in the water goes behind his mate, following her like a slave.
28. “Come and listen to the notes of the intoxicated Cuckoo as he sings, while another cuckoo sings as if consenting wholly without care.
29. “Would that thine was the intoxication of the birds which the spring produces, and not the thought of a thinking man, ever pondering how wise he is!”
30. Thus these young women, their souls carried away by love, assailed the prince with all kinds of stratagems.
31. But although thus attacked, he, having his sense guarded by self-control; neither rejoiced nor smiled.
32. Having seen them in their real condition, the Prince pondered with an undisturbed and steadfast mind.
33. “What is it that these women lack, that they perceive not that youth is fickle? For old age will destroy whatever beauty has.”
34. This round of blandishment went on for months and years with no results.

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11. The Prime Minister’s Admonition to the Prince
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§ 11. The Prime Minister’s Admonition to the Prince
1. Udayin realized that the girls had failed, and that the Prince had shown no interest in them.
2. Udayin, well skilled in the rules of policy, thought of talking to the prince.
3. Meeting the prince all alone, Udayin said, “Since I was appointed by the king as a fitting friend for thee, therefore I wish to speak to thee in the friendliness of my heart.” So began Udayin.
4. “To hinder from what is disadvantageous, to urge to do what is advantageous, and not to forsake in misfortune, these are the three marks of a friend.
5. “If I, after having promised my friendship, were not to heed when thou turnest away from the great end of man, there would be no friendship in me.
6. “It is right to woo a woman even by guile; this is useful both for getting rid of shame and for one’s own enjoyment.
7. “Reverential behaviour and compliance with her wishes are what bind a woman’s heart; good qualities truly are a cause of love, and women love respect.
8. “Wilt thou not then, O large-eyed prince, even if thy heart is unwilling, seek to please them with a courtesy worthy of this beauty of thine?
9. “Courtesy is the balm of women, courtesy is the best ornament; beauty without courtesy is like a grove without flowers.
10. “But of what use is courtesy by itself? Let it be assisted by the heart’s feelings; surely, when worldly objects so hard to attain are in the grasp, thou wilt not despise them.
11. “Knowing that pleasure was the best of objects, even the god Purandara (Indra) wooed in olden times Ahalya, the wife of the saint Gautama.
12. “So too Agastya wooed Rohini, the wife of Soma; and therefore, as Sruti saith, a like thing befell Lopamudra.
13. “The great ascetic Brihaspati begot Bharadwaja on Mamata the daughter of the Maruta, the wife of Autathya.
14. “The Moon, the best of offerers, begat Buda of divine nature on the spouse of Vrihaspati, as she was offering a libation.
15. “So too in old times Parasara, overpowered by passion on the banks of the Yamuna, lay with the maiden Kali, who was the daughter of the son of Varuna.
16. “The sage Vasishtha through lust begot a son, Kapinglada, on Akshmala, a despised low-caste woman.
17. “And the seer-king Yayat, even when the vigour of his prime was gone, sported in the Kaitrartha forest with the Apsara Visvaki.
18. “And the Kaurava king Pandu, though he knew that intercourse with his wife would end in death, yet overcome by the beauty and good qualities of Madri, yielded to the pleasures of love.
19. “Great heroes such as these pursued even contemptible desires for the sake of pleasure, how much more so when they are praiseworthy of their kind?
20. “And yet thou, a young man, possessed of strength and beauty, despisest enjoyments which rightly belong to thee and to which the whole world is devoted.”
Book One, Part II—Renunciation for Ever
1. *From Kapilavatsu to Rajagraha* — 2. *King Bimbisara and His Advice* — 3. *Gautama answers Bimbisara* — 4. *Reply by Gautama (concluded)* — 5. *News of Peace* — 6. *The problem in a New Perspective*
§ 1. From Kapilavatsu to Rajagraha
1. Leaving Kapilavatsu, Siddharth Gautama thought of going to Rajagraha, the capital of the kingdom of Magadha.
2. The reigning king was Bimbisara. It was a place which great philosophers and leaders of thought had made their headquarters.
3. With this thought in mind he crossed the Ganges, fearing not her rapid flow.
4. On his way he halted at the hermitage of a Brahmin woman, Saki, then at the hermitage of another Brahmin woman, by name Padma, and then at the hermitage of the Brahmin sage Raivata. All of them entertained him.
5. Having seen his personality and dignity and his splendid beauty, surpassing all other men, the people of that region were all astonished at him [=his] wearing the clothes of a sanyasi.
6. On seeing him, he who was going elsewhere stood still, and he who was standing there followed him on the way; he who was walking gently and gravely ran quickly, and he who was sitting at once sprang up.
7. Some people reverenced him with their hands, others in worship saluted him with their heads, some addressed him with affectionate words; not one went on without paying him homage.
8. Those who were wearing gay-coloured dresses were ashamed when they saw him, those who were talking on random subjects fell to silence; no one indulged in an improper thought.
9. His eyebrows, his forehead, his mouth,–his body, his hand, his feet, or his gait,–whatever part of him anyone beheld, that at once rivetted his gaze.
10. After a long and arduous journey Gautama reached Rajagraha surrounded by five hills, well guarded and adorned with mountains, and supported and hallowed by auspicious and sacred places.
11. On reaching Rajagraha he selected a spot at the foot of the Pandava hill, and put up a small hut made of the leaves of trees for his sojourn.
12. Kapilavatsu by foot is nearly 400 miles distant from Rajagraha.
13. This long journey Siddharth Gautama did all on foot.
§ 2. King Bimbisara and his Advice
1. Next day he got up and started to go into the city with a begging bowl, asking for alms. A vast crowd gathered round him.
2. Then Sreniya Bimbisara, the lord of the kingdom of the Magadhas, beheld from the outside of his palace the immense concourse of people, and asked the reason of it; and thus did a courtier recount it to him:
3. “He who was thus foretold by the Brahmins, ‘He will either attain supreme wisdom or be the emperor of the earth’–it is he, the son of the king of the Sakyas, who is now an ascetic. It is he at whom the people are gazing at.”
4. The king, having heard this and perceiving its meaning in his mind, thus at once spoke to that courtier, “Let it be known whither he is going”; and the courtier, receiving the command, followed the prince.
5. With fixed eyes, seeing only a yoke’s length before him, with his voice hushed, and his walk slow and measured, he, the noblest of mendicants, went begging for alms, keeping his limbs and his wandering thoughts under control.
6. Having received such alms as were offered, he retired to a lonely corner of the mountain; and having eaten it there, he ascended the Pandava hill.
7. In that wood, thickly filled with lodhra trees, having its thickness resonant with the notes of the peacocks, he, the sun of mankind, shone, wearing his red dress, like the morning sun above the eastern mountains.
8. That royal courtier, having thus watched him there, related it all to the king; and the king, when he heard it, in his deep veneration, started himself to go thither with a modest retinue.
9. Like a mountain in stature, the king ascended the hill.
10. There he beheld Gautama, resplendent as he sat on his hams, with subdued senses, as if the mountain was moving, and he himself was a peak thereof.
11. Him, distinguished by his beauty of form and perfect tranquillity, filled with astonishment and affectionate regard, the king of men approached.
12. Bimbisara having courteously drawn nigh to him, inquired as to the condition of his bodily humours; and Gautama with equal gentleness assured the king of his health of mind and freedom from all ailments.
13. Then the king sat down on the clean surface of the rock, and being seated, he thus spoke, desiring to convey his state of mind:
14. “I have a strong friendship with thy family, come down by inheritance and well proved; since from this, a desire to speak to thee, my son, has arisen in me, therefore, listen to my words of affection,
15. “When I consider thy race, beginning with the sun, thy fresh youth, and thy conspicuous beauty, I wonder whence comes this resolve of thine, so out of all harmony with the rest, set wholly on a mendicant’s life, not on a kingdom?
16. “Thy limbs are worthy of red sandalwood perfumes,–they do not deserve the rough contact of red cloth; this hand of thine is fit to protect subjects, it deserves not to hold food given by another
17. “If, therefore, gentle youth, thou desirest not thy paternal kingdom, then in thy generosity, accept forthwith one half of my kingdom.
18. “If thou actest thus, there will be no sorrow caused to thine own people, and by the mere lapse of time imperial power at last flies for refuge to the tranquil mind; therefore, be pleased to do me this kindness. The prosperity of the good becomes very powerful, when aided by the good.
19. “But if from thy pride of race thou dost not now feel confidence in me, then plunge with thy arrows into countless armies, and with me as thy ally seek to conquer thy foes.
20. “Choose thou, therefore, one of these ends. Pursue according to the rules of religious merit, wealth, and pleasure; pursue love and the rest, in reverse order. These are the three objects in life; when men die they pass into dissolution as far as regards this world.
21. “Do thou, therefore, by pursuing the three objects of life, cause this personality of thine to bear its fruit; they say that when the attainment of religion, wealth and pleasure is complete in all its parts, then the end of man is complete.
22. “Do not thou let these two brawny arms lie useless, which are worthy to draw the bow; they are well fitted to conquer the three worlds, much more the earth.
23. “I speak this to you out of affection,–not through love of dominion or through arrogance; beholding this mendicant-dress of thine, I am filled with compassion, and I shed tears.
24. “O, thou who desirest the mendicant’s stage of life, enjoy pleasures now, in due time–ere old age comes on and overcomes this thy beauty, well worthy of thy illustrious race.
25. “The old man can obtain merit by religion; old age is helpless for the enjoyment of pleasures; therefore, they say that pleasures belong to the young man, wealth to the middle-aged, and religion to the old.
26. “Youth in this present world is the enemy of religion and wealth–since pleasures, however much we guard against them, are hard to hold, therefore, wherever pleasures are to be found, there thy youth [should] seize them.
27. “Old age is prone to reflection, it is grave and intent on remaining quiet; it attains unimpassionedness with but little effort, unavoidably, and for very shame.
28. “Therefore, having passed through the deceptive period of youth, fickle, intent on external objects, heedless, impatient, not looking at the distance,–they take breath like men who have escaped safe through a forest.
29. “Let, therefore, this fickle time of youth first pass by, reckless and giddy,–our early years are earmarked for pleasure, they cannot be kept from the power of the senses.
30. “Or, if religion is really thy one aim, then offer sacrifices,–this is thy family’s immemorial custom, climbing to highest heaven by sacrifices.
31. “With their arms pressed by golden bracelets, and their variegated diadems resplendent with the light of gems, royal sages have reached the same goal by sacrifice which great sages reached by self-mortification.”
§ 3. Gautama Answers Bimbisara
1. Thus spoke the monarch of the Magadhas, who spoke well and strongly like Indra; but having heard it, the prince did not falter. He was firm like a mountain.
2. Being thus addressed by the monarch of the Magadhas, Gautama, in a strong speech with friendly face,–self-possessed, unchanged, thus made answer:
3. “What you have said is not to be called a strange thing for thee. O King! Born as thou art in the great family whose ensign is the lion, and lover as thou art of thy friends, that ye should adopt this line of approach towards him who stands as one of thy friends is only natural.
4. “Amongst the evil-minded, a friendship worthy of their family ceases to continue, and fades; it is only the good who keep increasing the old friendship of their ancestors by a new succession of friendly acts.
5. “But those men who act unchangingly towards their friends in reverses of fortune, I esteem in my heart as true friends. Who is not the friend of the prosperous man, in his times of abundance?
6. “So those who, having obtained riches in the world, employ them for the sake of their friends and religions,–their wealth has real solidity, and when it perishes it produces no pain at the end.
7. “This thy suggestion concerning me, O King, is prompted by pure generosity and friendship; I will meet thee courteously with simple friendship, I would not utter aught else in my reply.
8. “I am not so afraid even of serpents nor of thunderbolts falling from heaven, nor of flames blown together by the wind, as I am afraid of these worldly objects.
9. “These transient pleasures,–the robbers of our happiness and our wealth, and which float empty and like illusions through the world,–infatuate man’s minds even when they are only hoped for,–still more when they take up their abode in the soul.
10. “The victims of pleasure attain not to happiness even in the heaven of the gods, still less in the world of mortals; he who is athirst is never satisfied with pleasures, as the fire, the friend of the wind, with fuel.
11. “There is no calamity in the world like pleasures, people are devoted to them through delusion; when he once knows the truth and so fears evil, what wise man would of his own choice desire evil?
12. “When they have obtained all the earth girdled by the sea, kings wish to conquer the other side of the great ocean; mankind is never satiated with pleasures, as the ocean with the waters that fall into it.
13, “When it had rained a golden shower from heaven, and when he had conquered the continents and had even obtained the half of Sakra’s throne, Mandhatri was still full of craving for worldly objects.
14. “Though he enjoyed the kingdom of the gods in heaven, when Indra had concealed himself through fear of Vritra, and though in his pride he had made the great Rishis bear his litter, Nahusha was not satisfied.
15. “Who would seek these enemies bearing the name of pleasures, by whom even those sages have been overcome, who were devoted to other pursuits, whose only clothes were rags, whose food roots, fruits, and water, and who wear their twisted locks as long as snakes
16. “When they hear of the miseries of those who are intent on pleasure and are devoted to worldly pursuits, it well befits the self-controlled to fling it away.
17. “Success in pleasure is to be considered a misery in the man of pleasure, for he becomes intoxicated when the pleasures of his desire are attained; through intoxication he does what should not be done, not what should be done ; and being wounded thereby he falls into a miserable end.
18. “These pleasures which are gained and kept by toil, which after deceiving leave you and return whence they came,–these pleasures which are but borrowed for a time,–what man of self-control, if he is wise, would delight in them?
19. “What man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures which are like a torch of hay,–which excite thirst when you seek them and when you grasp them?
20. “What man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures which are like flesh that has been flung away, and which produces [=produce] misery by their being held in common with kings?
21. “What man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures, which, like the senses, are destructive, which bring calamity on every hand to those who abide in them?
22. “Those men of self-control who are bitten by them in their hearts, fall into ruin and attain not bliss–what man of self-control could find satisfaction in these pleasures, which are like an angry, cruel serpent?
23. “Even if they enjoy them men are not satisfied,–like dogs famishing with hunger over a bone–what man of self control could find satisfaction in these pleasures, which are like a skeleton composed of dry bones?
24. “He whose intellect is blinded with pleasures, the wretch who is the miserable slave of hope for the sake of pleasures, well deserves the pain of death even in the world of living.
25. “Deer are lured to their destruction by songs, insects for the sake of the brightness fly into the fire, the fish greedy for the flesh swallows the iron hook,–therefore, worldly pleasures produce misery as their end.
26. “As for the common opinion, ‘pleasures are enjoyment’, none of them when examined are worthy of being enjoyed; fine garments and the rest are only the accessories of things,–they are to be regarded as merely the remedies for pain.
27. “Water is desired for allaying thirst; food in the same way for removing hunger; a house for keeping off the wind, the heat of the sun, and the rain; and dress for keeping off the cold and to cover one’s nakedness.
28. “So too a bed is for removing drowsiness; a carriage for remedying the fatigue of a journey; a seat for alleviating the pain of standing; so bathing as [=is] a means for washing, health, and strength.
29. “External objects therefore are to human beings means for remedying pain–not in themselves sources of enjoyment; what wise man would allow that he enjoys those delights which are only used as remedial?
30. “He who, when burned with the heat of bilious fever, maintains that cold appliances are an enjoyment, when he is only engaged in alleviating pain,–he indeed might give the name of enjoyment to pleasures.
31. “Since variableness is found in all pleasures, I cannot apply to them the name of enjoyment; the very conditions which mark pleasure, bring also in their turn pain.
32. “Heavy garments and fragrant aloe-wood are pleasant in the cold, but an annoyance in the heat; and the moonbeams and sandalwood are pleasant in the heat, but a pain in the cold.
33. “Since the well-known opposite pairs, such as gain and loss and the rest, are inseparably connected with everything in this world,–therefore, no man is invariably happy on the earth, nor invariably wretched.
34. “When I see how the nature of pleasure and pain are mixed, I consider royalty and slavery as the same; a king does not always smile, nor is a slave always in pain.
35. “Since to be a king involves a wider range of responsibility, therefore the sorrows of a king are great; for a king is like a peg,–he endures trouble for the sake of the world.
36. “A king is unfortunate, if he places his trust in his royalty which is apt to desert, and loves crooked turns; and, on the other hand, if he does not trust in it, then what can be the happiness of a timid king?
37. “And since after even conquering the whole earth, one city only can serve as a dwelling place, and even there only one house can be inhabited, is not royalty mere labour for others?
38. “And even in royalty nothing more than one pair of garments is all he needs, and just enough food to keep off hunger; so only one bed, and only one seat is all that a king needs; other distinctions are only for pride.
39. “And if all these fruits are desired for the sake of satisfaction, I can be satisfied without a kingdom; and if a man is once satisfied in this world, are not all distinctions unnecessary?
40. “He then who has attained the auspicious road to happiness is not to be deceived in regard to pleasures. Remembering thy professed friendship, I ask, tell me again and again, are the pleasures worth anything?
41. “I have not left home through anger, nor because my diadem has been dashed down by an enemy’s arrow; nor have I set my desires on loftier objects, that I thus refuse thy proposal.
42. “Only he who, having once let go a malignant, incensed serpent, or a blazing hay-torch all on fire, would strive again to seize it, would ever seek pleasures again after having once abandoned them.
43. “Only he who, though seeing, would envy the blind; though free, the bound; though wealthy, the destitute; though sound in his reason, the maniac–only he, I say, would envy one who is devoted to wordly objects.
44. “He who lives on alms, my good friend, is not to be pitied. He has here the best happiness, perfect calm, and hereafter all sorrows are for him abolished.
45. “But he is to be pitied who is overpowered by craving though in the midst of great wealth,–who attains not the happiness of calm here, while pain has to be experienced hereafter.
46. “What thou has spoken to me is well worthy of thy character, thy mode of life, and thy family; and to carry out my resolve is also befitting my character, my mode of life, and my family.”

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ANNIHILATION OF CASTE PART 2

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§ 4. Reply by Gautama (concluded)
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§ 4. Reply by Gautama (concluded)
1. “I have been wounded by the strife of the world, and I have come out longing to obtain peace; I would not accept any empire in the third heaven, for saving me from all the ills of the earth; how much less amongst men?
2. “But as for what thou has said to me, O King, that the universal pursuit of the three objects is the supreme end of man,–and thou saidst that what I regard as the desirable is misery,–thy three objects are perishable and also unsatisfying.
3. “And as for what thou saidst, ‘wait till old age comes, for youth is ever subject to change’;–this want of decision is itself uncertain; for age too can be irresolute and youth can be firm.
4. “But since Fate is so well skilled in its art as to draw the world in all its various ages into its power,–how shall the wise man, who desires tranquillity, wait for old age, when he knows not when the time of death will be?
5. “When death stands ready like a hunter, with old age as his weapon, and diseases scattered about as his arrows, smiting down living creatures who fly like deer to the forest of destiny, what desire can there be in anyone for length of life?
6. “It well befits the youthful son or the old man or the child so to act with all promptitude, that they may choose the path of the religious man whose soul is all mercy.
7. “And as for what thou saidst, be diligent in sacrifices for religion, such as are worthy of thy race and bring a glorious fruit’,–honour to such sacrifices! I desire not that fruit which is sought by causing pain to others!
8. “To kill a helpless victim through a wish for future reward,–it would be unseemly action for a merciful, good-hearted man, even if the reward of the sacrifice were eternal.
9. “And even if true religion did not consist in quite another rule of conduct, by self-restraint, moral practice and a total absence of passion,–still it would not be seemly to follow the rule of sacrifice, where the highest reward is described as attained only by slaughter.
10. “Even that happiness which comes to a man while he stays in this world, through the injury of another, is hateful to the wise compassionate heart; how much more if it be something beyond our sight in another life?
11. “I am not to be lured into a course of action for future reward,–my mind does not delight, O King, in future births; these actions are uncertain and wavering in their direction, like plants beaten by the rain from a cloud.”
12. The king himself, folding his hands, replied, “Thou art obtaining thy desire without hindrance; when thou has at last accomplished all that thou has to do, thou shall show hereafter thy favour towards me.”
13. Having received a firm promise from Gautama to visit him again, the monarch, taking his courtiers with him, returned to the palace.
§ 5. News of Peace
1. While Gautama was staying in Rajagraha there came five other Parivrajakas, who also put up a hut by the side of the hut which Gautama had erected for himself.
2. These five Parivrajakas were Kaundinya, Ashvajit, Kasyapa, Mahanam, and Bhaduka.
3. They too were struck by Gautama’s appearance, and wondered what could have led him to take Parivraja.
4. They questioned him over the issue in the same way as did King Bimbisara.
5. When he explained to them the circumstances which led him to take Parivraja, they said, “We have heard of it. But do you know what has happened since you left?” they asked.
6. Siddharth said, “No.” Then they told him that after he left Kapilavatsu, there was a great agitation among the Sakyas against going to war with the Koliyas.
7. There were demonstrations and processions by men and women, boys and girls, carrying flags with such slogans as, “Koliyas are our brothers,” “It is wrong for a brother to fight against brother.” “Think of the exile of Siddharth Gautama,” etc.
8. The result of the agitation was that the Sakya Sangh had to call a meeting and reconsider the question. This time the majority was for compromise with the Koliyas.
9. The Sangh decided to select five Sakyas to act as their envoys and negotiate peace with the Koliyas.
10. When the Koliyas heard of this they were very glad. They too selected five Koliyas to deal with the envoys of the Sakyas.
11. The envoys on the two sides met and agreed to appoint a permanent Council of Arbitration, with authority to settle every dispute regarding the sharing of the waters of the river Rohini, and both sides to abide by its decision. Thus the threatened war had ended in peace.
12. After informing Gautama of what had happened at Kapilavatsu, the Parivrajakas said, “There is now no need for you to continue to be a Parivrajaka. Why don’t you go home and join your family?”
13. Siddharth said, “I am happy to have this good news. It is a triumph for me. But I will not go back to my home. I must not. I must continue to be a Parivrajaka.”
14. Gautama asked the five Parivrajakas what their programme was. They replied, “We have decided to do tapasya. Why don’t you join us?” Siddharth said, “By and b ; I must examine other ways first.”
15. The five Parivrajakas then left.
§ 6. The Problem in a New Perspective
1. The news brought by the five Parivrajakas that the Koliyas and Sakyas had made peace, made Gautama very uneasy.
2. Left alone, he began to reflect on his own position, and to make sure if any reason was left for him to continue his Parivraja.
3. He had left his people for what?, he asked himself.
4. He had left his home because he was opposed to war. “Now that the war is over, is there any problem left to me? Does my problem end because war has ended?”
5. On a deep reflection, he thought not.
6. “The problem of war is essentially a problem of conflict. It is only a part of a larger problem.
7. “This conflict is going on not only between kings and nations, but between nobles and Brahmins, between householders, between mother and son, between son and mother, between father and son, between sister and brother, between companion and companion.
8. “The conflict between nations is occasional. But the conflict between classes is constant and perpetual. It is this which is the root of all sorrow and suffering in the world.
9. “True, I left home on account of war. But I cannot go back home, although the war between the Sakyas and Koliyas has ended. I see now that my problem has become wider. I have to find a solution for this problem of social conflict.
10. “How far do the old-established philosophies offer a solution of this problem?”
11. Can [=Could] he accept any one of the social philosophies?
12. He was determined to examine everything for himself.
Book One, Part III—In Search of New Light
1. *Halt at Brighu’s Ashram* — 2. *Study of Sankhya* — 3. *Training in Samadhi Marga* — 4. *Trial of Asceticism* — 5. *Abandonment of Asceticism*
§ 1. Halt at Brighu’s Ashram
1. With the desire to pursue other ways, Gautama left Rajagraha to meet Arada Kalam.
2. On his way he beheld the hermitage of Brighu, and entered it out of curiosity.
3. The Brahmin inmates of the Ashram who had gone outside for the sake of fuel, having just come back with their hands full of fuel, flowers, and kusa grass, pre-eminent as they were in penances, and proficient in wisdom, went just to see him, and went not to their cells.
4. Then he, being duly honoured by those dwellers of the hermitage, paid his homage to the Elders of the Ashram.
5. He, the wise one, longing for liberation, traversed that hermitage, filled with the holy company desirous of heaven,–gazing at their strange penances.
6. He, the gentle one, saw for the first time the different kinds of penances practised by the ascetics in that sacred grove.
7. Then the Brahmin Brighu, well-versed in the technique of penance, told Gautama all the various kinds of penances and the fruits thereof.
8. “Uncooked food, growing out of water, and roots and fruits,–this is the fare of the saints according to the sacred texts; but the different alternatives of penance vary.
9. “Some live like the birds on gleaned corn; others graze on grass like the deer,=; others live on air like the snakes, as if turned into ant-hills.
10. “Others win their nourishment with great effort from stones; others eat corn ground with their own teeth; some, having boiled for others, keep for themselves what may chance to be left.
11. “Others, with their tufts of matted hair continually wet with water, twice offer oblations to Agni with hymns; others, plunging like fishes into the water, dwell there with their bodies scratched by tortoises.
12. “By such penances endured for a time,–by the higher they attain heaven, by the lower the world of men, by the path of pain they eventually dwell in happiness,–pain, they say, is the root of merit.”
13. On hearing this Gautama said, “Today is my first sight of such a hermitage, and I do not understand this rule of penance.
14. “This is all I would say at the moment. This devotion of yours is for the sake of heaven–while my desire is that the ills of life on earth be probed and a solution found. Will you allow me to take your leave? I wish to learn the Sankhya Philosophy and train myself in the Samadhi marga, and see what help it can give me for the solution of my problem.
15. “There is sorrow to me when I reflect that I shall have to depart, leaving you who are thus engaged, you who are such a refuge and who have shown such excessive kindness to me,–just as there was when I had to leave my kindred behind.
16. “It is not, therefore, any dislike on my part, or the wrong conduct of another, which makes me go away from this wood; for ye are like great sages, standing fast in the religious duties which are in accordance with former sages.
17. “I wish to go to Muni Arada Kalam, who is known to be the master of the subject.”
18. Seeing his resolve, Brighu, the chief of the hermitage, said, ” Prince, brave indeed is thy purpose, who, young as thou art, having pondered thoroughly between heaven and liberation have [=having] made up your mind for liberation, ye are indeed brave!
19. “If what you have said is thy settled purpose go quickly to Vindhyakoshth ; the Muni Arada lives there, who has gained an insight into absolute bliss.
20. “From him thou wilt learn the path; but as I foresee, this purpose of thine will go further, after having studied his theory.”
21. Gautama thanked him, and having saluted the company of sages he departed; the hermits also, having duly performed to him all the rites of courtesy, entered again into the ascetic grove.
§ 2. Study of Sankhya
1. Leaving the Ashram of Brighu, Gautama started [out] to find the abode of Arada Kalam.
2. Arada Kalam was staying at Vaishali. Gautama went thither. On reaching Vaishali, he went to his Ashram.
3. Approaching Arada Kalam, he said, “I wish to be initiated into your doctrine and discipline.”
4. Thereupon Arada Kalam said: “You are welcome. Such is my doctrine that an intelligent man like you in no long time may of himself comprehend, realise and attain my teaching and abide by it.
5. “Verily thou art a worthy vessel to receive this highest training.”
6. The prince, having heard these words of Arada, was filled with great pleasure and thus made reply.
7. “This extreme kindliness which thou showest to me, makes me, imperfect as I am, seem even already to have attained perfection.
8. “Will you, therefore, deign to tell me what your doctrine is?”
9. Said Arada, “I am so much impelled by your noble nature, by your sincerity of character, and by your resolution, that I need not put you to any preliminary examination to test your worthiness.
10. “Listen, best of listeners, to our tenets.”
11. He then expounded to Gautama the tenets of what was known as the Sankhya Philosophy.
12. At the conclusion of his discourse Arada Kalam said:
13. “These are, O Gautama, the tenets of our system. I have told them to you in a summary form.”
14. Gautama was greatly pleased with the clear exposition given by Arada Kalam.
§ 3. Training in Samadhi Marga
1. At the time when Gautama was examining the various ways of finding a solution to his problem, he thought of getting himself acquainted with the Dhyana Marga (Concentration of the Mind).
2. There were three schools of the Dhyana Marga.
3. All of them had one thing in common, namely, that control of breathing was the means of achieving Dhyana.
4. One school followed a way of controlling breathing which is called Anapanasati.
5. Another school followed the way of control of breathing known as Pranayama. It divided the breathing process into three parts: (1) Breathing in (Puraka); (2) holding the breath (Kumbhaka); and (3) breathing out (Rechak). The third school was known as Samadhi School.
6. Arada Kalam was well known as the master of Dhyana Marga. Gautama felt that it might be well for him if he could get some training in the Dhyana Marga under Arada Kalam.
7. So he spoke to Arada Kalam and asked him if he would be so good as to give training in the Dhyana Marga.
8. Arada Kalam replied, “With great pleasure.”
9. Arada Kalam taught him his technique of the Dhyana Marga. It consisted of seven stages.
10. Gautama practised the technique every day.
11. After acquiring complete mastery over it, Gautama asked Arada Kalam if there was anything further to be learned.
12. Arada Kalam replied, “No friend, that is all that I have to teach.” With this, Gautama took leave of Arada Kalam.
13. Gautama had heard of another yogi, by name Uddaka Ramaputta, who was reputed to have devised a technique which enabled a Dhyani to go one stage higher than that devised by Arada Kalam.
14. Gautama thought of learning his technique, and experiencing the highest stage of Samadhi. Accordingly he went to the Ashram of Uddaka Ramaputta, and placed himself under his training.
15. Within a short time did Gautama master the technique of Uddaka’s eighth stage. After having perfected himself in the technique of Uddaka Rama-putta, Gautama asked him the same question which he had asked Arada Kalam, “Is there anything further to be learned?”
16. And Uddaka Ramaputta gave the same reply, “No, friend, there is nothing more that I can teach you.”
17. Arada Kalam and Uddaka Ramaputta were famous for their mastery of Dhyana Marga in the country of the Kosalas. But Gautama had heard that there were similar masters of Dhyana Marga in the country of the Magadhas. He thought he should have a training in their system also.
18. Gautama accordingly went to Magadha.
19. He found that their technique of Dhyana Marga, though based on control of breathing, was different from what was in vogue in the Kosala country.
20. The technique was not to breathe, but to reach concentration by stopping breathing.
21. Gautama learned this technique. When he tried concentration by stopping breathing, he found that piercing sounds used to come out of his ears, and his head appeared to him to be pierced as though by a sharp pointed knife.
22. It was a painful process. But Gautama did not fail to master it.
23. Such was his training in the Samadhi Marga.
§ 4. Trial of Asceticism
1. Gautama had given a trial to the Sankhya and Samadhi Marga. But he had left the Ashram of the Brighus without giving a trial to Asceticism.
2. He felt he should give it a trial and gain experience for himself, so that he could speak authoritatively about it.
3. Accordingly Gautama went to the town of Gaya. From there he reconnoitred the surrounding country and fixed his habitation at Uruvela, in the hermitage of Negari, the Royal Seer of Gaya, for practising asceticism. It was a lonely and solitary place on the banks of the river Nairanjana for practising asceticism.
4. At Uruvela he found the five Parivrajakas whom he had met at Rajagraha, and who had brought news of peace. They too were practising asceticism.
5. The mendicants saw him there and approached him, to take them with him. Gautama agreed.
6. Thereon they served him reverently, abiding as pupils under his orders, and were humble and compliant.
7. The austerities and self-mortification practised by Gautama were of the severest sort.
8. Sometimes he visited two but not more than seven houses a day, and took at each only two but not more than seven morsels.
9. He lived on a single saucer of food a day, but not more than seven saucers.
10. Sometimes he had but one meal a day, or one every two days, and so on, up to once every seven days, or only once a fortnight, on a rigid scale of rationing.
11. As he advanced in the practice of asceticism, his sole diet was herbs gathered green, or the grain of wild millets and paddy, or snippets [of?] hide, or water-plants, or the red powder round rice-grains within the husk, or the discarded scum of rice on the boil, or the flour of oilseeds.
12. He lived on wild roots and fruit, or on windfalls only.
13. His raiment was of hemp, or hempen mixture of cerements of rags from the dust-heap, of bark, of the black antelope’s pelt either whole or split down the middle, of grass, of strips of bark or wood, hair of men or animals woven into a blanket, or of owl’s wings.
14. He plucked out the hair of his head and the hair of his beard, never quitted the upright for the sitting posture, squatted and never rose up, moving only squatting.
15. After this wise, in diverse fashions, be lived to torment and to torture his body–to such a length in asceticism did he go.
16. To such a length in loathliness did he go that there became accumulated on his body the dirt and filth for years, till it dropped off by itself.
17. He took up his abode in the awesome depths of the forest, depths so awesome that it was reputed that none but the senseless could venture without his hair standing on end.
18. When the cold season brought chill wintry nights, then it was that in the dark half of the months he dwelt by night in the open air and in the dark thicket by day.
19. But when there came the last broiling month of summer before the rains, he made his dwelling under the baking sun by day and in the stifling thicket by night.
20. In a charnel ground did he lay down, with charred bones for pillow.
21. Thereafter Gautama lived on a single bean a day–on a single sesamum seed a day–or a single grain of rice a day.
22. When he was living on a single fruit a day, his body grew emaciated in the extreme.
23. If he sought to feel his belly, it was his backbone which he found in his grasp; if he sought to feel his backbone, he found himself grasping his belly, so closely did his belly cleave to his backbone, and all because he ate so little.
§ 5. Abandonment of Asceticism
1. The austerities and mortification practised by Gautama were of the severest sort. They lasted for a long period of six years.
2. At the end of six years his body had become so weak that he was quite unable to move.
3. Yet he had seen no new light, and was no nearer to the solution to the problem of misery in the world on which his mind was centred.
4. He reflected to himself, “This is not the way, even to passionlessness, nor to perfect knowledge, nor to liberation.
5. “Some undergo misery for the sake of this world, others meet toil for the sake of heaven; all living beings, wretched through hope and always missing their aim, fall certainly for the sake of happiness into misery.
6. “Has not something like this happened to me?
7. “It is not the effort itself which I blame,–which flinging aside the base pursues a high path of its own.
8. “What I ask is, ‘Can the mortification of the body be called religion?’
9. “Since it is only by the mind’s authority that the body either acts or ceases to act, therefore to control the thought is alone befitting–without thought the body is like a dog.
10. “If there was only the body to be considered, merit may [=might] be gained by purity of food, but then there is merit also in the doer. But of what good is it?
11. “New light cannot be attained by him who has lost his strength and is wearied with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, with his mind no longer self-possessed through fatigue.
12. “How could he who is not absolutely calm, reach the end which is to be attained by his mind?
13. “True calm and the self-possession of the mind is properly obtained by the constant satisfaction of the body’s wants.”
14. At this time there lived at Uruvela a house-holder, by name Senani. Sujata was his daughter.
15. Sujata had uttered a wish to a Banyan Tree, and vowed a yearly offering to it, if she should have a son.
16. The wish having been fulfilled, she sent her maid Punna to prepare the place for the offering.
17. Punna, finding Gautama sitting beneath the Banyan Tree, thought he was the god of the tree who had come down.
18. Sujata came and offered Gautama the food prepared by her, in a golden bowl.
19. He took the bowl to the river bank, bathed at a ford or a bathing place called Suppatitthita, and ate the food.
20. Thus ended his trial of asceticism.
21. The five ascetics who were with Gautama became angry with him for having given up the life of austerity and self-mortification, and in disgust left him.
Book One, Part IV—Enlightenment and the Vision of a New Way
1. *Meditation for New Light* — 2. *Enlightenment* — 3. *The Discovery of a New Dhamma* — 4. *Gautama who was a Bodhisatta, after Sammabodhi becomes a Buddha*
§ 1. Meditation for New Light
1. Having refreshed himself with food, Gautama sat thinking over his past experiences. He realised that all paths had failed.
2. The failure was so complete that it could have led anyone into a state of frustration. He was, of course, sorry. But frustration as such did not touch him.
3. He was always hopeful of finding a way. So much so that on the night of the day on which he partook of the food sent by Sujata, Gautama had five dreams, and when he awoke he interpreted his dreams to mean that he was sure to attain enlightenment.
4. He had also tried to forecast his future. This he did by throwing the bowl of food Sujata’s maid brought, into the river Nairanja, saying, “If I am to have enlightenment let the bowl ascend the stream; if not, let it go down.” The vessel, indeed, began to float against the current and at last sank near the abode of Kala, a Naga king.
5. Fortified with hope and determination, he left Uruvela and towards evening went along the wide road to Gaya. There he saw a Banyan Tree. He thought of sitting under it in meditation, in the hope of a new light dawning upon him and enabling him to find a way which would solve his problem.
6. After trying each of the four directions he chose the East, which is always chosen by all the great sages for the removal of all defilements.
7. Gautama sat down cross-legged and upright under the Banyan Tree. Determined to achieve enlightenment, he said to himself, “Skin, sinew and bone may dry up as they will, my flesh and blood may dry in my body, but without attaining complete enlightenment I will not leave this seat.”
8. Then Kala, the king of the Nagas, whose majesty was like the lord of elephants, and his wife Suvarnaprabhasa, having been awakened by the vision of Gautama sitting under the Banyan Tree, uttered this in praise of him, being sure that he was destined to attain perfect knowledge.
9. “Inasmuch as the earth, pressed down by thy feet, O Sage, resounds repeatedly, and inasmuch as thy splendour shines forth like the sun, thou shalt assuredly reap the desired fruit.
10. “Inasmuch as flocks of birds fluttering in the sky offer thee reverential salutation, O Lotus-eyed One; and inasmuch as gentle breezes blow in the sky, thou shalt certainly attain thy object.”
11. As he sat down for meditation, a crowd of evil thoughts and evil passions–mythologically called the children of Mara (Kama), which is another name for evil passions–entered his mind.
12. Gautama was greatly frightened lest they should overpower him and defeat his purpose.
13. He knew that in this battle with evil passions many Rishis and Brahmins had succumbed.
14. So he summoned all the courage he had and said to Mara, “Faith is found in me, and heroism and wisdom. How can ye evil passions defeat me? The streams even of rivers may this wind dry up. Ye would be unable to dry up my resolutions, when I am so intent. Better to me is death in battle than that I should be defeated in life.”
15. The evil passions entered the mind of Gautama as a crow goes after a stone that looks like a hump of fat, thinking surely, “here I shall find a tender morsel, here perchance is something sweet.”
16. And finding no sweetness there, the crow departs thence. So like a crow attacking a rock, the evil passions left Gautama in disgust.
§2. Enlightenment
1. To feed himself during the period of meditation, Gautama had collected enough food to last him for forty days.
2. Having routed the evil thoughts that disturbed his mind, Gautama refreshed himself with food and gained strength. He thus prepared himself for meditation with the aim of obtaining enlightenment.
3. It took Gautama four weeks of meditation to obtain enlightenment. He reached final enlightenment in four stages.
4. In the first stage he called forth reason and investigation. His seclusion helped him to attain it easily.
5. In the second stage he added concentration.
6. In the third stage he brought to his aid equanimity and mindfulness.
7. In the fourth and final stage he added purity to equanimity and equanimity to mindfulness.
8. Thus with mind concentrated, purified, spotless, with defilement gone, supple, dexterous, firm, impassionate [=dispassionate], not forgetting what he is [=was] after, Gautama concentrated himself on the problem of finding an answer to the question which had troubled him.
9. On the night of the last day of the fourth week, light dawned upon him. He realised that there were two problems. The first problem was that there was suffering in the world, and the second problem was how to remove this suffering and make mankind happy.
10. So in the end, after meditation for four weeks, darkness was dispelled, light arose, ignorance was dispelled and knowledge arose. He saw a new way.
§ 3. The Discovery of a New Dhamma
1. Gautama, when he sat in meditation for getting new light, was greatly in the grip of the Sankhya Philosophy.
2. That suffering and unhappiness [were] in the world, he thought was an incontrovertible fact.
3. Gautama was, however, interested in knowing how to do away with suffering. This problem the Sankhya Philosophy did not deal with.
4. It is, therefore, on this problem–how to remove suffering and unhappiness–that he concentrated his mind.
5. Naturally, the first question he asked himself was–”What are the causes of [the] suffering and unhappiness which an individual undergoes?”
6. His second question was–”How to remove unhappiness?”
7. To both these questions he got a right answer, which is called ‘Samma Bodhi’ (Right Enlightenment).
8. It is because of this that the Banyan Tree has come to be known as the Bodhi Tree.
§ 4. Gautama who was a Bodhisatta, After Sammabodhi Becomes a Buddha
1. Before enlightenment Gautama was only a Bodhisatta. It is after reaching enlightenment that he became a Buddha.
2. Who and what is a Bodhisatta?
3. A Bodhisatta is a person who is seeking to be a Buddha.
4. How does a Bodhisatta become a Buddha?
5. A Bodhisatta must be a Bodhisatta for ten lives in succession. What must a Bodhisatta do in order to qualify himself to become a Buddha?
6. In his first life he acquires Mudita (joy). The Bodhisatta, having blown off his impurities as the smith blows the dross from silver, reflects that man who has been reckless and becomes sober brightens up the world like the moon freed from clouds. Joy springs up in him, realising this, and he is fervent in his desire to benefit all beings.
7. In his second life he acquires Vimala (Purity). The Bodhisatta has now removed all thoughts of lust; he is kind; he is kind to all; he neither flatters the vices of men nor disparages their virtues.
8. In his third life he acquires Prabhakari (Brightness). The intellect of the Bodhisatta now becomes as bright as a mirror. He fully knows and grasps the truths of Anatta and Anicca. His only wish is for the highest wisdom, and for this he is ready to sacrifice anything.
9. In his fourth life he acquires Arcishmati (Intelligence of Fire). The Bodhisatta in this life fixes his mind on the Eightfold Path, the Four Contemplations, the Fourfold Contest, the Fourfold Will Power, the Fivefold Morality.
10. In his fifth life he acquires Sudurjaya (Difficult to Conquer). He fully understands the connection of the relative and the absolute.
11. In his sixth life he becomes Abhimukhi. In this stage the Bodhisatta is now prepared fully to grasp the evolution of things, its cause, the Twelve Nidanas; and this knowledge, called Abhimukhi, awakens the most profound compassion in his heart for all beings blinded by Avidya.
12. In his seventh life the Bodhisatta becomes a Durangama (going far off). The Bodhisatta is now beyond time and space ; he is one with Infinity, but he still retains nama-rupa out of his great compassion for all beings. He is secluded from others, in that the lusts of the world no more cling to him than water to a lotus leaf. He quenches desires in his fellow beings, practices charity, patience, tactfulness, energy, calmness, intelligence, and the highest wisdom.
13. While in this life, he knows the Dharma, but presents it in ways understood by the people; he knows he must be tactful and patient. Whatever men do to him he bears with equanimity, for he knows that it is through ignorance [that] they misunderstand his motives. At the same time he never slackens his energy to benefit all beings, nor does he withdraw his mind from wisdom; therefore misfortune can never turn him from the righteous path.
14. In his eighth life he becomes Acala. In the stage of Acala, or ‘immovable,’ all strivings on the part of the Bodhisatta cease. He follows good spontaneously; whatever he will do he will succeed in.
15. In his ninth life he becomes Sadhumati. This is the stage or condition of one who has vanquished and penetrated all dharmas or systems, all quarters, and does not enter time.
16. In his tenth life he becomes Dharmamegha. The Bodhisatta attains the infinite divine eye of a Buddha.
17. The Bodhisatta acquires these ten powers which are necessary for him when he becomes a Buddha.
18. The Bodhisatta must not only acquire these ten powers as he evolves from stage to stage, but he must also practice to perfection the ten Paramitas.
19. One Paramita is to be the end of one life. Specialisation in the Paramitas must go stage by stage. One Paramita in one life and not a little of one and a little of the other.
20. It is only when he is doubly equipped that a Bodhisatta becomes qualified for becoming a Buddha. The Buddha is a culminating point in the life of a Bodhisatta.
21. The theory of the Jatakas or the birth stages of a Bodhisatta appears analogous to the Brahmanic theory of Avataras, i.e., the theory of incarnations of God.
22. The Jataka theory is based upon the Buddha having the highest degree of purity as the essence of his being.
23. The Avatar theory does not require that the God should be pure in his making. All that the Brahmanic theory of Avatar says is that God saves his followers by taking different forms although the God may be very impure and immoral in his conduct.
24. The theory that to be a Bodhisatta for ten lives as a condition precedent for becoming a Buddha has no parallel anywhere. No other religion calls upon its founder to answer such a test.
Book One, Part V—The Buddha and His Predecessors
1. *The Buddha and the Vedic Rishis* — 2. *Kapila—The Philosopher* — 3. *The Bramhanas* — 4. *The Upanishads and their Teachings*
§1. The Buddha and the Vedic Rishis
1. The Vedas are a collection of Mantras, i.e., hymns or chants. The reciters of these hymns are called Rishis.
2. The Mantras are mere invocations to deities such as Indra, Varuna, Agni, Soma, Isana, Prajapati, Bramba, Mahiddhi, Yama and others.
3. The invocations are mere prayers for help against enemies, for gift of wealth, for accepting the offerings of food, flesh and wine from the devotee.
4. There is not much philosophy in the Vedas. But there were some Vedic sages who had entered into speculations of a philosophical nature.
5. These Vedic sages were: (1) Aghamarsana; (2) Prajapati Parmesthin; (3) Brahmanaspati, otherwise known as Brihaspati; (4) Anila; (5) Dirghatamas; (6) Narayan; (7) Hiranyagarbha; and (8) Visvakarman.
6. The main problems of these Vedic philosophers were: How did the world originate? In what manner were individual things created? Why have they their unity and existence? Who created, and who ordained? From what did the world spring up, and to what again will it return ?
7. Aghamarsana said that the world was created out of Tapas (heat). Tapas was the creative principle from which eternal law and truth were born. From these were produced the night (tamas). Tamas produced water, and from water originated time. Time gave birth to the sun and the moon, the heaven and the earth, the firmament and light, and ordained the days and nights.
8. Brahmanaspati postulated the genesis of being from non-being. By the term non-existence, he denoted apparently the infinite. The existent originally sprang up from the non-existent. The non-existent (asat, nonens) was the permanent foundation of all that is existent (sat, ens) and of all that is possible and yet non-existent (asat).
9. Prajapati Parmesthin started with the problem: “Did being come out of non-being?” His view was that this was an irrelevant question. For him water was the original substance of that which exists. For him the original matter–water–came neither under the definition of being nor under that of non-being.
10. Paramesthin did not draw any distinction between matter and motive power. According to him, water transformed itself into particular things by some inherent principle to which he gave the name Kama, Cosmic Desire.
11. Anila was another Vedic Philosopher. To him the principal element was air (vayu). It possesses the inherent capacity for movement. It is endowed with the generating principle.
12. Dirghtamas maintained that all living beings rest and depend ultimately on the sun. The sun, held up and propelled by its inherent force, went backward and forward.
13. The sun is composed of a grey-coloured substance, and so are lightning and fire.
14. The sun, lightning, and fire formed the germ of water. Water forms the germ of plants. Such were the views of Dirghatamas.
15. According to Narayana, Purusha (God) is the first cause of the universe. It is from Purusha that the sun, the moon, the earth, water, fire, air, mid-air, the sky, the regions, the seasons, the creatures of the air, all animals, all classes of men, and all human institutions, had originated.
16. Hiranyagarbha. From [a] doctrinal point of view he stood midway between Parmeshthin and Narayan. Hiranyagarbha means the golden germ. It was the great power of the universe, from which all other powers and existences, divine and earthly, were derived.
17. Hiranyagarbha means [=refers to] fire. It is fire that constituted the solar essence, the generating principle of the universe.
18. From the point of view of Vishvakarman, it was quite inadequate and unsatisfactory to hold that water was the primitive substance of all that is, and then to derive from it this world as a whole by giving it an inherent power of movement. If water be the primitive substance which is endowed with the inherent principle of change, we have yet to account for that from which water derived its being, and derived the motive power, the generating principle, the elemental forces, the laws and all the rest.
19. Vishvakarman held the view that it was God which was the motive power. God is first and God is last. He is earlier than the visible universe; he had existed before all cosmic forces came into being. He is the sole God who created and ordained this universe. God is one, and the only one. He is the unborn one (aja) in whom all the existing things abide. He is the one who is mighty in mind and supreme in power. He is the maker–the disposer. As father he generated us, and as disposer he knows the fate of all that is.
20. The Buddha did not regard all the Vedic Sages as worthy of reverence. He regarded just ten Vedic Rishis as the most ancient, and as the real authors of the Mantras.
21. But in the Mantras he saw nothing that was morally elevating.
22. In his view the Vedas were as worthless as a desert.
23. The Buddha, therefore, discarded the Mantras as a source from which to learn or to borrow.
24. Similarly, the Buddha did not find anything in the philosophy of the Vedic Rishis. They were groping to reach the truth. But they had not reached it.
25. Their theories were mere speculations, not based on logic nor on facts. Their contributions to philosophy created no social values.
26. He therefore rejected the philosophy of the Vedic Rishis as useless.
§2. Kapila— The Philosopher
1. Among the ancient philosophers of India, the most pre-eminent was Kapila.
2. His philosophical approach was unique, and as philosopher he stood in a class by himself. His philosophy was known as the Sankhya Philosophy.
3. The tenets of his philosophy were of a startling nature.
4. Truth must be supported by proof. This is the first tenet of the Sankhya system. There is no truth without proof.
5. For purposes of proving the truth, Kapila allowed only two means of proof–(1) perception, and (2) inference.
6. By perception is meant mental apprehension of a present object.
7. Inference is threefold: (1) from cause to effect, as from the presence of clouds to rain; (2) from effect to cause, as from the swelling of the streams in the valleys to rain in the hills; and (3) by analogy, as when we infer from the fact that a man alters his place when he moves that the stars must also move, since they appear in different places.
8. His next tenet related to causality–creation and its cause.
9. Kapila denied the theory that there was a being who created the universe. In his view a created thing really exists beforehand in its cause, just as the clay serves to form a pot, or the threads go to form a piece of cloth.
10. This is the first ground on which Kapila rejected the theory that the universe was created by a being.
11. But there are other grounds which he advanced in support of his point of view.
12. The non-existent cannot be the subject of an activity; there is no new creation. The product is really nothing else than the material of which it is composed: the product exists before its coming into being ,in the shape of its material of which it is composed. Only a definite product can be produced from such material; and only a specific material can yield a specific result.
13. What then is the source of the empirical universe?
14. Kapila said the empirical universe consists of things evolved (Vyakta) and things that are not evolved (Avyakta).
15. Individual things (Vyakta Vastu) cannot be the source of unevolved things (Avyakta Vastu).
16. Individual things are all limited in magnitude, and this is incompatible with the nature of the source of the universe.
17. All individual things are analogous one to another, and therefore no one [of them] can be regarded as the final source of the other. Moreover, as they all come into being from a source, they cannot constitute that source.
18. Further, argued Kapila, an effect must differ from its cause, though it must consist of the cause. That being so, the universe cannot itself be the final cause. It must be the product of some ultimate cause.
19. When asked why the unevolved cannot be perceived, why does it not show movement which would make it perceivable, Kapila replied:
20. “It may be due to various causes. It may be that its fine nature makes, it imperceptible, just as other things of whose existence there is no doubt, cannot be perceived; or because of their too great a distance or proximity; or through the intervention of a third object; or through admixture with similar matter; or through the presence of some more powerful sensation; or the blindness or other defect of the senses or the mind of the observer.”
21. When asked, “What then is the source of the universe? What makes the difference between the evolved and unevolved part of the universe?
22. Kapila’s reply was: “Things that have evolved have a cause, and the things that have not evolved have also a cause. But the source of both is uncaused and independent.
23. “The things that have evolved are many in number, and limited in space and name. The source is one, eternal and all-pervasive. The things evolved have activities and parts; the source is imminent in all, but has neither activities nor parts.”
24. Kapila argued that the process of development of the unevolved is through the activities of three constituents of which it is made up, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. These are called three Gunas.
25. The first of the constituents, or factors, corresponds to what we call as light in nature, which reveals, which causes pleasure to men; the second is that [=what] impels and moves, what produces activity; the third is what is heavy and puts under restraint, what produces the state of indifference or inactivity.
26. The three constituents act essentially in close relation; they overpower and support one another, and intermingle with one another. They are like the constituents of a lamp, the flame, the oil, and wick.
27. When the three Gunas are in perfect balance, none overpowering the other, the universe appears static (Achetan) and ceases to evolve.
28. When the three Gunas are not in balance, one overpowers the other, the universe becomes dynamic (sachetan), and evolution begins.
29. Asked why the Gunas become unbalanced, the answer which Kapila gave was [that] this disturbance in the balance of the three Gunas was due to the presence of Dukha (suffering).
30. Such were the tenets of Kapila’s philosophy.
31. Of all the philosophers, the Buddha was greatly impressed by the doctrines of Kapila.
32. He was the only philosopher whose teachings appeared to the Buddha to be based on logic and facts.
33. But he did not accept everything which Kapila taught. Only three things did the Buddha accept from Kapila.
34. He accepted that reality must rest on proof. Thinking must be based on rationalism.
35. He accepted that there was no logical or factual basis for the presumption that God exists or that he created the universe.
36. He accepted that there was Dukha (suffering) in the world.
37. The rest of Kapila’s teachings he just bypassed as being irrelevant for his purpose.
§ 3. The Bramhanas
1. Next to the Vedas are the religious books known as the Bramhanas. Both were held as sacred books. Indeed the Bramhanas are a part of the Vedas. The two went together and were called by a common name, Sruti.
2. There were four theses on which the Bramhanic Philosophy rested.
3. The first thesis was that the Vedas are not only sacred, but that they are infallible, and they are not to be questioned.
4. The second thesis of the Bramhanic Philosophy was that salvation of the soul–that is escape from transmigration–can be had only by the due performance of Vedic sacrifices, and observances of religious rites and ceremonies, and the offering of gifts to Brahmins.
5. The Brahmins had not only a theory of an ideal religion as contained in the Vedas, but they also had a theory for an ideal society.
6. The pattern of this ideal society they named Chaturvarna. It is imbedded in the Vedas, and as the Vedas are infallible, and as their authority cannot be questioned, so also Chaturvarna as a pattern of society was binding and unquestionable.
7. This pattern of society was based upon certain rules.
8. The first rule was that society should be divided into four classes: (1) Brahmins; (2) Kshatriyas; (3) Vaishyas; and (4) Shudras.
9. The second rule was that there cannot be social equality among these four classes. They must be bound together by the rule of graded inequality.
10. The Brahmins to be at the top, the Kshatriyas to be kept below the Brahmins but above the Vaishyas, the Vaishyas to be below the Kshatriyas but above the Shudras, and the Shudras to be the lowest of all.
11. These four classes were not to be equal to one another in the matter of rights and privileges. The rule of graded inequality governed the question of rights and privileges.
12. The Brahmin had all the rights and privileges which he wished to claim. But a Kshatriya could not claim the rights and privileges which a Brahmin could. He had more rights and privileges than a Vaishya could claim. The Vaishya had more rights and privileges than a Shudra. But he could not claim the rights and privileges which a Kshatriya could. And the Shudra was not entitled to any right, much less any privilege. His privilege was to subsist without offending the three superior classes.
13. The third rule of Chaturvarna related to the division of occupations. The occupation of the Brahmin was learning and teaching and the performance of religious observances. The occupations of the Kshatriya was fighting. Trade was assigned to the Vaishyas. The occupations of the Shudras was service of the three superior classes. These occupations assigned to different classes were exclusive. One class could not trespass upon the occupation of the other.
14. The fourth rule of Chaturvarna related to the right to education. The pattern of Chaturvarna gave the right to education to the first three classes, the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The Shudras were denied the right to education. This rule of Chaturvarna did not deny the right to education to the Shudras only. It denied the right to education to all women, including those belonging to the class of Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas.
15. There was a fifth rule. According to it, man’s life was divided into four stages. The first stage was called Bramhacharya; the second stage was called Grahastashram; the third stage was called Vanaprasta and the fourth stage was called Sannyasa.
16. The object of the first stage was study and education. The object of the second stage was to live a married life. The object of the third stage was to familiarise a man with the life of a hermit, i.e., severing family ties, but without deserting his home. The object of the fourth stage was to enable a man to go in search of God and seek union with him.
17. The benefits of these stages were open only to the male members of the three superior classes. The first stage was not open to the Shudras and women. Equally the last stage was not open to the Shudras and women.
18. Such was the divine pattern of an ideal society called Chaturvarna. The Brahmins had idealised the rule and had realised the ideal without leaving any cracks or loopholes.
19. The fourth thesis of Brahmanic Philosophy was the doctrine of Karma. It was part of the thesis of transmigration of the soul. The Karma of the Brahmins was an answer to the question, “Where did the soul land on transmigration with his new body on new birth?” The answer of the Brahmanic Philosophy was that it depended on a man’s deeds in his past life. In other words, it depended on his Karma.
20. The Buddha was strongly opposed to the first tenet of Brahmanism. He repudiated their thesis that the Vedas are infallible and their authority could never be questioned.
21. In his opinion, nothing was infallible and nothing could be final. Everything must be open to re-examination and reconsideration, whenever grounds for re-examination and reconsideration arise.
22. Man must know the truth–and real truth. To him freedom of thought was the most essential thing. And he was sure that freedom of thought was the only way to the discovery of truth.
23. Infallibility of the Vedas meant complete denial of freedom of thought.
24. For these reasons this thesis of the Brahmanic Philosophy was most obnoxious to him.
25. He was equally an opponent of the second thesis of the Brahmanic Philosophy. The Buddha did admit that there was any [=some] virtue in a sacrifice. But he made a distinction between true sacrifice and false sacrifice.
26. Sacrifice in the sense of self-denial for the good of others, he called true sacrifice. Sacrifice in the sense of killing an animal as an offering to God for personal benefit, he regarded as a false sacrifice.
27. The Brahmanic sacrifices were mostly sacrifices of animals to please their gods. He condemned them as false sacrifices. He would not allow them, even though they be performed with the object of getting salvation for the soul.
28. The opponents of sacrifices used to ridicule the Brahmins by saying, “If one can go to heaven by sacrificing an animal, why should not one sacrifice one’s own father? That would be a quicker way of going to heaven.”
29. The Buddha wholeheartedly agreed with this view.
30. The theory of Chaturvarna was as repugnant to the Buddha as the theory of sacrifices was repulsive to him.
31. The organization of society set up by Brahmanism in the name of Chaturvarna did not appear to him a natural organization. Its class composition was compulsory and arbitrary. It was a society made to order. He preferred an open society and a free society.
32. The Chaturvarna of the Brahmins was a fixed order never to be changed. Once a Brahmin always a Brahmin. Once a Kshatriya always a Kshatriya, once a Vaishya always a Vaishya, and once a Shudra always a Shudra. Society was based on status conferred upon an individual by the accident of his birth. Vice, however heinous, was no ground for degrading a man from his status, and virtue, however great, had no value [=ability] to raise him above it. There was no room for worth, nor for growth.
33. Inequality exists in every society. But it was different with Brahmanism. The inequality preached by Brahmins was its official doctrine. It was not a mere growth. Brahmanism did not believe in equality. In fact, it was opposed to equality.
34. Brahmanism was not content with inequality. The soul of Brahmanism lay in graded inequality.
35. Far from producing harmony, graded inequality, the Buddha thought, might produce in society an ascending scale of hatred and a descending scale of contempt, and might be a source of perpetual conflict.
36. The occupations of the four classes were also fixed. There was no freedom of choice. Besides, they were fixed not in accordance with skill, but in accordance with birth.
37. On a careful review of the rules of Chaturvarna, the Buddha had no difficulty in coming to the conclusion that the philosophic foundations on which the social order was reared by Brahmanism were wrong if not selfish.
38. It was clear to him that it did not serve the interests of all, much less did it advance the welfare of all. Indeed, it was deliberately designed to make [the] many serve the interests of the few. In it man was made to serve a class of self-styled supermen.
39. It was calculated to suppress and exploit the weak, and to keep them in a state of complete subjugation.
40. The law of Karma as formulated by the Brahmins, thought the Buddha, was calculated to sap the spirit of revolt completely. No one was responsible for the suffering of man except he himself. Revolt could not alter the state of suffering ; for suffering was fixed by his past Karma as his lot in this life.
41. The Shudras and women–the two classes whose humanity was most mutilated by Brahmanism–had no power to rebel against the system.
42. They were denied the right to knowledge, with the result that by reason of their enforced ignorance they could not realize what had made their condition so degraded. They could not know that Brahmanism had robbed them completely of the significance of their life. Instead of rebelling against Brahmanism, they had become the devotees and upholders of Brahmanism.
43. The right to bear arms is the ultimate means of achieving freedom which a human being has. But the Shudras were denied the right to bear arms.
44. Under Brahmanism the Shudras were left as helpless victims of a conspiracy of selfish Brahmanism, powerful and deadly Kshatriyas, and wealthy Vaishyas.
45. Could it be amended? Knowing that it was a divinely ordained social order, he knew that it could not be. It could only be ended.
46. For these reasons the Buddha rejected Brahmanism as being opposed to the true way of life.
§4. The Upanishads and Their Teachings
1. The Upanishads constituted another piece of literature. It is not part of the Vedas. It is uncanonical.
2. All the same, they did form a part of religious literature.
3. The number of the Upanishads is quite large. Some important, some quite unimportant.
4. Some of them were ranged against the Vedic theologians, the Brahmin priests.
5. All of them agreed in viewing Vedic study as a study of nescience or ignorance (avidya).
6. They were all agreed in their estimate of the four Vedas and the Vedic science as the lower knowledge.
7. They were all agreed in questioning the divine origin of the Vedas.
8. They were all agreed in denying the efficacy attributed to sacrifices, to the funeral oblations, and the gifts to the priests which are the fundamentals of the Brahmanic philosophy.
9. This, however, was not the main topic with which the Upanishads were concerned. Their discussions centred round Brahman and Atman.
10. Brahman was the all-pervading principle which binds the universe, and [they maintained] that salvation lay in the Atman realizing that it is Brahman.
11. The main thesis of the Upanishads was that Brahmana was a reality and that Atmana was the same as Brahmana. The Atmana did not realize that it was Brahmana because of the Upadhis in which it was entangled.
12. The question was, Is Brahmana a reality? The acceptance of the Upanishadic thesis depended upon the answer to this question.
13. The Buddha could find no proof in support of the thesis that Brahmana was a reality. He, therefore, rejected the thesis of the Upanishads.
14. It is not that questions on this issue were not put to the authors of the Upanishads. They were.
15. Such questions were put to no less a person than Yajnavalkya, a great seer who plays so important a part in the Brahadarnyka Upanishad.
16. He was asked, “What is Brahmana? What is Atmana ” All that Yajnavalkya could say, “Neti! Neti! I know not! I know not! “
17. “How can anything be a reality about which no one knows anything?” asked the Buddha. He had, therefore, no difficulty in rejecting the Upanishadic thesis as being based on pure imagination.
Book One, Part VI—The Buddha and His Contemporaries
1. *His Contemporaries* — 2. His attitude to His Contemporaries*
§ 1. His Contemporaries
1. At the time when Gautama took Parivraja, there was a great intellectual ferment in the country. Besides the Brahmanic Philosophy there were as many as sixty-two different schools of philosophy, all opposed to the Brahmanic Philosophy. Of them at least six were worthy of attention.
2. Of these schools of philosophy there was one headed by Purana Kassappa. His doctrine was known as Akriyavada. He maintained that the soul was not affected in any way by Karma. One may do, or one may get things done. One may do injury, or one may get someone to kill. One may commit theft or dacoity [=highway robbery], or one may get theft or dacoity committed; one may commit adultery, or one may get adultery committed; one may tell a lie, or one may get a lie told. Nothing affects the soul. An act, however licentious, does not affect the soul with sin. An act, however good, does not bring merit to the soul. Nothing has any Kriya (result) on the soul. When a person dies, all the elements of which he is made join in their originals. Nothing survives after death, neither body nor soul.
3. Another school of thought was known as Niyativada. Its chief propounder was Makhali Ghosal. His doctrine was a kind of fatalism or determinism. He taught that no one can do anything or undo anything. Things happen. No one can make them happen. No one can remove unhappiness, increase it, or diminish it. One must undergo one’s share of the experiences of the world.
4. The third school was known as Ucchedavada. Its chief propounder was Ajit Kesakambal. His doctrine was a kind of Annihilism. He taught that there was nothing in Yajna, Haom; there is no such thing as the fruits or effects of deeds to be enjoyed or suffered by the soul. There is neither heaven nor hell. Man is made up of certain elements of unhappiness in the world. The soul cannot escape it. Whatever sorrow or unhappiness there was in the world, the soul cannot escape. This sorrow or unhappiness will come to an end automatically. The soul must undergo rebirth during eighty-four lakhs [=hundred thousands] of cycles of Mahakalpas. Then only the sorrow and unhappiness of the soul will end, not before nor by any other means.
5. The fourth school was known as Annyonyavad. The head of this school was Pakudha Kacchyana. He preached that there are seven elements which go to make up a being, namely, Prathvi, Apa, Tej, Vayu, Sukha, Dukha and the Soul. Each is independent of the other; one does not affect the other. They are self-existent, and they are eternal. Nothing can destroy them. If any one chops off the head of man, he does not kill him. All that happens is that the weapon has entered the seven elements.
6. Sanjaya Belaputta had his own school of philosophy. It was known as Vikshepavada, a kind of scepticism. He argued, “if anyone asked me is there heaven, if I feel there was I would say yes. But if I feel there was no heaven I would say no. If I am asked whether human beings are created, whether man has to suffer the fruits of his action whether good or bad, and whether the soul lives after death, I say nay to all these because I don’t think they exist. This is how Sanjaya Belaputta summed up his doctrine.
7. The sixth school of philosophy was known as Chaturyamsamvarvad. The head of this school who was alive at the time when Gautama was searching for light was Mahavir, who was also called Nigantha Nathaputta. Mahavir taught that the soul had to undergo rebirth because of the bad karmas done in the past life and in the present life. One must therefore get over the bad, he suggested, by tapascharya. For preventing the doing of bad karmas in this life Mahavira prescribed the observance of chaturyama dharma, i.e., observance of four rule: (1) not to kill; (2) not to steal; (3) not to tell a lie; and (4) not to have property, and to observe celibacy.
§ 2. His Attitude to His Contemporaries
1. The Buddha did not accept the teachings of the new philosophers.
2. His rejection of their teaching was not without reasons. He said that:
3. If the doctrines of Purana Kassyappa or Pakudha Kacchyana were true, then one can do any evil or any harm; one may even go to the length of killing another without involving any social responsibility or social consequences.
4. If the doctrine of Makhali Ghosal is true, then man becomes the slave of destiny. He cannot liberate himself.
5. If the doctrine of Ajit Kesakambal is true, then all that man has to do is to eat, drink and make merry.
6. If the doctrine of Sanjaya Belaputta was true, then man must float about, and live without a positive philosophy of life.
7. If the doctrine of Nigantha Nathaputta was true, then man’s life must be subjected to Asceticism and Tapascharya, a complete subjugation and uprooting of man’s instincts and desires.
8. Thus, none of the paths of life suggested by the philosophers appealed to the Buddha. He thought they were the thoughts of men who had become hopeless, helpless, and reckless. He therefore decided to seek light elsewhere.

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Book One, Part VII—Comparison and Contrast 1. *What HE Rejected* — 2. *What HE Modified* — 3. *What HE Accepted*
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Book One, Part VII—Comparison and Contrast
1. *What HE Rejected* — 2. *What HE Modified* — 3. *What HE Accepted*
§ 1. What HE Rejected
1. This survey of the philosophical and religious thought shows that at the time when the Buddha formulated his Sasana, certain ideas had a firm grip on the mind of the people. They were:
(i) Belief in the infallibility of the Vedas
(ii) Belief in Moksha, or Salvation of the soul, i.e., its ceasing to be born again
(iii) Belief in the efficacy of rites, ceremonies and sacrifices as means of obtaining moksha
(iv) Belief in Chaturvarna as the ideal for social organization
(v) Belief in Iswara as the creator of, and in Brahmana as the principle underlying, the universe
(vi) Belief in Atmana, or the soul
(vii) Belief in Sansara (wandering together), i.e., transmigration of the soul
(viii) Belief in Karma, i.e., the determination of man’s position in present life by deeds done by him in his past life.
2. In formulating the principles of his Sasana, the Buddha dealt with this old stock of ideas in his own way.
3. The following are the ideas which he rejected:
(i) He condemned indulging in speculation as to the whence, whither, and what am I?
(ii) He discarded heresies about the soul, and refrained from identifying it with either the body, sensations, volitions, and [=or] consciousness.
(iii) He discarded all the Nihilistic views which were promulgated by certain religious teachers.
(iv) He condemned such views as were held by heretics.
(v) He discarded the theory that the cosmic progress had a known beginning.
(vi) He repudiated the theory that a God created man, or that he came out of the body of some Bramha.
(vii) The existence of the soul he either ignored or denied.
§ 2. What HE Modified
1. He accepted the great grand law of cause and effect with its corollaries.
2. He repudiated the fatalistic view of life, and [the] other equally foolish view that a God predestined as to what should happen for man and the world.
3. He discarded the theory that all deeds committed in some former birth have the potency to produce suffering, making present activity impotent. He denied the fatalistic view of Karma. He replaced the view of Karma by a much more scientific view of Karma. He put new wine in old bottle[s].
4. Transmigration (sansara) was replaced by the doctrine of re-birth.
5. He replaced the doctrine of moksha or salvation of the soul by the doctrine of Nibbana.
6. The Buddha Sasana is thus an original piece [of thought]. The little in it which is old is either modified or restated.
§3. What HE Accepted
1. The first distinguishing feature of his teachings lay in the recognition of the mind as the centre of everything.
2. Mind precedes things, dominates them, creates them. If mind is comprehended, all things are comprehended.
3. Mind is the leader of all its faculties. Mind is the chief of all its faculties. The very mind is made up of those faculties.
4. The first thing to attend to is the culture of the mind.
5. The second distinguishing feature of his teachings is that mind is the fount of all the good and evil that arises within, and befalls us from without.
6. Whatsoever there is of evil, connected with evil, belonging to evil–that issues from the mind. Whatsoever there is of good, connected with good, belonging to good–all issues from mind.
7. If one speaks or acts with a pounded [=polluted?] mind, then affliction follows him as the wheels of the cart follow the feet of the bullocks who pull the cart. The cleaning of the mind is, therefore, the essence of religion.
8. The third distinguishing feature of his teachings is the avoidance of all sinful acts.
9. The fourth distinguishing feature of his teaching is that real religion lies not in the books of religion, but in the observance of the tenets of the religion.
10. Can anyone say that the Buddha’s religion was not his own creation?
BOOK TWO: CAMPAIGN OF CONVERSION
Book Two, Part I—Buddha and His Vishad Yoga
1. *To preach or not to preach* — 2. *Proclamation of good news by Bramha Sahampati* — 3. *Two types of conversion*
1. To Preach or Not to Preach
1. After having attamed enlightenment and after having formulated his way, doubt arose in the mind of the Buddha. Should he go forth and preach his doctrine, or should he continue to devote himself to his own personal perfection?
2. He said to himself, “True, I have gained a new doctrine. But it is too difficult for the common man to accept it and follow it. It is too subtle even for the wise.
3. “It is hard for mankind to liberate itself from the entanglement of God and Soul. It is hard for mankind to give up its belief in rites and ceremonies. It is hard for mankind to give up its belief in Karma.
4. “It is hard for mankind to give up its belief in the immortality of the Soul, and accept my doctrine that the Soul as an independent entity does not exist and does not survive after death.
5. “Mankind is intent on its selfishness, and takes delight and pleasure in it. It is hard for mankind to accept my doctrine of righteousness overriding selfishness.
6. “If I were to teach my doctrine, and others did not understand it; or, understanding it, did not accept; or, accepting it, did not follow it, it would be weariness to others and a vexation to me.
7. “Why not remain a sanyasi away from the world, and use my gospel to perfect my own self?” he asked himself. “At least I can do good to myself.”
8. Thus as he reflected, his mind turned to inaction, not to teaching of the gospel.
9. Then Brahma Sahampati, knowing what was passing in the mind of the Buddha, thought, “Verily the world is being destroyed, verily the world is going to destruction, if the Tathagata, the fully enlightened, turns to inaction and not to teaching his doctrine.”
10. Filled with anxiety, Brahma Sahampati left the Brahma world and appeared before the Buddha. And arranging his upper robe on one shoulder, he bent down and with clasped hands said, “Thou art no longer Siddharth Gautama, Thou art Buddha. Thou art the Blessed One who is blessed with the fullest enlightenment. Thou art the Tathagatha. How can thou refuse to enlighten the world? How can thou refuse to save erring humanity?
11. “There are beings full of impurity that are falling away through not hearing the doctrine.
12. “As the Lord knows,” proceeded Brahma Sahampati, “Among the Magadhas arose in ancient times, doctrine impure, with many blemishes devised.
13. “Will not the Lord open for them the door of his immortal doctrine?
14. “As one upon a rocky mountain standing beholdeth all the people round about him, even thus, O thou, with wisdom distilled, ascending all, behold, look down, thou griefless one, upon those plunged in their griefs.
15. “Rise up, O hero, victor in battle, O caravan-leader, free from the debt of birth, go to the world and [do] not turn away from it.
16. “May the Lord in his compassion design to teach his gospel to men and to gods.”
17. “O Brahma, Eminent and Excellent among men, if I did not give public utterance to my gospel, it is because I perceived vexation,” was the reply of the Buddha.
18. Knowing that there was so much unhappiness in the world, the Buddha realised that it was wrong for him to sit as a sanyasi with folded arms and allow things to remain as they were.
19. Asceticism he found to be useless. It was vain to attempt to escape from the world. There is no escape from the world even for an ascetic. He realised that what is necessary is not escape from the world. What is necessary is to change the world and to make it better.
20. He realised that he left the world because there was so much conflict, resulting in misery and unhappiness, and for which he knew no remedy. If he can [=could] banish misery and unhappiness from the world by the propagation of his doctrine, it was his duty to return to the world and serve it, and not sit silent as the personification of inactive impassivity.
21. The Buddha therefore agreed to the request of Brahma Sahampati and decided to preach his doctrine to the world.
§ 2. Proclamation of Good News by Brahma Sahampati
1. Then, Brahma Sahampati, thinking, “I have been instrumental in persuading the Buddha to agree to preach his doctrine to the masses,” felt extremely happy. He saluted the Buddha, went round him passing to the right, took a look, and departed.
2. On his way back he kept on proclaiming to the world, “Rejoice at the glad tidings. The Buddha, our Lord, has found the root of all evil and unhappiness in the world. He knows the way out.
3. “The Buddha will bring comfort to the weary and sorrow-laden. He will give peace to those stricken by war. He will give courage to those who are broken in heart. He will give to those who are suppressed and oppressed, faith and hope.
4. “Ye that suffer from the tribulations of life, ye that have to struggle and endure, ye that yearn for justice, rejoice at the glad tidings.
5. “Heal your wounds, ye that are wounded. Eat your fill, ye that are hungry. Rest, ye that are weary, and quench your thirst, ye that are thirsty. Seek the light, ye that are in darkness. Be of good cheer, ye that are forlorn.
6. “In his doctrine there is love to create a longing to own [=acknowledge] those who are disowned or unowned; to the degraded there is the ennoblement ever present to raise them; to the disinherited and the downtrodden there is equality blazing forth their path to advancement.
7. “His doctrine is the doctrine of righteousness, and his aim is to establish the kingdom of righteousness on earth.
8. “His doctrine is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.
9. “Blessed is the Buddha, for his is the path of reason, and his is the way of emancipation from superstition. Blessed is the Buddha who teaches the middle way. Blessed is the Buddha who teaches the law of righteousness. Blessed is the Buddha who teaches the peace of Nibbana. Blessed is the Buddha who preaches love, kindness, and fellowship to help fellow beings to obtain salvation.”
§ 3. Two Types of Conversion
1. In the Buddha’s scheme of things conversion has two meanings.
2. Conversion to the Order of Bhikkus, called Sangh.
3. Secondly, it means conversion of a householder as an Upasaka, or lay follower of the Buddha’s Dhamma.
4. Except on four points, there is no difference in the way of life of the Bhikku and the Upasaka.
5. An Upasaka remains a householder. A Bhikku becomes a homeless wanderer.
6. Both the Upasakas and the Bhikkus must observe in their life certain rules.
7. Here again to the Bhikku they are vows, the breach of which ends in punishment. To the Upasaka they are precepts. They must be observed to the best of his ability.
8. An Upasaka can have property. A Bhikku cannot have.
9. To become an Upasaka, there is no ceremony.
10. To become a Bhikku, he must undergo a ceremony called Upasampada.
11.The Buddha converted those who came to him according to their wish, either as Bhikku or as Upasaka.
12. An Upasaka could become a Bhikku whenever he felt like it.
13. And a Bhikku had to cease to be a Bhikku when he committed a breach of the major vows, or whenever he wished to give up his membership of the Order.
14. It must not be understood that the Buddha converted only those whose names occur in the following pages.
15. The instances are chosen only to show that he did not observe any distinction as to caste or sex in admitting persons to his Sangh or preaching his Dhamma.
Book Two, Part II—The Conversion of the Parivrajakas
1. *Arrival at Sarnath* — 2. *The Buddha’s First Sermon* — 3. *The Buddha’s First Sermon (cont’d)* — 4. *The Buddha’s First Sermon (cont’d)* — 5. *The Buddha’s First Sermon (cont’d)* — 6. *The Buddha’s First Sermon (concluded)* — 7. *The Response of the Parivrajakas*
§ 1. Arrival at Sarnath
1. Having decided to preach his doctrine, the Buddha asked himself “To whom shall I first teach the doctrine?” The thought [came to him] of Alara Kalam, whom the Buddha adored as the learned, wise, intelligent, and of little impurity; “What if I first teach him the doctrine?” But he was told that Alara Kalam was dead.
2. Then thought he of preaching it to Uddaka Ramputta. But he too was dead.
3. Then he thought of the five old companions of his who were with him at Niranjana when he was practising austerities, and who had left him in anger on his abandonment of austerities.
4. “They did much for me, attended me and looked after me; what if I first teach the doctrine to them?” said he to himself.
5. He asked for their whereabouts. Having learnt that they were dwelling at Sarnath, in the deer park of Isipatana, he left in search of them.
6. The five, seeing him coming, decided among themselves not to welcome him. Said one of them, “This, friends, is the ascetic Gautama coming, who has abandoned austerities and has turned to [a] life of abundance and luxury. He has committed a sin. We must not therefore greet him, nor rise in respect, nor take his bowl and robe. We will only set apart a seat for him. If he wishes, he may sit down.” And they all agreed.
7. But when the Buddha approached, the five Parivrajakas were not able to abide by their decision; so greatly impressed were they by his personality that they all rose in their seats. One took his bowl, one took his robe, and one prepared a seat, and one brought water to wash his feet.
8. It was really a great welcome to an unwelcome guest.
9. Thus those who intended to scoff remained to pray.
§ 2. The Buddha’s First Sermon
1. After [the] exchange of greetings, the five Parivrajakas asked the Buddha whether he still believed in asceticism. The Buddha replied in the negative.
2. He said there were two extremes, a life of pleasure and a life of self-mortification.
3. One says let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. The other says, kill all vasanas (desires) because they bring rebirth. He rejected both as unbecoming to man.
4. He was a believer in the Madhyama Marga (Majjhima Patipada), the middle path, which is neither the path of pleasure nor the path of self-mortification.
5. “Answer me this,” he said to the Parivrajakas. “So long as your self remains active and continues to lust after either worldly or heavenly pleasures, is not all mortification vain?” And they answered, “It is as thou sayest.”
6. “How can ye be free from self by leading a wretched life of self-mortification, if ye do not thereby succeed in quenching the fires of lust?” And they replied, “It is as thou sayest.”
7. “Only when the self in ye has been conquered [so] that ye are free from lust; ye will then not desire worldly pleasures, and the satisfaction of your natural wants will not defile ye. Let ye eat and drink according to the needs of your body.
8. “Sensuality of all kinds is enervating. The sensual man is a slave of his passion. All pleasure-seeking is degrading and vulgar. But I say unto you that to satisfy the needs of life is not an evil: to keep the body in good health is a duty, or otherwise you shall not be able to keep your mind strong and clear and have the lamp of wisdom burning.
9. “Know ye, O Parivrajakas, that there are these two extremes which man ought not to follow–the habitual indulgence on the one hand, of those things whose attraction depends upon the passions, and especially of sensuality–a low and pagan way of seeking satisfaction, unworthy, unprofitable, and the habitual practice thereof; and on the other hand, of asceticism or self-mortification, which is painful, unworthy, and unprofitable.
10. “There is a middle path which avoids both these extremes. Know ye, that, this is the path which I preach.”
11. The five Parivrajakas listened to him with attention. Not knowing what to say in reply to the Buddha’s middle path, they asked him what he was [=had been] doing after they had left him. Then the Buddha told them how he left for Gaya, how he sat in contemplation under the Banyan Tree, and how after four weeks of contemplation he obtained enlightenment, as a result of which he was able to discover a new path of life.
12. On hearing this, the Parivrajakas became extremely impatient to know what the path was, and requested the Buddha to expound it to them.
13. The Buddha agreed.
14. He began by saying that his path which is his Dhamma (religion) had nothing to do with God and [the] Soul. His Dhamma had nothing to do with life after death. Nor has his Dhamma any concern with rituals and ceremonies.
15. The centre of his Dhamma is man, and the relation of man to man in his life on earth.
16. This, he said, was his first postulate.
17. His second postulate was that men are living in sorrow, in misery and poverty. The world is full of suffering and that [discovering] how to remove this suffering from the world is the only purpose of Dhamma. Nothing else is Dhamma.
18. The recognition of the existence of suffering, and to show the way to remove suffering, is the foundation and basis of his Dhamma.
19. This can be the only foundation and justification for Dhamma. A religion which fails to recognise this is no religion at all.
20. “Verily, Parivrajakas! whatsoever recluses or Brahmins (i.e., preachers of religion) understand not, as it really is, that the misery in the world and the escape therefrom, is the main problem of Dhamma–such recluses and Brahmins in my opinion are not to be regarded as recluses and Brahmin ; nor have those worthies come to know fully of themselves what in this very life is the real meaning of Dhamma.”
21. The Parivrajakas then asked him, “If the foundation of your Dhamma is the recognition of the existence of suffering and the removal of suffering, tell us, how does your Dhamma remove suffering!”
22. The Buddha then told them that according to his Dhamma if every person followed (1) the Path of Purity; (2) the Path of Righteousness; and (3) the Path of Virtue, it would bring about the end of all suffering.
23. And he added that he had discovered such a Dhamma.
§ 3. The Buddha’s First Sermon—(contd.) The Path of Purity
1. The Parivrajakas then asked the Buddha to explain to them his Dhamma.
2. And the Buddha was pleased to do so.
3. He addressed them first on the Path of Purity.
4. “The Path of Purity,” he told the Parivrajakas, “teaches that a person who wishes to be good must recognise some principles as principles of life.
5. “According to my Path of Purity, the principles of life recognised by it are: Not to injure or kill; Not to steal or appropriate to oneself anything which belongs to another; Not to speak untruth; Not to indulge in lust; Not to indulge in intoxicating drinks.
6. “The recognition of these principles, I say, is most essential for every man. For every man must have a standard by which to judge whatever he does. And these principles, according to my teachings, constitute the standard.
7. “There are everywhere people who are patit (fallen). But there are two classes of the patit: the patit who has a standard, and a patit who has no standard.
8. “The patit who has no standard does not know that he has fallen. Consequently he always remains fallen. On the other hand, a patit who has a standard tries to rise from his fallen state. Why? The answer is, because he knows that he has fallen.
9. “This is the difference between having a standard, and having no standard, for regulating a man’s life. What matters is not so much the fall of the man, but the absence of any standard.
10. “You may ask, ye Parivrajakas! Why are these principles worthy of recognition as a standard of life?
11. “The answer to this question you will find for yourselves, if you ask: “Are these principles good for the individual?” also if you ask: “Do they promote social good?”
12. “If your answers to these questions are in the affirmative, then it follows that the principles of my Path of Purity are worthy of recognition as forming a true standard of life.”
§ 4. The Buddha’s First Sermon (cont’d)—Ashtanga Marga or the Path of Righteousness
1. The Buddha next addressed the Parivrajakas on the Ashtangamarga. He said that there are eight constituents in the Ashtangamarga.
2. He began his discourse with the exposition of Samma Ditti (Right Views), the first and foremost element in the Ashtangmarga,
3. “To realise the importance of Samma Ditti,” the Buddha said to the Parivrajakas:
4. “O, ye Parivrajakas, you must realise that the world is a dungeon, and man is a prisoner in the dungeon.
5. “This dungeon is full of darkness. So dark is it that scarce anything at all can rightly be seen by the prisoner. The prisoner cannot see that he is a prisoner.
6. “Indeed, man has not only become blind by living too long in the darkness, but he very much doubts if any such strange thing as light is said to be, can ever exist at all.
7. “Mind is the only instrument through which light can come to man.
8. “But the mind of these dungeon-dwellers is by no means a perfect instrument for the purpose.
9. “It lets through only a little light, just enough to show to those with sight that there is such a thing as darkness.
10. Thus defective in its nature, such understanding as this is.
11. “But know ye, Parivrajakas! the case of the prisoner is not as hopeless as it appears.
12. “For there is in man a thing called will. When the appropriate motives arise, the will can be awakened and set in motion.
13. “With the coming of just enough light to see in what directions to guide the motions of the will, man may so guide them that they shall lead to liberty.
14. “Thus though man is bound, yet he may be free; he may at any moment begin to take the first steps that will ultimately bring him to freedom.
15. “This is because it is possible to train the mind in whatever directions one chooses. It is mind that makes us to be prisoners in the house of life, and it is mind that keeps us so.
16. “But what mind has done, that mind can undo. If it has brought man to thraldom, it can also, when rightly directed, bring him to liberty.
17. “This is what Samma Ditti can do.”
18. “What is the end of Samma Ditti?” asked the Parivrajakas. “The end of Samma Ditti,” replied the Buddha, “is the destruction of Avijja (Nescience). It is opposed to Miccha Ditti.
19. “And Avijja means the failure to understand the noble truths, of the existence of suffering and the removal of suffering.
20. “Samma Ditti requires [the] giving up of belief in the efficacy of rites and ceremonies, to have disbelief in the sanctity of the Shastras.
21. “Samma Ditti requires the abandonment of superstition and supernaturalism.
22. “Samma Ditti requires the abandonment of all doctrines which are mere speculations without any basis in fact or experience.
23. “Samma Ditti requires [a] free mind and free thought.
24. “Every man has aims, aspirations, and ambitions. Samma Sankappo teaches that such aims, aspirations, and ambitions shall be noble and praiseworthy and not ignoble and unworthy.
25. “Samma Vacca (Right Speech) teaches:
(1) that one should speak only that which is true;
(2) that one should not speak what is false;
(3) that one should not speak evil of others;
(4) that one should refrain from slander;
(5) that one should not use angry and abusive language towards any fellow man;
(6) that one should speak kindly and courteously to all;
(7) that one should not indulge in pointless, foolish talk, but let his speech be sensible and to the purpose.
26. “The observance of Right Speech, as I have explained, is not to be the result of fear or favour. It is not to have the slightest reference to what any superior being may think of his action, or to any loss which Right Speech may involve.
27. “The norm for Right Speech is not the order of the superior or the personal benefit to the individual.
28. “Samma Kamanto teaches right behaviour. It teaches that every action should be founded on respect for the feelings and rights of others.
29. “What is the norm for Samma Kamanto? The norm is that course of conduct which is most in harmony with the fundamental laws of existence.
30. “When his [=one’s] actions are in harmony with these laws, they may be taken to be in accord with Samma Kamanto.
31. “Every individual has to earn his livelihood. But there are ways and ways of earning one’s livelihood. Some are bad; some are good. Bad ways are those which cause injury or injustice to others. Good ways are those by which the individual earns his livelihood without causing injury or injustice to others. This is Samma Ajivo.
32. “Samma Vyayamo (Right Endeavour) is primary endeavour to remove Avijja; to reach the door that leads out of this painful prison house, to swing it open.
33. “Right endeavour has four purposes.
34. “One is to prevent states of mind which are in conflict with the Ashtangamarga.
35. “Second is to suppress such states of mind which may already have arisen.
36. “Third is to bring into existence states of mind which will help a man to fulfil the requirements of the Ashtangamarga.
37. “Fourth is to promote the further growth and increase of such states of mind as already may have arisen.
38. “Samma Satti calls for mindfulness and thoughtfulness. It means constant wakefulness of the mind. Watch and ward by the mind over the evil passions is another name for Samma Satti.
39. “There are, ye Parivrajakas, five fetters or hindrances which come in the way of a person trying to achieve Samma Ditti, Samma Sankappo, Samma Vacca, Samma Kamanto, Samma Ajeevo, Samma Vyayamo and Samma Satti.
40. “These five hindrances are covetousness, ill-will, sloth and torpor, doubt, and indecision. It is, therefore, necessary to overcome these hindrances, which are really fetters, and the means to overcome them is through Samadhi. But know ye, Parivrajakas, Samma Samadhi is not the same as Samadhi. It is quite different.
41. “Samadhi is mere concentration. No doubt it leads to Dhyanic states which are self-induced, holding the five hindrances in suspense.
42. “But these Dhyana states are temporary. Consequently the suspension of the hindrances is also temporary. What is necessary is a permanent turn to the mind. Such a permanent turn can be achieved only by Samma Samadhi.
43. “Mere Samadhi is negative, inasmuch as it leads to temporary suspension of the hindrances. In it there is no training to the mind. Samma Samadhi is positive. It trains the mind to concentrate and to think of some Kusala Kamma (Good Deeds and Thoughts) during concentration, and thereby eliminate the tendency of the mind to be drawn towards Akusala Kamma (Bad Deeds and Bad Thoughts) arising from the hindrances.
44. “Samma Samadhi gives a habit to the mind to think of good, and always to think of good. Samma Samadhi gives the mind the necessary motive power to do good.”
§ 5. The Buddha’s First Sermon (cont’d)—The Path of Virtue
1. The Buddha then explained to the Parivrajakas the Path of Virtue.
2. He told them that the path of virtue meant the observance of the virtues called: (1) Sila; (2) Dana; (3) Uppekha; (4) Nekkhama; (5) Virya; (6) Khanti; (7) Succa; (8) Adhithana; (9) Karuna; and (10) Maitri.
3. The Parivrajakas asked the Buddha to tell them what these virtues meant.
4. The Buddha then proceeded to satisfy their desire.
5. “Sila is moral temperament, the disposition not to do evil and the disposition to do good; to be ashamed of doing wrong. To avoid to do [=doing] evil for fear of punishment is Sila. Sila means fear of doing wrong.
6. “Nekkhama is renunciation of the pleasures of the world.
7. “Dana means the giving of one’s possessions, blood and limbs, and even one’s life, for the good of others, without expecting anything in return.
8. “Virya is right endeavour. It is doing with all your might whatever you have undertaken to do, with never a thought of turning back, whatever you have undertaken to do.
9. “Khanti is forbearance. Not to meet hatred by hatred is the essence of it. For hatred is not appeased by hatred. It is appeased only by forbearance.
10. “Succa is truth. A person must never tell a lie. His speech must be truth and nothing but truth.
11. “Adhithana is resolute determination to reach the goal.
12. “Karuna is loving kindness to human beings.
13. “Maitri is extending fellow feeling to all beings, not only to one who is a friend, but also to one who is a foe; not only to man, but to all living beings.
14. “Upekka is detachment as distinguished from indifference. It is a state of mind where there is neither like nor dislike. Remaining unmoved by the result, and yet engaged in the pursuit of it.
15. “These virtues one must practice to his utmost capacity. That is why they are called Paramitas (States of Perfection).
§ 6. The Buddha’s First Sermon (concluded)
1. Having explained His Dhamma and what it involved, the Buddha then asked the Parivrajakas:
2. “Is not personal purity the foundation of good in the world?” And they answered, “It is as thou sayest.”
3. And he continued, “Is not personal purity undermined by covetousness, passion, ignorance, the destruction of life, theft, adultery, and lying? Is it not necessary for personal purity to build up sufficient strength of character so that these evils should be kept under control? How can a man be the instrument of good if he has no personal purity in him?” And they replied, “It is as thou sayest.”
4. “Again, why do men not mind enslaving or dominating others? Why do men not mind making the lives of others unhappy? Is it not because men are not righteous in their conduct towards one another?” And they answered in the affirmative.
5. “Will not the practice of the Ashtanga Marga, the path of right views, right aims, right speech, right livelihood, right means, right mindfulness, right perseverance, and right contemplation, in short, the Path of Righteousness, if followed by every one, remove all injustice and inhumanity that man does to man?” And they said, “Yes.”
6. Turning to the path of virtue, he asked, “Is not Dana necessary to remove the suffering of the needy and the poor, and to promote general good? Is not Karuna necessary, to be drawn to the relief of poverty and suffering wherever it exists? Is not Nekkamma necessary to selfless work? Is not Uppekka necessary, for sustained endeavour even though there is no personal gain?
7. “Is not love for man necessary?” And they said “Yes.”
8. “I go further and say, “Love is not enough; what is required is Maitri. It is wider than love. It means fellowship not merely with human beings but with all living beings. It is not confined to human beings. Is not such Maitri necessary? What else can give to all living beings the same happiness which one seeks for one’s own self, to keep the mind impartial, open to all, with affection for every one and hatred for none?”
9. They all said “Yes.”
10. “The practice of these virtues must, however, be accompanied by Prajna, i.e., intelligence.
11. “Is not Prajna necessary?” The Parivrajakas gave no answer. To force them to answer his question, the Buddha went on to say that the qualities of a good man are: “do no evil, think nothing that is evil, get his livelihood in no evil way, and say nothing. that is evil or is likely to hurt anyone.” And they said, “Yes, so it is.”
12. “But is doing good deeds blindly to be welcomed?” asked the Buddha “I say, ‘no’. This is not enough,” said the Buddha to the Parivrajakas. “If it was enough,” said the Buddha to the Parivrajakas, “then a tiny babe could be proclaimed to be always doing good. For as yet the babe does not know what a body means, much less will it do evil with its body beyond kicking about; it does not know what speech is, much less will it say anything evil beyond crying; it does not know what thought is, beyond crying with delight; it does not know what livelihood is, much less will it get its living in an evil way, beyond sucking its mother.
13. “The Path of Virtue must, therefore, be subject to [the] test of Prajna, which is another name for understanding and intelligence.
14. “There is also another reason why Prajna-paramita is so important and so necessary. There must be Dana. But without Prajna, Dana may have a demoralizing effect. There must be Karuna. But without Prajna, Karuna may end in supporting evil. Every act of Paramita must be tested by Prajna Paramita, which is another name for wisdom.
15. “I premise that there must be knowledge and consciousness of what wrong conduct is, how it arises; similarly, there must also be knowledge and consciousness of what is right conduct and wrong conduct. Without such knowledge there cannot be real goodness, though the act may be good. That is why I say Prajna is a necessary virtue.”
16. The Buddha then concluded his sermon by addressing the following admonition to the Parivrajakas.
17. “You are likely to call my Dhamma pessimistic, because it calls the attention of mankind to the existence of suffering. I tell you such a view of my Dhamma would be wrong.
18. “No doubt my Dhamma recognises the existence of suffering, but forget not that it also lays equal stress on the removal of suffering.
19. “My Dhamma has in it both hope and purpose.
20. “Its purpose is to remove Avijja, by which I mean ignorance of the existence of suffering.
21. “There is hope in it because it shows the way to put an end to human suffering.
22. “Do you agree with this or not?” And the Parivrajakas said , “Yes, we do.”
§ 7. The Response of the Parivrajakas
1. The five Parivrajakas at once realised that this was really a new Dhamma. They were so struck by this new approach to the problems of life that they were unanimous in saying, “Never in the history of the world has any founder of religion taught that the recognition of human suffering was the real basis of religion.
2. “Never in the history of the world has any founder of religion taught that the removal of this misery is the real purpose of it!
3. “Never in the history of the world had a scheme of salvation been put forth, so simple in its nature; so free from supernatural and superhuman agency; so independent of, even so antagonistic to, the belief in a soul, to the belief in God and to the belief in life after death!
4. “Never in the history of the world had a scheme of religion been put forth which had nothing to do with revelation, and whose commands are born of the examination of the social needs of man and which are not the orders of a God !
5. “Never in the history of the world has salvation been conceived as the blessing of happiness to be attained by man in this life and on this earth, by righteousness born out of his own efforts!”
6. These were the sentiments which the Parivrajakas uttered after they had heard the Buddha’s Sermon on his new Dhamma.
7. They felt that in him they had found a reformer, full of the most earnest moral purpose and trained in all the intellectual culture of his time, who had the originality and the courage to put forth deliberately and with a knowledge of opposing views, the doctrine of a salvation to be found here, in this life, in inward change of heart to be brought about by the practice of self-culture and self-control.
8. Their reverence for him became so unbounded that they at once surrendered to him and requested him to accept them as his disciples.
9. The Buddha admitted them into his order by uttering the formula “Ehi Bhikkave” (come in Bhikkus). They were known as the Panchavargiya Bhikkus.
Book Two, Part III—Conversion of the High and the Holy
1. *Conversion of Yashas* — 2. *Conversion of the Kassyapas* — 3. *Conversion of Sariputta and Moggallana* — 4. *Conversion of Bimbisara* — 5. *Conversion of Anathapindika* — 6. *Conversion of Pasenjit* — 7. *Conversion of Jeevaka* — 8. *Conversion of Ratthapala*
§1. Conversion of Yashas
1. There lived in the town of Benares a nobleman’s son called Yashas. He was young in years and very attractive in appearance. He was beloved of his parents. He lived in abounding wealth. He had a big retinue and a large harem, and passed his time in nothing but dancing, drinking and carnal pleasures.
2. As time past [=passed], a feeling of disgust came over him. How could he escape from this orgy? Was there any better way of life than the way he was leading? Not knowing what to do, he decided to leave his father’s house.
3. One night he left his father’s house and was wandering about; He happened to wend his way towards Isipathana.
4. Feeling tired, he sat down; and as he was seated he said to himself in loud tones, ‘Where am I, what is the way? Alas! What distress; alas! What danger!’
5. This happened on the night of the same day on which the Blessed One preached his first sermon to the Panchavargiya Bhikkus at Isipathana. Just when Yashas was approaching Isipathana, the Blessed One, who was staying at Isipathana, having arisen at dawn, was walking up and down in the open. air. And the Blessed One saw Yashas, the noble youth coming from [Benares?] after giving utterance to his feelings.
6. And the Blessed One, having heard his cry of distress, said, “There is no distress, there is no danger. Come, I will show you the way,” and the Blessed Lord preached his gospel to Yashas.
7. And Yashas, when he heard it, became glad and joyful; and he put off his gilt slippers, and went and sat down near the Blessed One and respectedly saluted him.
8. Yashas, hearing the Buddha’s words, requested the Blessed One to take him as his disciple.
9. Then he bade him come, and asked him to be a Bhikku, to which Yashas agreed.
10. The parents of Yashas were in great distress on finding that their son had disappeared. The father started in search. Yashas’s father passed by the same spot where the Lord and Yashas in the Bhikku’s garb were seated, and in passing, he asked the Blessed One, “Pray, have you seen Yashas, my son?”
11. The Lord replied, “Come in, Sir, you will find your son.” He went in and sat near his son, but he knew him not.
12. The Lord explained to him how Yashas met him, and how on hearing him he became a Bhikku. The father then recognised his son and was happy his son had chosen the right path.
13. “My son, Yashas,” said the father, “your mother is absorbed in lamentations and grief. Return home and restore your mother to life.”
14. Then Yashas looked at the Blessed One, and the Blessed One said to Yashas’s father, “Is that your wish, that Yashas should return to the world and enjoy the pleasures of a worldly life as he did before?”
15. And Yasha’s father replied, “If Yashas, my son, finds it a gain to stay with you, let him stay.” Yashas preferred to remain a Bhikku.
16. Before departing Yashas’s father said, “May the Blessed One, O Lord, consent to take his meal at my home with the members of my family.”
17. The Blessed One, having donned his robes, took his alms bowl and went with Yashas to the house of his father.
18. When they arrived there, they met the mother and also the former wife of Yashas. After the meal, the Blessed One preached to the members of the family his doctrine. They became very happy and promised to take refuge in it.
19. Now there were four friends of Yashas belonging to the wealthy family [=families] of Benares. Their names were Vimala, Subahu, Punyajit ,and Gavampati.
20. When Yashas’s friends learned that Yashas had taken refuge in the Buddha and his Dhamma, they felt that what is [=was] good for Yashas must be good for them.
21. So they went to Yashas and asked him to approach the Buddha on their behalf, to receive them as his disciples.
22. Yashas agreed and he went to the Buddha, saying, “May the Blessed One preach the Dhamma to these four friends of mine.” The Lord agreed, and Yashas’s friends took refuge in the Dhamma.
§ 2. Conversion of the Kassyapas
1. There lived in Benaras a family known as the Kassyapa family. There were three sons in the family. They were very highly educated, and carried on a rigorous religious life.
2. After some time the eldest son thought of taking up Sannyasa. Accordingly he left his home, took Sannyasa, and went in the direction of Uruvella, where he established his Ashram.
3. His two younger brothers followed him, and they too became Sannyasis.
4. They were all Agnihotris, or worshippers of fire. They were called Jatilas because they kept [=wore] long hair.
5. The three brothers were known as Uruvella Kassyapa, Nadi Kassyapa (Kassyapa of the River, i.e., the Niranjana), and Gaya Kassyapa (of the village Gaya).
6. Of these the Uruvella Kassyapa had a following of five hundred Jatilas; Nadi Kassyapa had three hundred Jatilas as his disciples; and Gaya Kassyapa had two hundred Jatilas. Of these the chief was Uruvella Kassyapa.
7. The fame of Uruvella Kassyapa had spread far and wide. He was known to have obtained Mukti (Salvation) while alive. People from far-away places came to his Ashram, which was located on the banks of the river Falgu.
8. The Blessed Lord, having come to know of the name and fame of Uruvella Kassyapa, thought of preaching his gospel to him and if possible [seeking] to convert him to his Dhamma.
9. Having come to know of his whereabouts, the Blessed Lord went to Uruvella.
10. The Blessed One met him and, wanting to have an opportunity to instruct him and convert him, said, “If it is not disagreeable to you, Kassyapa, let me dwell one night in your Ashram.”
11. “I am not agreeable to this,” said Kassyapa. “There is a savage Naga king called Muchalinda who rules over this place. He is possessed of dreadful powers. He is the deadly enemy of all ascetics performing fire worship. He pays nocturnal visits to their Ashrams and does them great harm. I fear he may do you the same harm as he does to me.”
12. Kassyapa did not know that the Nagas had become the friends and followers of the Blessed One. But the Blessed One knew it.
13. So the Blessed One pressed for his request, saying, “He is not likely to do any harm to me; pray, Kassyapa, allow me a place in your fire room, for one night.”
14. Kassyapa continued to raise many difficulties, and the Blessed One continued to press his request.
15. Then Kassyapa said, “My mind desires no controversy, only I have my fears and apprehensions, but follow your own good pleasure.”
16. The Blessed Lord forthwith stepped into the fire grove and took his seat.
17. The Naga king Muchalinda came into the room at his usual time. But instead of finding Kassyapa, he found the Blessed One seated in his place.
18. Muchalinda, seeing the Lord seated, his face glowing with peace and serenity, felt as though he was in the presence of a great divinity, and bending his head, began to worship.
19. That night Kassyapa’s sleep was very much disturbed by the thought of what might have happened to his guest. So he got up with great misgivings, fearing that his guest might have been burnt up.
20. Then Kassyapa and his followers at morning light came, one and all, to have a look. Far from the Lord injured by Muchalinda, they found Muchalinda worshipping the Lord.
21. Beholding the scene, Kassyapa felt that he was witnessing a great miracle.
22. Struck by this miracle, Kassyapa requested the Blessed Lord to stay near him and make an Ashram, and promised to look after him.
23. The Blessed Lord agreed to stay on.
24. The two, however, had different motives. Kassyapa’s motive was to obtain protection against Muchalinda Naga. The Blessed Lord thought that one day Kassyapa will [=would] give him [an] opportunity to propound his gospel.
25. But Kassyapa showed no such inclination. He thought that the Blessed Lord was only a miracle maker and nothing more.
26. One day the Blessed Lord thought of himself taking the initiative, and asked Kassyapa, “Are you an Arhant?
27. “If you are not an Arhant, what good is this Agnihotra going to do to you?”
28. Kassyapa said, “I do not know what is to be an Arhant. Will you explain it to me?”
29. The Lord then told Kassyapa, “An Arhant is one who has conquered all the passions which disturb a man from pursuing the eight-fold Path. Agnihotra cannot cleanse a man of his sins.”
30. Kassyapa was a proud person. But he did feel the force of the Blessed Lord’s argument. Making his mind pliant and yielding, until at length prepared to be a vehicle of the true law, he confessed that his poor wisdom could not compare with the wisdom of the world-honoured One.
31. And so, convinced at last, humbly submitting, Uruvella Kassyapa accepted the doctrine of the Lord and became his follower.
32. Following their master, the followers of Kassyapa, virtuously submissive, in turn received the teaching of the law. Kassyapa and all his followers were thus entirely converted.
33. Uruvella Kassyapa then, lifting his goods and all his sacrificial vessels, threw them together into the river, which floated [them] down upon the surface of the current.
34. Nadi and Gaya, who dwelt down the stream, seeing these articles of clothing (and the rest) floating along the stream [all] disorderly, said, “These are the belongings of our brother; why has he thrown them away? Some great change has happened,” and [they] were deeply pained and restless. The two, each with five hundred followers, went up the stream to seek their brother.
35. On seeing him and all his followers now dressed as hermits, strange thoughts engaged their minds, and they inquired into the reasons. Uruvella Kassyapa told them the story of his conversion to the Buddha’s Dhamma.
36. “Our brother having submitted thus, we too should also follow him,” they said.
37. They conveyed their wishes to their eldest brother. Then the two brothers, with all their band of followers, were brought to hear the Lord’s discourse on the comparison of a fire sacrifice with his own gospel.
38. In his discourse to the two brothers the Blessed Lord said: “The dark smoke of ignorance arises, whilst confused thoughts, like wood drilled into wood, create the fire.
39. “Lust, anger, delusion, these are as fire produced, and these enflame and burn all other things which cause grief and sorrow in the world.
40. “If once this way is found, and lust, anger and delusion consumed, then with it is born sight, knowledge, and pure conduct.
41. “So when the heart of a man has once conceived distaste for sin, this distaste removes covetous desire; covetous desire extinguished, there is recluse [=refuge?].”
42. The great Rishis, listening to him, lost all regard for fire worship, and wished to be the disciples of the Buddha.
43. The conversion of the Kassyapas was a great triumph for the Blessed Lord. For they had a very strong hold on the imagination of the people.
§ 3. Conversion of Sariputta and Moggallana
1. While the Blessed Lord was in Rajagraha there resided [there] a well-known person, by name Sanjaya, with a great retinue of Parivrajakas numbering about two hundred and fifty as his disciples.
2. Among his disciples were Sariputta and Moggallana–two young Brahmins.
3. Sariputta and Moggallana were not satisfied with the teachings of Sanjaya, and were in search of something better.
4. Now one day the venerable Assaji, one of the Panchvargiya Bhikkus, in the forenoon, having put on his under-robes, and having taken his alms bowl and outer robe, entered the city of Rajagraha for alms.
5. Sariputta was observing the dignified deportment of Assaji, and was struck by it. On seeing the venerable Assaji, Sariputta thought, “Indeed this person is one of those monks who are the worthy ones in the world. What if I were to approach this monk and to ask him, ‘In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose Dhamma do you profess?’”
6. Now Sariputta thought, ” This is not the time to ask this monk; he has entered the inner yard of a house for alms. What if I were to follow this monk step by step, according to the course recognised by those who want something?”
7. And the venerable Assaji, having finished his alms pilgrimage through Rajagraha, went back with the food he had received. Then Sariputta went to the place where the venerable Assaji was; having approached him, he exchanged greetings; and with complaisant words, he stood at his side.
8. Standing at his side, the wandering ascetic Sariputta said to the venerable Assaji, “Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose Dhamma do you profess?”
9. Assaji replied, “There is, friend, the great recluse of the Sakya’s clan; in this Blessed One’s name have I retired from the world; this Blessed One is my teacher, and it is the Dhamma of this Blessed One that I follow.”
10. “And what, venerable Sir, is the doctrine which your teacher holds? And what does he preach to you?”
11. “I am only a young disciple, friend; I have but recently received ordination; and I have newly adopted this Dhamma and discipline. I cannot explain to you the Dhamma in detail; but I will tell you in short what it means.”
12. Then Sariputta, the wandering ascetic, said to the venerable Assaj, “So be it, friend, tell me as much or as little as you like, but tell me the meaning, I want just meaning. Why make so much of the letter?”
13. Then the venerable Assaji explained to Sariputta the substance of the teachings of the Buddha, and Sariputta was completely satisfied.
14. Sariputta and Moggallana, though not brothers, were bound together as hough they were brothers. They had given their word to each other: he who first attains the truth shall tell the same to the other one. That was their mutual engagement.
15. Accordingly Sariputta went to the place where Moggallana was. Seeing him, he said to Sariputta, “Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. Have you then really reached the truth?”
16. “Yes, friend, I have come to know the truth.” “And how, friend, have you done so?” Then Sariputta told him what happened between him and Assaji.
17. Then Moggallana said to Sariputta, “Let us go, friend, and join the Blessed One; that he, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.”
18. Sariputta replied: “It is on our account, friend, that these two hundred and fifty wandering Parivrajakas live here, and it is we whom they regard; let us first tell them before taking leave of them; they will do what they think fit.”
19. Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place where they were; having approached them, they said to them, “Friends, we are going to join the Blessed One; he, the Blessed One, is our teacher.”
20. They replied, “It is on your account. Sirs, that we live here, and it is you whom we regard; if you. Sirs, will lead the holy life under the great Samana, we all will do the same.”
21. Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place where Sanjaya was; having approached him, they said, “Friend, we go to join the Blessed One; he, the Blessed One, is our teacher.”
22. Sanjaya replied, “Nay, friends, do not go; we will all three look after this company.”
23. And a second and third time Sariputta and Moggallana said this. and Sanjaya answered as before.
24. Then Sariputta and Moggallana took with them two hundred and fifty wandering ascetics and went to the Veluvana in Rajagraha, where the Blessed One was staying.
25. And the Blessed One saw them–Sariputta and Moggallana, coming from afar; on seeing them he thus addressed the monks: “There, monks, arrive two companions,” pointing towards Sariputta and Moggallana; “these will be my chief pair of disciples, and [an] auspicious pair.”
26. When they had arrived at the bamboo grove, they went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, they prostrated themselves, with their heads at the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One, “Lord, let us receive ordination from the Blessed One.”
27. The Blessed One then uttered the usual formula indicating admission, “Ehi Bhikku” (Come, Monks), and Sariputta and Moggallana and the two hundred Jatilas became the disciples of the Buddha.
§ 4. Conversion of King Bimbisara
1. Rajagraha was the capital of Seniya Bimbisara, King of Magadha.
2. Having heard of the conversions of this large number of Jatilas, everyone in the city had begun to talk about the Blessed One.
3. Thus King Bimbisara came to know of his arrival in the city.
4. “To have converted the most orthodox and the most obstinate Jatilas was no mean task.” “Truly so,” said King Bimbisara to himself, “he must be the Blessed, holy, absolute Buddha, proficient in knowledge and conduct, the way-farer, who understands the world, the highest one who guides men, the teacher of gods and men. He must be teaching the truth, which he understood himself.
5. “He must be preaching that Dhamma which is lovely in the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the end, in the spirit and in the letter; he must be proclaiming the consummate perfect, pure, and holy life. It is good to obtain the sight of a man like him.”
6. So King Bimbisara, surrounded by twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmins and householders, went to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. And of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmins and householders, some also respectfully saluted the Blessed One and sat down near him; some exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and having done so they sat down near him with complaisant words; some bent their clasped hands towards the Blessed One and sat down near him; some made known their name and family name before the Blessed One and sat down near him; some sat down near him silently.
7. Now those twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmins and householders saw Uruvella Kassyapa among the monks who came with the Blessed Lord. They thought, “How now is this? Does the great Samana follow the holy life under Uruvella Kassyapa, or does Uruvella Kassyapa follow the holy life under the great Samana?”
8. And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the reflection which had arisen in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmins and householders, addressed the venerable Uruvella Kassyapa, “What has thou seen, O dweller of Uruvella, that thou who art called the great one has forsaken the fire worship? How is it thou has forsaken the fire sacrifice?”
9. Kassyapa replied, “It is sights and sounds, and also tastes, and women of sense-desire that the sacrifices promise; [it was] because I understood that these things are impure that I took no more delight in sacrifices and offerings.”
10. “But if you don’t mind, tell us what made you think so.”
11. Then the venerable Uruvella Kassyapa rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, prostrated himself, inclining his head to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One, “My teacher is the Blessed One, I. am his pupil.” Then those twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmins and householders understood, “Uruvella Kassyapa follows the holy life under the great Samana.”
12. And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind ‘the reflection that had arisen in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmins and householders, preached to them his Dhamma. Just as a clean cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, thus eleven myriads of those Magadha Brahmins and householders with Bimbisara at their head, while sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless dye of the Dhamma. One myriad announced their having become lay followers.
13. Then the Magadha king, Seniya Bimbisara, having witnessed the scene, having understood the Dhamma, having penetrated the Dhamma, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, said to the Blessed One, “In former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I entertained five aspirations; these are now fulfilled.
14. “In former days. Lord, to me when I was a prince, came this thought: ‘O that I might be inaugurated king!’ That was my first aspiration, Lord; that is now fulfilled. ‘And might then a holy one, a fully Enlightened One, come over into my kingdom!’ This was my second aspiration, Lord; that is now fulfilled. ‘And might I minister to that Blessed One!’ That was my third aspiration. Lord; that is now fulfilled.’ And might he, the Blessed One, preach the Dhamma to me!’ This was my fourth aspiration, Lord ; and that is now fulfilled. ‘And might I understand the Dhamma of that Blessed One!’ This was my fifth aspiration, Lord; this is now fulfilled. These were my five aspirations, Lord, which I entertained in former days when I was a prince.
15. “Wonderful, Lord! Wonderful, just as if one should set up what had been overturned, or should reveal what had been hidden, or should point out the way to one who had lost his way, or should bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those who had eyes might see things; thus has the Blessed One preached the Dhamma in many ways. I take refuge, Lord, in that Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkus (monks). May the Blessed One receive me from this day forth, while my life lasts, as a lay disciple who has taken refuge in him.”

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After having attamed enlightenment and after having formulated his way,
doubt arose in the mind of the Buddha. Should he go forth and preach
his doctrine, or should he continue to devote himself to his own
personal perfection?     2. He said to himself, “True, I have gained a
new doctri…

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§ 5. Conversion of Anathapindika
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§ 5. Conversion of Anathapindika
1. Sudatta was a resident of Shravasti, the capital of the kingdom of Kosala. It was ruled by King Pasenjit. Sudatta was treasurer of the king. From his bounties to the poor, Sudatta was known as Anathapindika.
2. When the Lord was at Rajagraha, Anathapindika happened to visit the place on some private business of his own. He was stopping with his sister, who was married to the guild master of Rajagraha.
3. When he arrived he found the guild master preparing a meal for the Lord and his monks, on so great a scale that he thought that a wedding was in progress or that the king had been invited.
4. On learning the truth, he became very eager to visit the Lord, and he set out in the very night to meet the Blessed One.
5. And the Blessed One saw at once the sterling quality of Anathapindika’s heart, and greeted him with words of comfort. After taking his seat, Anathapindika expressed a desire to hear a discourse on some religious subject.
6. The Blessed Lord, responding to his wishes ,raised the question, “Who is it that shapes our lives? Is it Ishavara, a personal creator? If Ishavara be the maker, all living things should have silently to submit to their maker’s power. They would be like vessels formed by the potter’s hand. If the world had been made by Ishavara, there should be no such thing as sorrow, or calamity, or sin; for both pure and impure deeds must come from him. If not, there would be another cause beside him, and he would not be the self-existent one. Thus, you see, the thought of Ishavara is overthrown.
7. “Again, it is said that the Absolute cannot be a cause. All things around us come from a cause, as the plant comes from the seed; how can the Absolute be the cause of all things alike? If it pervades them, then certainly it does not make them.
8. “Again, it is said that self is the maker. But if self is the maker, why did he not make things pleasing? The cases of sorrow and joy are real and objective. How can they have been made by self?
9. “Again, if you adopt the argument [that] there is no maker, or fate in [=is] such as it is, and there is no causation, what use would there be in shaping our lives, and adjusting means to an end?
10. “Therefore, we argue that all things that exist are not without cause. However, neither Ishavara, nor the Absolute, nor the self, nor causeless chance, is the maker, but our deeds produce results both good and evil.
11. “The whole world is under the law of causation, and the causes that act are not un-mental, for the gold of which the cup is made is gold throughout.
12. “Let us, then, surrender the heresies of worshipping Ishavara and praying to him; let us not lose ourselves in vain speculations of profitless subtleties; let us surrender self and all selfishness; and as all things are fixed by causation, let us practise good so that good may result from our actions.”
13. And Anathapindika said, “I see the truth of what the Blessed One has said, and I wish to open my whole mind. Having listened to my words, let the Lord advise me what I should do.
14. “My life is full of work; and having acquired great wealth, I am surrounded with cares. Yet do I enjoy my work, and I apply myself to it with all diligence. Many people are in my employ, and depend upon the success of my enterprises.
15. “Now, I have heard your disciples praise the bliss of the hermit and denounce the unrest of the world. ‘The Blessed One,’ they say, ‘has given up his kingdom and his inheritance, and has found the path of righteousness, thus setting an example to all the world how to attain Nirvana.’
16. “My heart yearns to do what is right, and to be a blessing unto my fellow-beings. Let me then ask you, must I give up my wealth, my home, and my business enterprises, and, like you, go into homelessness, in order to attain the bliss of a religious life?”
17. And the Blessed Lord replied, “The bliss of a religious life is attainable by everyone who walks in the noble eight-fold path. He that cleaves to wealth, had better cast it away than allow his heart to be poisoned by it; but he who does not cleave to wealth, and, possessing riches, uses them rightly, will be a blessing unto his fellow-beings.
18. “I say unto thee, remain in thy station of life, and apply thyself with diligence to thy enterprises. It is not life and wealth and power that enslave men, but the cleaving to life and wealth and power.
19. “The Bhikku who retires from the world in order to lead a life of leisure will have no gain. For a life of indolence is an abomination, and lack of energy is to be despised.
20. “The Dhamma of the Tathagata does not require a man to go into homelessness or to resign the world, unless he feels called upon to do so; what the Dhamma of the Tathagata requires is for every man to free himself from the illusion of self, to cleanse his heart, to give up his thirst for pleasure, and lead a life of righteousness.
21. “And whatever men do, whether they remain in the world as artisans, merchants, and officers of the king, or retire from the world and devote themselves to a life of religious meditation, let them put their whole heart into their task; let them be diligent and energetic; and, if they are like the lotus, which, though it grows in the water, yet remains untouched by the water, if they struggle in life without cherishing envy or hatred, if they live in the world a life not of self but a life of truth, then surely joy, peace, and bliss will dwell in their minds.”
22. Anathapindika perceived that this was the most excellent system of truth, simple and of wisdom born.
23. Thus firmly settled in the true doctrine, he slowly bent in worship at the feet of the Blessed One, and with closed hands made his request.
§ 6. Conversion of King Pasenjit
1. Then King Pasenjit, hearing that the Lord had come, went in his royal equipage to the Jetavana Vihara. Saluting him with clasped hands, he said:
2. “Blessed is my unworthy and obscure kingdom, that it has met with so great a fortune. For how can calamities and dangers befall it in the presence of Lord of the World, the Dharma Raja, the King of Truth?
3. “Now that I have seen your sacred features, let me partake of the refreshing waters of your teachings.
4. “Worldly profit is fleeting and perishable, but religious profit is eternal and inexhaustible. A worldly man, though a king, is full of trouble, but even a common man who is holy has peace of mind.”
5. Knowing the tendency of the king’s heart, weighed down by avarice and love of pleasure, the Blessed One seized the opportunity and said:
6. “Even those who, have been born in low degree, when they see a virtuous man feel reverence for him, how much more must an independent king, who by his previous conditions of life has acquired much merit, feel?
7. “And now as I briefly expound the law, let the Maharaja listen and weigh my words, and hold fast to what I say.
8. “Our good or evil deeds follow us continually like shadows.
9. “That which is most needed is a loving heart!
10. “Regard your people as we do an only son. Do not oppress them, do not destroy them; keep in due check every member of your body, forsake unrighteous doctrines, and walk in the straight path; do not exalt yourself by trampling down others. Give comfort and befriend the sufferer.
11. “Neither ponder much on kingly dignity, nor listen to the smooth words of flatterers.
12. “There is no profit in vexing oneself by austerities, but meditate on Dhamma and weigh the righteous law.
13. “We are enclosed on all sides by the rocks of sorrow and ill, and only by considering the true law can we escape from this sorrow-filled mountain.
14, “What profit, then, in practising inequity?
15. “All who are wise spurn the pleasures of the body. They loathe lust and seek to promote their spiritual existence.
16. “When a tree is burning with fierce flames, how can the birds congregate therein? Truth cannot dwell where passion lives. Without a knowledge of this, the learned man, though he may be praised as a sage, is ignorant.
17. “On him who has this knowledge true wisdom dawns. To acquire this wisdom is the one aim needed. To neglect it implies the failure of life.
18. “The teachings of all schools should centre here, for without it there is no reason.
19. “This truth is not for the hermit alon ; it concerns every human being, priest and layman alike. There is no distinction between the monk who has taken the vows, and the man of the world living with his family. There are hermits who fall into perdition, and there are humble householders who mount to the rank of rishis.
20. “The tide of lust is a danger common to all; it carries away the world. He who is involved in its eddies finds no escape. But wisdom is the handy boat, reflection is the rudder. The slogan of religion calls you to the rescue of your self from the assaults of Mara, the enemy.
21. “Since it is impossible to escape the result of our deeds, let us practise good works.
22. “Let us inspect our thoughts [so] that we do no evil, for as we sow so shall we reap.
23. “There are ways from light into darkness, and from darkness into light. There are ways, also, from gloom into deeper darkness, and from the dawn into brighter light. The wise man will use the light as he has to receive more light. He will constantly advance to the knowledge of the truth.
24. “Exhibit true superiority by virtuous conduct and the exercise of reason; meditate deeply on the vanity of earthly things, and understand the fickleness of life.
25. “Elevate the mind, and seek sincere faith with firm purpose; transgress not the rules of kingly conduct, and let your happiness depend not upon external things, but upon your own mind. Thus you will lay up a good name for distant ages.
26. The king listened with reverence, and remembered all the words of the Blessed One in his heart, and promised to become his lay disciple.
§ 7. Conversion of Jeevaka
1. Jeevaka was the son of Salvati, a courtesan of Rajagraha.
2. Immediately after birth the child, being illegitimate, was placed in a basket and thrown on a dust-heap.
3. A large number of people were standing by the dust-heap watching the child. Abhaya, the Raja-kumara, happened to pass by the site. He questioned the people, who said, “It is alive.”
4. For this reason the child was called Jeevaka. Abhaya adopted him and brought him up.
5. When Jeevaka grew in age, he learned how he was saved, and was charged with the intense desire to qualify himself to save others.
6. He therefore went to the University of Takashila without the knowledge and permission of Abhaya, and studied medicine for seven years.
7. Returning to Rajagraha, he set up his practice as a doctor, and within a very short time acquired a great name and fame in the profession.
8. His first patient was the wife of a sethi of Saketa, and for curing her he received sixteen thousand kahapanas, a man-servant, a maid-servant, and a coach with a horse.
9. Knowing his eminence, Abhaya gave him residence in his own establishment.
10. At Rajagraha he cured Bimbisara of a troublesome fistula, and is said to have received as reward all the ornaments of Bimbisara’s five hundred wives.
11. Other noteworthy cures of Jeevaka included that of the sethi of Rajagraha, on whom he performed the operation of trepanning; and of the son of the sethi of Benares, who was suffering from chronic intestinal trouble due to misplacement.
12. Jeevaka was appointed physician to the king and the king’s women.
13. But Jeevaka was greatly attached to the Blessed Lord. Consequently he also acted as a physician to him and the Sangh.
14. He became a disciple of the Lord. The Blessed Lord did not make him a Bhikku, as he wanted him to remain free to tend to the sick and the wounded.
15. When Bimbisara died, Jeevaka continued to serve his son Ajatsatru, and was mainly instrumental in bringing him to the Lord after his crime of parricide.
§ 8. The Conversion of Ratthapala
1. Once when the Lord was on an alms pilgrimage in the Kuru country with a great company of almsmen, he stayed at Thullakotthita, which was a township of the Kurus.
2. They came to know of it, and went to him to pay their respects.
3. When they were seated, the Lord instructed them with a discourse on the Doctrine. Having received their instruction from the Lord, the Brahmin heads of houses of Thullakotthita gratefully thanked him, rose up, and departed with deep obeisance.
4. Seated among them was a young man named Ratthapala, a scion of a leading family of the place, to whom this thought came, “So far as I understand the Doctrine which the Lord has preached, [it] is no easy matter for one who lives in a home to lead the higher life in all its fullness, purity, and perfection.
5. “What if I were to cut off hair and beard, don the yellow robes, and go forth from home to homelessness as a pilgrim!”
6. When the Brahmins had not been gone long, then Ratthapala came up and, after salutations, told the Lord the thought which had come to him, and asked to be admitted to, and confirmed in, the confraternity under him.
7. “Have you your parents’ consent to this step, Ratthapala?’ asked the Lord.
8. “No, Sir.”
9. “I do not admit those who have not their parents’ consent.”
10. “That consent. Sir, I will take steps to obtain,” said the young man; who, rising up and taking a reverential leave of the Lord, went off to his parents, told them his thoughts, and asked their consent to his becoming a Bhikku.
11. The parents made answer as follows, “Dear Ratthapala, you are our only son, very dear to us and beloved; you live in comfort and have been brought up in comfort, with no experience at all of discomfort. Go away; eat, drink, enjoy yourself, and do good works in all happiness. We refuse our consent.
12. “Your death would leave us desolate, with no pleasure left in life; why, while we have you still, should we consent to your going forth from home to homelessness as a Bhikku?”
13. A second and yet a third time did Ratthapala repeat his request, only to be met by the same refusal from his parents.
14. Failing thus to get his parents’ consent, the young man flung himself down on the bare ground, declaring that he would either die there or become a Bhikku.
15. His parents entreated him to get up, while repeating their objections to his becoming a Bhikku, but the young man said not a word. A second and a third time they entreated him, but still he said not a word.
16. So the parents sought out Ratthapala’s companions, to whom they told all this and besought them to urge, as from themselves, what his parents had said to him.
17. Thrice his companions appealed to him, but still he said not a word. So his companions came to the parents with this report, “There on the bare ground he lies, declaring that he will either die there or become a Bhikku. If you refuse your consent, he will never get up alive. But if you give your consent, you will see him when he has become a Bhikku. Should he not like being a Bhikku, what alternative will he have! Why, only to come back here. Do give your consent!” they urged.
18. “Yes, we consent; but when he is a Bhikku, he must come and see us.”
19. Off now went his companions to Ratthapala, and they told him that his parents had given their consent, but that when he was a Bhikku he was to come and see them.
20. Thereupon the young man arose and, when he had regained his strength, betook himself to the Lord, and after salutations, seated himself on one side, saying, “I have got my parents’ consent to my becoming a Bhikku; I ask the Lord to admit me.”
21. Admission and confirmation were granted him under the Lord; and a fortnight afterwards the Lord, having stayed at Thullakotthita as long as he wanted, proceeded on his alms pilgrimage towards Sravasti, where he took up his abode in Jeta’s grove in Anathapindika’s pleasance.
22. Dwelling alone and aloof, strenuous, ardent ,and purged of self, the reverend Ratthapala was not [there] long before he won the prize in quest of which young men go forth from home to homelessness as Bhikkus, that prize of prizes which crowns the highest life.
23. Then he went to the Lord and, seated on one side after salutations, said that with the Lord’s permission, he wished to go and see his parents.
24. Scanning with his own heart the thoughts of Ratthapala’s heart, and recognizing thereby that he was incapable of abandoning his training and reverting to the lower life of a layman, the Lord bade him go when he would.
25. Hereupon, rising up and taking his leave of the Lord with deep reverence, Ratthapala, after duly putting away his bedding, set out, with his robe and bowl, on an alms pilgrimage to Thullakotthita, where he took up his abode in the deer-park of the Kuru king.
26. Early next morning, duly robed and bowl in hand, he went into the town for alms, and there as he passed from house to house on his undiscriminating round, he came to his father’s house.
27. Indoors, in the hall within the middle door, his father was having his hair combed and, seeing Ratthapala coming in the distance, he said, “It was these shavelings of recluses who made Bhikku of my only dear and beloved son.”
28. So at his own father’s house Ratthapala was given nothing, not even a refusal; all he got was abuse.
29. At this moment a slave-girl of the family was about to throw away the previous day’s stale rice; and to her Ratthapala said, “If, sister, that is to be thrown away, put it in my bowl here.”
30. As the girl was doing so, she recognised his hands and feet and voice, and going straight to her mistress, cried out, “Do you know, madam, the young master is back.”
31. “If what you say is true, you are a slave no longer,” said the mother, who hurried off to tell her husband that she heard their son was back.
32. Ratthapala was eating that stale rice under the hedge when his father arrived, exclaiming; “Can it be, my dear son, that you are eating stale rice? Should you not have come to your own house?”
33. Said Ratthapala, “What house of our own, householder, can we have who are homeless, having gone forth from home to homelessness? I did come to your house, where I was given nothing, not even a refusal; all I got was abuse.”
34. “Come, my son; let us go indoors.” “Not so, householder; I have finished my eating for today” said Ratthapala.
35. “Well then, my son, promise to take your meal here tomorrow.”
36. By his silence the reverend Ratthapala gave consent.
37. Then the father went indoors,–where first he ordered great heaps of gold and bullion to be piled up under a covering of mats, and then he told his daughters-in-law, who had been the reverend Ratthapala’s wives aforetime, to deck themselves out in all the finery their husband liked to see them in.
38. When night had passed, the father, having ordered an excellent meal to be got ready in his house, told his son when it was ready. Early that forenoon, the reverend Ratthapala, duly robed and bowl in hand, came and took the seat set for him.
39. Hereupon, ordering the heap of treasure to be unveiled, the father said, “This is your mother’s fortune, that is your father’s, and that came from your grand-father. You have the wherewithal both to enjoy yourself and to do good works.
40. “Come, my son, abandon your training; revert to the lower life of the layman; enjoy your substance and do good works.”
41. “If you will take my advice, householder, you will cart away all this heaped-up treasure and sink it in the middle of the Ganges. And why? Because thence you will only derive sorrow and lamentation, ills, pain of mind, pain of body, and tribulation.”
42. Clinging to his feet, the reverend Ratthapala’s whilom [=former] wives asked, like what were the nymphs divine for whose sake he was leading the higher life?
43. “For the sake of no nymphs at all, sisters,” said he.
44. At hearing themselves called sisters, the ladies all fainted and fell to the ground.
45. Said Ratthapala to his father, “If food is to be given, householder, give it; trouble me not.”
46. “The food is ready, my son; begin,” said the father, as he served that excellent meal without stint till his son had his fill.
47. After taking food he departed to the deer-park of the Kuru king, where he sat down under a tree during the noontide heat.
48. Now the king had given directions to his huntsman to tidy up the park against his coming to see it; and the obedient huntsman was engaged on his task when he saw Ratthapala seated under a tree during the noontide heat, and reported to the king that the park was in. order but that under a tree there was seated Ratthapala, the young gentleman of whom His Majesty had often heard tell.
49. “Never mind about the park today,” said the king; “I will pay a call on His Reverence.” Ordering, therefore, all the repast which had been prepared to be made ready, he mounted a chariot and drove forth in procession, in royal state, out of the city to see Ratthapala.
50. Riding as far as the ground was passable for his chariot, and proceeding thence on foot with his princely train, the king came at last upon the reverend Ratthapala, whom, after exchange of courteous greetings, the king–still standing–invited to be seated on a clump of flowers.
51. “Nay, sire; sit you there, I have got a seat.”
52. Seating himself on the seat indicated to him, the king said, “There are four kinds of losses, Ratthapala, which impel men to cut off hair and beard, don the yellow robes, and go forth from home to homelessness–namely, (i) old age, (ii) failing health, (iii) impoverishment, and (iv) death of kinsfolk.
53. “Take a man who, being aged and old, far advanced in life, stricken in years, and at the close of life, recognises his position, and realises the difficulty either of acquiring new wealth or of doing well with what he has got; so he decides to take to homelessness. This is known as the loss which old age entails. But here are you in the prime of youth and early manhood, with a wealth of coal-black hair untouched by grey, and in all the beauty of your prime;–not yours is the loss old age entails. What have you known or seen or heard, to make you take to homelessness?
54. “Or take a