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1438 LESSON 8315 SUNDAY FREE ONLINE E-Nālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bangalore-560009 Tel: 080-22250684, Fax: 080-41148440 Email: info@mahabodhi.info, www.mahabodhi.info We cordially request the pleasure of your, your family, your friends’ participation in the DHAMMAPADA FESTIVAL In memory of 94th Birthday of Venerable Dr.Acharya Buddharakkhita Bhanteji Founder of Mahabodhi Organizations 28-2-2015 to 8-3-2015 Please render correct translation in your mother tongue and all other langages you know for this Google translation practice and become a stream enterer (Sotapanna) to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
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1438 LESSON 8315 SUNDAY


FREE ONLINE E-Nālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY


Maha Bodhi Society


14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bangalore-560009

Tel: 080-22250684, Fax: 080-41148440

Email: info@mahabodhi.info, www.mahabodhi.info

 

We  cordially request the pleasure of your, your family, your friends’ participation in the



 

DHAMMAPADA FESTIVAL

In memory of

94th Birthday of

Venerable Dr.Acharya Buddharakkhita Bhanteji

Founder of Mahabodhi Organizations

 

28-2-2015 to 8-3-2015



 Please
render correct translation in your mother tongue and all other langages
you know for this Google translation practice and become  a stream
enterer (Sotapanna) to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

cid:image006.jpg@01D05106.03A34630

 

HIGHLIGHTS

·                Inauguration of Mahabodhi Buddha Vihara Secunderabad Branch

·                Nightlong Chanting of Paritta in Secunderabad and Bengaluru

·                Inauguration of  SMARANALOKA – Museum dedicated to Ven.Dr.Acharya Buddharakkhita

·                Inauguration of Mahabodhi Research Centre Library - SANGĀYANA

·                Inauguration of BUDDHIST SHOWROOM – for Buddhist books and souvenirs

·                Seminar on Buddhist Historical Sites in South India

·                Commencement of Classes of Mahabodhi Centre for Theravada Buddhist Studies

·                Release of Publications and audio CD


 PROGRAMS



 

8-3-2015 Sunday 9:30 AM

Buddha Vandana and Dhamma Discourse by the Venerable Monks

 

11 AM

Sanghadana

 

1- 1:30 PM

Documentary on Ven.Acharya Buddharakkhita

 

1:30 to 2:00 PM

MBCTBS Inaugural Lecture on Pali Language and Literature

By Prof.J.Sreenivasa Murthy, Prof. Of Sanskrit, MES College, Bengaluru

 

2:00 PM – 5 PM

 

SEMINAR ON

BUDDHIST HISTORICAL SITES IN SOUTH INDIA

Andhra buddha

 

 

Speakers

Shri A.Sundar

Senior Archaeologist, Sringeri

Subject: Buddhist Art and Architecture in Karnataka

 

Prof. S.Nagaraju

Former professor of Central University Hyderabad and

Tagore National Fellow ASI, Bengaluru

Subject: Buddhist Sites in Andhra

 

Dr.Satyabhama Badarinath

Regional Director, ASI, Bengaluru

Subject: Buddhist Sites in Tamilnadu

 

Dr.H.S.Gopala Rao

Senior Historian, Bengaluru

Subject: Buddhist Epigraphy in Karnataka

 

Presided by

Venerable Kassapa Thera

President, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

 

6:30 PM

Bodhi Puja – Dipa Puja

About +ve INSIGHT MEDITATION Cycling Marathon

+ve INSIGHT MEDITATION Cycling Marathon. Its time to race against time and distance with more smiles every mile. +ve INSIGHT MEDITATION is looking at bringing cyclists from all age groups to support the cause of cycling and making Bengaluru a peaceful city. Apart from cycling, there will be a wide range of activities in connection with +ve INSIGHT MEDITATION.

SO THAT

MAY ALL SENTIENT AND NON-SENTIENT BEINGS BE EVER HAPPY WELL AND SECURE !

MAY ALL HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT, ATTENTIVE AND EQUANIMITY MIND !

WITH A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERYTHING IS CHANGING !

Mark your calendar and come to support the cyclists.

EVENT INFO

Kids Ride - 2 km ( No registration required )
A category exclusively for all the tiny tots who are into cycling. Bring them all out to the stadium and watch them race on their bikes. Does not matter how fast or slow you are, everyone is a winner in this.

Fashion Ride - 5 km
Dress up, decorate your bicycle and join in on all the excitement with the Fun Ride! Let us see who comes out a winner in this category.
Eligibility:
> 8 yrs of age

Registration Fee:
INR 500

Green Ride - 20 km
Bring the spirit of Bengaluru onto the streets and swalpa pedal maadi for a peaceful, cleaner and greener environment. Dress up your bikes and promote the message of ‘Saving our environment’
Eligibility:
>14 years of age

Registration Fee:
INR 600

Tourism Ride - PEDAL to VISIT BUDDHIST HISTORICAL SITES
MAHABODHI KARUNA AROGYA SEVA KENDRA
Dr.M.H.Marigowda Road, Siddapura, Bengaluru

Mahabodhi Dhammaduta Vihara, Narasipura Vill, Bengaluru North

Budh Vihar, Gulbarga

Namdroling Nyingmapa Monastery
Nagarjuna Konda

Amaravati
Chandavaram

Anupa

Thotlakonda

Bavikonda

Bhattiprolu

Sankaram

Lingalametta

Undawalli Caves

Ghantasala

Gudiwada

Salihundam

Nelakondapalle

Dantapuram

Pavuralakonda

Phanigiri

Gopalapatnam

Bojjannakonda

Vizianagaram

Kanchipuram

Pallavanesvaram

Nākappaṭṭinam

Pallur Buddha Temple
Onampakkam Buddha Clay idol
Kakkayanthoppu Buddha Temple
Buddha images in Ekambaranathar Temple
Buddha statues in Kanchipuram Karukkinil Amarnthal Temple
Buddha images in Kachapeswarar Temple
Buddha statue in Kanchipuram School

FOR
Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 4/4- 7;33 mins
NOW is all that we have ! Upasakas and Upasikas may  WALK, RUN,SWIM, PEDAL
TO
CONVERT ALL THEIR HOMES INTO 

+VE
INSIGHT MEDITATION CENTRES !
SO THAT

MAY ALL SENTIENT AND NON-SENTIENT BEINGS BE EVER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE ! 
MAY ALL HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT, ATTENTIVE AND EQUANIMITY MIND !
WITH A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERY THING IS CHANGING!

 To participate, please get in touch with FREE ONLINE E-Nālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY at http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org or write to them at chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com
9449260443

Eligibility:
Open for elite cyclists practicing  +ve INSIGHT MEDITATION.

Registration Fee:
As per the rules of +ve INSIGHT MEDITATION.

Prize details :
Tourism  Riders -
Cash prizes worth INR 10 lakh for the top 20 finishers
Medals and E-certificate to all the riders


Tánlín’s brief biography of the “Dharma Master” is found in his preface to the Two Entrances and Four Acts, a text traditionally attributed to Bodhidharma, and the first text to identify Bodhidharma as South Indian:


The Dharma Master was a South Indian of the Western Region. He was the
third son of a great Indian king. His ambition lay in the Mahayana
path, and so he put aside his white layman’s robe for the black robe of
a monk […] Lamenting the decline of the true teaching in the
outlands, he subsequently crossed distant mountains and seas, traveling
about propagating the teaching in Han and Wei.


Bodhidharma attracted disciples,specifically mentioning Dàoyù (道育) and Huìkě
(慧可), the latter of whom would later figure very prominently in the
Bodhidharma literature. Although Tánlín has traditionally been
considered a disciple of Bodhidharma, it is more likely that he was a
student of Huìkě.


Bodhidharma

BodhidharmaYoshitoshi1887.jpg

Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887.

Luoyang




Blue-eyed Central Asian monk teaching East-Asian monk. A fresco from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, dated to the 9th or 10th century.
 



A Dehua ware porcelain statuette of Bodhidharma, from the late Ming Dynasty

This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768)

Sculpture of Bodhidharma



Huike offering his arm to Bodhidharma. Ink painting by Sesshū

Buddha Vihar

 
Gulbarga


Budha Vihar Gulbarga illuminated



 

Budh Vihar, Gulbarga : Visiting timings 



8AM to 12pm(Noon)



5PM to 10PM (Evening)


Gulbarga
is all set to emerge as a major Buddhist pilgrim centre in South India.
The Buddha Vihar of Siddarth Vihar Trust was formally inaugurated by
the President of India and the Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of
Tibet.


Located
six kilometres away from Gulbarga, adjacent to the Gulbarga University
campus, the Buddha Vihar complex has been constructed in conformity with
traditional Buddhist architecture. The imposing domed structure on
elevated ground reminds one of the Taj Mahal.
But there are basic differences between the two. While the Taj is a
white marble wonder, the Vihar’s dome is an RCC structure covered with
Italian white marble chips. The Vihar blends the best of the
architectural features of Buddhist centres of Sanchi, Saranath, Ajanta
and Nagpur.


The
construction of the Vihar, originally a small one, began in 2002. The
Trust changed the blueprint to make it a huge complex making it one the
best Vihars in the South.


Spread
across 18 acres, it can be divided into the main building which has a
meditation centre at the cellar and a Lord Buddha chaitya (temple in
Pali) on the ground floor. The dome is 70 ft in height and 59 ft in
diameter.


Besides,
it has 48-ft tall four Ashoka pillars in the corners of the main
building. It has an attractive Sankalpa stupa, 26 ft in length and 30 ft
in diameter.


The
other attractions are 100×100 ft open-air theatre with a 2,500-seat
capacity, four large Mahadwaras (arches) known as Sanchi gates and a
group of 11 cement statues led by a bronze statue of Dr B R Ambedkar
indicating the Dhamma Kranti Yatra of 1956. Another feature is the
U-shaped Dhamma complex housing a dormitory, a library, study centre,
kitchen, dining hall, conference hall, exhibition hall and guest rooms.
The Dhyana Mandir (meditation hall) in the main complex draws attention.
It has a 6.5 ft tall black granite Buddha statue made in Bidadi by
famous sculptor Ashok Gudigar. It is bliss to see the smiling face of
Buddha while listening to the chanting of the mantra “Buddham Sharanam
Gacchami” (I take refuge in the supreme knowledge).


The
prayer hall is 15,625 sq ft with 170 pillars and 284 blocks. Each block
has a carving representing the architecture of Buddha temples of
Ajanta, Ellora, Nagpur, Bodh Gaya, Saranath, Rajgir, Lumbini, Kusinara,
Thailand, Singapur, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Japan and Rome. The marbled floor
of the hall has a seating capacity of 1500. There are 28 huge
ventilators named after Buddhas of various eras.


The
main attraction in the complex is a gold coated 8.5 ft tall panchaloha
statue of the seated Buddha. This is supposed to be the tallest Buddha
statue in the South. Imported from Thailand, it was consecrated in
September last year. Statues of Buddha’s disciples Ananda and Kashyapara
are also part of the complex. The hall has a seating capacity of 500.
The walls have cement carvings depicting the jataka tales, Tipitaka and
Buddha charite.


There
are three huge arch-shaped entrances to the basement and the ground
floors. In the corridors of the ground floor there are cement statues of
Buddha. The entrance door is made of rosewood. The dome is 75 ft from
the ground and has a 10-ft-tall panchaloha kalasha.
The white arch is in the shape of a peepal leaf (Bodhi tree) which
symbolizes enlightenment. A beautiful landscaped garden stretches from
the Mahadwara to the temple.


The
Ashoka pillars in the four corners are symbols of four noble truths or
Arya Satya – suffering; attachment, which is the origin of suffering;
cessation of suffering and path to the cessation of suffering.

Please watch:

http://www.neok12.com/video/History-of-India/zX0a76580042437d05760e45.htm

FOR

Buddha and Ashoka 12:16 mins

http://www.neok12.com/video/History-of-India/zX0460595f5a77554f025c45.htm

For Ashoka the Great 3:00 mins

Buddhist Art and Architecture in Karnataka

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/budd/hd_budd.htm

FOR

Buddhism and Buddhist Art











  • The fifth and fourth centuries B.C. were a
    time of worldwide intellectual ferment. It was an age of great thinkers,
    such as Socrates and Plato, Confucius and Laozi. In India, it was the age of the Buddha, after whose death a religion developed that eventually spread far beyond its homeland.


    The Gupta period, from the fourth to the sixth century A.D., in northern India, sometimes referred to as a Golden Age, witnessed the creation of an “ideal image” of the Buddha.

    Siddhartha, the prince who was to become the Buddha, was born into
    the royal family of Kapilavastu, a small kingdom in the Himalayan
    foothills. His was a divine conception and miraculous birth, at which
    sages predicted that he would become a universal conqueror, either of
    the physical world or of men’s minds. It was the latter conquest that
    came to pass. Giving up the pleasures of the palace to seek the true
    purpose of life, Siddhartha first tried the path of severe asceticism,
    only to abandon it after six years as a futile exercise. He then sat
    down in yogic meditation beneath a banyan tree until he achieved
    enlightenment. He was known henceforth as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.”

    His is the Middle Path, rejecting both luxury and asceticism. Buddhism
    proposes a life of good thoughts, good intentions, and straight living,
    all with the ultimate aim of achieving nirvana, release from earthly
    existence. For most beings, nirvana lies in the distant future, because
    Buddhism, like other faiths of India, believes in a cycle of rebirth.
    Humans are born many times on earth, each time with the opportunity to
    perfect themselves further. And it is their own karma-the sum total of
    deeds, good and bad-that determines the circumstances of a future birth.
    The Buddha spent the remaining forty years of his life preaching his
    faith and making vast numbers of converts. When he died, his body was
    cremated, as was customary in India.

    The cremated relics of the Buddha were divided into several portions and
    placed in relic caskets that were interred within large hemispherical
    mounds known as stupas. Such stupas constitute the central monument of
    Buddhist monastic complexes. They attract pilgrims from far and wide who
    come to experience the unseen presence of the Buddha. Stupas are
    enclosed by a railing that provides a path for ritual circumambulation.
    The sacred area is entered through gateways at the four cardinal points.

    In the first century B.C.,
    India’s artists, who had worked in the perishable media of brick, wood,
    thatch, and bamboo, adopted stone on a very wide scale. Stone railings
    and gateways, covered with relief sculptures, were added to stupas.
    Favorite themes were events from the historic life of the Buddha, as
    well as from his previous lives, which were believed to number 550. The
    latter tales are called jatakas and often include popular legends adapted to Buddhist teachings.

    In the earliest Buddhist art of India, the Buddha was not represented in
    human form. His presence was indicated instead by a sign, such as a
    pair of footprints, an empty seat, or an empty space beneath a parasol.

    In the first century A.D.,
    the human image of one Buddha came to dominate the artistic scene, and
    one of the first sites at which this occurred was along India’s
    northwestern frontier. In the area known as Gandhara, artistic elements from the Hellenistic world
    combined with the symbolism needed to express Indian Buddhism to create
    a unique style. Youthful Buddhas with hair arranged in wavy curls
    resemble Roman statues of Apollo; the monastic robe covering both
    shoulders if arranged in heavy classical folds, reminiscent of a Roman
    toga. There are also many representations of Siddhartha as a princely
    bejeweled figure prior to his renunciation of palace life. Buddhism
    evolved the concept of a Buddha of the Future, Maitreya, depicted in art
    both as a Buddha clad in a monastic robe and as a princely bodhisattva
    before enlightenment. Gandharan artists made use of both stone and
    stucco to produce such images, which were placed in nichelike shrines
    around the stupa of a monastery. Contemporaneously, the Kushan-period artists in Mathura, India, produced a different image of the Buddha. His body was expanded by sacred breath (prana), and his clinging monastic robe was draped to leave the right shoulder bare.

    A third influential Buddha type evolved in Andhra Pradesh, in southern
    India, where images of substantial proportions, with serious, unsmiling
    faces, were clad in robes that created a heavy swag at the hem and
    revealed the left shoulder. These southern sites provided artistic
    inspiration for the Buddhist land of Sri Lanka, off the southern tip of
    India, and Sri Lankan monks regularly visited the area. A number of
    statues in this style have been found as well throughout Southeast Asia.

    The succeeding Gupta period, from the fourth to the sixth century A.D.,
    in northern India, sometimes referred to as a Golden Age, witnessed the
    creation of an “ideal image” of the Buddha. This was achieved by
    combining selected traits from the Gandharan region with the sensuous
    form created by Mathura artists. Gupta Buddhas have their hair arranged
    in tiny individual curls, and the robes have a network of strings to
    suggest drapery folds (as at Mathura) or are transparent sheaths (as at
    Sarnath). With their downward glance and spiritual aura, Gupta Buddhas
    became the model for future generations of artists, whether in
    post-Gupta and Pala India or in Nepal, Thailand, and Indonesia. Gupta metal images of the Buddha were also take by pilgrims along the Silk Road to China.

    Over the following centuries there emerged a new form of Buddhism, which
    involved an expanding pantheon and more elaborate rituals. This later
    Buddhism introduced the concept of heavenly bodhisattvas as well as
    goddesses, of whom the most popular was Tara. In Nepal and Tibet,
    where exquisite metal images and paintings were produced, an entire set
    of new divinities were created and portrayed in both sculpture and
    painted scrolls. Ferocious deities were introduced in the role of
    protectors of Buddhism and its believers. Images of a more esoteric nature,
    depicting god and goddess in embrace, were produced to demonstrate the
    metaphysical concept that salvation resulted from the union of wisdom
    (female) and compassion (male). Buddhism had traveled a long way from
    its simple beginnings.

    Vidya Dehejia
    Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University


    Namdroling Nyingmapa Monastery

    Photo of Namdroling Nyingmapa Monastery
    Photo of Namdroling Nyingmapa Monastery

    Photo of Namdroling Nyingmapa MonasteryBuddhist Sites in Andhra

    Nagarjunakonda

    Nagarjuna Konda
    Buddhist site 3rd century AD.jpg
    Location Macherla Mandal, Guntur district
    Built 225 AD - 325 AD
    Governing body Archeological Survey of India
    Nagarjunakonda (meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical Buddhist town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district,Andhra Pradesh, India. It is 180 km west side of the state capital, Vijayawada.
    It is one of India’s richest Buddhist sites, known in the ancient times
    as Sri Parvata. It now lies almost entirely under the Nagarjunasagar
    Dam. It is named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism
    who lived in the 2nd century AD, who is believed to have been
    responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. The site was once the
    location of many Buddhist universities and monasteries, attracting
    students from as far as China, Gandhara, Bengal and Sri Lanka.
    The Buddhist archaeological sites there were submerged, and had to
    later be dug up and transferred to higher land on the hill, which had
    become an island.


    History


    The settlement of Nagarjunakonda (also Nāgārjunikoṇḍa) was the capital of the Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the eastern Deccan. It is believed that Sadvaha authorised the first monastic construction there during his reign.












    During the early centuries AD, the site housed more than 30 Buddhist viharas;
    excavations have yielded art works and inscriptions of great
    significance for the scholarly study of the history of this early
    period.[3] Nagarjuna was the exponent of the philosophy of sunyata (void). At the time, Buddhism often spread to Sri Lanka and Burma after using the area and the bustling Bay of Bengal ports of the Andhra to re-stock for the impending journey. Archaeological inscriptions at the site show that Sri Virapurusadatta, the second ruler of the dynasty was a Buddhist, as were his son Ehuvula
    and their descendants. The inscriptions also show state-sponsorship of
    construction of temples and monasteries, through the funding of the
    queen of Ikshvaku. Camtisiri
    in particular, is recorded as having funded the building of the main
    stupa for ten consecutive years. The support also spread beyond the
    noble classes, many non-royal names being inscribed in the relics. At
    its peak, there were more than thirty monasteries and it was the largest
    Buddhist centre in South India. Inscriptions showed that there were monasteries belonging to the Bahuśrutīya and Aparamahavinaseliya sub-schools of the Mahāsāṃghika, the Mahisasaka, and the Mahaviharavasin, from Sri Lanka.
    The architecture of the area reflects that of these traditions. There
    were other monasteries for Buddhist scholars originating from the Tamil kingdoms, Orissa, Kalinga, Gandhara, Bengal, Ceylon (the Culadhammagiri) and China. There is also a footprint at the site of the Mahaviharavasin monastery, which is believed to be a reproduction of that of Gautama Buddha.


    The region declined after the death of Rudrapurusa,
    the last Ikshvaku king. Excavations began in 1927, and the first finds
    were made by English archaeologists in 1928. The excavations were
    continuous until 1931. They unearthed the ruins of stupas and chaityas
    in 1926 at what was once an immense centre for Buddhist learning in
    ancient India. This was expanded in 1954 to include the whole valley,
    unearthing more than 100 further relics dating from the stone age to the 16th century.


    The great stupa at Nagarjunakonda belongs to the class of uncased
    stupas, its brickwork being plastered over and the stupa decorated by a
    large garland-ornament.[4]
    The original stupa was renovated by the Ikshvaku princess Chamtisiri in
    the 3rd century AD, when ayaka-pillars of stone were erected. The outer
    railing, if any, was of wood, its uprights erected over a brick plinth.
    The stupa, 32.3 m in diameter, rose to a height of 18 m with a 4 m wide
    circumambulatory. The medhi stood 1.5 m and the ayaka-platforms were
    rectangular offsets measuring 6.7 by 1.5 m.[5]




    Panoramic view of the Buddha statue and other monuments

    An archaeological catastrophe struck in 1960, when an irrigation dam was constructed across the nearby Krishna River,
    submerging the original site under the waters of a reservoir. In
    advance of the flooding, several monuments were dug up and relocated to
    the top of Nagarjuna’s Hill, where a museum was built in 1966. Other
    monuments were relocated to the mainland, east of the flooded area.
    Dedicated archaeologists managed to recover almost all of the relics.



    Nagarjunasagar Dam



    Main article: Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

    The Nagarjunasagar Dam is the tallest masonry dam in the world. The
    excavated remains of the Buddhist civilisation were reconstructed and
    preserved at a museum on the island situated in the midst of the
    man-made Nagarjunasagar Lake. The site has a 14th-century fort, medieval
    temples and a museum constructed like a Buddhist vihara.
    The museum houses a collection of relics of Buddhist culture and art.
    These include a small tooth and an ear-ring believed to be that of Gautama Buddha. The main stupa of Nagarjunakonda named Mahachaitya
    is believed to contain the sacred relics of the Buddha. A partly ruined
    monolithic statue of the Buddha is the main attraction at the museum.
    It also houses historic finds in the form of tools from Paleolithic and
    Neolithic times, as well as friezes, coins and jewellery.[6][7]



    Tourism


    Located in Guntur district[8] it is not accessible on the State Highway. The nearest train station is at Macherla, 29 km away. It is connected by a ferry to the mainland.




    Megalith Age Burial Area 2nd century A.D.

    The area is also known for panoramic views of the valley from a
    viewing area near the dam, and is also the site of natural waterfalls, Ethipothala Falls which cascade down 22 m into a blue lagoon that is also a breeding centre for crocodiles. The nearby Srisailam wildlife sanctuary, a Project Tiger reserve and refuge for diverse reptiles, birds and animals. Srisailam, which sits on the shore of Krishna in the Nallamala Hills is a site of immense historical and religious significance, including a Shiva temple that is one of the 12 sacred Jyotirlingas.




    APTDC passenger returning from Nagarjunakonda


    Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh

    Amaravati Montage Clockwise from top left: Amareswara Swamy Temple, Closeup shot of Dhyana Buddha Statue, River Krishna, Amaravati Maha Stupa

    The stupa


    The region between Krishna and Godavari rivers was an important place for Buddhism from the 2nd century BCE with Amaravati being one of them. Buddhist stupa was built during the reign of Ashoka in 200 BCE, was carved with panels that tells the story of Buddha.
    The discovery, misuse and destruction of the sculptures, preservation,
    distribution to various museums (Chennai, Calcutta, London, Masulipatnam
    etc.) have been poignantly described by Shimada.[8] During the period of the decline of Buddhism, this stupa was also neglected and it was buried under rubble. There is a 14th-century inscription in Sri Lanka which mentions repairs made to the stupa and after that it was forgotten. The stupa is related to the Vajrayana teachings of Kalachakra, still practiced today in Tibetan Buddhism. Dalai Lama of Tibet conducted a Kalachakra initiation at this location in 2006.


    Amaravati Stupa relief at Chennai Museum, India


    Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka


    Ancient art


    Art historians regard the Amaravati art as one of the three major
    styles or schools of ancient Indian art, the other two being the Gandhara style and the Mathura
    style. Some of the Buddhist sculptures of Amaravati betray a
    Greco-Roman influence that was the direct result of the close trade and
    diplomatic contacts between South India and the ancient Romans. Indeed, Amaravati has itself yielded a few Roman coins. The Government Museum at Egmore (Madras Museum) and British Museum, London host the “Amaravati Gallery“.


    Chinese traveller and Buddhist monk Hiuen Tsang (Xuanzang) visited Amaravati in 640 CE, stayed for sometime and studied ‘Abhidhammapitakam‘. Xuanzang wrote a glorious account of the place, Viharas and monasteries that existed.



    Amaravati School


    In Amaravati, situated in the eastern Deccan, a different type of art
    form evolved and flourished for nearly six centuries commencing from
    200-100 BC. Patronized first by the Satavahanas
    and later by the Ikshvakus and also by other groups (feudatories,
    officials, and merchants), four periods of activity are easily
    discernible.


    The Amaravati school of art occupies a pre-eminent position in the
    history of Indian Art. With its beginning in 3rd century BC the
    Amaravati unfolds its chapters through the galaxy of sculptural wealth
    that once adorned the Mahachaitya the majestic monument of the Buddhists
    situated here with its history extending over a period of a millennium
    and a half.

    Photo of Amaravati Buddhist Site

    Photo of Amaravati Buddhist Site

    Photo of Amaravati Buddhist SiteGuntupalli Buddhist Caves





    Amravathi

    Andhra PradeshInterpreted
    as the abode of immortals in Pali, Amaravathi or
    Dhanyakataka/Dharanikota consists of the Great Buddhist Stupa and 2000 year
    old relics of Buddhist settlement built under the reign of Emperor Ashoka.
    Also known as the Mahastupa and Deepaladinne - the mound of lamps, this 27 m
    high Great Buddhist Stupa is the biggest one in India. Made of brick with a
    circular vedika, the revered stupa is adorned with 95 ft high platforms,
    protruding in four cardinal directions.


    According to Vajrayana traditional sources, Gautama Buddha conducted
    Kalachakra ceremony at Amravathi. The Capital of Satyavahanas, the site’s
    major highlight presently includes the recent excavation remains of a
    Buddhist temple and a small museum showcasing Buddhist artifacts.


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    For Andhra Pradesh Tour





    Nagarjunakonda
    Named after Nagarjuna, a master of Mahayana Buddhism in South India, the
    historical hill called Nagarjunakonda served as the hub of
    Buddhists. One of India’s richest Buddhist sites, Nagarjunakonda hosts
    the relics of many Buddhist universities and monasteries which attracted
    students from China, Gandhara, Bengal and Sri Lanka in ancient times.
    Presently what constitutes of Nagarjunakonda is a restored Buddhist site on
    an island which symbolizes a lost civilization that flourished thousand
    years ago.


    Excavations till date have yielded 30 Buddhist monasteries, throwing a
    light on the strong foothold of Buddhism in the city. Others include Maha
    Chaitya, Viharas, Buddha statues, relics, stone images, Jataka tales
    encrypted panels and other items of Buddhist origin.



    Chandavaram
    Excavations carried out at Chandavaram, the ancient Buddhist heritage site
    have revealed the Mahastupa built on terraced platform, Chaityagriha votive
    stupas, drum slabs and Brahmi label inscriptions.



    Anupa
    Surrounded by the recently excavated remains of the Buddhist heritage
    including a Buddhist University, Amphitheatre, Viharas and Chaityas; Anupa
    forms the part of Buddhist circuit in Andhra Pradesh.



    Andhra PradeshThotlakonda
    Located on the top of the Mangamaripeta Hill, Thotlakonda served as
    an important information exchange spot for Buddhist culture between India,
    Sri Lanka and other parts of south-east Asia. About 16 km from the port city
    of Vishakhapatnam, the site hosts a Buddhist Complex featuring a Hinayana
    monastery, Mahastupa, 16 votive stupas, a stone pillared congregation hall,
    apsidal chaitya grihas and10 viharas. The excavations, over a period of 5
    years, have revealed other important Buddhist remains including 12 Brahmi
    inscriptions, sculpted panels, miniature stupa models in stone and Buddha
    padukas - foot imprints with ashthamangal symbols. At present, the statue of
    meditating Buddha adorns the Buddhist site - Thotlakonda.



    Bavikonda
    Another Buddhist heritage site around Vishakhapatnam, Bavikonda Hill
    unearthed the relics of a Buddhist complex comprising of 26 structures
    including a Mahachaitya, large vihara complex, numerous votive stupas, rock
    cut caves, a stone pillared congregation hall, rectangular halls and a
    refectory during excavations. Evidences showcase that all three branches of
    Buddhism - Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana flourished here.


    A piece of bone stored in a pot believed to be the mortal remains of Lord
    Buddha was discovered during excavations. Counted amongst one of the oldest
    and most revered Buddhist sites in Asia, Bavikonda traces the history of the
    religion back in time that once existed in the southern part of India.



    Bhattiprolu
    Anciently known as Pratipalapura, Bhattiprolu flourished as a
    Buddhist town during the rule of Sala Kingdom in present day Guntur
    District. Revered for its ancient Buddha stupa locally famous as Chinna
    Lanja Dibba / Vikramarka Kota Dibba,
    the site also justifies the
    linguistic evidence that Telugu, the state language of Andhra Pradesh,
    derives its origins from Brahmi script.


    Excavations of Bhattiprolu were undertaken by Alexander Rea in 19th century
    where three mounds featuring three inscribed stone relic caskets, relics of
    Buddha and jewels were discovered. The significant discovery of the site
    includes the Mahachaitya Stupa, crystal relic casket and several images of
    Buddha.



    Sankaram

    Sankaram, an important Buddhist site features the ancient relics of
    rock stupas covered with bricks, rock-cut caves, early historic pottery,
    brick-built structural edifices and Satavahana coins that date back to the
    1st century AD. Close to Sankaram, another heritage site of Bojjannakonda
    is located where one can experience close connection with the life of Buddha
    through rock carvings on the façade of the caves.



    Lingalametta

    Lingalametta features hundreds of rock cut monolithic stupas in
    rows, spread throughout the hill. Other Buddhist attractions here include
    relic casket, three chaitya halls, votive platforms, stupas and Vajrayana
    sculptures. Present Vihara remains portray the development of three schools
    of Buddhism including Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana.



    Undawalli Caves

    Undawalli Caves near Vijaywada are the one of the finest rock cut
    architecture caves in India. Carved out of solid sandstone on a hillside,
    the main cave section includes primitive rock monastery cells along with
    other caves featuring deities like Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. The first floor
    of this relic still retains style of Buddhist vihara along with some
    Buddhist sculptures.



    Andhra PradeshGhantasala

    Ghantasala town serves as a rare and important center for Buddhist
    sculptures. 19th Century excavations of the site unfurled carved limestone
    columns and pillared halls associated with Buddhist monastic establishments.
    Along with this, the ruined Maha Chaitya Stupa with circumference of 112
    feet and 23 feet high here consists of a solid brick cube in the centre,
    inscribed with 12 zodiac constellations. At present, the site has its own
    museum containing important Buddhist stupa and sculptural slabs found during
    the recent excavations. Adurru near Ghantasala also hosts a
    Mahastupa measuring 17 feet in diameter.



    Gudiwada
    Gudiwada town near Vijaywada also hosts relics based on Buddhist and Jain
    beliefs. Around 99 low mounds with remnants of Buddhist Stupas were
    excavated here.



    Salihundam

    Salihundam, the village is famous as a Buddhist remnant site
    featuring a number of Buddhist stupas and a huge monastery complex. Located
    on a hillock amidst scenic surroundings, Salihundam has the treasures of a
    Chaityagriha, structural temples and a number of sculptures showcasing the
    relics of three different Buddhism phases - Theravada, Mahayana and
    Vajrayana.



    Nelakondapalle

    Nelakondapalle in Khammam district is a remnant example Buddhist
    site belonging to Ikshvakus -Vishnukundin times. The excavations brought to
    light a number of huge standing Buddha images, Vishnukundin coins, Vlharas,
    mahachaitya, votive stupas, terracotta figurines, early historic pottery and
    bronze image of Buddha. This site probably served as a link between coastal
    and Telangana areas for traders and also to Buddhist monks. Basing on the
    archaeological evidences, the site belongs to the period between 3rd and 5th
    AD.



    Dantapuram
    The Buddhist connection with Dantapuram site is evident through the
    extracted excavations. Often referred to as Dhantavaktruni Kota in
    Buddhist literature, the site has revealed four brick votive stupas along
    with various antiquities like beads of Terracotta, semi precious stone
    beads, ornaments and different coloured potteries. Evidences even showcase
    that the site served as a cultural and religious exchange zone for Buddhism.



    Pavuralakonda
    The excavation relics at Pavuralakonda have exposed the proof of
    hosting a major ancient Buddhist settlement and human habitation. Sixteen
    rock-cut cisterns used for rainwater preservation also adorn the hillock and
    provide a panoramic view of the coastline.



    Phanigiri
    Located on the hill top, the recently excavated Phanigiri village
    showcases a massive Buddhist complex featuring a large Stupa, two apsidal
    halls with stupas in it, three Viharas as dwelling of monks. The remains of
    this complex stand on the top of a table hill shaped as snake hood, through
    which the site got its name - Phanigiri.



    Gopalapatnam
    Recently excavated relics of Gopalapatnam present the entire
    Buddhist village which dwelled on the Budhikonda Hill range. The entire
    village is dotted with stone veneered, brick built and votive stupas,
    viharas and other Buddhist imprints.



    Bojjannakonda

    Bojjannakonda near Vishakhapatnam is a 2000 year old Buddhist
    heritage spot famous for Rock cut Lord Buddha Statue. Also, the site is
    known to have yielded ancient statues of Buddha in various postures,
    enchanting stupas and other Buddhism related structures like meeting halls.
    Even different varieties of bricks used in the construction during the
    Buddhist period were discovered from the site.



    Vizianagaram
    The black hill - Durga konda near Ramatheertham in Vizianagaram
    features remains of a Buddhist Monastic complex and Rock-cut caves.

    Please watch:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmmKEAAU5VQ
    FOR

    Buddhist Heritage Sites of North Coastal Andhra - Part- 12:54 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMzmDzIJtpQ

    FOR

    Amaravati Stupa19:34 mins

    Buddhist Sites in Tamilnadu

    Tamil Buddhism

    Tamil Buddhism (Tamil: தமிழ் பெளத்தம்) or Buddhism amongst Tamil speaking people refers to the various schools of Buddhism that flourished in Tamilakam.

    Bodhidharma, founder of Zen Buddhism, is believed to originated from Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

    Tamil Nadu

    The ancient Tamil Buddhist poem Manimekalai by the poet Chithalai Chathanar is set in the town of Kaveripattanam.

    Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th century Buddhist monastery, a Buddha
    statue, and a Buddhapada (footprint of the Buddha) were found in another
    section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram.

    The heritage of the town of Nākappaṭṭinam is found in the Burmese historical text of the 3rd century BCE, and gives evidences of a Budha Vihar built by the great Ashoka.

    nākappaṭṭinam was a Buddhist centre of the 4th-5th century CE. Its stupa
    dates from this era. Buddhism disappeared from this city as of an
    unknown date, but was revided as of the 9th century. (H.P.Ray, The Winds
    of Change, Delhi 1994, p. 142) In the 11th century, Chudamani Vihara was built by the Javanese king Sri Vijaya Soolamanivarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola 
    The “Animangalam Copperplate” of Kulothungachola notes that “Kasiba
    Thera” [Buddhist Monk] renovated the Buddhist temple in the 6th century
    with the help of Buddhist monks of “Naga Nadu“.
    This “nagar annam vihar” later came to be known as “Nagananavihar.
    Buddhism flourished until the 15th century and the buildings of the
    vihara survived until the 18th century.

    Kanchipuram is one of the oldest cities in South India, and was a city of learning for Tamil, Sanskrit, and Pali and was believed to be visited by Xuanzang.
    He visited the city in the 7th century and said that this city was 6
    miles in circumference and that its people were famous for bravery and
    piety as well as for their love of justice and veneration for learning.
    He further recorded that Gautama Buddha had visited the place. It was during the reign of the Pallava dynasty from the 4th to the 9th centuries that Kanchipuram
    attained its limelight. The city served as the Pallava capital, and
    many of the known temples were built during their reign. According to
    Tamil tradition, the founder of Zen, Bodhidharma was born here,[5][6][note 1] as was the famous Sanskrit writer Daṇḍin, who wrote the Dashakumaracharita. The Sanskrit poet Bharavi hailed from Kanchipuram and wrote the famous Kirātārjunīya here under the patronage of the Pallava king Simhavishnu. Great Buddhist scholars such as Dignāga, Buddhaghosa, and Dhammapala lived here too.

    The Pallava king of Kanchipuram, Mahendravarman I was a great scholar and musician, a man of great intelligence and also a great Sanskrit satirist and playwright.

    Sri Lanka

    Jaffna peninsula


    9th Century Tamil Buddhist Stupas, in Kadrimalai, Jaffna Peninsula.


    The Ancient Tamil Buddhist Shrine, near the Nagapooshani Amman Kovil, Nainativu

    Nāka Tivu/ Nāka Nadu was the name of the whole Jaffna peninsula
    in some historical documents. There are number of Buddhist myths
    associated with the interactions of people of this historical place with
    Buddha. This Tamil Buddhist shrine was located close to the ancient Nainativu Nagapooshani Amman Temple of Nainativu, one of the Shakti Peethas The word Naga was sometimes written in early inscriptions as Nāya, as
    in Nāganika - this occurs in the Nanaghat inscription of 150 BCE.

    The famous Vallipuram Buddha statue built with Dravidian sculptural traditions from Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh
    (Amaravati school) was found in excavations below the Hindu Temple. The
    language of the inscription is Tamil-Prakrit, which shares several
    similarities with script inscriptions used in Andhra at the time, when
    the Telugu Satavahana dynasty was at the height of its power and its 17th monarch Hāla (20-24 CE) married a princess from the island.Professor Peter Shalk (University of Uppsala), writes “Vallipuram has
    very rich archaeological remains that point at an early settlement. It
    was probably an emporium in the first centuries AD. […] From already
    dated stones with which we compare this Vallipuram statue, we can
    conclude that it falls in the period 3-4 century AD. During that period,
    the typical Amaravati-Buddha sculpture was developed.”[16] The Buddha statue found here was given to King of Thailand by the then British Governor Henry Blake in 1906.[citation needed]

    Dr. Indrapala argued for a flourishing pre-Christian buddhist
    civilization in Jaffna, in agreement with Paranavithana, and Mudliyar C.
    Rasanayakam, Ancient Jaffna in an earlier work, 1965.

    This place is similar to Nagapatnam
    where all Asian vessels used it as a stopover point and the Buddhist
    and Hindu Dagobas are just a resting and worshipping places for the
    sailors and international traders.[citation needed] Both Nagapatnam and Vallipuram served the powerful kingdoms of China, Siam, Cambodia, Champa (Vietnam) and Java.[citation needed]

    A group of Dagobas situated close together at the Kandarodai site served as a monastery for Tamil monks and reflect the rise in popularity of Mahayana Buddhism amongst Jaffna Tamils and the Tamils of the ancient Tamil country in the first few centuries of the common era before the revivalism of Hinduism amongst the population.

    Trincomalee

    Thiriyai is referred to as Thalakori in the 2nd century AD map of Ptolemy. Pre-Christian-Buddhist Tamil Brahmi
    inscriptions have been found in the area, the oldest belonging to the
    2nd century BCE. Thiriyai formed a prominent village of Jaffna’s Vannimai
    districts in the medieval period. The site is home to Mahayana Buddhist
    vatadage ruins worshipped by the locals during the rise of Tamil
    Buddhism in the area. During Paramesvaravarman I’s reign, the famous Tiriyai Pallava Grantha
    inscriptions of 7th-8th century Tamilakkam were recorded in the
    village. The inscription refers to Tamil merchant mariners from Tamil Nadu,
    their seafaring and commerce to Trincomalee. It details their endowment
    of this shrine dedicated to the Buddhist deity Avalokitesvara and his
    consort Tara. Dvarapala sculptures found at the ruins are early contributions of the Pallava school of art to the island.

    The Chola Dynasty
    patronised several religions amongst Tamils, including Saivism,
    Vaishnavism and Buddhism. They built Buddhist temples known as
    “Perrumpallis”. The famous Rajarajapperumpalli of Periyakulam was built by Rajaraja Chola I. Tamil inscriptions excavated from this site point to the attention the Cholas paid to the development of Trincomalee District
    as a strong Saiva Tamil principality and for their contributions to the
    upkeep of several shrines including the monumental Shiva Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee.

    Manimekalai

    Manimekalai (Tamil: மணிமேகலை),written by the Tamil Hindu poet Chithalai Chathanar, is one of the The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition. Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos. Its story is a sequel to another of the Five Great Epics, Silappatikaram, and tells the story of the conversion to Buddhism of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi.


    The Author and period of composition

    Although there is some controversy about the exact date of this work, it probably was composed in the 6th century CE.

    The aim of the author, Sīthalai Sāttanār (or Cīttalai Cāttanār) was
    to compare Buddhism favourably with the other prevailing religions in
    South India in order to propagate Buddhism. He criticizes Jainism,
    the chief opponent and competitor of Buddhism at the time. While
    exposing the weaknesses of the other contemporary Indian religions, he
    praises the Buddha’s Teaching, the Dhamma, as the most perfect religion.

    The Epic

    As a continuation of Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்),
    this epic describes how Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of Kovalan
    and Madhavi, follower of local deities later included in Hinduism,
    converts to Buddhism. According to the poem, Maṇimekalai studies the
    six systems of philosophy of Hinduism and other prevalent religions of
    the time and compares them to the teachings of the Buddha. She is most
    impressed with Buddhism which treats everyone equal with loving kindness
    and fraternity. Before Buddhism, it were only two characters for women -
    one is a woman in family and a woman in brothel. After the Buddha
    introduced woman Sangha where women found a new character in human
    evolution as Bhikkuni (nuns). Bhikkunis had and have their independent
    Sangha where men were/are not having any business. Manimekalai who
    attained highest stage of knowledge in Buddhism. Pandit Iyothee Das
    (1845-1914) has revealed more about Manimekalai as “Arachchelvi” (Female
    Arhant) and he has documented original poems written by Seeththalai
    Saththanar, which are not available in the Menimekalai edited by Vu.Ve.
    Saminathar who allegedly cut some of the original poems.

    It was followed by Catholic congregations where women became nuns
    with limited empowerment. Later, upon hearing doctrinal expositions from
    the Buddhist teacher Bhikshu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, she becomes a dedicated Buddhist nun.

    The epic gives much information on the history of Tamil Nadu, Buddhism
    and its place during that period, contemporary arts and culture, and
    the customs of the times. The exposition of the Buddhist doctrine in the
    poem deals elegantly with the Four Noble Truths (ārya-satyāni), Dependent Origination (pratītyasamutpāda), mind (citta) and Buddhist practices like virtue (Śīla) and non-violence (ahimsa).

    Setting

    The poem is set in both the harbour town of Kāveripattinam, the modern town of Poompuhar in Tamil Nadu, and in Nainatheevu of NākaNadu, a small sandy island of the Jaffna Peninsula in modern Sri Lanka.
    The story runs as follows: The dancer-courtesan Manimekalai is pursued
    by the amorous Cholan prince Udyakumāran, but rather wants to dedicate
    herself to a religious celibate life. The sea goddess Manimegala Theivam
    or Maṇimekhalai Devī puts her to sleep and takes to the island
    Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). After waking up and wandering about the
    island Maṇimekalai comes across the Dharma-seat, the seat on which
    Buddha had taught and appeased two warring Naga princes, and placed there by the God Indra.
    Those who worship it miraculously know their previous life. Manimekalai
    automatically worshiped it and recollects what has happened in her
    previous life. She then meets the guardian goddess of the Dharma seat,
    Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā) who explains her the significance of the
    Dharma seat and lets her acquire the magic never-failing begging bowl (cornucopia)
    called Amṛta Surabhi (”cow of abundance”), which will always provide
    food to alleviate hunger. The goddess also predicts that Bhikshu Aravaṇa
    Aḍigal in her native town will teach her more. Manimekalai then used
    the mantra which the sea goddess had given her and returns to
    Kāveripattinam, where she meets the Bhikshu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, who expounds
    her the Buddha’s Teaching and advices her about the nature of life. She
    then becomes a Buddhist nun or Bhikshuni and practices to rid herself from the bondage of birth and death and attain Nibbana.

    Notable characters

    • Manimekalai - The daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, who was born with bravery and virtues.
    • Udhayakumaran - The Chola King, who was mad in love with
      Manimekalai. He was a foolish king, who wanted things done only in the
      way he wanted them to be.
    • Sudhamadhi - Manimekalai’s most faithful and trustworthy friend.
    • Manimekala - The sea goddess who protects the heroine.
    • Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Goddess of the Dharma seat. She was
      born in the town of Puhar and got married to a merchant. Her husband
      once travels to trade. Even after so many days he didn’t return. Feared
      and worried that her husband might have died she tries to give away her
      life. (Not by suicide but by doing “sathiya paritchai” i.e. praying God
      to take away her life due to the death of her husband) Suddenly she
      hears a voice from the sky which says that her husband is alive and he
      will come back. But Deeva Teelakai expresses her disinterest in a family
      life and her interest in spirituality. She then gets the Amirta Surabhi
      and was also guided by the voice to travel to the Dharma seat and
      protect it until she meets her destiny.

    Disappearance of Kāveripattinam or Puhar

    The poem relates that the town Kāveripattinam or Puhār was swallowed up by the sea (i.e. destroyed by a tsunami
    or flood) due to the Cholan King not holding the annual Indra festival
    and thereby causing the wrath of the sea goddess Manimekalai. This
    account is supported by archeological finds of submerged ruins off the
    coast of modern Poompuhar.
    Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th century Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue,
    and a Buddhapada (footprint of the Buddha) were also found in another
    section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram. The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared in between the 3d and the 6th century CE

    Buddhist School Affiliation

    The work contains no direct references to Mahayana as propagated by Nagarjuna, etc., and appears to be a work of an early early Buddhist, Sravakayana school such as the Sthavira or Sautrantika school. According to Aiyangar, the emphasis on “the path of the Pitakas of the Great One” (i.e. Tipitaka) and the exposition of Dependent Origination, etc., in Chapter 30, could suggest that it is work of the Sautrantika school, A.K. Warder instead suggests that the poem may be affiliated with Theravada school.

    In the conclusion of the poem, Aravaṇa Aḍigal encourages full liberation from the three roots of evil—greed, hatred (rāga, dosa, moha).
    The final sentence of the poem states that Maṇimekhalai strove to rid
    herself of the bondage of birth. This emphasis on liberation from the
    defilements (kilesa), ending the cycle of birth, old age and death (samsara), and becoming an arahant,
    also suggests that the author of the poem was affiliated to an early
    Sravakayana Buddhist school.Aiyangar (p. 80) suggests that the Buddhist logic as expounded by Aravaṇa Aḍigal in Chapter 29 of the Maṇimekhalai antedates the logic of Dignāga and his school.

    Survival of Text

    The Manimekhalai is the only extant Tamil Buddhist literary work of
    what once was an extensive literature. The reason for its survival is
    probably its status as the sequel to the Silapathikaram or Sīlappadhikāram.[5]
    Tamil Nadu produced many Buddhist teachers who made valuable
    contributions to Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit literature. Reference to their
    works is found in Tamil literature and other historical records. Lost
    Tamil Buddhist works are the poem Kuṇḍalakesī by Nāgaguttanār, the grammar Vīrasoliyam, the Abhidhamma work Siddhāntattokai, the panegyric Tiruppadigam, and the biography Bimbisāra Kadai.

    Translations

    The first translation of Manimekalai by R. B. K. Aiyangar, was published in Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting. Extracts of this were republished in Hisselle Dhammaratana’s Buddhism in South India A more recent translation of the poem was done by Alain Daniélou with the collaboration of T.V. Gopala Iyer  There is also a Japanese translation by Shuzo Matsunaga, published in 1991.

    Publishing in modern times


    A palm leaf manuscript with ancient Tamil text

    U. V. Swaminatha Iyer
    (1855-1942 CE) resurrected the first three epics of Tamil literature
    from appalling neglect and wanton destruction of centuries. He reprinted
    these literature present in the palm leaf form to paper books.
    Ramaswami Mudaliar, a Tamil scholar first gave him the palm leaves of Civaka Cintamani
    to study.
    Being the first time, Swaminatha Iyer had to face lot of difficulties
    in terms of interpreting, finding the missing leaves, textual errors and
    unfamiliar terms. He set for tiring journeys to remote villages in
    search of the missing manuscripts. After years of toil, he published Civaka Cintamani in book form in 1887 CE followed by Silapadikaram in 1892 CE and Manimekalai in 1898 CE.
    Along with the text, he added lot of commentary and explanatory notes
    of terms, textual variations and approaches explaining the context.

    Criticism and Comparison

    To some critics, Manimekalai is more interesting than Silappadikaram,
    but in terms of literary evaluation, it seems inferior.
    The story of Manimekalai with all its superficial elements seems to be
    of lesser interest to the author himself whose aim was pointed toward
    spreading Buddhism. In the former, ethics and religious doctrine are
    central, while in the latter poetry and storyline dominate. Manimekalai also criticizes Jainism while preaching the ideals of Buddhism as it downplays human interests in favor of supernatural features. The narration in akaval meter moves on in Manimekalai without the relief of any lyric, which are the main features of Silappadikaram. Manimekalai in puritan terms is not an epic poem, but a grave disquisition on philosophy.
    There are effusions in the form of a song or a dance, which style may
    not go well with western audience as they are assessed to be inspired on
    the spur of the moment. According to Calcutta review, the three epics on the whole have no plot and no characterization for an epic genre, plot of Civaka Cintamani is monotonous and deficient in variety in strength and character and does not stand the quality of an epic.
    According to Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai was written between A.D. 890
    and 950, an inference based on his linguistic assessment of the age of
    this epic.

    Kundalakesi

    Kundalakesi (Tamil: குண்டலகேசி Kuṇṭalakēci) is a fragmentary Tamil Buddhist epic written by Nathakuthanaar. It is one of the The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition, with the other four being Silappatikaram, Manimekalai, Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi and Valayapathi. The first mention of the “Aimperumkappiyam” (lit. Five large epics) occurs in Mayilainathar’s commentary of Nannūl.
    However, Mayilainathar does not mention the names of the five epics.
    The names of the epics are first mentioned in the late 18th century -
    early 19th century work Thiruthanikaiula. Earlier works like the seventeenth-century poem Tamil vidu thoothu mention the great epics as Panchkavyams. Its time period has been estimated to be before fifth century C.E.



    Sources and content

    Of the five great epics, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi
    are not available in full. Only fragments quoted in other literary
    works and commentaries have survived. Only 19 of the original 99 verses
    of Kundalakesi have been recovered. An additional five have been recovered, but whether they were part of Kundalakesi has not been proven conclusively. Tamil linguist Kamil Zvelebil
    has speculated that the epic was destroyed due to its Buddhist content
    by anti-Buddhist fanatics. The 19 verses recovered have been found in
    the commentaries for Tolkāppiyam, Veera Sozhiyam, Yapperungalam , Thakkayagaparani, Sivagnana Siddhiyar Parapakkam (Thirvorriyur Gnanaprakasar’s commentary), the epic Neelakesi and the poem Vaisyapuranam. Neelakesi – one of the five lesser Tamil epics, was a Jain
    religious work about the life of the female Jain monk of the same name,
    who was a rival preacher of the Buddhist protagonist of Kundalakesi (It was written as a Jain rebuttal to the Buddhist criticism in Kundalakesi). The first lines of the 99 verses of Kundalakesi are available in the Jain saint Vamanar’s commentary on Neelakesi.
    The 19 recovered verses do not reveal the plot of the epic and are
    advisory in nature. The introductory and 15th Verses contain references
    to Buddhism.The Vinaya sub commentary Vimativinodani refers to the epic as follows:

    Formerly in Tamil country an elder named Nagasena [Nagakuthanaar]
    compiled a work in Tamil containing the story of Kundalakesi, foe
    refuting heretical doctrines, adducing arguments for demolishing the
    views advanced by non-Buddhists.

    Yapperungalam, which also quotes the epic’s Kadavul Vazhthu (lit. invocation to God) describes it as a tharkavadham – a book of controversy and polemics.Veera Sozhiyam’s commentator Perunthevanar and the 14th century anthology Purathirattu both describe it as a akalakavi – a large poem.

    Story

    Kundalakesi is an adaptation of the story of the Buddhist Bhikṣuni (lit. female monk) Kunḍalakeśi from the Dhammapada.The protagonist Kundalakesi (lit. The woman with curls) was born in a merchant family in the city of Puhar.
    Her birth name is “Bhadra”. She loses her mother during childhood and
    lives a sheltered life. One day she sees a thief being paraded in the
    streets of Puhar and falls in love with him. The thief, Kaalan
    has been sentenced to death for banditry. Besotted with Kaalan,
    Kundalakesi implores her father to save him. Her father petitions the
    king for the thief’s release. He pays Kaalan’s weight in gold and 81
    elephants to the treasury to secure Kaalan’s release. Kundalakesi and
    Kaalan are married and live happily for some time.
    One day, she playfully refers to him as a thief. This enrages the
    mercurial Kaalan and he decides to kill his wife in revenge. He tricks
    her into visiting the summit of the nearby hill. Once they reach the
    summit, he announces his intention to kill her by pushing her off the
    hill. Kundalakesi is shocked and asks him to grant a final wish – she
    wishes to worship him by going around him three times before she dies.
    He agrees and when she gets behind him, Kundalakesi pushes him off the
    summit, killing him. Repenting her actions, she becomes a Buddhist monk and spends the rest of her life spreading the teachings of Buddha. She carries out theological battles with Jains and Hindus,
    defeating them in debates. She finally attains superior liberation. In
    one of the versions, it is believed that she was a Jain in her initial
    life and she shattered conventions by becoming a nigrantha or naked monk.

    Religious Treatise

    Quotations from the work are found from references used by authors who had access to the classic. The poem was used for showing the purpose of showing the advantage of Buddhist philosophy over Vedic and Jain philosophies. The Jain in reply wrote Nilakesi which has opposing views to the ideologies in Kundalakesi. Through the method of logical analysis the weak points of other faiths were brought out to give support to Buddhist doctrines.
    One version goes like Kundalakesi was a Jain nun who moved around
    India, expounding Jainism and challenged anyone who had alternate views.
    Sariputra, a disciple of Buddha, took up the challenge one day and
    defeated Kundalakesi in debates. She renounced Jainism and became a
    Buddhist. The record of culture and Buddhist views during the era were lost with the book.

    Sample verses

    Verse 19:
    வேரிக் கமழ்தார் அரசன் விடுக என்ற போழ்தும்
    தாரித்தல் ஆகா வகையால் கொலை சூழ்ந்த பின்னும்
    பூரிட்தல் வாடுதல் இவற்றால் பொலிவு இன்றி நின்றான்
    பாரித்ததெல்லாம் வினையின் பயன் என்ன வல்லான்

    Verse 9:
    பாளையாம் தன்மை செத்தும்
    பாலனாம் தன்மை செத்தும்
    காளையாம் தன்மை செத்தும்
    காமுறும் இளமை செத்தும்
    மீளுமிவ் வியல்பும் இன்னே
    மேல்வரும் மூப்பும் ஆகி
    நாளும்நாள் சாகின் றாமால்
    நமக்குநாம் அழாதது என்னோ

    In popular culture

    The story of Kundalakesi killing her husband has been used as a sub-plot in the 1951 Tamil film Manthiri Kumari.

    The song “Neela Warala” by Sri Lankan musician W.D. Amaradeva mentions Kundalakesi repeatedly in the chorus.



    Tamilnadu Buddhist Heritage

                         
                                        
    Please watch:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATv1TaFyIYk&feature=plcp&context=C48d14a0VDvjVQa1PpcFMmMIU9t7zYiSwlHquRl4T0blD1dpiY9NI%3D
    FOR

    Buddha statue in Kanchipuram.mp4 - 0:24 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr5I7sqSDng&feature=plcp&context=C41c5635VDvjVQa1PpcFMmMIU9t7zYiTsp5K8aw8hpAxCb4j_PdLE%3D
    FOR

    Pallur Buddha Temple.MOV- 2:46 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ywn9rE6OmmY&feature=plcp&context=C41e0b79VDvjVQa1PpcFMmMIU9t7zYiUy-_87fUO-aeBNfFNcgR7o%3D
    FOR

    Onampakkam Buddha Clay idol.MOV 0:34 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grjjse2_IlY&feature=youtu.be
    FOR


    Kakkayanthoppu Buddha Temple 1.MOV-2.10 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iql9ldvd8Bk
    FOR

    Buddha images in Ekambaranathar Temple 1.MOV 2.14 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICg1aJhrzQk&feature=relmfu
    FOR


    Buddha images in Ekambaranathar Temple 2.MOV-1.41 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RBBwVAwY3U&feature=relmfu
    FOR


    Buddha images in Ekambaranathar Temple 3.MOV-1.02 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdEw1BJ0dKU&feature=plcp
    FOR


    Buddha statues in Kanchipuram Karukkinil Amarnthal Temple.MOV-1.24 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTm_G_0jZ9I&feature=plcp
    FOR

    Buddha images in Kachapeswarar Temple 1.MOV-2.48 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6yVUTArbX0&feature=plcp
    FOR

    Buddha images in Kachapeswarar Temple 2.MOV-0.49 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z_gP30g0EA0&feature=plcp
    FOR

    Buddha images in Kachapeswarar Temple 3.MOV - 0.47 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDKwG2PXuKw&feature=plcp
    FOR

    Buddha statue in Kanchipuram School.MOV - 1.38 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-L5yh2nZiyI
    FOR


    Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 1/4- 6:30 mins


    Gautama
    is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life,
    discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been
    summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various
    collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral
    tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8Gy7H1vUyg
    FOR


    Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil -
    2/4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPN1D4oujMw
    FOR

    Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 3/4 - 6.56 mins

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjaHyHGM9uQ
    FOR


    Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 4/4- 7;33 mins

    NOW is all that we have ! Upasakas and Upasikas may  WALK, RUN,SWIM, PEDAL

    TO

    CONVERT ALL THEIR HOMES INTO

    +VE
    INSIGHT MEDITATION CENTRES !

    SO THAT

    MAY ALL SENTIENT AND NON-SENTIENT BEINGS BE EVER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE !
    MAY ALL HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT, ATTENTIVE AND EQUANIMITY MIND !
    WITH A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERY THING IS CHANGING!



    THANK YOU VERY MUCH MY DEAR RESPECTED

    sagar jadhov



















    Inbox
    Mar 5 (1 day ago)



    IMG_1716.JPG

    Zoom in
    Saving to Drive - Move to:

    Hello sir , the photo’s have come out really well and I am very happy to
    meet and what a  energetic young  boy u are and appreciate ur
    enthusiasm and spirit 😃 cheers to you 👍

    See u soon

    Sagar s n Jadhov
    Please watch:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yc-qV9HNGd4
    for

    Vodafone Cycling Marathon 2015


    6,000 cyclists race to the finish

    Participants at the cycling marathon in Bengaluru.— Photo: by Special Arrangement
    Participants at the cycling marathon in Bengaluru.

    Over 6,000 cycling enthusiasts across different age
    groups pedalled hard during the second edition of the Vodafone Cycling
    Marathon 2015, held here early on Sunday morning.

    The
    first ride of the marathon – a 40 km race with a prize money of Rs. 2
    lakh – was flagged off by Atanu Batabyal, Business Head, Vodafone
    Karnataka.

    The second ride of the event was the 20 km
    Green Ride, and the third ride was the most anticipated Champion Race
    of 60 km, where 150 elite cyclists licensed under the Cycle Federation
    of India (CFI) competed for an award money of Rs. 10 lakh. The event was
    organised under the aegis of CFI and supported by the Bengaluru City
    Traffic Police.

    Close finish

    The
    Champion Race saw a close finish with Sreedhar Savanur from Karnataka
    winning the first place by completing the race in one hour, 31 minutes
    and 51 seconds. The second place was bagged by C. Rajesh from Tamil
    Nadu, third by Atul Kumar from Indian Army and fourth by Naveen John
    from Karnataka.

    The winner of Passion Race was Sohel Bargir from Karnataka, who walked away with Rs. 1 lakh award, a release said.

    Speaking
    on the occasion, Mr. Batabyal said, “We are really happy to see the
    enthusiastic response to the second edition of the marathon. Our effort
    to encourage people to adapt eco-friendly lifestyle is getting its
    impetus.”

    The proceeds generated through registration
    will be shared with India Cares in a separate event to support the work
    done towards the cause of environment, child education and women
    welfare.

    The crowd also enjoyed performances by
    Bengaluru-based folk fusion band Lagori, and rock band ‘What’s in a
    name?’, as well as cycle stunts by professionals.



    SC/ST/OBCs
    & Religious Minorities can be saved from death noose only if they
    stand behind Behen Mayawatiji to secure reservation in Judiciary

    Gopinath, B.com., MBA
    State Coordinator of Tamilnadu & Puducherry, Bahujan Samaj Party

    “Though
    the law  itself be fair on its face and impartial in appearance, yet,
    if it is applied and administered by a public authority with an evil eye and unequal hand,
    so as practically to make unjust and illegal discrimination between
    persons in similar circumstances , materia to their rights, the denial
    of equal justice is still within the prohibition of the Constitution”.

                                       - United States Supreme Court, 1986 (Yick Wo Vs. Hopkins 118US.356).

    In 1978,
    former Supreme Court Judge,V.R. Krishna Iyer, who died recently, while
    addressing the International Conference Against Death Sentence in
    Stockhol, said, “The death penalty laws’ wrathful majesty in blood-shot
    equality dealsthe fatal blow on the poor not the rich, the paraiah
    (untouchable) not the brahmin, the black not the white, the underdog not
    the top dogs, the dissenter not the conformist”. He also told, “the law
    barks at all but bites only the poor, the powerless, the illiterate,
    the ignorant”. This honest statement of an eminent jurist should have
    pricked the conscience and opened the eyes of our rulers long ago. But
    the recent findings of ‘Death Penalty Research Project have exposed that
    nothing much has changed. In fact, things have gone worst from bad.


    Caste
    is all pervasive and ever present in this country. Judiciary is no
    exception to it. Indian Express, dated Nov.3, 2014 carried a news item
    that out of 4.20 lakhs of prisioners in this country, over 33.2% are
    SC/STs, which is more than their population of 25.2%. Now the joint
    study of National Law University (NLU), Delhi, and National Legal
    Services Authority (NALSA) has brought out the stunning facts that ‘90%
    of this country ’s 477 death-row convicts and 75% of them are SC/STs,
    OBCs and Muslims….SC/STs and Muslims constitute 38.8% of the
    population but 53% of the under trails (1.48 lakh out of 2.78 lakh ) in
    jail’. There cannot be greater shame than this to get ourselves exposed
    that we have the highly-caste corrupted judiciary at all levels.


    The
    ‘Death Penalty Research Project’ of NLU and NALSA is perhaps the first
    attempt in this independent country to unveil the face of caste-ridden
    judiciary and police. Till now, the authorities have not maintained a
    consolidated record of convicts on death-row and executions since
    independence. This project which took 16 months of extensive study
    covering over 400 interviews has brought many stunning facts of caste
    and communal corruption present in the judiciary and police. It says
    ‘most of the convicts are first-time offenders; direct evidence is
    missing in 80% of cases; confessions extracted through torture relied
    for conviction; nearly 100% convicts fail to receive quality legal
    assistance to fight their cases; a majority spend 10-20 years before the
    mercy petition is rejected ‘(Outlook, Dec.15, 2014). These facts reveal
    a blood-chilling truth that most of the convicts are framed by catse
    prejudiced police and judiciary. Media has played the role of creating
    hysteria to change the public mind and to influence the men in courts
    against the innocent victims.


    In
    2003, Prabhat Kumar Shandilya, a well-known human-rights activist and
    journalist, wrote, “hundred percent reservation in capital punishment
    for thepoor and the marginalized”. He found and wrote that out of 36
    death-row convicts in Bhagalpur Central Jail then, barring Karre Singh
    all the rest were SC/STs,OBCs and Muslims. He has told that only three
    men from elite castes have so far been hanged in this independent
    country - nathuram godse a chitpawan brahmin like Vir savarkar, RSS and
    Hindu maha sabha, Narayan dattaraya apte and dhanjay chatterjee. Now
    these Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi) are erecting statues
    and temple for their god(se).

    The
    upper caste dominated police and judiciary canot escape the blame that
    they are anti-SC/STs, anti-minorities and anti-poor. They have been
    maintaining different yardsticks for different castes. Anup
    Surendranath, Head of the project, has told ” In Bihar, savarna men were
    arrested for massacaring SC/STs; in another case, SC/Sts were arrested
    for killing men from previlaged castes. They were dealt with
    differently. SC/STs were tried and sentenced to death under TADA, but
    the savarna men were tried for offences under the IPC. For similar
    offences with similar kind of evodences. SC/STs arrested in the Bara
    massacre case continue to be on death row after confirmation by the
    Supreme Court…but those arrested for the Laxmipur-Bathe massacre have been acquitted by the Patna High Court”.

    Sunder
    Koli, a Scheduled Caste waiting on death row in Meerut Jail, was
    arrested eight years ago and convicted for allegedly kidnapping, raping
    and cannibalising (eating) 16 girls and women in a house on the
    outskirts of Delhi, where he worked as a domestic help. Koli continues
    to insist that he is innocent and he is framed by the authorities.
    Koli’s confession was the only basis for his conviction, but it was
    recorded in English, the language which he does not know. There is no
    evidence other than the hysteria created by the now famous for paid
    news. (Once Napolean had said that he could face two battalions, but not
    two scribes) around the disappearance of those girls and women.
    Strangely, his employer, M.S. Pander, a Jat Sikh, who was arrested on
    the charge of selling the organ of human body, in on bail and his trial
    remains inconclusive. Outlook magazine has exposed the casteist
    face of the Judiciary with the cases in which the upper castes and
    affluent were involved and which had hit the headlines of media.

    Santosh
    Singh, son of an IPS officer, who was accused of raping and killing
    Delhi student Priyadarshini Mattoo, was let free. Manu Sharma, brahmin
    son of former Union Minister and businessman Vinod Sharma, convicted of
    shooting Jessica Lall who refused to serve him drink, was acquitted.
    Sushil Sharma, brahmin leader of Congress Party, who killed his wife
    Naina Sahni and burnt her body in a tandoor was also spared the noose by
    the Supreme Court. Ravikanth Sarma, brahmin Senior IPS Officer, who was
    accused and found guilty by the trail court of hiring assassins to kill
    journalist  Shivani Bhatnagar, was acquitted and given the benefit of
    doubt (Outlook, Dec.15,2014)

    The
    project has been undertaken in the background of demanding abolition of
    death sentence. Such abolition may save the life of some innocent
    Backward Classes.But, the upper caste culprits are escaping the noose
    even while the punishment is operative. We have witnessed the
    intelligent working of CBI and police in whisking out the accused and
    fixing the relatives of the deceased as scape goats in the double murder
    of two sisters in Badaun village of Uttar Pradesh and triple murder of a
    family of Jawhkeda village of Ahmedabad in Maharashtra. WE have also
    seen queer judgements given against the brutal killings of Khailanji in
    Maharashtra and Kambalapalli in Karnataka. It is in this background, we
    must understand the voice of Behan Kumari Mayawatiji in demanding
    reservation in Judiciary for SC/ST/OBCs and religious minorities. The
    findings of the project may recommend and some good Samaritans may also
    appeal for change of heart of men in judiciary, investigating agencies
    and police. But we must not forget a general rule that a true hindu and a
    gentleman are two different persons and in most of the cases they are
    opposed to each other. Hence what is essential is not the change of
    heart of ment in office, but change of men. The SC/ST/OBCs and
    minorities must of an adequate representation in judiciary. In this
    independent country, the Supreme Court has seen only one Scheduled Caste
    Justice so far. The representation of the Backward Classers in entire
    judiciary may hardly touch 15%. When the majority judges have a common
    opinion against the Backwar Class accused, how can this tiny majority
    minority tilt the final judgement in favour of the innocents ?

    Jurists
    may say that they goby the statute books and evidences to decide the
    cases.But more often than not it is the sympathetic consideration of the
    men in the jury that influences the judgement. The sympathy of an upper
    caste judge may go even against the law of the land to protect the
    culprits of his caste at the cost of justice ( enough evidences have
    been surfaced the statement right). But the sympathy of a lower caste
    judge will seek provisions within the legal frame to protect and render
    justice to the innocent victims of his caste. In the case of Dharmapuri
    atrocity in 2012, where over 300 houses of SCs were set on fire by the
    Vanniyars, the victims were awarded a compensation of 7 crores within 3
    months by the acting Chief Justice of Madras High Court Elipe Dharmarao,
    a Scheduled Caste from Andhara Pradesh. Never did it happen in the history of Tamilnadu.

    BSP

    Supremo Behan Mayawatiji has been appealing to the Central Government
    since many years to provide reservation to all Backward Classes in
    Judiciary, scientifics organisations, defense, ambassadors’ offices,
    Rajya Sabha and Upper Houses and of state assemblies. In the recently
    concluded Parliament Session, Behanji has argued for the immediate
    implementation of reservation in judiciary for SC?ST/OBCs and religious
    minorities in order to secure them justice. This will be the only remedy
    to prevent the innocent SC/STs/OBCs and Religious minorties falling
    victims to the deep-seatd prejudice of upper caste men in judiciary.

    It
    is high time to launch a nation-wide struggle under the leadership of
    Behan Mayawatiji to secure proportionate reservation in judiciaryfor the
    SC/ST/OBCs and religious minorities. But before launching a struggle,
    let us take this message to the educated anf thinking sections of
    SC/ST?OBCs and religious minorities.





    chandrasekhara (Bangalore)

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    99%
    of the Sarva Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities/poor/brahmins &
    baniyas have already started Online guest lectures/debate on fraud EVMs
    which were tampered to grab power by stealth, terrorist,militant,
    violent, 1% chitpawan brahmin RSS for murdering democratic institutions
    (Modi). The Supreme Court observed that all the fradulent EVMs had to be
    replaced by fool proof voting system as followed by 80 democracies. But
    the Ex CJI Sathasivam committed a grave error of judgement by allowing
    only 8 out of 543 lok sabha EVMs as suggested by the Ex CEC Sampath
    because it involved Rs 1600 crore instead of replacing all of them. The
    elections could have held after replacing all the fraud EVMs. THis
    helped the RSS’s BJP grab the MASTER KEY.The online debate and guest
    lectures by all including Subramanian Swamy, Kejrival have started and
    continues.This will continue till all the elections conducted through
    these fraud EVMs are scraped and fresh elections conducted.

    10) Classical Bengali

    10) ইসলাম বাংলা
    10) ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা

    1437 পাঠ 7315 শনিবার

    বিনামূল্যে অনলাইন ই-নালন্দা গবেষণা এবং প্র্যাকটিস বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়

    মহা বোধি সোসাইটি

    14, কালিদাসের রোড, গান্ধীনগর, বেঙ্গালুরু-560009

    ফোন: 080-22250684, ফ্যাক্স: 080-41148440

    ইমেইল: info@mahabodhi.info, www.mahabodhi.info

     

    আমরা আন্তরিকভাবে আপনার পরিতোষ, আপনার পরিবার, আপনার বন্ধুদের অংশগ্রহণ অনুরোধ

    Dhammapada উত্সব

    মেমরি

    এর 94 তম জন্মদিন

    প্রবীণ Dr.Acharya Buddharakkhita Bhanteji

    মহাবোধি সংস্থার প্রতিষ্ঠাতা

    28-2-2015 করতে 8-3-2015

     আপনার মাতৃভাষা এবং আপনি এই Google অনুবাদ অনুশীলনের জন্য জানা সমস্ত
    অন্যান্য langages সঠিক অনুবাদ রেন্ডার এবং একটি প্রবাহ প্রবেশক
    (Sotapanna) চূড়ান্ত লক্ষ্য হিসেবে পরম সুখ অর্জন করা হয়ে দয়া করে.
     

    দিগ

    · মহাবোধি বুদ্ধ বিহার সেকেন্দ্রাবাদ শাখা উদ্বোধন

    · সেকেন্দ্রাবাদ এবং বেঙ্গালুরু মধ্যে Paritta এর রাতভর Chanting

    Ven.Dr.Acharya Buddharakkhita নিবেদিত যাদুঘর - SMARANALOKA এর · উদ্বোধন

    মহাবোধি রিসার্চ সেন্টার লাইব্রেরী · উদ্বোধন - SANGĀYANA

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     প্রোগ্রাম

    8-3-2015 রবিবার, 9:30 AM

    পূজ্য ভিক্ষু দ্বারা বুদ্ধ বন্দনা এবং ধর্ম বক্তৃতা

    11 টা

    Sanghadana

    1 1:30 PM তে পোস্ট করা

    Ven.Acharya Buddharakkhita উপর ডকুমেন্টারী

    2:00 PM তে পোস্ট করা 1:30

    পালি ভাষা ও সাহিত্য উপর MBCTBS উদ্বোধনী বক্তৃতা

    Prof.J.Sreenivasa খান, সংস্কৃত অধ্যাপক, Mes কলেজ, বেঙ্গালুরু দ্বারা

    5 PM তে পোস্ট করা - 2:00 PM তে পোস্ট

    সেমিনার

    দক্ষিণ ভারতে বৌদ্ধ ঐতিহাসিক সাইট

    স্পিকার

    শ্রী A.Sundar

    জ্যেষ্ঠ প্রত্নতত্ত্ববিদ, শৃঙ্গেরী

    বিষয়: কর্ণাটক বৌদ্ধ শিল্প ও স্থাপত্য

     

    অধ্যাপক S.Nagaraju

    কেন্দ্রীয় হায়দ্রাবাদ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় সাবেক অধ্যাপক এবং

    ঠাকুর জাতীয় ফেলো এএসআই, বেঙ্গালুরু

    বিষয়: অন্ধ্র বৌদ্ধ সাইট

     

    Dr.Satyabhama Badarinath

    আঞ্চলিক পরিচালক, এএসআই, বেঙ্গালুরু

    বিষয়: তামিলনাড়ু বৌদ্ধ সাইট

     

    Dr.H.S.Gopala রাও

    সিনিয়র ইতিহাসবিদ, বেঙ্গালুরু

    বিষয়: কর্ণাটক বৌদ্ধ সূত্র-লিপি উত্কিরণবিদ্যা

     

    দ্বারা সভাপতিত্বে

    প্রবীণ Kassapa থিরা

    প্রেসিডেন্ট, মহা বোধি সোসাইটি, বেঙ্গালুরু

     

    6:30 PM তে পোস্ট করা

    বোধি পূজা - দীপা পূজা

    দক্ষিণ ভারতে বৌদ্ধ ঐতিহাসিক সাইট

    “ধর্ম মাস্টার” Tánlín এর সংক্ষিপ্ত জীবনী দুই entrances এবং চার আইন,
    ঐতিহ্যগতভাবে জাজেন আরোপিত একটি টেক্সট, এবং দক্ষিণ ভারতীয় হিসেবে জাজেন
    সনাক্ত করার জন্য প্রথম পাঠ্য তার ভূমিকা পাওয়া যায়:

    ধর্ম মাস্টার পশ্চিম অঞ্চল একটি দক্ষিণ ভারতীয় ছিল. তিনি একজন মহান ভারতীয় রাজা তৃতীয় পুত্র. তার
    উচ্চাকাঙ্ক্ষা মহাযান পথ রাখা, এবং তাই তিনি একটি সন্ন্যাসী এর কালো পোশাক
    জন্য তার সাদা সাধারণ লোক এর পোশাক একপাশে সরিয়ে রাখা […] Outlands
    সত্য শিক্ষা পতন পথ, পরবর্তীকালে তিনি সম্পর্কে ভ্রমণ, দূরবর্তী পাহাড় এবং
    সমুদ্র পার
    হান এবং Wei শিক্ষা প্রচার.

    জাজেন
    বিশেষভাবে, যাদের আধুনিক পরে জাজেন সাহিত্য খুব স্পষ্টভাবে চিন্তা করা হবে
    Dàoyù (道 育) এবং Huike (慧 可) উল্লেখ, শিষ্যদের আকৃষ্ট.
    Tánlín ঐতিহ্যগতভাবে জাজেন শিষ্য হিসেবে গণ্য করা হয়েছে যদিও, এটা তিনি Huike একজন ছাত্র ছিল যে সম্ভবত.

    জাজেন BodhidharmaYoshitoshi1887.jpg
    জাজেন, Yoshitoshi, 1887 দ্বারা woodblock মুদ্রণ.
    লুইয়াং
    নীল নেত্রবিশিষ্ট মধ্য এশিয়া সন্ন্যাসী শিক্ষা ইস্ট এশিয়ান সন্ন্যাসী. 9 ম বা 10 ম শতাব্দী থেকে তারিখের Bezeklik হাজার বুদ্ধ গুহা থেকে একটি ফ্রেস্কো,.
     
    একটি Dehua দেরী মিং রাজবংশের থেকে, জাজেন এর চীনামাটির বাসন শিলারুপ গুদাম

    জাজেন এই জাপানি স্ক্রোল হাতের লেখা “সরাসরি মানুষের হৃদয় থেকে জেন পয়েন্ট, আপনার প্রকৃতির মধ্যে দেখতে এবং বুদ্ধ হয়ে” সার্চ. এটা Hakuin Ekaku দ্বারা নির্মিত হয়েছিল (1685 1768) থেকে

    জাজেন ভাস্কর্য
    Huike জাজেন তার হাত প্রস্তাব. Sesshū দ্বারা কালি পেইন্টিং

    বুদ্ধ বিহার
      
    গুলবার্গ

    বুধা বিহার গুলবার্গ আলোকিত

      
        Budh বিহার, গুলবার্গ: অনাবাসী সময়

    12pm থেকে সকাল 8 টা থেকে (দুপুর)

    রাত 10 টা থেকে বিকাল 5 টা (সান্ধ্য)

    গুলবার্গ দক্ষিণ ভারতের একটি প্রধান বৌদ্ধ তীর্থযাত্রী কেন্দ্র হিসাবে উত্থান সেট করা হয়. Siddarth বিহার ট্রাস্ট বুদ্ধ বিহার আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে ভারতের রাষ্ট্রপতি এবং দালাই লামা তিব্বতের আধ্যাত্মিক নেতা উদ্বোধন করেন.

    ছয়
    কিলোমিটার দূরে গুলবার্গ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় ক্যাম্পাস সংলগ্ন গুলবার্গ থেকে
    অবস্থিত, বুদ্ধ বিহার জটিল ঐতিহ্যগত বৌদ্ধ স্থাপত্য অনুসারে নির্মাণ করা
    হয়েছে.
    উঁচু মাটিতে মনোরম গম্বুজ বিশিষ্ট গঠন তাজমহল এক মনে করিয়ে দেয়.
    কিন্তু দুই মধ্যে মৌলিক পার্থক্য আছে. তাজ একটি সাদা মার্বেল আশ্চর্য হয়, বিহার এর গম্বুজ ইতালীয় সাদা মার্বেল চিপ দিয়ে ঢেকে একটি আরসিসি কাঠামো. বিহার সাঁচী, Saranath, অজন্তা এবং নাগপুর বৌদ্ধ কেন্দ্র স্থাপত্য বৈশিষ্ট্য সেরা মিলে.

    মূলত একটি ছোট এক বিহার নির্মাণ, ট্রাস্ট এটা এক দক্ষিণ সেরা Vihars
    তৈরীর একটি বিশাল জটিল করতে পরিকল্পনা পরিবর্তন 2002 সালে শুরু করেন.

    18
    একর জুড়ে ছড়িয়ে, এটা একতলা ভুগর্ভস্থ ভাণ্ডার একটি ধ্যান কেন্দ্র এবং
    (পালি মধ্যে মন্দির) একটি পালনকর্তা বুদ্ধ চৈত্য যা প্রধান ভবনের মধ্যে ভাগ
    করা যায়.
    গম্বুজ উচ্চতা 70 ফুট এবং ব্যাস 59 ফুট.

    এছাড়া, এটা মূল ভবনের কোণে 48 ফুট লম্বা চার অশোক স্তম্ভ আছে. এটি একটি আকর্ষণীয় Sankalpa স্তূপ, দৈর্ঘ্য 26 ফুট এবং ব্যাস 30 ফুট আছে.

    অন্যান্য
    আকর্ষণ সাঁচী দরজা নামে পরিচিত একটি 2,500 আসন ক্ষমতা, চার বড় Mahadwaras
    (খিলান) এবং ধর্ম ক্রান্তি যাত্রা ইঙ্গিত ড বিআর আম্বেদকর একটি ব্রোঞ্জ
    মূর্তি নেতৃত্বে 11 সিমেন্ট মূর্তি একটি দলের সঙ্গে 100 × 100 ফুট খোলা
    থিয়েটার হয়
    1956
    এর আরেকটি বৈশিষ্ট্য ইউ-আকৃতির ধর্ম জটিল হাউজিং একটি আস্তানা, একটি
    লাইব্রেরি, গবেষণা কেন্দ্র, রান্নাঘর, ডাইনিং হল, কনফারেন্স হল, প্রদর্শনী
    হল এবং অতিথি কক্ষ.
    প্রধান জটিল ধ্যান মন্দির (ধ্যান হল) মনোযোগ আকর্ষণ করে. এটা বিখ্যাত ভাস্কর অশোক Gudigar দ্বারা Bidadi তৈরি একটি 6.5 ফুট লম্বা কালো গ্রানাইট বুদ্ধ মূর্তি আছে. এটি মন্ত্রকে “বুদ্ধং Sharanam গচ্ছামি” (আমি সর্বোচ্চ জ্ঞান আশ্রয়
    গ্রহণ করা) এর chanting থেকে যখন শোনা বুদ্ধের স্মিত মুখ দেখতে সুখ হয়.

    প্রার্থনা হল 170 স্তম্ভ এবং 284 ব্লক সঙ্গে 15,625 বর্গ ফুট. প্রতিটি
    ব্লক অজন্তা, ইলোরা, নাগপুর, বুদ্ধ গয়া, Saranath, Rajgir, লুম্বিনি,
    Kusinara, থাইল্যান্ড, সিঙ্গাপুর, শ্রীলঙ্কা, তিব্বত, জাপান এবং রোম বুদ্ধ
    মন্দির স্থাপত্য প্রতিনিধিত্বমূলক একটি খোদাই আছে.
    হলের marbled তল বিভিন্ন eras বুদ্ধ নামকরণ করা 28 বিপুল ভেন্টিলেটর আছে 1500 একটি আসনবিন্যাস ক্ষমতা আছে.

    জটিল প্রধান আকর্ষণ উপবিষ্ট বুদ্ধের 8.5 ফুট লম্বা panchaloha মূর্তি লেপা একটি স্বর্ণ হয়. এই দক্ষিণ সবচেয়ে লম্বা বুদ্ধ মূর্তি হতে অনুমিত হয়. থাইল্যান্ড থেকে আমদানি করা, এটা গত বছরের সেপ্টেম্বর মাসে পবিত্র ছিল. বুদ্ধ শিষ্যদের আনন্দ এবং Kashyapara মূর্তি জটিল অংশ. হল দেয়াল, Tipitaka এবং বুদ্ধ Charite Jataka পরের পেশ সিমেন্ট ভাস্কর্য আছে 500 একটি আসনবিন্যাস ক্ষমতা আছে.

    তিনটি বিশাল খিলান আকৃতির বেসমেন্ট থেকে entrances এবং স্থল মেঝে আছে. একতলা মহল বুদ্ধের সিমেন্ট মূর্তি আছে. প্রবেশ দরজা বৃক্ষবিশেষের কাষ্ঠ তৈরি করা হয়. গম্বুজ স্থল থেকে 75 ফুট এবং একটি 10 ​​ফুট লম্বা panchaloha Kalasha আছে.
    সাদা খিলান জ্ঞানদান symbolizes, যা একটি peepal পাতা (বোধি বৃক্ষ) এর আকৃতির হয়. একটি সুন্দর landscaped বাগান মন্দিরে Mahadwara থেকে প্রসারিত.

    চার কোণে অশোক স্তম্ভ চার নোবল সত্য বা আর্য সত্য চিহ্ন - দুর্ভোগ; দুর্ভোগ উৎপত্তি, যা সংযুক্তি; দুর্ভোগ শম যন্ত্রণা এবং পথ শম.

    পর্যবেক্ষণ করুন:

    http://www.neok12.com/video/History-of-India/zX0a76580042437d05760e45.htm

    জন্য

    বুদ্ধ ও অশোক 12:16 মিনিট

    http://www.neok12.com/video/History-of-India/zX0460595f5a77554f025c45.htm

    গ্রেট 3:00 মিনিট অশোক জন্য

    কর্ণাটকের বৌদ্ধ শিল্প ও স্থাপত্য

    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/budd/hd_budd.htm

    জন্য
    বৌদ্ধ আর্ট
    দেখুন ছবি

    পঞ্চম ও চতুর্থ শতাব্দীর বি.সি. বিশ্বব্যাপী বুদ্ধিজীবী উত্তেজিত করা একটি সময় ছিল. এটা যেমন সক্রেটিস এবং প্লেটো, কনফুসিয়াস এবং লাওজি হিসাবে মহান চিন্তাবিদদের, একটি বয়স ছিল. ভারতে, এটা শেষ পর্যন্ত পর্যন্ত তার স্বদেশ বহুদূরে ছড়িয়ে যে একটি ধর্ম উন্নত যার মৃত্যুর পর বুদ্ধ, এর বয়স ছিল.

    গুপ্ত কাল, ষষ্ঠ শতকের চতুর্থ থেকে, উত্তর ভারতের, কখনও কখনও, একটি
    স্বর্ণযুগ হিসাবে অভিহিত করা হয় বুদ্ধের একটি “আদর্শ ইমেজ” সৃষ্টি সাক্ষী.

    সিদ্ধার্থ, বুদ্ধ হয়ে ছিল প্রিন্স, যারা Kapilavastu, হিমালয়ের পাদদেশে একটি ছোট রাজ্যের রাজকীয় পরিবারে জন্মগ্রহণ করেন. তার
    ঋষির তিনি শারীরিক বিশ্বের বা পুরুষদের মন, হয় একটি সার্বজনীন বিজেতা
    হয়ে যায় যে পূর্বাভাস, যা একটি ঐশ্বরিক ধারণা এবং অলৌকিক জন্ম, ছিল.
    এটা পাস পরিপ্রেক্ষিতে যে আধুনিক বিজয় ছিল. জীবনের
    প্রকৃত উদ্দেশ্য চাইতে প্রাসাদ আনন্দ ছোড়, সিদ্ধার্থ প্রথম শুধুমাত্র
    একটি অকার্যকর ব্যায়াম হিসেবে ছয় বছর পর তা পরিত্যাগ, গুরুতর সন্ন্যাস পথ
    চেষ্টা করে.
    তিনি জ্ঞানদান অর্জন না হওয়া পর্যন্ত তারপর তিনি একটি বট গাছ তলায় যৌনশক্তি ধ্যান বসলেন. তিনি বুদ্ধ, বা অত: পর পরিচিত ছিল “আলোকিত এক.”

    তার বিলাসিতা এবং সন্ন্যাস উভয় অস্বীকার, মিডিল পথ. বৌদ্ধ
    সব পার্থিব অস্তিত্ব থেকে নির্বাণ, মুক্তির অর্জনের চূড়ান্ত উদ্দেশ্য
    নিয়ে, ভাল চিন্তা, ভাল উদ্দেশ্য, এবং সোজা জীবনযাত্রার একটি জীবন
    প্রস্তাব.
    বৌদ্ধ,
    ভারতের অন্যান্য ধর্মের মত, নবজন্ম একটি চক্র বিশ্বাস করে, কারণ অধিকাংশ
    মানুষ জন্য, নির্বাণ, দূরবর্তী ভবিষ্যতে এই ব্যবস্থার সবচেয়ে গুরত্বপূর্ণ.
    মানুষের পৃথিবীতে অনেক বার জন্ম হয়, সুযোগ সঙ্গে প্রতিটি সময় আরও নিজেদের নিখুঁত. এবং এটা তাদের নিজস্ব কর্মফল-কাজের সমষ্টি মোট ভাল এবং খারাপ-ভবিষ্যতে যে এই ভাগে পরিস্থিতিতে নির্ধারণ করা হয়. বুদ্ধ তার বিশ্বাস প্রচার ও পরিবর্তিত বিশাল সংখ্যা, যার ফলে তার জীবনের অবশিষ্ট চল্লিশ বছর কাটিয়েছি. যখন তিনি মারা যান ভারতে গতানুগতিক ছিল, তার শরীর, দাহ করা হয়.

    বুদ্ধের
    দাহ ধ্বংসাবশেষ বিভিন্ন অংশ বিভক্ত স্তূপ হিসাবে পরিচিত বড় গোলাকার ঢিবি
    মধ্যে প্রোথিত হয় যে ধ্বংসাবশেষ caskets মধ্যে স্থাপন করা হয়.
    এই ধরনের স্তূপ বৌদ্ধ সন্ন্যাসী কমপ্লেক্স কেন্দ্রীয় স্মৃতিস্তম্ভ গঠন করে. তারা বুদ্ধ এর অদেখা উপস্থিতি অনুভব করতে যারা আসতে দূরদূরান্ত থেকে তীর্থযাত্রীদের আকর্ষণ করে. স্তূপ অনুষ্ঠান পরিক্রমা জন্য একটি পাথ উপলব্ধ করা হয় যে একটি রেলিং দ্বারা আবদ্ধ থাকে. পবিত্র এলাকা চারটি প্রধান পয়েন্ট গেটওয়ের মাধ্যমে প্রবেশ করানো হয়.

    প্রথম শতাব্দীতে বিসি, ইট, কাঠ, খড়, এবং বাঁশ পচনশীল মিডিয়াতে কাজ করেছিলেন ভারতের শিল্পী, একটি খুব ব্যাপক স্কেলে পাথর গৃহীত. ত্রাণ ভাস্কর্য দিয়ে ঢেকে স্টোন রেল এবং গেটওয়ে, স্তূপ যোগ করা হয় নি. প্রিয় থিম হিসেবে আধুনিক পরের jatakas বলা হয় 550. নম্বর বিশ্বাস
    স্থাপন করে এবং প্রায়ই বৌদ্ধ শিক্ষা অভিযোজিত জনপ্রিয় পৌরাণিক কাহিনী
    অন্তর্ভুক্ত করা হয়েছে, যা তার আগের জীবন থেকে, বুদ্ধের ঐতিহাসিক জীবন
    থেকে ঘটনা ছিল.

    ভারত নিকটতম বৌদ্ধ শিল্প, বুদ্ধ মানুষের আকারে প্রতিনিধিত্ব ছিল না. তাঁর উপস্থিতি যেমন পদচিহ্নের এক জোড়া, একটি খালি আসন, অথবা একটি ছাতার
    তলায় একটি ফাঁকা স্থান হিসাবে, একটি চিহ্ন দ্বারা পরিবর্তে নির্দেশিত হয়.

    প্রথম
    শতক, এক বুদ্ধ মানুষের ইমেজ শৈল্পিক দৃশ্য আয়ত্ত আসেন, এবং এই ঘটনা
    ঘটেছে, যা এ প্রথম সাইট এক ভারতের উত্তর-পশ্চিম সীমান্ত বরাবর ছিল.
    গান্ধার
    হিসাবে পরিচিত এলাকায়, হেলেনীয় দুনিয়া থেকে শৈল্পিক উপাদান একটি অনন্য
    শৈলী তৈরি করতে ভারতীয় বৌদ্ধ প্রকাশ করা প্রয়োজন প্রতীকীবাদ সঙ্গে
    সংযুক্ত.
    তরঙ্গায়িত কার্ল সাজানো চুল সঙ্গে তরূণ বুদ্ধ অ্যাপোলো রোমান মূর্তি অনুরূপ; একটি রোমান গাউন কথা স্মরণ করিয়ে দেয় ভারী শাস্ত্রীয় ভাঁজ, সাজানো যদি উভয় কাঁধ আচ্ছাদন সন্ন্যাসী পোশাক. পূর্বে প্রাসাদ জীবনের তার আত্মত্যাগ একটি দেশীয় রত্নখচিত চিত্রে হিসাবে সিদ্ধার্থ অনেক উপস্থাপনা আছে. বৌদ্ধ
    শিল্প ফোটানো, ভবিষ্যত, মৈত্রেয় এর একটি বুদ্ধ এর ধারণা প্রসূত উভয় একটি
    বুদ্ধ একটি সন্ন্যাসী পোশাক এবং জ্ঞানদান আগে একটি দেশীয় বোধিসত্ত্ব
    হিসেবে পরিহিত হিসেবে.
    Gandharan
    শিল্পী পাথর এবং একটি আশ্রম স্তূপ প্রায় nichelike কুঠি মধ্যে স্থাপন করা
    হয়, যা যেমন ছবি, উত্পাদন প্লেস্তার লেপন উভয় ব্যবহার করা.
    Contemporaneously, মথুরা, ভারতের কুষাণ-সময়ের শিল্পী, বুদ্ধের একটি ভিন্ন চিত্র উত্পাদিত. তার শরীর পবিত্র দম (Prana) দ্বারা প্রসারিত হয়, এবং তার সংলগ্ন সন্ন্যাসী পোশাক বেয়ার ডান কাঁধ ছেড়ে draped হয়.

    গুরুতর,
    গম্ভীর মুখের সঙ্গে সারগর্ভ অনুপাত, ছবি, পাড় একটি ভারী বামাল তৈরি এবং
    বাম কাঁধে জানা যায় যে গাউন পরিহিত পরিহিত হয় যেখানে দক্ষিণ ভারতে,
    অন্ধ্র প্রদেশ প্রসূত তৃতীয় প্রভাবশালী বুদ্ধ টাইপ,.
    এই
    দক্ষিণ সাইট ভারত দক্ষিণ টিপ বন্ধ, শ্রীলঙ্কা বৌদ্ধ জমির জন্য শিল্পসম্মত
    অনুপ্রেরণা প্রদান করা, এবং শ্রীলংকার সন্ন্যাসী নিয়মিত এলাকায় পরিদর্শন
    করেন.
    এই শৈলী মূর্তি একটি সংখ্যা দক্ষিণ পূর্ব এশিয়া জুড়ে হিসাবে ভাল পাওয়া গেছে.

    সফল
    গুপ্ত কাল, ষষ্ঠ শতকের চতুর্থ থেকে, উত্তর ভারতের, কখনও কখনও, একটি
    স্বর্ণযুগ হিসাবে অভিহিত করা হয় বুদ্ধের একটি “আদর্শ ইমেজ” সৃষ্টি সাক্ষী.
    এই মথুরা শিল্পীদের দ্বারা নির্মিত ইন্দ্রি়গত ফর্ম সঙ্গে Gandharan অঞ্চল থেকে নির্বাচিত বৈশিষ্ট্য মিশ্রন দ্বারা অর্জন ছিল. গুপ্ত
    বুদ্ধ তাদের চুল ক্ষুদ্র ব্যক্তি কার্ল সাজানো আছে, এবং গাউন পরিহিত
    (সারনাথ এ হিসাবে) স্বচ্ছ sheaths (মথুরা এ হিসাবে) আচ্ছাদন ভাঁজ সুপারিশ
    স্ট্রিং একটি নেটওয়ার্ক আছে বা আছে.
    পোস্ট
    গুপ্ত এবং পাল ভারতে বা নেপাল, থাইল্যান্ড ও ইন্দোনেশিয়া কিনা তাদের
    নিম্নগামী এক নজরে এবং আধ্যাত্মিক বাতাবরণ সঙ্গে, গুপ্ত বুদ্ধ, শিল্পী
    ভবিষ্যত প্রজন্মের জন্য মডেল হয়ে ওঠে.
    বুদ্ধের গুপ্ত ধাতু ইমেজ চীন থেকে সিল্ক রোড বরাবর তীর্থযাত্রীদের দ্বারা গ্রহণ করা হয়.

    নিম্নলিখিত শতাব্দী ধরে সেখানে একটি বিস্তৃত প্যানথীয়ন এবং আরো বিশদ ধর্মানুষ্ঠান জড়িত যা বৌদ্ধ, এর একটি নতুন ফর্ম, উদ্ভব ঘটে. পরে বৌদ্ধ সবচেয়ে জনপ্রিয় তারা ছিল যাদের স্বর্গীয় Bodhisattvas ধারণা হিসেবে দেবী, চালু. সূক্ষ্ম
    ধাতু ইমেজ এবং পেইন্টিং উত্পাদিত হয় যেখানে নেপাল ও তিব্বত,, নতুন দেবত্ব
    একটি সম্পূর্ণ সেট তৈরি করা হয়েছিল এবং ভাস্কর্য এবং আঁকা স্ক্রল উভয়
    ঘটনাই.
    হিংস্র দেবতা বৌদ্ধ এবং তার মুমিনদের অভিভাবক ভূমিকা চালু ছিল. আরো
    একটি গূঢ় প্রকৃতির ছবি, আলিঙ্গনের মধ্যে ঈশ্বর এবং দেবী পেশ, উদ্ধার
    (মহিলা) জ্ঞান এবং সমবেদনা (পুরুষ) ইউনিয়ন থেকে যে ফলাফল আধিবিদ্যক ধারণা
    প্রকট উত্পাদিত হয়.
    বৌদ্ধ তার সহজ সূত্রপাত থেকে একটি দীর্ঘ পথ ভ্রমণ করেন.
    বিদ্যা Dehejia
    শিল্প ইতিহাস এবং প্রত্নতত্ত্ব, কলাম্বিয়া বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়

    Namdroling ঐতিহাসিক বাড়ী থেকে আকর্ষণ মঠ
    Namdroling ঐতিহাসিক বাড়ী থেকে আকর্ষণ মঠ এর ছবি

    অন্ধ্র Namdroling ঐতিহাসিক বাড়ী থেকে আকর্ষণ MonasteryBuddhist সাইট এর ফটো
    Nagarjunakonda

    বৌদ্ধ সাইটের 3 য় শতকের AD.jpg
    অবস্থান Macherla মন্ডল, গুন্টুর জেলা
    অন্তর্নির্মিত 225 খ্রিস্টাব্দ - 325 খ্রিস্টাব্দ
    ভারতের শরীর প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক সার্ভে পরিচালনা
    Nagarjunakonda
    (কোচিন পার্বত্য অর্থ) এখন একটি ঐতিহাসিক বৌদ্ধ শহরে, গুন্টুর জেলায়
    ত্রিভুজ কাছাকাছি অবস্থিত একটি দ্বীপ, অন্ধ্র প্রদেশ, ভারত.
    এটা রাজ্যের রাজধানী, Vijayawada 180 কিলোমিটার পশ্চিমে পাশ হয়. এটা শ্রী Parvata হিসেবে প্রাচীন কালে পরিচিত ভারতের ধনী বৌদ্ধ সাইট, এক. এটা এখন Nagarjunasagar বাঁধ অধীনে প্রায় সম্পূর্ণ মিথ্যা. বিশ্বাস
    করা হয় যারা কোচিন, 2nd শতাব্দিতে যারা বসবাস মহাযান বৌদ্ধধর্মের একটি
    দক্ষিণ ভারতীয় মাস্টার, এলাকায় বৌদ্ধ কর্মকান্ডের জন্য দায়ী করা হয়েছে
    পরে এটা নামকরণ করা হয়.
    সাইট হিসাবে পর্যন্ত চীন, গান্ধার, বাংলা ও শ্রীলঙ্কা থেকে ছাত্র আকৃষ্ট, একবার অনেক বৌদ্ধ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় এবং মঠ অবস্থান ছিল. সেখানে বৌদ্ধ প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক সাইট নিমজ্জিত, এবং পরে মানসিক এবং একটি দ্বীপ হয়ে উঠেছে, যা পাহাড়, উচ্চ ভূমি স্থানান্তর করা ছিল.

    ইতিহাস

    (-
    325 খ্রিস্টাব্দ 225 খ্রিস্টাব্দ), পূর্ব ডেকান মধ্যে Satavahanas এর
    উত্তরাধিকারী Nagarjunakonda নিষ্পত্তি (এছাড়াও Nāgārjunikoṇḍa) Ikshvaku
    রাজবংশের রাজধানী ছিল.
    এটা Sadvaha তার রাজত্বের সময় সেখানে প্রথম সন্ন্যাসী নির্মাণ অনুমোদিত বিশ্বাস করা হয়.

    প্রথম শতাব্দীতে সময়, সাইট অধিক 30 বৌদ্ধ বিহার আয়োজিত; খনন
    এই প্রারম্ভিক সময়ের ইতিহাস পাণ্ডিত্যপূর্ণ গবেষণা জন্য শিল্প কাজ এবং
    মহান তাত্পর্য শিলালিপি পাওয়া গেছে. [3] কোচিন sunyata (অকার্যকর) দর্শনের
    প্রবক্তা.
    সময়,
    বৌদ্ধ প্রায়ই এলাকা ব্যবহার করে এবং অন্ধ্র বাংলার পোর্ট শশব্যস্ততা বে
    পুনরায় স্টক আসন্ন যাত্রা জন্য পর শ্রীলংকা ও বার্মায় ছড়িয়ে পড়ে.
    তার
    পুত্র Ehuvula এবং তাদের বংশধরদের ছিল শ্রী Virapurusadatta, বংশের
    দ্বিতীয় রাজা, একটি বৌদ্ধ ছিল যে সাইট শো এ প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক শিলালিপি.
    শিলালিপি এছাড়াও Ikshvaku রানী তহবিল মাধ্যমে, মন্দির ও মঠ নির্মাণ রাষ্ট্রীয় জামিনদার প্রদর্শন করুন. বিশেষ করে Camtisiri, দশ বছর পরপর জন্য প্রধান বৌদ্ধস্তূপ বিল্ডিং নিহিত থাকার হিসাবে নথিভুক্ত করা হয়. এছাড়াও উচ্চবংশজাত ক্লাস অতিক্রম ছড়িয়ে সমর্থন, অনেক অ রাজকীয় নাম ধ্বংসাবশেষ মধ্যে তালিকাভুক্ত করা হচ্ছে. এর শিখর এ, অধিক ত্রিশ মঠ ছিল এবং এটি দক্ষিণ ভারতের বৃহত্তম বৌদ্ধ কেন্দ্র. শিলালিপি
    শ্রীলঙ্কা থেকে Mahāsāṃghika, Mahisasaka, এবং Mahaviharavasin, এর
    Bahuśrutīya এবং Aparamahavinaseliya উপ-শিক্ষক একাত্মতার মঠ আছে যে ছিল
    দেখিয়েছেন.
    এলাকার স্থাপত্য এই ঐতিহ্যের যে প্রতিফলিত করে. তামিল রাজ্য, উড়িষ্যা, কলিঙ্গ, গান্ধার, বাংলা, সিংহল (Culadhammagiri) এবং চীন থেকে উদ্ভব বৌদ্ধ পণ্ডিতদের জন্য অন্যান্য মঠ ছিল. গৌতম বুদ্ধ যে একটি প্রজনন বিশ্বাস করা হয়, যা Mahaviharavasin আশ্রম, সাইট এ একটি পদাঙ্ক আছে.

    অঞ্চলের Rudrapurusa, গত Ikshvaku রাজার মৃত্যুর পর অস্বীকার করেছে. Excavations
    1927 সালে শুরু করেন, এবং প্রথম খুঁজে বের করে তারা একবার প্রাচীন ভারতে
    বৌদ্ধ শেখার জন্য একটি অপরিমেয় কেন্দ্র কি ছিল এ 1926 সালে স্তূপ এর
    ধ্বংসাবশেষ এবং chaityas unearthed 1931 পর্যন্ত খনন একটানা ছিল 1928 সালে
    ইংরেজি archaeologists দ্বারা তৈরি করা হয়েছে.
    এই 16 শতকের পাথর বয়স থেকে ডেটিং অধিক 100 আরও ধ্বংসাবশেষ unearthing, পুরো উপত্যকা অন্তর্ভুক্ত 1954 সালে প্রসারিত ছিল.

    যখন
    Ayaka, Nagarjunakonda এ মহান স্তূপ স্তূপ uncased বর্গ জন্যে, তার ইঁটের
    উপর মাতাল করা হচ্ছে এবং একটি বৃহৎ মাল্য-অলঙ্কার দ্বারা সজ্জিত স্তূপ. [4]
    মূল স্তূপ 3 য় শতকে Ikshvaku রাজকুমারী Chamtisiri দ্বারা সংস্কার করা
    হয়
    পাথর -pillars দূর্গ ছিল. কাঠ ছিল যদি থাকে বাইরের রেলিং, তার uprights একটি ইট থামাল উপর করত. স্তূপ, ব্যাস 32.3 মি, একটি 4 মিটার প্রশস্ত circumambulatory 18 মিটার উচ্চতা বেড়ে যায়. মেহেদি 1.5 মিটার দাঁড়িয়ে Ayaka-প্ল্যাটফর্মের 6.7 পরিমাপ আয়তক্ষেত্রাকার অফসেট 1.5 মিটার ছিল. [5]
    বুদ্ধ মূর্তি এবং অন্যান্য মিনার চওড়া দেখুন

    একটি
    সেচ বাঁধ একটি জলাধার জলের অধীনে মূল সাইট submerging, কাছাকাছি কৃষ্ণ নদী
    জুড়ে নির্মাণ করা হয় যখন একটি প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক বিপর্যয়, 1960 সালে আঘাত
    হানে.
    বন্যা
    এর অগ্রিম, বিভিন্ন মিনার পর্যন্ত খনন করা হয়েছিল এবং পূর্ব প্লাবিত
    এলাকা, মূল ভূখন্ড থেকে স্থানান্তর করা হয় একটি যাদুঘর 1966 অন্যান্য
    মিনার নির্মিত হয়েছিল যেখানে কোচিন হিল, উপরে স্থানান্তর করা.
    উত্সর্গীকৃত প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিকদের প্রায় সব ধ্বংসাবশেষ পুনরুদ্ধার করা.
    Nagarjunasagar বাঁধ
    মূল নিবন্ধ: স্ক্রীনটিপ, পর্দা মন্তব্য

    Nagarjunasagar বাঁধ বিশ্বের সবচেয়ে লম্বা গাঁথনি বাঁধ. বৌদ্ধ সভ্যতার খনন দেহাবশেষ মনুষ্যসৃষ্ট Nagarjunasagar লেক এর মাঝে অবস্থিত দ্বীপে একটি যাদুঘর এ পুনর্নির্মিত এবং সংরক্ষিত হয়. সাইট একটি 14 শতকের দুর্গ, মধ্যযুগীয় মন্দির এবং বৌদ্ধ বিহার মত নির্মিত একটি যাদুঘর রয়েছে. যাদুঘর বৌদ্ধ সংস্কৃতি ও শিল্প ধ্বংসাবশেষ একটি সংগ্রহ ঘর. এই একটি ছোট দাঁত ও গৌতম বুদ্ধ যে বিশ্বাস করা একটি কানের রিং অন্তর্ভুক্ত. Nagarjunakonda নামে Mahachaitya এর প্রধান বৌদ্ধস্তূপ বুদ্ধের পবিত্র ধ্বংসাবশেষ ধারণ বিশ্বাস করা হয়. বুদ্ধ একটি আংশিকভাবে নষ্ট একশিলা মূর্তি যাদুঘর এ প্রধান আকর্ষণ. এটি পুরাপলীয় এবং নিওলিথিক বার, যেমন friezes, কয়েন এবং মণিরত্ন থেকে সরঞ্জাম আকারে ঐতিহাসিক খুঁজে বের করে ঘর. [6] [7]
    ভ্রমণব্যবস্থা

    গুন্টুর জেলায় অবস্থিত [8] রাজ্য হাইওয়ে উপর ব্যবহারযোগ্য না হয়. সবচেয়ে কাছের রেল স্টেশন 29 কিলোমিটার দূরে Macherla, হয়. এটা মূল ভূখন্ড থেকে একটি খেয়া দ্বারা সংযুক্ত করা হয়.
    Megalith বয়স কবর এলাকা 2nd শতাব্দীর এ.ডি.

    এলাকা
    বাঁধ কাছাকাছি একটি দেখার এলাকা থেকে উপত্যকা প্যানোরামিক জন্য পরিচিত,
    এবং প্রাকৃতিক জলপ্রপাত সাইট হয়, এছাড়াও কুমির জন্য প্রজনন কেন্দ্র যে
    একটি ব্লু উপহ্রদ মধ্যে 22 মিটার নিচে নির্ঝর যা Ethipothala জলপ্রপাত.
    কাছাকাছি শ্রীশৈলম বন্যপ্রাণী অভয়ারণ্য, বিভিন্ন সরীসৃপ, পাখি এবং পশুদের জন্য একটি প্রকল্প টাইগার রিজার্ভ এবং আশ্রয়. Nallamala পাহাড় কৃষ্ণ তীরে অস্ত যায়, যা শ্রীশৈলম, 12 পবিত্র
    জ্যোতির্লিঙ্গ এক যে একটি শিব মন্দির সহ অপরিমেয় ঐতিহাসিক এবং ধর্মীয়
    তাত্পর্য, এর একটি সাইট.
    Nagarjunakonda থেকে ফিরে APTDC যাত্রী

    Amaravati, অন্ধ্র প্রদেশ
    উপরের বাম থেকে Amaravati পূর্ণাঙ্গতা ডানদিকে: Amareswara স্বামী
    মন্দির, ধ্যান বুদ্ধ মূর্তি, নদী কৃষ্ণা, Amaravati মহা বৌদ্ধস্তূপ এর
    কীর্তি শট
    বৌদ্ধস্তূপ

    কৃষ্ণ
    এবং গোদাবরী নদী মধ্যে অঞ্চলের Amaravati তাদের মধ্যে একজন হচ্ছে 2nd
    শতাব্দী BCE থেকে বৌদ্ধ জন্য একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ স্থান ছিল.
    বৌদ্ধ স্তূপ 200 BCE এর মধ্যে অশোকের রাজত্বকালে নির্মিত হয়েছিল, বুদ্ধ গল্প বলে যে প্যানেল উত্কীর্ণ ছিল. ,
    সংরক্ষণ, বিভিন্ন জাদুঘর (Masulipatnam ইত্যাদি চেন্নাই, কলকাতা, লন্ডন,)
    বিতরণের জন্য গ্লানিকর Shimada দ্বারা বর্ণিত হয়েছে. [8] বৌদ্ধ পতন সময়,
    এই স্তূপ এছাড়াও ভাস্কর্য ছিল আবিষ্কার, অপব্যবহার এবং ধ্বংস
    অবহেলিত এবং এটি ধ্বংসস্তুপের নিচে দাফন করা হয়. স্তূপ এবং এটি ছিল বিস্মৃত যে পরে মেরামত উল্লেখ শ্রীলঙ্কা একটি 14 শতকের খোদাই নেই. স্তূপ Kalachakra এর Vajrayana শিক্ষার সাথে সম্পর্কিত হয়, এখনও তিব্বতী বৌদ্ধ আজ চর্চা. লামা তিব্বত 2006 সালে এই অবস্থানে একটি Kalachakra দীক্ষা পরিচালিত.
    চেন্নাই যাদুঘর, ভারত এ Amaravati স্তূপ ত্রাণ
    অশোক Edicts বিতরণ
    প্রাচীন শিল্প

    শিল্প
    ঐতিহাসিক তিনটি প্রধান শৈলী বা প্রাচীন ভারতীয় শিল্পের স্কুলের এক, অন্য
    দুটি গান্ধার শৈলী এবং মথুরা শৈলী হচ্ছে Amaravati শিল্প বিবেচনা.
    Amaravati
    বৌদ্ধ ভাস্কর্য কিছু ঘনিষ্ঠ বাণিজ্য ও দক্ষিণ ভারত ও প্রাচীন রোমান মধ্যে
    কূটনৈতিক যোগাযোগ প্রত্যক্ষ ফল ছিল একটি গ্রেকো-রোমান প্রভাব বিশ্বাসঘাতকতা
    করা.
    প্রকৃতপক্ষে, Amaravati নিজের কিছু রোমান কয়েন পাওয়া গেছে. এগমোর এ সরকার মিউজিয়াম (মাদ্রাজ মিউজিয়াম) এবং ব্রিটিশ মিউজিয়াম, লন্ডন হোস্ট “Amaravati গ্যালারি”.

    চীনা
    পর্যটক ও বৌদ্ধ সন্ন্যাসী হিউয়েন সাং (হিউয়েন সাঙ), 640 খ্রিস্টাব্দে
    Amaravati পরিদর্শন একদা জন্য থাকুন এবং ‘Abhidhammapitakam’ চর্চিত.
    হিউয়েন সাঙ স্থানের একটি প্রসিদ্ধ অ্যাকাউন্ট লিখেছেন, বিহার ও আশ্রম অস্তিত্ব.
    Amaravati স্কুল

    Amaravati
    সালে, পূর্ব ডেকান অবস্থিত, শিল্প ফর্ম বিভিন্ন ধরনের প্রসূত এবং 200-100
    খ্রিস্টপূর্ব থেকে শুরু প্রায় ছয় শতাব্দী উদিত.
    অন্যান্য গ্রুপ (হালেবিডুর, কর্মকর্তা, এবং সোমালিয়ার) দ্বারা প্রথম
    Satavahanas দ্বারা এবং পরে Ikshvakus দ্বারা এবং পৃষ্ঠপোষকতা, কার্যকলাপ
    চার সময়সীমার সহজে পরিলক্ষিত হয়.

    শিল্প Amaravati স্কুল অব ইন্ডিয়ান আর্ট ইতিহাসে একটি প্রসিদ্ধ স্থান দখল করে. 3 য় শতাব্দীর বিসি সালে এর শুরু সঙ্গে Amaravati একবার Mahachaitya তার
    ইতিহাস একটি সহস্রাব্দের এবং একটি অর্ধ একটি নির্দিষ্ট সময়ের উপর ব্যাপ্ত
    সঙ্গে এখানে অবস্থিত বৌদ্ধ মহিমাম্বিত স্মৃতিস্তম্ভ সুশোভিত যে ভাস্কর্য
    সম্পদ ছায়াপথ মাধ্যমে তার অধ্যায়গুলির unfolds.

    Amaravati বৌদ্ধ সাইট এর ফটো

    Amaravati বৌদ্ধ সাইট এর ফটো

    Amaravati বৌদ্ধ SiteGuntupalli বৌদ্ধ গুহা ছবি
    দা
    আপনি সমস্ত ধন্যবাদ :) ‘

    Amravathi
    অন্ধ্র
    পালি, Amaravathi বা Dhanyakataka / Dharanikota মধ্যে চিরকাল বসবাসকারী
    আবাস গ্রেট বৌদ্ধ বৌদ্ধস্তূপ এবং সম্রাট অশোক রাজত্বের অধীনে নির্মিত বৌদ্ধ
    বসতি 2000 বছর বয়সী ধ্বংসাবশেষ নিয়ে গঠিত হিসেবে PradeshInterpreted.
    এই 27 মিটার উচ্চ গ্রেট বৌদ্ধ স্তূপ, আলো ঢিপি ভারতের সবচেয়ে বড় এক - এছাড়াও Mahastupa এবং Deepaladinne হিসাবে পরিচিত. একটি বিজ্ঞপ্তি vedika সঙ্গে ইট তৈরি, প্রচুর সম্মান স্তূপ চারটি প্রধান
    নির্দেশাবলী মধ্যে protruding, 95 ফুট উচ্চ প্ল্যাটফর্মের সাথে খচিত হয়.

    Vajrayana ঐতিহ্যগত সূত্র মতে, গৌতম বুদ্ধ Amravathi এ Kalachakra অনুষ্ঠান পরিচালনা করেন. Satyavahanas রাজধানী, সাইট এর প্রধান হাইলাইট বর্তমানে সাম্প্রতিক খনন
    একটি বৌদ্ধ মন্দির ও বৌদ্ধ হস্তনির্মিত বেড়াবে একটি ছোট যাদুঘর অবশেষ
    রয়েছে.
    অন্ধ্র প্রদেশ ট্যুর জন্য জিজ্ঞাসা করুন
    Nagarjunakonda
    কোচিন, দক্ষিণ ভারতে মহাযান বৌদ্ধধর্মের একটি মাস্টার, Nagarjunakonda বলা ঐতিহাসিক পাহাড় বৌদ্ধ হাব হিসেবে কাজ নামকরণ. ভারত
    এর ধনী বৌদ্ধ সাইটের ওয়ান, Nagarjunakonda প্রাচীন কালে চীন, গান্ধার,
    বাংলা ও শ্রীলঙ্কা থেকে ছাত্র আকৃষ্ট, যা অনেক বৌদ্ধ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় এবং মঠ
    এর ধ্বংসাবশেষ হোস্ট.
    বর্তমানে কি Nagarjunakonda এর গঠন হাজার বছর আগে উদিত যে একটি হারিয়ে
    সভ্যতা যা symbolizes একটি দ্বীপে একটি পুনঃস্থাপন বৌদ্ধ সাইট.

    তারিখ পর্যন্ত খনন শহর বৌদ্ধধর্মের শক্তিশালী প্রতিষ্ঠা উপর একটি হালকা নিক্ষেপ, 30 বৌদ্ধ মঠ পাওয়া গেছে. অন্যান্য মহা Chaitya, বিহার, বুদ্ধ মূর্তি, ধ্বংসাবশেষ, পাথর ছবি,
    Jataka পরের এনক্রিপ্ট প্যানেল এবং বৌদ্ধ উৎসের অন্যান্য আইটেম
    অন্তর্ভুক্ত.

    Chandavaram
    Excavations, Chandavaram সম্পন্ন প্রাচীন বৌদ্ধ ঐতিহ্য সাইট Mahastupa
    পাকা প্ল্যাটফর্ম, Chaityagriha ব্রত স্তূপ, ড্রাম স্ল্যাব এবং ব্রাহ্মী
    লিপি লেবেল উপর নির্মিত প্রকাশ করেছেন.

    Anupa
    একটি বৌদ্ধ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, অ্যাম্ফিথিয়েটার, বিহার ও Chaityas সহ বৌদ্ধ ঐতিহ্য সম্প্রতি খনন দেহাবশেষ দ্বারা পরিবেষ্টিত; Anupa অন্ধ্র প্রদেশে বৌদ্ধ সার্কিট অংশ ফর্ম.

    অন্ধ্র PradeshThotlakonda
    Mangamaripeta
    পার্বত্য উপরে অবস্থিত, Thotlakonda ভারত, শ্রীলঙ্কা ও দক্ষিণ-পূর্ব
    এশিয়ার অন্যান্য অংশের মধ্যে বৌদ্ধ সংস্কৃতির জন্য একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ তথ্য
    বিনিময় স্পট হিসাবে দায়িত্ব পালন করেন.
    কলকাতা
    বন্দর শহর থেকে প্রায় 16 কিমি, সাইট একটি হীনযান আশ্রম, Mahastupa, 16
    ব্রত স্তূপ, একটি পাথর pillared ধর্মসভা হল, সমন্বিত একটি বৌদ্ধ কমপ্লেক্স
    হোস্ট apsidal চৈত্য grihas থেকে and10 বিহার.
    ashthamangal
    চিহ্ন পা ছাপ - খনন, 5 বছর ধরে, অন্যান্য গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বৌদ্ধ 12 ব্রাহ্মী
    লিপি, sculpted প্যানেল, পাথর ক্ষুদ্র স্তূপ মডেল এবং বুদ্ধ padukas সহ
    অবশেষ প্রকাশ করেছেন.
    বর্তমানে, ধ্যান বুদ্ধ মূর্তি বৌদ্ধ সাইট adorns - Thotlakonda.

    Bavikonda
    কলকাতা
    প্রায় আরেকটি বৌদ্ধ ঐতিহ্য সাইট, Bavikonda পার্বত্য একটি Mahachaitya,
    বড় বিহার জটিল, অনেক ব্রত স্তূপ, শিলা কাটা গুহা, একটি পাথর pillared
    ধর্মসভা হল, আয়তক্ষেত্রাকার হল এবং খনন করার সময় একটি খাবারঘর সহ 26
    স্ট্রাকচার একটি বৌদ্ধ জটিল সমন্বয়ে গঠিত ধ্বংসাবশেষ unearthed.
    হীনযান, মহাযান এবং Vajrayana এখানে উদিত - প্রমাণ বৌদ্ধ সব তিনটি শাখা যে শোকেস.

    প্রভু বুদ্ধ খনন সময় আবিষ্কৃত হয় এর মর বিশ্বাস করা একটি পাত্র মধ্যে সংরক্ষিত হাড় একটি অংশ রয়ে যায়. এশিয়ার প্রাচীনতম এবং সবচেয়ে সম্মানিত বৌদ্ধ সাইট মধ্যে এক গণনা করা,
    Bavikonda ফিরে একবার ভারত দক্ষিণ অংশে যে অস্তিত্ব সময় ধর্মের ইতিহাস
    ট্রেস.

    Bhattiprolu
    Pratipalapura, Bhattiprolu বর্তমান গুন্টুর জেলায় ছালা কিংডম আমলে একজন বৌদ্ধ শহরে হিসেবে উদিত হিসেবে প্রাচীনকালে পরিচিত. চিন্না লান্জা Dibba / Vikramarka কোটা Dibba হিসাবে স্থানীয়ভাবে
    বিখ্যাত তার প্রাচীন বুদ্ধ স্তূপ জন্য প্রচুর সম্মান, সাইট তেলুগু, অন্ধ্র
    প্রদেশ রাজ্যের ভাষা, ব্রাহ্মী লিপি থেকে তার উদ্ভব রূপটি যে ভাষাগত প্রমাণ
    যথার্থ.

    Bhattiprolu
    এর excavations তিন তালিকাভুক্ত পাথর ধ্বংসাবশেষ caskets সমন্বিত তিন
    ঢিবি, বুদ্ধ এবং jewels ধ্বংসাবশেষ আবিষ্কৃত হয় যেখানে 19 শতকের মধ্যে
    আলেকজান্ডার Rea গ্রহণ করা হয়.
    সাইটের উল্লেখযোগ্য আবিষ্কার Mahachaitya স্তূপ, ক্রিস্টাল ধ্বংসাবশেষ কৌটা এবং বুদ্ধের বিভিন্ন চিত্র রয়েছে.

    Sankaram
    Sankaram
    একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বৌদ্ধ সাইট ইট, শিলা-কাটা গুহা, আদি ঐতিহাসিক
    মৃত্শিল্প, ইট-নির্মিত স্ট্রাকচারাল edifices এবং ফিরে 1 ম শতাব্দী থেকে
    ডেট যে সাতবাহন কয়েন দিয়ে ঢেকে শিলা স্তূপ প্রাচীন ধ্বংসাবশেষ অতিরিক্ত
    বৈশিষ্ট্যগুলিও উপস্থিত রয়েছে.
    Sankaram বন্ধ, এক গুহা ছদ্মরূপ শিলা ভাস্কর্য মাধ্যমে বুদ্ধের জীবনের
    সঙ্গে ঘনিষ্ঠ সংযোগ অনুভব করতে পারেন যেখানে অবস্থিত Bojjannakonda অন্য
    ঐতিহ্য সাইট.

    Lingalametta
    Lingalametta শিলা শত শত পাহাড় জুড়ে ছড়িয়ে সারি একশিলা স্তূপ, কাটা অতিরিক্ত বৈশিষ্ট্যগুলিও উপস্থিত রয়েছে. এখানে অন্যান্য বৌদ্ধ আকর্ষণ ধ্বংসাবশেষ কৌটা, তিন চৈত্য হল, ব্রত প্ল্যাটফর্ম, স্তূপ এবং Vajrayana ভাস্কর্য অন্তর্ভুক্ত. বর্তমান বিহার থেরাভাদা, মহাযান এবং Vajrayana সহ বৌদ্ধ তিনটি স্কুলের উন্নয়ন ভাষায় বর্ণনা করা যায়.

    Undawalli গুহা
    Vijaywada কাছাকাছি Undawalli গুহা ভারত শেখ শিলা কাটা স্থাপত্য গুহা এক. একটি
    পাহাড়ের উপর কঠিন বেলেপাথর এর উত্কীর্ণ আউট, প্রধান গুহা অধ্যায় বিষ্ণু,
    শিব ও ব্রহ্মার মত দেবতা সমন্বিত অন্যান্য গুহা সঙ্গে বরাবর আদিম শিলা
    আশ্রম কোষ রয়েছে.
    এই ধ্বংসাবশেষ প্রথম তলায় এখনও কিছু বৌদ্ধ ভাস্কর্য সঙ্গে বরাবর বৌদ্ধ বিহার শৈলী অপরিবর্তিত.

    অন্ধ্র PradeshGhantasala
    Ghantasala শহরে বৌদ্ধ ভাস্কর্য জন্য একটি বিরল ও গুরুত্বপূর্ণ কেন্দ্র হিসেবে কাজ করে. সাইট 19 শতকের খনন চুনাপাথর কলাম এবং বৌদ্ধ সন্ন্যাসী প্রতিষ্ঠান যুক্ত pillared হল উত্কীর্ণ উত্তোলন করেন. এই
    সঙ্গে বরাবর, এখানে উচ্চ 112 ফুট এবং 23 ফুট পরিধি সঙ্গে ছারখার মহা
    Chaitya স্তূপ 12 রাশিচক্র নক্ষত্রপুঞ্জ সঙ্গে তালিকাভুক্ত কেন্দ্রে একটি
    কঠিন ইট ঘনক্ষেত্র, গঠিত.
    বর্তমানে, সাইটের গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বৌদ্ধ স্তূপ এবং সাম্প্রতিক খনন সময় পাওয়া ভাস্কর্য স্ল্যাব ধারণকারী নিজস্ব যাদুঘর আছে. Ghantasala কাছাকাছি Adurru একটি Mahastupa ব্যাস 17 ফুট পরিমাপ হোস্ট.

    Gudiwada
    Vijaywada কাছাকাছি Gudiwada শহরে বৌদ্ধ এবং জৈন বিশ্বাসের উপর ভিত্তি করে ধ্বংসাবশেষ হোস্ট. বৌদ্ধ স্তূপ এর অবশিষ্টাংশ সঙ্গে প্রায় 99 কম ঢিবি এখানে খনন করা হয়.

    Salihundam
    Salihundam, গ্রাম বৌদ্ধ স্তূপ একটি সংখ্যা এবং একটি বিশাল আশ্রম জটিল সমন্বিত একটি বৌদ্ধ অবশেষ সাইট হিসাবে বিখ্যাত. থেরাভাদা, মহাযান এবং Vajrayana - নাটুকে প্রতিবেশ অন্তরে একটি টিলার উপর
    অবস্থিত, Salihundam একটি Chaityagriha ভান্ডার, স্ট্রাকচারাল মন্দির এবং
    তিনটি ভিন্ন বৌদ্ধ পর্যায়ের ধ্বংসাবশেষ বেড়াবে ভাস্কর্য একটি নম্বর আছে.

    Nelakondapalle
    Khammam জেলার Nelakondapalle Ikshvakus -Vishnukundin বার একাত্মতার একটি অবশেষ উদাহরণ বৌদ্ধ সাইট. খনন
    বিশাল দাঁড়িয়ে বুদ্ধ ইমেজ, Vishnukundin কয়েন, Vlharas, Mahachaitya,
    ব্রত স্তূপ, পোড়ামাটির মূর্তি, প্রথম দিকে ঐতিহাসিক মৃত্শিল্প এবং বুদ্ধ
    ব্রোঞ্জ ছবিটি একটি সংখ্যা আলোকে আনা.
    এই
    সাইটটি সম্ভবত ব্যবসায়ীদের জন্য উপকূলবর্তী এবং তেলেঙ্গানা অঞ্চলের মধ্যে
    একটি লিঙ্ক হিসাবে এবং বৌদ্ধ সন্ন্যাসী দায়িত্ব পালন করেন.
    প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক প্রমাণ ভিত্তিতে, সাইট 3 য় ও 5 ম খ্রিস্টাব্দ মধ্যে সময়ের জন্যে.

    Dantapuram
    Dantapuram সাইটের সাথে বৌদ্ধ সংযোগ নিষ্কাশিত খনন মাধ্যমে স্পষ্ট হয়. প্রায়ই
    বৌদ্ধ সাহিত্যে Dhantavaktruni কোটা হিসাবে উল্লেখ করা, সাইট পোড়ামাটির
    এর জপমালা, আধা মূল্যবান পাথরের গুটিকা, অলঙ্কার এবং বিভিন্ন রঙ্গিন কুমার
    মত বিভিন্ন পুরাকীর্তি সহ চার ইট ব্রত স্তূপ প্রকাশ করেনি.
    প্রমাণ এমনকি সাইটের বৌদ্ধ জন্য একটি সাংস্কৃতিক ও ধর্মীয় বিনিময় জোন হিসেবে কাজ করে যে শোকেস.

    Pavuralakonda

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    জন্য

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ywn9rE6OmmY&feature=plcp&context=C41e0b79VDvjVQa1PpcFMmMIU9t7zYiUy-_87fUO-aeBNfFNcgR7o%3D
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    থেকে

    আমাকে

    জন্য

    বন্ধ করুন ফিনিস

    চ্যাম্পিয়ন
    রেস, এক ঘন্টার মধ্যে 31 মিনিট এবং 51 সেকেন্ডের জাতি পূরণ করে প্রথম
    স্থান বিজয়ী কর্ণাটক থেকে Sreedhar সীতাকুণ্ড উপজেলা সঙ্গে ঘনিষ্ঠ শেষ
    দেখেছি.
    দ্বিতীয় স্থানে কর্ণাটক থেকে নবীন জন ভারতীয় সেনাবাহিনী থেকে অতুল কুমার তৃতীয় এবং চতুর্থ তামিলনাড়ু, থেকে সি রাজেশ জিতে ছিল.

    1 লাখ পুরস্কার, একটি রিলিজ বলেন.

    তিনি বলেন, জনাব রাজার আমরা সহ্যশক্তির পরীক্ষা দ্বিতীয় সংস্করণ উত্সাহী প্রতিক্রিয়া দেখতে সত্যিই খুশি বলেন, “. আমাদের প্রচেষ্টা ইকো-বন্ধুত্বপূর্ণ জীবনধারা তার ভরবেগ হচ্ছে মানিয়ে উত্সাহিত. “

    ভারত পরিবেশ, শিশু শিক্ষা এবং মহিলাদের কল্যাণের কারণ প্রতি কাজ সমর্থন একটি পৃথক ঘটনা বজায় রাখে নিবন্ধন মাধ্যমে আয় ভাগ করা হবে.

    ভিড় এছাড়াও পেশাদারদের দ্বারা বেঙ্গালুরু-ভিত্তিক লোক লয় ব্যান্ড
    Lagori, এবং ‘একটি নাম কি?’ রক ব্যান্ড দ্বারা ক্রিয়াকাণ্ড, যেমন চক্র
    শারীরিক কসরত উপভোগ করেন.

    এসসি / এসটি / ওবিসি ও ধর্মীয় সংখ্যালঘুদের তারা বিচার ব্যবস্থা থেকে
    রিজার্ভেশন নিরাপদ করার জন্য Behen Mayawatiji পিছনে দাঁড়ানো শুধুমাত্র
    যদি মৃত্যু ফাঁসির দড়ি থেকে সংরক্ষণ করা যাবে

    গোপীনাথ, B.com., এমবিএ

    এটি
    একটি অশুভ চোখ এবং অসম হাত দিয়ে একটি পাবলিক কর্তৃপক্ষ দ্বারা প্রয়োগ
    এবং পরিচালিত হয় যদি কার্যত অনুরূপ পরিস্থিতিতে ব্যক্তিদের মধ্যে অন্যায্য
    ও অবৈধ বৈষম্য করা, তাই হিসাবে “আইন যদিও নিজেই, তার মুখ পরিষ্কার এবং
    চেহারা ও নিরপেক্ষ হতে হবে, এখনো,
    তাদের অধিকার থেকে উপাদান, সমান ন্যায়বিচার অস্বীকার সংবিধান “হারাম মধ্যে এখনও.

                                       

    1978 সালে সাবেক সুপ্রিম কোর্টের বিচারক, V.R. Stockhol
    মৃত্যু বাক্য বিরুদ্ধে আন্তর্জাতিক সম্মেলন অতিথির, সম্প্রতি যারা মারা
    কৃষ্ণ আইয়ার, বলেন, “মৃত্যুদন্ড আইন ‘ক্রুদ্ধ রক্ত-গুলি সমতার মহিমা
    দরিদ্র উপর dealsthe মারাত্মক ঘা না সমৃদ্ধ, paraiah (অস্পৃশ্য) না
    ব্রাহ্মণ, কালো না সাদা, অসহায় না শীর্ষ কুকুর, অননুগামী না প্রথানুসারী “. তিনি আরও বলেন, “আইন এ সব ছাল কিন্তু শুধুমাত্র দরিদ্র, ক্ষমতাহীন, অশিক্ষিত অজ্ঞ কামড়ায়” বলেন. একটি বিশিষ্ট আইনজ্ঞ এই সৎ বিবৃতি বিবেক খুবই দুঃখিত হল এবং অনেক আগে আমাদের শাসকদের চোখ খোলা উচিত. কিন্তু মৃত্যুদন্ড গবেষণা প্রকল্প ‘এর সাম্প্রতিক ফলাফল অনেক কিছুই পরিবর্তিত হয়েছে যে উন্মুক্ত হয়েছে. আসলে, কিছু খারাপ থেকে খারাপ চলে গেছে.

    বর্ণ সব পরিব্যাপক এবং এই দেশে আজও বর্তমান. বিচার এটা কোন ব্যতিক্রম নয়. ইন্ডিয়ান
    এক্সপ্রেস, তারিখ Nov.3, 2014 এই দেশে prisioners এর 4.20 লক্ষ টাকা আউট,
    33.2 ওভার% 25,2% তাদের জনসংখ্যার তুলনায় বেশি, যা এসসি / জনজাতিকে, যে
    একটি খবরের বাহিত.
    এখন
    ন্যাশনাল ল ইউনিভার্সিটি (NLU), দিল্লি, এবং জাতীয় আইনগত সার্ভিসেস
    অথরিটি (NALSA) এর যৌথ সমীক্ষা এই দেশের 477 ফাঁসির আসামিদের ‘90% এবং
    তাদের মধ্যে 75% এসসি / যে অত্যাশ্চর্য ঘটনা আনা হয়েছে
    জনজাতিকে,
    ওবিসি এবং মুসলিম …. এসসি / জনজাতিকে ও মুসলমানদের জনসংখ্যার 38.8%
    কিন্তু জেলে অধীনে গ্রামাঞ্চলে ভ্রমণ (1.48 লাখ 2.78 লাখ আউট) ‘এর 53%.
    নিজেদেরকে আমরা সব পর্যায়ে অত্যন্ত বর্ণ নষ্ট বিচার বিভাগ আছে তোলেন পেতে এই তার চেয়ে অনেক বেশী লজ্জা আর হতে পারে না.

    NLU
    এবং NALSA এর ‘মৃত্যুদন্ড গবেষণা প্রকল্প’ সম্ভবত বর্ণ পড়া বিচার বিভাগ ও
    পুলিশ মুখে প্রকটিত এই স্বাধীন দেশের প্রথম প্রচেষ্টা.
    এখন পর্যন্ত, কর্তৃপক্ষ স্বাধীনতার পর থেকে মৃত্যুর সারিতে কয়েদি এবং মৃত্যুদন্ড কার্যকর একটি একত্রীকৃত রেকর্ড বজায় রাখা হয়নি. উপর
    400 সাক্ষাত্কার আচ্ছাদন ব্যাপক গবেষণা 16 মাস সময় নেয়, যা এই প্রকল্প
    বিচার বিভাগ ও পুলিশ বর্ণ ও সাম্প্রদায়িক দুর্নীতি বর্তমানে অনেক
    অত্যাশ্চর্য ঘটনা আনা হয়েছে.
    এটা আসামিদের সবচেয়ে প্রথম-সময় অপরাধীদের হয় ‘বলেছেন; প্রত্যক্ষ প্রমাণ ক্ষেত্রে 80% এর মধ্যে অনুপস্থিত হয়; নির্যাতনের মাধ্যমে নিষ্কাশিত স্বীকারোক্তি দোষী সাব্যস্ত জন্য নির্ভরশীল; প্রায় 100% আসামিদের তাদের ক্ষেত্রে যুদ্ধ মানের আইনি সহায়তা পেতে ব্যর্থ; ভিক্ষার আবেদন (আউটলুক, Dec.15, 2014) ‘প্রত্যাখ্যাত হয় আগে অধিকাংশ 10-20 বছর কাটাতে. এই ঘটনা আসামিদের সবচেয়ে catse পক্ষপাতদুষ্ট পুলিশ ও বিচার বিভাগ দ্বারা প্রণীত হয় যে একটি রক্ত ​​হিম সত্য প্রকাশ করা. মিডিয়া হিস্টিরিয়া পাবলিক মন পরিবর্তন এবং নিরপরাধ শিকার বিরুদ্ধে
    আদালতে পুরুষদের প্রভাবিত করার জন্য তৈরি করা চরিত্রে অভিনয় করেছেন.

    2003
    সালে, প্রভাত কুমার শাণ্ডিল্য, একটি সুপরিচিত মানবাধিকার কর্মী ও
    সাংবাদিক, “thepoor জন্য মৃতু্যদণ্ড মধ্যে পুরাপুরি রিজার্ভেশন ও
    প্রান্তিক”, লিখেছে.
    তিনি
    খুঁজে পাওয়া যায় এবং Karre সিং ছাড়া তারপর ভাগলপুর কেন্দ্রীয় কারাগারে
    36 মৃত্যুর সারি আসামিদের আউট, বাকি সব এসসি / জনজাতিকে, ওবিসি এবং মুসলিম
    ছিল যে লিখেছে.
    তিনি
    অভিজাত জাতি থেকে শুধুমাত্র তিনটি পুরুষদের এ পর্যন্ত এই স্বাধীন দেশে
    ফাঁসি হয়েছে যে বলা হয়েছে - নাথুরাম গডসে বীর সাভারকর, আরএসএস ও হিন্দু
    মহা সভা, নারায়ণ dattaraya যথাযোগ্যভাবে এবং dhanjay চট্টোপাধ্যায় মত
    একটি chitpawan ব্রাহ্মণ.
    এখন গণতান্ত্রিক প্রতিষ্ঠান (মোদি) এই হত্যাকারীদের তাদের দেবতা (ব) জন্য মূর্তি এবং মন্দির স্থাপন করা হয়.

    উচ্চবর্ণের আধিপত্য পুলিশ ও বিচার বিভাগ তারা বিরোধী এসসি / জনজাতিকে, বিরোধী সংখ্যালঘু ও বিরোধী দরিদ্র যে দায়ী অব্যাহতি বাইরে. তারা বিভিন্ন জাতি জন্য বিভিন্ন yardsticks বজায় রাখার করা হয়েছে. অনুপ
    সুরেন্দ্রনাথ, প্রকল্প প্রধান বিহারের, savarna পুরুষদের এসসি / জনজাতিকে
    massacaring জন্য তাকে গ্রেফতার করা হয়েছে “বলা হয়েছে; কোনো ক্ষেত্রে,
    এসসি / Sts, previlaged জাতি থেকে পুরুষদের হত্যা জন্য গ্রেপ্তার করা হয়
    তারা ভিন্নভাবে এসসি / জনজাতিকে সঙ্গে মোকাবিলা ছিল..
    চেষ্টা
    এবং Tada অধীনে মৃত্যুদণ্ড দেয়া, কিন্তু savarna পুরুষদের IPC অধীনে
    অপরাধের জন্য চেষ্টা করা হয়. evodences একই ধরনের সঙ্গে অনুরূপ অপরাধের
    জন্য. এসসি / বড় গণহত্যার মামলায় গ্রেপ্তার জনজাতিকে সুপ্রিম কোর্ট
    নিশ্চিত করে মৃত্যুদন্ডের সারিতে হতে অবিরত
    … কিন্তু লক্ষ্মীপুর-স্নান গণহত্যার জন্য তাদের গ্রেফতার করা পাটনা হাইকোর্টের “দ্বারা খালাসী করা হয়েছে.

    সুন্দর
    কলি, মিরাট কারাগারে মৃত্যুদন্ডের সারিতে অপেক্ষা করছে একটি নির্ধারিত
    বর্ণ, তিনি একটি গার্হস্থ্য হিসেবে কাজ করেন যেখানে দিল্লি, উপকণ্ঠে আট বছর
    আগে গ্রেফতার করা হয় এবং একটি বাড়িতে ধর্ষণের এবং cannibalizing (না),
    অভিযোগ পাচার জন্য 16 মেয়েদের দোষী সাব্যস্ত করা হয়
    সাহায্য. কলি তিনি নির্দোষ এবং তিনি কর্তৃপক্ষ দ্বারা প্রণীত হয় যে জিদ চলতে থাকে. কলি এর স্বীকারোক্তি তার দৃঢ় বিশ্বাস জন্য শুধুমাত্র ভিত্তিতে ছিল, কিন্তু এটা ইংরেজিতে সে জানে না, যা ভাষা রেকর্ড করা হয়েছিল. দেওয়া খবর জন্য এখন বিখ্যাত দ্বারা নির্মিত হিস্টিরিয়া ছাড়া অন্য কোন প্রমাণ নেই. যারা
    মেয়েদের অন্তর্ধান প্রায় (একবার আত্মার খোরাক তিনি দুই ব্যাটালিয়ন,
    কিন্তু দুই ব্যবস্থার শিক্ষকরা সম্মুখীন হতে পারে যে বলেছিলেন).
    অদ্ভুত, তার নিয়োগকর্তা, M.S. জামিন এবং তার বিচার এ, মানব দেহের অঙ্গ বিক্রি অভিযোগে গ্রেপ্তার করা হয় যারা কুটনি, একটি জাট শিখ, মীমাংসাহীন রয়ে যায়. আউটলুক পত্রিকা উচ্চবর্ণের এবং সমৃদ্ধিশালী জড়িত এবং যা মিডিয়ার
    শিরোনাম আঘাত করেছিল ক্ষেত্রে যা দিয়ে বিচার বিভাগের casteist মুখ
    উন্মুক্ত করে দিয়েছে.

    ধর্ষণের ও দিল্লি ছাত্র Priyadarshini মাত্তু হত্যার অভিযুক্ত ছিল সন্তোষ সিং, একটি আইপিএস অফিসার পুত্র, বিনামূল্যে দেওয়া হয়. মনু
    শর্মা, সাবেক কেন্দ্রীয় মন্ত্রী এবং ব্যবসায়ী বিনোদ শর্মা ব্রাহ্মণ
    সন্তান, তাকে নির্দোষ বলে রায় পান পরিবেশন করতে অস্বীকার করে যারা জেসিকা
    Lall শুটিং দোষী সাব্যস্ত.
    তার
    স্ত্রী নায়না সাহনি নিহত এবং সুপ্রিম কোর্ট পাশ আঁচ হয় একটি এলবাম মধ্যে
    তার শরীরের পুড়ে যারা সুশীল শর্মা, কংগ্রেস পার্টির ব্রাহ্মণ নেতা.
    সাংবাদিক Shivani Bhatnagar হত্যা করতে হত্যাকারীরা নিয়োগের লেজ আদালত
    দোষী সাব্যস্ত অভিযুক্ত করা হয় এবং যারা Ravikanth শর্মা, ব্রাহ্মণ
    সিনিয়র আইপিএস অফিসার,, খালাসী এবং সন্দেহ সুবিধা দেওয়া হয় (আউটলুক,
    Dec.15,2014)

    প্রকল্প মৃত্যুদণ্ড বিলোপ দাবি পটভূমিতে গ্রহণ করা হয়েছে. এই
    ধরনের রদ উচ্চবর্ণের অপরাধীদের শাস্তি অপারেটিভ এমনকি যখন পাশ পলায়নপর
    হয়, কিছু নির্দোষ পিছিয়ে পড়া Classes.But জীবন বাঁচাতে পারে.
    আমরা
    খুঁজে whisking মধ্যে সিবিআই ও পুলিশের বুদ্ধিমান কাজ সাক্ষী অভিযুক্ত এবং
    Badaun উত্তর প্রদেশ গ্রাম এবং আহমেদাবাদের Jawhkeda গ্রামের একটি
    পরিবারের এর ট্রিপল হত্যা দুই বোন ডবল হত্যা Scape ছাগল হিসাবে মৃতের
    আত্মীয় স্থাপন
    মহারাষ্ট্র. আমরা কর্ণাটকের মহারাষ্ট্র ও Kambalapalli মধ্যে Khailanji এর নৃশংস হত্যাকান্ড বিরুদ্ধে দেওয়া আদালতের রায় উত্কট দেখা যায়. এই
    পটভূমিতে, আমরা এসসি / এসটি / ওবিসি এবং ধর্মীয় সংখ্যালঘুদের জন্য বিচার
    ব্যবস্থা থেকে রিজার্ভেশন দাবি Behan কুমারী Mayawatiji এর ভয়েস বুঝতে
    হবে.
    প্রকল্পের
    ফলাফল সুপারিশ করতে পারেন এবং কিছু ভাল শমরিয়ার সংস্থা ও পুলিশ তদন্ত,
    বিচার বিভাগ পুরুষদের হৃদয় পরিবর্তনের জন্য আবেদন করতে পারেন.
    কিন্তু
    আমরা একটি সত্য হিন্দু এবং একটি সজ্জন দুটি ভিন্ন ব্যক্তি এবং তারা একে
    অপরের থেকে ভিন্ন হয় বেশিরভাগ ক্ষেত্রে যে একটি সাধারণ নিয়ম অবশ্যই
    ভুলবেন না.
    অত: পর কি অপরিহার্য অফিসে অহঙ্কারে হৃদয় পরিবর্তন, কিন্তু পুরুষদের পরিবর্তন হয় না. এসসি / এসটি / ওবিসি এবং সংখ্যালঘু বিচার বিভাগ একটি পর্যাপ্ত প্রতিনিধিত্ব আবশ্যক. সমগ্র বিচার বিভাগের মধ্যে পিছিয়ে পড়া Classers প্রতিনিধিত্ব কমই 15% স্পর্শ করতে পারে. অধিকাংশ বিচারক Backwar ক্লাস বিরুদ্ধে একটি সাধারণ মতামত অভিযুক্ত আছে,
    কিভাবে করতে পারেন নিরপরাধ পক্ষে চূড়ান্ত রায় ঢাল এই ক্ষুদ্র অধিকাংশ
    সংখ্যালঘু?

    ফিকাহবিদদের
    তারা আরো প্রায়ই না এটা বিচার প্রভাবিত করে যে জুরি পুরুষদের
    সহানুভূতিশীল বিবেচনা চেয়ে cases.But সিদ্ধান্ত নিতে সংবিধি বই এবং প্রমাণ
    goby বলতে পারে.
    একটি
    উচ্চবর্ণের বিচারক সহানুভূতি (যথেষ্ট প্রমাণ অধিকার বিবৃতি surfaced
    হয়েছে) বিচারপতি খরচ তার জাত অপরাধীদের রক্ষা করার জন্য এমনকি দেশের আইন
    বিরুদ্ধে যেতে পারে.
    কিন্তু
    একটি নিম্ন বর্ণ বিচারক সহানুভূতি রক্ষা এবং তার জাত নির্দোষ
    ক্ষতিগ্রস্তদের ন্যায়বিচার রেন্ডার আইনি ফ্রেম মধ্যে বিধান চাইতে হবে.
    অনুসূচিত
    জাতি 300 ঘর Vanniyars আগুন হয় যেখানে 2012 সালে ধর্মাপুরী পাশবিকতা
    ক্ষেত্রে, শিকার মাদ্রাজ হাইকোর্ট Elipe Dharmarao, একটি নির্ধারিত বর্ণ
    ভারপ্রাপ্ত প্রধান বিচারপতি 3 মাসের মধ্যে 7 কোটি টাকা ক্ষতিপূরণ প্রদান
    করা হয়
    Andhara প্রদেশ থেকে. এটা তামিলনাড়ু ইতিহাসে ঘটেছে না.

    বিএসপি
    Supremo Behan Mayawatiji সংগঠন Scientifics, বিচার ব্যবস্থা সব পিছিয়ে
    পড়া রিজার্ভেশন প্রদান অনেক বছর থেকে কেন্দ্রীয় সরকারের কাছে আবেদন করা
    হয়েছে, প্রতিরক্ষা, দূত ‘অফিস, রাজ্যসভা ও উচ্চ হাউস এবং রাষ্ট্র
    সমাহারগুলি.
    সম্প্রতি এই সিদ্ধান্তে আসেন সংসদ, Behanji তাদের ন্যায়বিচার নিরাপদ
    করার জন্য এসসি? উপজাতি / ওবিসি এবং ধর্মীয় সংখ্যালঘুদের জন্য বিচার
    বিভাগের মধ্যে রিজার্ভেশন অবিলম্বে বাস্তবায়নের জন্য যুক্তি দিয়েছেন.

    এটা
    judiciaryfor এসসি / এসটি / ওবিসি এবং ধর্মীয় সংখ্যালঘুদের মধ্যে
    সমানুপাতিক রিজার্ভেশন নিরাপদ করার জন্য Behan Mayawatiji নেতৃত্বে একটি
    দেশব্যাপী সংগ্রাম আরম্ভ করার জন্য উচ্চ সময়.
    কিন্তু একটি সংগ্রাম আরম্ভ করার পূর্বে, আমাদের এসসি / এসটি? ওবিসি এবং
    ধর্মীয় সংখ্যালঘুদের শিক্ষিত anf চিন্তা বিভাগে এই বার্তা গ্রহণ করা.

    চন্দ্রশেখর (বেঙ্গালুরু)

    চৌর্য,
    সন্ত্রাসী, জঙ্গি, হিংসাত্মক, 1% chitpawan ব্রাহ্মণ দ্বারা ক্ষমতা দখল
    ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত হয়েছে, যা জালিয়াতি ইভিএম উপর এসসি / জনজাতিকে / ওবিসি /
    দরিদ্র / ব্রাহ্মণ ও Baniyas ইতিমধ্যেই অনলাইন অতিথি বক্তৃতা শুরু করেছেন /
    সংখ্যালঘু / বিতর্ক সহ সর্ব সমাজের 99%
    গণতান্ত্রিক প্রতিষ্ঠান (মোদি) হত্যার জন্য আরএসএস. সুপ্রিম
    কোর্ট 80 গণতন্ত্রে দ্বারা অনুসরণ হিসাবে সব fradulent ইভিএম বোকা প্রমাণ
    ভোটিং সিস্টেম দ্বারা প্রতিস্থাপিত করা হয়েছিল যে পালন করা হয়.
    এটা
    টাকা 1600 কোটি পরিবর্তে তাদের সব প্রতিস্থাপন জড়িত, কারণ কিন্তু
    প্রাক্তন CJI Sathasivam প্রাক্তন সিইসি Sampath দ্বারা প্রস্তাবিত মাত্র 8
    543 আউট লোকসভা ইভিএম অনুমতি দিয়ে একটি রায় কবর ত্রুটি সংঘটিত.
    নির্বাচনে সব জালিয়াতি ইভিএম প্রতিস্থাপন পর অনুষ্ঠিত হতে পারে. এই
    আরএসএস এর বিজেপি শুরু করেছে সব সহ সুব্রামানিয়ান স্বামী, Kejrival
    দ্বারা মাস্টার KEY.The অনলাইন বিতর্ক এবং অতিথি বক্তৃতা দখল এবং এই
    জালিয়াতি ইভিএম মাধ্যমে পরিচালিত সকল নির্বাচন চাঁচা করা হয় এবং নতুন
    নির্বাচন পরিচালিত পর্যন্ত continues.This চলতে থাকবে সাহায্য করেছে.

    32) Classical Gujarati
    32) શાસ્ત્રીય ગુજરાતી
    32) ક્લાસિકા; ગુજરાતી

    1437 પાઠ 7315 શનિવાર

    મફત ઓનલાઇન ઇ નાલંદા રિસર્ચ એન્ડ પ્રેક્ટિસ UNIVERSITY

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    14, કાલિદાસ રોડ, ગાંધીનગર, બેંગલોર-560009

    ફોન: 080-22250684, ફેક્સ: 080-41148440

    ઇમેઇલ: info@mahabodhi.info, www.mahabodhi.info

     

    અમે અંતઃકરણપૂર્વક તમારા આનંદ, તમારા કુટુંબ માટે, તમારા મિત્રોને ‘ભાગીદારી વિનંતી

    ધમંપાદા તહેવાર

    યાદમાં

    ના 94th જન્મદિવસ

    આદરણીય Dr.Acharya બુદ્ધરક્ખિતા Bhanteji

    મહાબોધી સંસ્થાઓ સ્થાપક

    28-2-2015 માટે 8-3-2015

     તમારા માતૃભાષા અને તમે આ ગૂગલ અનુવાદ અભ્યાસ માટે ખબર અન્ય તમામ
    langages માં યોગ્ય ભાષાંતર રેન્ડર અને સ્ટ્રીમ enterer (Sotapanna) ફાઈનલ
    ગોલ તરીકે શાશ્વત બ્લિસ પ્રાપ્તિ બની વિનંતી.
     

    હાઇલાઇટ્સ

    · મહાબોધી બુદ્ધ વિહાર સિકંદરાબાદ શાખાની ઉદઘાટન

    · સિકંદરાબાદ અને બેંગલુરુ માં Paritta ની Nightlong રટણ

    Ven.Dr.Acharya બુદ્ધરક્ખિતા સમર્પિત સંગ્રહાલય - SMARANALOKA ના · ઉદઘાટન

    મહાબોધી રિસર્ચ સેન્ટર લાઇબ્રેરી ઓફ · ઉદઘાટન - SANGĀYANA

    · બૌદ્ધ શોરૂમ ના ઉદઘાટન - બૌદ્ધ પુસ્તકો અને તથાં તેનાં જેવી બીજી માટે

    · દક્ષિણ ભારતમાં બૌદ્ધ ઐતિહાસિક સાઇટ્સ પર સેમિનાર

    · થરવાડા બૌદ્ધ સ્ટડીઝ મહાબોધી સેન્ટર ઓફ વર્ગો પ્રારંભ

    · પબ્લિકેશન્સ અને ઓડિયો સીડી ના પ્રકાશન

     કાર્યક્રમો

    8-3-2015 રવિવારે 9:30 પોસ્ટેડ

    આ આદરણીય સંતો દ્વારા બુદ્ધ વંદના અને ધમ્મા પરનું ડિસકોર્સ

    11 પોસ્ટેડ

    Sanghadana

    1- 1:30 PM

    Ven.Acharya બુદ્ધરક્ખિતા પર ડોક્યુમેન્ટરી

    2:00 PM પર 1:30

    પાલી ભાષા અને સાહિત્ય પર MBCTBS ઉદઘાટક લેક્ચર

    Prof.J.Sreenivasa મૂર્તિ, સંસ્કૃત ઓફ પ્રો, MES કોલેજ, બેંગલુરુ દ્વારા

    5 PM પર પોસ્ટેડ - 2:00 PM પર પોસ્ટેડ

    સેમિનાર પર

    SOUTH ભારતમાં બૌદ્ધ ઐતિહાસિક સાઇટ્સ

    બોલનારા

    શ્રી A.Sundar

    વરિષ્ઠ પુરાતત્વવિદ્, Sringeri

    વિષય: કર્ણાટકમાં બૌદ્ધ કલા અને સ્થાપત્ય

     

    પ્રો S.Nagaraju

    સેન્ટ્રલ યુનિવર્સિટી હૈદરાબાદ ભૂતપૂર્વ પ્રોફેસર અને

    ટાગોર નેશનલ ફેલો ASI, બેંગલુરુ

    વિષય: આંધ્ર માં બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ્સ

     

    Dr.Satyabhama Badarinath

    પ્રાદેશિક નિયામક, ASI, બેંગલુરુ

    વિષય: તમિલનાડુ માં બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ્સ

     

    Dr.H.S.Gopala રાવ

    વરિષ્ઠ ઇતિહાસકાર, બેંગલુરુ

    વિષય: કર્ણાટકમાં બૌદ્ધ એપિગ્રાફી

     

    દ્વારા અધ્યક્ષતા

    આદરણીય Kassapa થેરા

    પ્રમુખ, મહા બોધી સોસાયટી, બેંગલુરુ

     

    6:30 PM પર પોસ્ટેડ

    બોધી પૂજા - દિપ પૂજા

    SOUTH ભારતમાં બૌદ્ધ ઐતિહાસિક સાઇટ્સ

    આ “ધર્મ માસ્ટર” ના Tánlín માતાનો સંક્ષિપ્ત જીવનચરિત્ર આ બે
    પ્રવેશદ્વારો અને ચાર કાયદાઓ, પરંપરાગત રીતે જે બોધીધર્મા આભારી લખાણ, અને
    દક્ષિણ ભારતીય તરીકે જે બોધીધર્મા ઓળખવા માટે પ્રથમ લખાણ માટે તેના
    પ્રસ્તાવનામાં માં જોવા મળે છે:

    આ ધર્મ માસ્ટર પશ્ચિમી પ્રદેશ એક દક્ષિણ ભારતીય હતા. તે એક મહાન ભારતીય રાજાના ત્રીજા પુત્ર હતા. તેના
    મહત્વાકાંક્ષા આ મહાયાન પાથ માં મૂકે છે, અને તેથી તે એક સાધુ ના કાળા
    ઝભ્ભો માટે તેમના સફેદ જનસાધારણ ઝભ્ભો કોરે મૂકી […] આ outlands માં સાચા
    શિક્ષણની ઘટાડો તેવો શોક વ્યક્ત કર્યો, તે પછી તેઓ વિશે મુસાફરી, દૂરના
    પર્વતો અને દરિયાને ઓળંગી
    હાન અને વેઇ માં શિક્ષણ પ્રચાર.

    જે
    બોધીધર્મા ચોક્કસ રીતે, જેમાંથી બાદમાં પાછળથી જે બોધીધર્મા સાહિત્યમાં
    અત્યંત આગવી રીતે આવરીલે છો Dàoyù (道 育) અને Huìkě (慧 可) ઉલ્લેખ, શિષ્યો
    ખેંચ્યું.
    Tánlín પરંપરાગત રીતે જે બોધીધર્મા એક શિષ્ય માનવામાં આવે છે, તેમ છતાં તે તેમણે Huìkě એક વિદ્યાર્થી હતો તેની શક્યતા વધુ છે.

    જે બોધીધર્મા BodhidharmaYoshitoshi1887.jpg
    જે બોધીધર્મા, Yoshitoshi, 1887 દ્વારા વુડબ્લોક પ્રિન્ટ.
    લૂઓયાંગ
    વાદળી ડોળાવાળું મધ્ય એશિયન સાધુ શિક્ષણ પૂર્વ-ટાપુવાસી સાધુ. 9 મી કે 10 મી સદી ના આ Bezeklik હજાર બુદ્ધ ગુફાઓ એક ભીંતચિત્ર,.
     
    એક Dehua અંતમાં મિંગ ડાયનેસ્ટી થી, જે બોધીધર્મા ની ચિનાઈ લઘુ પ્રતિમા વેર

    જે બોધીધર્મા ની આ Japanese માટે સ્ક્રોલ સુલેખન “સીધા માનવ હૃદય માટે ઝેન પોઇન્ટ, તમારા સ્વભાવ માં જોવા અને બુદ્ધ બની” વાંચે છે. તે Hakuin Ekaku દ્વારા બનાવવામાં આવી હતી (1685 1768 માટે)

    જે બોધીધર્મા ના શિલ્પ
    Huike જે બોધીધર્મા માટે તેના હાથ આપે છે. Sesshū દ્વારા ઇન્ક ચિત્રકારી

    બુદ્ધ વિહાર
      
    ગુલબર્ગના

    બુધ વિહાર ગુલબર્ગના પ્રકાશિત

      
        Budh વિહાર, ગુલબર્ગના: મુલાકાત સમય

    12pm માટે 8am માટે (બપોર એ)

    10pm માટે સાંજે 5 (ઇવનિંગ)

    ગુલબર્ગના બધી દક્ષિણ ભારતમાં એક મુખ્ય બૌદ્ધ તીર્થ કેન્દ્ર તરીકે ઊભરી માટે સુયોજિત થયેલ છે. Siddarth વિહાર ટ્રસ્ટ ઓફ બુદ્ધ વિહાર ઔપચારિક ભારતના રાષ્ટ્રપતિ અને
    દલાઇ લામા, તિબેટ ના આધ્યાત્મિક નેતા દ્વારા ઉદ્ઘાટન કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું.


    કિલોમીટર દૂર ગુલબર્ગના યુનિવર્સિટી કેમ્પસમાં અડીને ગુલબર્ગના માંથી
    સ્થિત છે, બુદ્ધ વિહાર સંકુલ પરંપરાગત બૌદ્ધ આર્કીટેક્ચર સાથે સંવાદિતા માં
    બાંધકામ કરવામાં આવ્યું છે.
    એલિવેટેડ ગ્રાઉન્ડ પર આલીશાન ગુંબજ માળખું તાજ મહેલ એક યાદ અપાવે છે.
    પરંતુ બે વચ્ચે મૂળભૂત તફાવત છે. તાજ સફેદ આરસપહાણના અજાયબી છે, આ વિહાર માતાનો ગુંબજ ઇટાલિયન સફેદ આરસપહાણના ચિપ્સ સાથે આવરી લેવામાં એક આરસીસી માળખું છે. આ વિહાર સાંચી, Saranath, અજંતા અને નાગપુર ની બૌદ્ધ કેન્દ્રો સ્થાપત્ય લક્ષણો શ્રેષ્ઠ સંયોજીત થાય છે.

    મૂળ નાના એક વિહાર બાંધકામ, આ ટ્રસ્ટ તેને તે એક દક્ષિણમાં શ્રેષ્ઠ
    Vihars બનાવે વિશાળ સંકુલ બનાવવા માટે નકશા બદલાઈ 2002 માં શરૂ કર્યું
    હતું.

    18
    એકર ફેલાયેલા છે, તે ગ્રાઉન્ડ ફ્લોર પર ભોંયરું ખાતે ધ્યાન કેન્દ્ર અને
    (પાલી માં મંદિર) એક ભગવાન બુદ્ધ chaitya છે જે મુખ્ય ઇમારત વિભાજિત કરી
    શકાય છે.
    ગુંબજ ઊંચાઈ 70 ફૂટ અને વ્યાસ 59 ફૂટ છે.

    ઉપરાંત, તે મુખ્ય ઇમારત ના ખૂણા માં 48 ફૂટ ઊંચા ચાર અશોક સ્તંભ છે. તે એક આકર્ષક Sankalpa સ્તૂપ, લંબાઇમાં 26 ફૂટ અને વ્યાસ 30 ફૂટ છે.

    બીજી
    આકર્ષણો સાંચી દરવાજા તરીકે ઓળખાય 2,500 સીટ ક્ષમતા, ચાર મોટી Mahadwaras
    (કમાનો) અને ધમ્મા પરનું ક્રાંતિ યાત્રા સૂચવે ડૉ બીઆર આંબેડકર એક બ્રોન્ઝ
    પૂતળું આગેવાની 11 સિમેન્ટ મૂર્તિઓ એક જૂથ સાથે 100 × 100 ફૂટ ઓપન એર
    થિયેટર છે
    1956
    નું બીજું લક્ષણ એ યુ આકારની ધમ્મા પરનું જટિલ હાઉસિંગ એક સામૂહિક શયનખંડ,
    એક લાઈબ્રેરી, અભ્યાસ કેન્દ્ર, રસોડું, ડાઇનિંગ હોલ, કોન્ફરન્સ હોલ,
    પ્રદર્શન હોલ અને ગેસ્ટ રૂમ છે.
    મુખ્ય સંકુલ માં ધ્યાન મંદિર (ધ્યાન હોલ) ધ્યાન ખેંચે છે. તે પ્રખ્યાત શિલ્પકાર અશોક Gudigar દ્વારા Bidadi કરવામાં 6.5 ફૂટ ઉંચા કાળા ગ્રેનાઈટ બુદ્ધ પ્રતિમા છે. તે મંત્ર “Buddham sharanam Gacchami” (હું સર્વોચ્ચ જ્ઞાન આશરો લેવા) ની રટણ સાંભળી જ્યારે બુદ્ધ હસતાં ચહેરા જોવા આનંદ છે.

    પ્રાર્થના હોલ 170 થાંભલા અને 284 બ્લોકો સાથે 15.625 ચોરસ ફૂટ છે. દરેક
    બ્લોક અજંતા, Ellora, નાગપુર, બોધ ગયા, Saranath, રાજગીરમાં, Lumbini,
    Kusinara, થાઇલેન્ડ, સિંગાપુર, શ્રિલંકા, તિબેટ, જાપાન અને રોમના બુદ્ધ
    મંદિરોના આર્કીટેક્ચર રજૂ કોતરણીને છે.
    હોલ ઓફ માર્બલ્ડ માળ વિવિધ યુગોમાં ના બુદ્ધ બાદ નામ આપવામાં આવ્યું 28 વિશાળ ventilators છે 1500 ની બેઠક ક્ષમતા ધરાવે છે.

    આ સંકુલમાં મુખ્ય આકર્ષણ છે બેઠેલા બુદ્ધના 8.5 ફૂટ ઉંચા panchaloha પ્રતિમા કોટેડ એક સોનું છે. આ દક્ષિણ સૌથી ઊંચી બુદ્ધ પ્રતિમા હશે તેવું માનવામાં આવે છે. થાઇલેન્ડ આયાત, તે ગયા વર્ષે સપ્ટેમ્બરમાં પવિત્ર કરવામાં આવી હતી. બુદ્ધના શિષ્ય આનંદ અને Kashyapara મૂર્તિઓ પણ જટિલ ભાગ છે. હોલ દિવાલો, Tipitaka અને બુદ્ધ Charite આ Jataka વાર્તાઓ દર્શાવતી સિમેન્ટ કોતરણીમાં હોય 500. એક બેઠક ક્ષમતા ધરાવે છે.

    ત્રણ વિશાળ કમાન આકારના ભોંયરામાં માટે પ્રવેશદ્વારો અને જમીન માળ છે. ગ્રાઉન્ડ ફ્લોર ના કોરિડોર માં બુદ્ધ સિમેન્ટ મૂર્તિઓ પણ છે. પ્રવેશ દરવાજા રોઝવૂડ બને છે. ગુંબજ જમીન પરથી 75 ફૂટ છે અને એક 10 ફૂટ-ઊંચું panchaloha kalasha છે.
    સફેદ કમાન બોધ પ્રતીક છે, જે એક Peepal પર્ણ (બોધી વૃક્ષની) ના આકાર છે. એક સુંદર લેન્ડસ્કેપ ગાર્ડન મંદિર માટે Mahadwara થી લંબાયો છે.

    ચાર ખૂણા માં અશોક સ્તંભ ચાર ઉમદા સત્યો કે આર્ય સત્ય પ્રતિક છે - વેદના; વેદના ના મૂળ છે, જે જોડાણ,; વેદના ના અંત માટે દુઃખ અને પાથ ઓફ અંત.

    જુઓ કૃપા કરીને:

    http://www.neok12.com/video/History-of-India/zX0a76580042437d05760e45.htm

    માટે

    બુદ્ધ અને અશોક 12:16 મિનિટ

    http://www.neok12.com/video/History-of-India/zX0460595f5a77554f025c45.htm

    ગ્રેટ 3:00 મિનિટ અશોક માટે

    કર્ણાટકમાં બૌદ્ધ કલા અને સ્થાપત્ય

    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/budd/hd_budd.htm

    માટે
    બોદ્ધ ધર્મ અને બૌદ્ધ કલા
    દૃશ્ય જોક્સ

    પાંચમા અને ચોથા સદીઓ બી.સી. વિશ્વભરમાં બૌદ્ધિક ખળભળાટ એક સમય હતા. તે જેમ સોક્રેટીસ અને પ્લેટો, Confucius અને Laozi તરીકે મહાન વિચારકો, એક વર્ષની હતી. ભારતમાં, તે આખરે દૂર તેના વતન બહાર ફેલાય છે કે જે ધર્મ વિકસિત જેની મૃત્યુ પછી બુદ્ધ, વર્ષની હતી.

    આ ગુપ્તા સમયગાળો, છઠ્ઠી સદી એડી માટે ચોથા માંથી, ઉત્તર ભારતમાં,
    ક્યારેક, એક ગોલ્ડન એજ તરીકે ઓળખવામાં બુદ્ધ એક “આદર્શ છબી” ની રચના જોવા
    મળી.

    સિદ્ધાર્થ, બુદ્ધ બની હતી જે રાજકુમાર, Kapilavastu, હિમાલય તળેટીમાં એક નાનું સામ્રાજ્ય શાહી પરિવારમાં થયો હતો. તેમના
    સંતો તેમણે ભૌતિક જગતના અથવા પુરુષોની વિચારોના, ક્યાં સાર્વત્રિક વિજેતા
    બનશે એવી આગાહી જે પર એક દિવ્ય વિભાવના અને ચમત્કારિક જન્મ, હતી.
    તે પસાર આવ્યા, જે બાદમાં જીત હતી. જીવનના
    સાચા હેતુ લેવી મહેલ ના આનંદ આપી, સિદ્ધાર્થ પ્રથમ જ એક વ્યર્થ કસરત તરીકે
    છ વર્ષ પછી તે છોડી, ગંભીર asceticism ના પાથ પ્રયાસ કર્યો હતો.
    તેમણે બોધ પ્રાપ્ત થાય ત્યાં સુધી તેમણે પછી એક બંડી વૃક્ષ નીચે યોગ ધ્યાન માં બેઠા. તેમણે બુદ્ધ, અથવા જેમ અત્યારથી જાણીતી હતી “પ્રબુદ્ધ એક.”

    તેના વૈભવી અને asceticism બંને નકારી, મધ્ય પાથ છે. બોદ્ધ
    ધર્મ બધી ધરતીનું અસ્તિત્વ માંથી નિર્વાણ, પ્રકાશન હાંસલ અંતિમ ધ્યેય
    સાથે, સારા વિચારો, સારા ઇરાદા, અને સીધા રહેતા એક જીવન દરખાસ્ત કરે છે.
    બોદ્ધ
    ધર્મ, ભારત અન્ય ધર્મો જેમ, પુનર્જન્મ એક ચક્ર માં માને છે, કારણ કે મોટા
    ભાગના માણસો માટે, નિર્વાણ, દૂરના ભવિષ્યમાં આવેલું છે.
    મનુષ્યો પૃથ્વી પર ઘણા વખત જન્મે છે, તક સાથે દરેક સમય વધુ પોતાને પૂર્ણ કરવાનો. અને તે પોતાના કર્મ-જો કાર્યો રકમ કુલ સારા અને ખરાબ-કે ભવિષ્યના જન્મ સંજોગો નક્કી કરે છે. બુદ્ધ તેમના વિશ્વાસ ઉપદેશ અને ધર્માંતરિત વિશાળ સંખ્યામાં બનાવે તેમના જીવનના બાકીના ચાલીસ વર્ષો ગાળ્યા. તેઓ મૃત્યુ પામ્યા ત્યારે ભારતમાં પ્રચલિત હતી, કારણ કે તેમના શરીર, અંતિમ સંસ્કાર કરવામાં આવ્યો હતો.

    બુદ્ધ
    ના અંતિમ સંસ્કાર અવશેષો અનેક ભાગમાં વહેંચાયેલું છે અને સ્તૂપ તરીકે
    ઓળખાય મોટા ગોળાર્ધના ટેકરા અંદર આવી હતી કે અવશેષ caskets મૂકવામાં આવી
    હતી.
    આવા સ્તૂપ બૌદ્ધ મઠના સંકુલ ના કેન્દ્રિય સ્મારક રચે છે. તેઓ બુદ્ધ અદ્રશ્ય હાજરી અનુભવ કરવા આવે છે જે દૂર સુદૂર થી યાત્રાળુઓ આકર્ષે છે. સ્તૂપ ધાર્મિક circumambulation માટે પાથ છે કે એક રેલિંગ દ્વારા બંધ કરવામાં આવે છે. પવિત્ર વિસ્તારમાં ચાર કાર્ડીનલ બિંદુઓ પર માટેના મારફતે દાખલ થયેલ.

    પહેલી
    સદીમાં પૂર્વે, ઈંટ, લાકડું, પરાળ, અને વાંસ ના નાશવંત માધ્યમોમાં કામ
    કર્યું હતું જે ભારતની કલાકારો, ખૂબ જ વિશાળ પાયા પર પથ્થર અપનાવી હતી.
    રાહત શિલ્પો સાથે આવરી લેવામાં પથ્થર રેલિંગ અને પ્રવેશદ્વાર, સ્તૂપ ઉમેરવામાં આવ્યા હતા. મનપસંદ વિષયો સાથે સાથે બાદમાં વાર્તાઓ jatakas કહેવામાં આવે 550 નંબર પર
    વિશ્વાસ કર્યો અને ઘણી વખત બૌદ્ધ ઉપદેશો સ્વીકારવામાં લોકપ્રિય દંતકથાઓ
    સમાવેશ હતા જે તેના અગાઉના જીવન, ના, બુદ્ધ ની ઐતિહાસિક જીવનમાંથી ઘટનાઓ
    હતા.

    ભારતના સૌથી પહેલા બૌદ્ધ કલા, બુદ્ધ માનવ સ્વરૂપમાં રજૂ ન હતો. તેમની હાજરી આવા પગલાં એક જોડી, એક ખાલી સીટ, અથવા એક તડકામાં વાપરવાની
    નાની છત્રી નીચે ખાલી જગ્યા તરીકે, એ સંકેત કરીને તેની જગ્યાએ સંકેત
    કરવામાં આવ્યો હતો.

    પ્રથમ
    સદી એડી, એક બુદ્ધ માનવ છબી કલાત્મક દ્રશ્ય પર પ્રભુત્વ આવ્યું, અને આ આવી
    જે ઓછામાં પ્રથમ સાઇટ્સ એક ભારતના ઉત્તર-પશ્ચિમ સરહદી સાથે હતો.
    ગાંધાર
    તરીકે ઓળખાય વિસ્તારમાં, હેલેનિસ્ટીક વિશ્વમાં માંથી કલાત્મક તત્વો અનન્ય
    શૈલી બનાવવા માટે ભારતીય બોદ્ધ ધર્મ વ્યક્ત કરવા માટે જરૂરી પ્રતીકવાદ સાથે
    જોડાઈ.
    ઊંચુંનીચું થતું સ કર્લ્સ ગોઠવાય વાળ સાથે યુવાન બુદ્ધ એપોલોના રોમન મૂર્તિઓ જેવું હોય; એક રોમન ટોગા ની યાદ અપાવે ભારે શાસ્ત્રીય folds, ગોઠવાય તો બંને ખભા મઠવાસી આવરી ઝભ્ભો. પહેલાં મહેલ જીવન તેમના ત્યાગ કરવા માટે રજવાડી બિજ્વેલ્ડ વ્યક્તિ તરીકે સિદ્ધાર્થ ઘણા રજૂઆતો પણ છે. બોદ્ધ
    ધર્મ કલામાં નિરૂપણ, ફ્યુચર, મૈત્રેય એક બુદ્ધ ખ્યાલ વિકસ્યો બંને એક
    બુદ્ધ એક મઠના ઝભ્ભો અને બોધ પહેલાં રજવાડી બોધિસત્વ તરીકે ઢંકાયેલું
    તરીકે.
    Gandharan
    કલાકારો પથ્થર અને એક આશ્રમ ની સ્તૂપ આસપાસ nichelike દેવળો મૂકવામાં આવી
    હતી, જે આવા છબીઓ, ઉત્પાદન કરવા સાગોળ બંને ઉપયોગ કર્યો.
    સમકાલીનતાથી, મથુરા, ભારતમાં કુષાણ-ગાળા કલાકારો, બુદ્ધ એક અલગ ઇમેજ ઉત્પાદન કર્યું હતું. તેમના શરીર પવિત્ર શ્વાસ (પ્રાણ) દ્વારા વિસ્તારવામાં આવ્યો હતો, અને તેના શ્ર્લેષી મઠના ઝભ્ભો એકદમ જમણા ખભા છોડી draped આવી હતી.

    ગંભીર,
    unsmiling ચહેરા સાથે નોંધપાત્ર પ્રમાણ, છબીઓ, છેડો પર ભારે swag બનાવનાર
    અને ડાબી ખભા પ્રગટ કરે છે તે ઝભ્ભો માં આચ્છાદિત હતા જ્યાં દક્ષિણ ભારત,
    માં આંધ્રપ્રદેશમાં વિકાસ થયો ત્રીજો પ્રભાવશાળી બુદ્ધ પ્રકાર,.

    દક્ષિણ સાઇટ્સ ભારત ના દક્ષિણ છેડે બંધ, શ્રિલંકા ના બૌદ્ધ જમીન માટે
    કલાત્મક પ્રેરણા પૂરી પાડી હતી, અને શ્રીલંકાના સાધુઓ નિયમિત વિસ્તાર
    મુલાકાત લીધી હતી.
    આ શૈલીમાં મૂર્તિઓ સંખ્યાબંધ દક્ષિણપૂર્વ એશિયા સમગ્ર સાથે સાથે મળી આવ્યા છે.

    હવેપછીના
    ગુપ્તા સમયગાળો, છઠ્ઠી સદી એડી માટે ચોથા માંથી, ઉત્તર ભારતમાં, ક્યારેક,
    એક ગોલ્ડન એજ તરીકે ઓળખવામાં બુદ્ધ એક “આદર્શ છબી” ની રચના જોવા મળી.
    આ મથુરા કલાકારો બનાવનાર ઈંદ્રિયોનું ફોર્મ સાથે Gandharan પ્રદેશના પસંદ કરેલ લક્ષણો સંયોજન દ્વારા પ્રાપ્ત કરવામાં આવી હતી. ગુપ્તા
    બુદ્ધ તેમના વાળ નાના વ્યક્તિગત ગૂંચળું ગોઠવાય છે, અને ઝભ્ભો (Sarnath
    ખાતે તરીકે) પારદર્શક આવરણથી (મથુરા ખાતે તરીકે) પડદાઓ folds સૂચવે
    શબ્દમાળાઓ એક નેટવર્ક હોય અથવા હોય છે.
    પોસ્ટ
    ગુપ્તા અને પાલા ભારતમાં અથવા નેપાળ, થાઈલેન્ડ, અને ઇન્ડોનેશિયા માં કે
    શું તેમના નીચામાં નજરે અને આધ્યાત્મિક રોગનું લક્ષણ સાથે, ગુપ્તા બુદ્ધ,
    કલાકારો ભાવિ પેઢી માટે મોડેલ બની હતી.
    બુદ્ધના ગુપ્તા મેટલ છબીઓ પણ ચાઇના માટે સિલ્ક રોડ સાથે યાત્રાળુઓ દ્વારા લઇ આવ્યા હતા.

    નીચેના સદીઓથી ત્યાં વિસ્તરતા મંદિરને અને વધુ વિસ્તૃત વિધિ સામેલ જે બોદ્ધ ધર્મ એક નવું સ્વરૂપ, ઉભરી. આ બાદ બોદ્ધ ધર્મ સૌથી લોકપ્રિય તારા હતી, જેમાંથી સ્વર્ગીય bodhisattvas ની વિભાવના સાથે સાથે દેવીઓ, રજૂઆત કરી હતી. ઉત્કૃષ્ટ
    મેટલ છબીઓ અને ચિત્રો ઉત્પાદન કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું, જ્યાં નેપાળ અને
    તિબેટ, માં, નવા દિવ્યતા એક સમગ્ર સમૂહ બનાવવામાં આવી હતી અને શિલ્પ અને
    પેઇન્ટિંગ સ્ક્રોલ બંને ચિત્રિત.
    વિકરાળ દેવતાઓ બોદ્ધ ધર્મ અને તેના માને સંરક્ષક ભૂમિકામાં રજૂ કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા. વધુ
    વિશિષ્ટ પ્રકૃતિ છબીઓ, અપનાવ્યો માં દેવ અને દેવી દર્શાવતી, મુક્તિ
    (સ્ત્રી) શાણપણ અને કરુણા (પુરુષ) ના સંઘ પરિણામે કે આધ્યાત્મિક ખ્યાલ
    નિદર્શન ઉત્પાદન કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું.
    બોદ્ધ ધર્મ તેના સરળ શરૂઆત એક લાંબા માર્ગ પ્રવાસ કર્યો હતો.
    વિદ્યા Dehejia
    કલા ઇતિહાસ અને આર્કિયોલોજી, કોલંબિયા યુનિવર્સિટીના ડિપાર્ટમેન્ટ

    Namdroling Nyingmapa મઠ
    Namdroling Nyingmapa મઠ ફોટો

    આંધ્ર માં Namdroling Nyingmapa MonasteryBuddhist સાઇટ્સ ફોટો
    Nagarjunakonda

    બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ 3 જી સદી AD.jpg
    સ્થાન Macherla મંડળ, ગુંટુર જિલ્લા
    બિલ્ટ 225 એડી - 325 એડી
    ભારતના શરીર પુરાતત્વીય સર્વે નિયામક
    Nagarjunakonda
    (નાગાર્જુન હિલ જેનો અર્થ) હવે એક ઐતિહાસિક બૌદ્ધ નગર, ગુંટુર જિલ્લામાં
    નાગાર્જુન સાગર નજીક સ્થિત એક દ્વીપ, આંધ્ર પ્રદેશ, ભારત છે.
    તે રાજ્યની રાજધાની, વિજયવાડા ની 180 કિમી પશ્ચિમ બાજુ છે. તે શ્રી Parvata તરીકે પ્રાચીન સમયમાં જાણીતા ભારતના ધનિક બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ્સ, એક છે. તે હવે નાગાર્જુનસાગર ડેમ હેઠળ લગભગ સંપૂર્ણ આવેલું છે. માનવામાં
    આવે છે કે જે નાગાર્જુન, 2 જી સદી એડી રહેતા મહાયાન બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ની દક્ષિણ
    ભારતીય માસ્ટર, આ વિસ્તારમાં બૌદ્ધ પ્રવૃત્તિ માટે જવાબદાર હોવાનું બાદ
    તેને નામ આપવામાં આવ્યું છે.

    સાઇટ સુધી ચાઇના, ગાંધાર, બંગાળ અને શ્રિલંકા તરીકે માંથી વિદ્યાર્થીઓ
    આકર્ષે છે, એક વખત ઘણા બૌદ્ધ યુનિવર્સિટીઓ અને આશ્રમો સ્થાન હતું.
    ત્યાં બૌદ્ધ પુરાતત્વીય સ્થળો ડૂબી, અને બાદમાં ખોદવામાં અને એક ટાપુ બની ગયું હતું, જે પહાડી પર ઉચ્ચ ભૂમિ પરિવહન કરી હતી આવી હતી.

    ઇતિહાસ

    (-
    325 એડી 225 એ.ડી.), પૂર્વીય ડેક્કન માં સાતવાહન રાજાઓના અનુગામીઓ
    Nagarjunakonda ની પતાવટ (પણ Nāgārjunikoṇḍa) એ Ikshvaku રાજવંશ ની રાજધાની
    હતી.
    તે Sadvaha તેમના શાસનકાળ દરમિયાન ત્યાં પ્રથમ મઠના બાંધકામ અધિકૃત માનવામાં આવે છે.

    પ્રારંભિક સદીઓ એડી દરમ્યાન, સાઇટ 30 થી વધુ બૌદ્ધ viharas રાખવામાં આવતો; ખોદકામ
    આ પ્રારંભિક સમયગાળાના ઇતિહાસ વિદ્વતાપૂર્ણ અભ્યાસ માટે કલા કામ કરે છે
    અને મહાન મહત્વ શિલાલેખો હાંસલ કરી છે. [3] નાગાર્જુન શૂન્યતા’ની (રદબાતલ)
    ની ફિલસૂફી ના હિમાયતી હતા.
    તે
    સમયે, બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ભાગે વિસ્તાર ઉપયોગ કરીને અને આ આંધ્ર ની બંગાળ બંદરો ના
    વિકસતા જતા ખાડી ફરી સ્ટોક કરવાની તોળાઈ પ્રવાસ માટે પછી શ્રિલંકા અને
    Burma ફેલાવો.
    તેમના
    પુત્ર Ehuvula અને તેમના વંશજો હતા શ્રી Virapurusadatta, આ રાજવંશ ના
    બીજા શાસક, એક બૌદ્ધ હતું કે આ સાઇટ શોમાં પુરાતત્ત્વીય શિલાલેખો.
    આ શિલાલેખો પણ Ikshvaku રાણી ના ભંડોળ મારફતે, મંદિરો અને આશ્રમો બાંધકામ રાજ્ય સ્પોન્સરશિપ દર્શાવે છે. ખાસ કરીને Camtisiri, દસ સળંગ વર્ષ માટે મુખ્ય સ્તૂપ ના મકાન ભંડોળ તરીકે રેકોર્ડ છે. પણ ઉમદા વર્ગો બહાર ફેલાય ટેકો, ઘણા બિન-શાહી નામો અવશેષ માં ઉત્કીર્ણ કરવામાં આવી રહી. તેની ટોચ પર, ત્યાં ત્રીસ કરતા વધુ આશ્રમો હતા અને તે દક્ષિણ ભારતમાં સૌથી બૌદ્ધ કેન્દ્ર હતું. શિલાલેખો
    શ્રિલંકા ના Mahāsāṃghika, આ Mahisasaka, અને Mahaviharavasin, ના
    Bahuśrutīya અને Aparamahavinaseliya પેટા શાળાઓ સાથે જોડાયેલા આશ્રમો હતા
    કે જોવા મળ્યો છે.
    વિસ્તાર આર્કીટેક્ચર આ પરંપરાઓ કે પ્રતિબિંબિત કરે છે. તમિલ રાજ્યો, ઓરિસ્સા, કલિંગ, ગાંધાર, બંગાળ, સિલોન (એ Culadhammagiri) અને ચાઇના ઉદભવેલા બૌદ્ધ વિદ્વાનો માટે અન્ય આશ્રમો હતા. ગૌતમ બુદ્ધ કે એક પ્રજનન હોવાનું માનવામાં આવે છે, જે Mahaviharavasin આશ્રમ, ઓફ સાઇટ પર એક પદચિહ્ન પણ છે.

    આ પ્રદેશમાં Rudrapurusa, છેલ્લા Ikshvaku રાજાના મૃત્યુ બાદ ઘટાડો થયો હતો. ખોદકામ
    1927 માં શરૂ થયો હતો, અને પ્રથમ શોધે તેઓ એક વખત પ્રાચીન ભારતમાં બૌદ્ધ
    શિક્ષણ માટે પુષ્કળ કેન્દ્ર હતું શું 1926 માં સ્તૂપ ની ખંડેર અને chaityas
    શોધી કાઢવામાં 1931 સુધી ખોદકામ સતત હતા 1928 માં ઇંગલિશ પુરાતત્વવિદો
    દ્વારા બનાવવામાં આવ્યા હતા.
    આ 16 મી સદી માટે પત્થર યુગના થી ડેટિંગ 100 થી વધુ આગળ અવશેષો મળી આવ્યા સમગ્ર ખીણ સમાવવા માટે 1954 માં વિસ્તારવામાં આવ્યો હતો.

    જ્યારે
    ayaka, Nagarjunakonda ખાતે મહાન સ્તૂપ uncased સ્તૂપ ના વર્ગ માટે અનુસરે
    છે, તેના brickwork પર plastered આવી રહી છે અને મોટા માળા-આભૂષણ દ્વારા
    શણગારવામાં આ સ્તૂપ. [4] આ મૂળ સ્તૂપ 3 જી સદી ઇ.સ. માં Ikshvaku રાજકુમારી
    Chamtisiri દ્વારા સમારકામ કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું
    પથ્થર -pillars બાંધવામાં આવ્યા હતા. , લાકડાનો હતો જો કોઈ હોય તો તે બાહ્ય રેલિંગ, તેના ઉભા ઈંટ ઊભણી ઉપર બાંધવામાં. આ સ્તૂપ, વ્યાસ 32.3 મીટર, એક 4 મી વિશાળ circumambulatory સાથે 18 મી ની ઊંચાઈ ગુલાબ. આ medhi 1.5 મીટર હતી અને ayaka-પ્લેટફોર્મ 6.7 માપવા લંબચોરસ ઓફસેટો 1.5 મીટર દ્વારા હતી. [5]
    બુદ્ધ પ્રતિમા અને અન્ય સ્મારકો વિશાળ દૃશ્ય

    એક
    સિંચાઇ ડેમ જળાશય ના પાણીમાં હેઠળ મૂળ સાઇટ ડુબતા, નજીકના કૃષ્ણ નદી પર
    બાંધવામાં આવી હતી જ્યારે એક પુરાતત્વીય આપત્તિ, 1960 માં ત્રાટક્યું.

    પૂર અગાઉથી, કેટલાક સ્મારકો ખોદવામાં આવી હતી અને પૂર્વ છલકાઇ વિસ્તાર,
    મેઇનલેન્ડ સાથે વસવાટ કર્યો હતા સંગ્રહાલય 1966 અન્ય સ્મારકો માં બનાવવામાં
    આવ્યું હતું, જ્યાં નાગાર્જુન માતાનો હિલ, ટોચ પર વસવાટ કર્યો.
    સમર્પિત પુરાતત્વવિદો લગભગ તમામ અવશેષો ની પુનઃપ્રાપ્ત વ્યવસ્થાપિત.
    નાગાર્જુનસાગર ડેમ
    ફેરફાર કરો નાગાર્જુન સાગર ડેમ

    આ નાગાર્જુનસાગર ડેમ વિશ્વમાં સૌથી ઊંચી ચણતર ડેમ છે. બૌદ્ધ
    સંસ્કૃતિના ખોદકામ અવશેષો આ માનવસર્જિત નાગાર્જુનસાગર લેક મધ્યે આવેલી
    ટાપુ પર એક સંગ્રહાલય ખાતે પુનઃનિર્માણ અને સાચવી રાખવામાં આવ્યા હતા.
    આ સાઇટ એક 14 મી સદીના કિલ્લો, મધ્યયુગીન મંદિરો અને એક બૌદ્ધ વિહાર જેવી બાંધવામાં સંગ્રહાલય છે. સંગ્રહાલય બૌદ્ધ સંસ્કૃતિ અને કલાના અવશેષો એક સંગ્રહ ધરાવે છે. આ નાના દાંત અને ગૌતમ બુદ્ધના કે માનવામાં એક કાન-રિંગ સમાવેશ થાય છે. Nagarjunakonda નામના Mahachaitya મુખ્ય સ્તૂપ બુદ્ધ ના પવિત્ર અવશેષ ધરાવતા હોવાનું માનવામાં આવે છે. બુદ્ધ એક આંશિક ભાગ લેવાની મોથોલિથીક પ્રતિમા સંગ્રહાલય ખાતે મુખ્ય આકર્ષણ છે. તે પણ પાષાણયુગ અને ઉત્તરપાષાણ વખત, સાથે સાથે friezes, સિક્કા અને જ્વેલરી પરથી સાધનો સ્વરૂપમાં ઐતિહાસિક શોધે ધરાવે છે. [6] [7]
    પ્રવાસન

    ગુંટુર જિલ્લામાં સ્થિત [8] તે સ્ટેટ હાઇવે પર સુલભ નથી. સૌથી નજીકનું રેલવે સ્ટેશન 29 કિમી દૂર Macherla, પર છે. તે મેઇનલેન્ડ સાથે એક ઘાટ દ્વારા જોડાયેલું છે.
    Megalith ઉંમર દાટવું એરિયા 2 જી સદી એ.ડી.


    વિસ્તાર પણ આ ડેમ નજીક એક જોવાના વિસ્તારમાંથી આ ખીણની વિહંગમ દ્રશ્યો
    માટે જાણીતી છે, અને એ પણ કુદરતી ધોધ ઓફ સાઇટ છે, પણ મગરો માટે સંવર્ધન
    કેન્દ્ર છે કે એક વાદળી લગૂન માં 22 મી ડાઉન કાસ્કેડ જે Ethipothala ધોધ.
    નજીકના Srisailam વન્યજીવન અભયારણ્ય, વૈવિધ્યસભર સરિસૃપ, પક્ષીઓ અને પ્રાણીઓ માટે પ્રોજેક્ટ ટાઈગર રિઝર્વ અને આશ્રય. આ Nallamala હિલ્સ કૃષ્ણના કિનારા પર બેસીને જે Srisailam, આ 12 પવિત્ર
    Jyotirlingas પૈકીનું એક છે કે જે શિવ મંદિર સહિત પુષ્કળ ઐતિહાસિક અને
    ધાર્મિક મહત્વ, એક સાઇટ છે.
    Nagarjunakonda ફર્યા APTDC પેસેન્જર

    અમરાવતી, આંધ્રપ્રદેશ
    ઉપર ડાબેથી અમરાવતી મૉન્ટાજ ઘડિયાળની દિશામાં: Amareswara સ્વામી મંદિર,
    ધ્યાન બુદ્ધ પ્રતિમા, નદી કૃષ્ણ, અમરાવતી મહા સ્તૂપ ની ક્લોઝઅપ શોટ
    આ સ્તૂપ

    કૃષ્ણ અને ગોદાવરી નદીઓ વચ્ચે આ વિસ્તારમાં અમરાવતી તેમાંથી એક હોવા સાથે 2 જી સદી બીસીઇ ના બોદ્ધ ધર્મ માટે મહત્વનું સ્થાન હતું. બૌદ્ધ સ્તૂપ 200 બીસીઇમાં અશોક ના શાસન દરમિયાન બનાવવામાં આવ્યું હતું, બુદ્ધ વાર્તા કહે છે કે પેનલ સાથે કોતરવામાં આવ્યું હતું. ,
    જાળવણી, વિવિધ મ્યુઝિયમોમાં (Masulipatnam વગેરે ચેન્નાઇ, કલકત્તા,
    લન્ડન,) માટે વિતરણ poignantly Shimada દ્વારા વર્ણવવામાં આવ્યા છે. [8]
    બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ના ઘટાડા ના સમયગાળા દરમ્યાન, આ સ્તૂપ પણ શિલ્પો હતો એ ની શોધ,
    દુરૂપયોગ અને વિનાશ
    ઉપેક્ષા અને તે રોડાં હેઠળ દફનાવવામાં આવ્યા હતા. આ સ્તૂપ કરો અને તેને ભૂલી હતી કે પછી કરવામાં સમારકામ ઉલ્લેખ જે શ્રિલંકા માં એક 14 મી સદીના શિલાલેખ છે. આ સ્તૂપ Kalachakra ના વજ્રાયાના ઉપદેશો સાથે સંબંધિત છે, હજુ તિબેટીયન બોદ્ધ ધર્મ માં આજે ઉપયોગ. તિબેટ દલાઈ લામા 2006 માં આ સ્થાન પર એક Kalachakra પ્રારંભ હાથ ધર્યું હતું.
    ચેન્નાઇ મ્યુઝિયમ, ભારત ખાતે અમરાવતી સ્તૂપ રાહત
    અશોક ના Edicts ડીસ્ટ્રીબુશન ઓફ
    પ્રાચીન કલા

    કલા
    ઇતિહાસકારોનું ત્રણ મુખ્ય પ્રકારો કે પ્રાચીન ભારતીય કલા શાળાઓ એક, અન્ય
    બે ધ ગાંધાર શૈલી અને મથુરા શૈલી હોવા તરીકે અમરાવતી કલા જોવું.
    અમરાવતી
    ના બૌદ્ધ શિલ્પો અમુક બંધ વેપાર અને દક્ષિણ ભારત અને પ્રાચીન રોમનો વચ્ચે
    રાજદ્વારી સંપર્કો ની સીધા પરિણામ હતું કે એક ગ્રીક રોમન પ્રભાવ ખોટે રસ્તે
    દોરવું.
    ખરેખર, અમરાવતી પોતે થોડા રોમન સિક્કા હાંસલ કરી છે. આ એગ્મોર ખાતે સરકારી મ્યુઝિયમ (મદ્રાસ મ્યુઝિયમ) અને બ્રિટિશ મ્યુઝિયમ, લન્ડન યજમાન આ “અમરાવતી ગેલેરી”.

    ચિની
    પ્રવાસી અને બૌદ્ધ સાધુ Hiuen ત્સંગ (Xuanzang), 640 સીઈ માં અમરાવતી
    મુલાકાત લીધી ક્યાંક માટે રોકાયા અને ‘Abhidhammapitakam’ અભ્યાસ કર્યો.
    Xuanzang સ્થળ એક ભવ્ય એકાઉન્ટ લખ્યું, Viharas અને આશ્રમો અસ્તિત્વમાં છે.
    અમરાવતી શાળા

    અમરાવતી માં, પૂર્વીય ડેક્કન આવેલું, કલા ફોર્મ વિવિધ પ્રકાર વિકાસ થયો છે અને 200-100 બીસી થી શરૂ લગભગ છ સદીઓ સુધી વિકાસ થયો. અન્ય જૂથો (તાબા, અધિકારીઓ, અને વેપારીઓ) દ્વારા પ્રથમ સતવાહન કરીને અને
    પાછળથી Ikshvakus કરીને અને એ પણ ઉત્તેજન આપ્યું, પ્રવૃત્તિ ચાર ગાળા
    સરળતાથી દૃષ્ટિગોચર થાય છે.

    કલાના અમરાવતી શાળા ભારતીય કલા ઇતિહાસમાં એક વિષિષ્ટ સ્થાન ધરાવે છે. 3 જી સદી ઇ.સ. પૂર્વે તેના શરૂઆત સાથે અમરાવતી એકવાર Mahachaitya તેના
    ઇતિહાસમાં એક મિલેનિયમ અને અડધા સમયગાળામાં વિસ્તરે સાથે અહીં આવેલું બૌદ્ધ
    ની જાજરમાન સ્મારક adorned કે શિલ્પ સંપત્તિ ગેલેક્સી મારફતે તેના પ્રકરણો
    કથા સમજવાના.

    અમરાવતી બૌદ્ધ સાઈટ ફોટો

    અમરાવતી બૌદ્ધ સાઈટ ફોટો

    અમરાવતી બૌદ્ધ SiteGuntupalli બૌદ્ધ ગુફાઓ ફોટો
    ફોટા
    ‘તમે બધા આભાર :)’

    અમરાવતી
    આંધ્ર
    પાલી, Amaravathi અથવા Dhanyakataka / Dharanikota માં પ્રાચીન યુગના
    દેવતાઓ ના ઘર ગ્રેટ બૌદ્ધ સ્તૂપ અને સમ્રાટ અશોક ના શાસન હેઠળ બાંધવામાં
    બૌદ્ધ પતાવટ 2000 વર્ષ જૂની અવશેષો સમાવે તરીકે PradeshInterpreted.
    આ 27 મી ઉચ્ચ ગ્રેટ બૌદ્ધ સ્તૂપ, દીવા મણ ભારતમાં સૌથી મોટી એક છે - પણ Mahastupa અને Deepaladinne તરીકે ઓળખાય છે. ગોળાકાર vedika સાથે ઈંટ બનાવવામાં આવે છે, જે આદરણીય સ્તૂપ ચાર મુખ્ય
    દિશામાં બહાર નીકળેલી, 95 ફૂટ ઊંચા પ્લેટફોર્મ સાથે શણગારવામાં આવે છે.

    વજ્રાયાના પરંપરાગત સ્રોતો અનુસાર, ગૌતમ બુદ્ધ અમરાવતી ખાતે Kalachakra સમારંભ હાથ ધર્યું હતું. Satyavahanas ના કેપિટલ, સાઇટના મુખ્ય હાઇલાઇટ હાલમાં તાજેતરના ખોદકામ એક
    બૌદ્ધ મંદિર અને બૌદ્ધ કલાકૃતિઓ પ્રદર્શન નાના સંગ્રહાલયના રહે છે.
    આંધ્રપ્રદેશ ટૂર માટે કહો
    Nagarjunakonda
    નાગાર્જુન, દક્ષિણ ભારતમાં મહાયાન બોદ્ધ ધર્મ એક માસ્ટર, Nagarjunakonda કહેવાય ઐતિહાસિક ટેકરી બૌદ્ધ ના હબ તરીકે સેવા આપી પછી નામ. ભારતના
    ધનિક બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ્સ એક, Nagarjunakonda પ્રાચીન સમયમાં ચાઇના, ગાંધાર,
    બંગાળ અને શ્રિલંકા માંથી વિદ્યાર્થીઓ આકર્ષાય જે ઘણા બૌદ્ધ યુનિવર્સિટીઓ
    અને આશ્રમો અવશેષ આયોજન કરે છે.
    હાલમાં કયા Nagarjunakonda ની રચના હજાર વર્ષ પહેલાં વિકાસ થયો છે કે એક
    હારી સંસ્કૃતિ પ્રતીક છે, જે એક ટાપુ પર પુનઃસ્થાપિત બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ છે.

    તારીખ સુધી ખોદકામ શહેરમાં બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ના મજબૂત ઉપસ્થિતિ પર પ્રકાશ ઘા, 30 બૌદ્ધ મઠોમાં હાંસલ કરી છે. અન્ય લોકો મહા Chaitya, Viharas, બુદ્ધ પ્રતિમાઓ, અવશેષો, પથ્થર છબીઓ,
    Jataka વાર્તાઓ એન્ક્રિપ્ટેડ પેનલ્સ અને બૌદ્ધ મૂળના અન્ય વસ્તુઓ સમાવેશ
    થાય છે.

    Chandavaram
    ખોદકામ, Chandavaram ખાતે હાથ ધરવામાં પ્રાચીન બૌદ્ધ વારસો સાઇટ આ
    Mahastupa પગથિયાંવાળો પ્લેટફોર્મ, Chaityagriha અપર્ણ કરેલું સ્તૂપ, ડ્રમ
    સ્લેબો અને બ્રાહ્મી લેબલ શિલાલેખો પર બાંધવામાં જાહેર કરી છે.

    Anupa
    બૌદ્ધ યુનિવર્સિટી, એમ્ફિથિયેટર, Viharas અને Chaityas સહિત બૌદ્ધ વારસો તાજેતરમાં ખોદકામ અવશેષો દ્વારા ઘેરાયેલું; Anupa આંધ્રપ્રદેશમાં બૌદ્ધ સર્કિટ ના ભાગ બનાવે છે.

    આંધ્ર PradeshThotlakonda

    Mangamaripeta હિલ ટોચ પર સ્થિત છે, Thotlakonda ભારત, શ્રિલંકા અને
    દક્ષિણ પૂર્વમાં એશિયાના અન્ય ભાગોમાં વચ્ચે બૌદ્ધ સંસ્કૃતિ માટે એક
    મહત્વપૂર્ણ જાણકારી એક્સચેન્જ સ્પોટ તરીકે સેવા આપી હતી.
    વિશાખાપતનાં
    ની પોર્ટ શહેરથી લગભગ 16 કિ.મી., સાઇટ એક હીનયાન આશ્રમ, Mahastupa, 16
    અપર્ણ કરેલું સ્તૂપ, એક પથ્થર સ્તંભોવાળા મંડળ હોલ, દર્શાવતી બૌદ્ધ
    કોમ્પલેક્ષ આયોજન કરે અર્ધગોળાકાર chaitya grihas and10 viharas.
    Ashthamangal
    પ્રતીકો સાથે પગ ઇમ્પ્રિન્ટ્સ - પાંચ ખોદકામ, 5 વર્ષ સમયગાળામાં, અન્ય
    મહત્વપૂર્ણ બૌદ્ધ 12 બ્રાહ્મી શિલાલેખો, મૂર્તિકળાત્મક પેનલ, પત્થરમાં
    લઘુચિત્ર સ્તૂપ મોડેલો અને બુદ્ધ padukas સહિત રહે જાહેર કરી છે.
    હાલમાં, ધ્યાન બુદ્ધ પ્રતિમા બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ શોભા - Thotlakonda.

    Bavikonda
    વિશાખાપતનાં
    ની આસપાસ બીજા બૌદ્ધ વારસો સાઇટ, Bavikonda હિલ એક Mahachaitya, મોટા
    વિહાર સંકુલ, અસંખ્ય અપર્ણ કરેલું સ્તૂપ, રોક કટ ગુફાઓ, એક પથ્થર
    સ્તંભોવાળા મંડળ હોલ, લંબચોરસ હોલ અને ખોદકામ દરમિયાન એક ભોજનશાળા સહિત 26
    માળખાં એક બૌદ્ધ જટિલ સમાવેશ થાય અવશેષ શોધી કાઢવામાં.
    હીનયાન, મહાયાન અને વજ્રાયાના અહીં વિકાસ થયો - પુરાવાઓ બોદ્ધ ધર્મ તમામ ત્રણ શાખાઓ કે પ્રદર્શન.

    ભગવાન બુદ્ધ ખોદકામ દરમિયાન મળી આવી હતી ના નશ્વર માનવામાં પોટ માં સ્ટોર અસ્થિ એક ભાગ રહે છે. એશિયામાં સૌથી જૂના અને સૌથી આદરણીય બૌદ્ધ સાઇટ્સ એક નો સમાવેશ ગણાશે,
    Bavikonda પાછા એકવાર ભારતના દક્ષિણ ભાગમાં અસ્તિત્વમાં છે કે સમય માં
    ધર્મના ઇતિહાસમાં રચતો.

    Bhattiprolu
    Pratipalapura,
    Bhattiprolu હાલના ગુંટુર જિલ્લામાં સાલા કિંગડમના શાસન દરમિયાન એક બૌદ્ધ
    નગર તરીકે વિકાસ થયો તેમ anciently ઓળખાય છે.
    ચિન્ના Lanja ડિબ્બા / વિક્રમાર્કા કોટા ડિબ્બા તરીકે સ્થાનિક રીતે
    જાણીતું તેના પ્રાચીન બુદ્ધ સ્તૂપ માટે આદરણીય, સાઇટ પણ તેલુગુ, આંધ્ર
    પ્રદેશ રાજ્યના ભાષા, બ્રાહ્મી લિપિ થી ઉત્પત્તિ આવ્યો કે ભાષાકીય પુરાવા
    ન્યાય.

    Bhattiprolu
    ના ખોદકામ ત્રણ ઉત્કીર્ણ પથ્થર અવશેષ caskets દર્શાવતા ત્રણ ઢગલા, બુદ્ધ
    અને ઝવેરાત અવશેષો શોધી કાઢવામાં આવ્યા હતા જ્યાં 19 મી સદીમાં એલેક્ઝાન્ડર
    માનસ દ્વારા હાથ ધરવામાં આવી હતી.