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1769 Mon Feb 08 2016 INSIGHT-NET-FREE Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org will translate THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA in 93 languages to be made compulsory degree in all the Universities along with other degree courses with a hope that all the Universities also follow to Learn The Skill of Earning Fast to be Happier for The Skill of Giving Faster to be Happiest ! Respected Dr.Satish Kumar Coordinator Political science Department Yogi Vemana University Kadapa AP Please introduce Law Degree in your esteemed University.
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1769 Mon Feb 08 2016

INSIGHT-NET-FREE Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University


in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)  
through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
will translate


THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

in
93 languages to be made compulsory degree in all the Universities along
with other degree courses with a hope that all the Universities also
follow to

Learn The Skill of Earning Fast to be Happier for The Skill of Giving Faster to be Happiest !

Respected Dr.Satish Kumar 

Coordinator

Political science Department

Yogi Vemana University

Kadapa AP

Please introduce Law Degree in your esteemed University.

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(Download Free e-Book) The Constitution of India



Contents:

  • Preamble

  • Parts

  • Schedules

  • Appendices

  • Amendment Acts

PART I: THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

ARTICLE

1 Name and territory of the Union.
2 Admission or establishment of new States.
2A [Repealed.]
3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of
existing States.
4 Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and
the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.

PART II: CITIZENSHIP

5 Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
6 Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from
Pakistan.
7 Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
8 Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside
India.
9 Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be
citizens.
10 Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
11 Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

PART III: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

General

12 Definition.
13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Right to Equality

14 Equality before law.
15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or
place of birth.
16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
17 Abolition of Untouchability.
18 Abolition of titles.

Right to Freedom

19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
21 Protection of life and personal liberty.
22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right against Exploitation

23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of
religion.
26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in
certain educational institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights

29 Protection of interests of minorities.
30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
31 [Repealed.]

Saving of Certain Laws

31A Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31B Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
31C Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.
31D [Repealed.]

Right to Constitutional Remedies

32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.
32A [Repealed.]
33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their
application to Forces, etc.
34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in
any area.
35 Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

PART IV: DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

36 Definition.
37 Application of the principles contained in this Part.
38 State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.

39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
39A Equal justice and free legal aid.
40 Organisation of village panchayats.
41 Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
42 Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
43 Living wage, etc., for workers.
43A Participation of workers in management of industries.
44 Uniform civil code for the citizens.
45 Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
46 Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living
and to improve public health.
48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and
wild life.
49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
50 Separation of judiciary from executive.
51 Promotion of international peace and security.

PART IVA: FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

51A Fundamental duties.

PART V : THE UNION CHAPTER I.THE EXECUTIVE

The President and Vice-President

52 The President of India.
53 Executive power of the Union.
54 Election of President.
55 Manner of election of President.
56 Term of office of President.
57 Eligibility for re-election.
58 Qualifications for election as President.
59 Conditions of President’s office.
60 Oath or affirmation by the President.
61 Procedure for impeachment of the President.
62 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the
term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
63 The Vice-President of India.
64 The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.
65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during
casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.
66 Election of Vice-President.
67 Term of office of Vice-President.
68 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and
the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
69 Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.
70 Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies.
71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or
Vice-President.
72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.
73 Extent of executive power of the Union.

Council of Ministers

74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
75 Other provisions as to Ministers.

The Attorney-General for India

76 Attorney-General for India.
Conduct of Government Business
77 Conduct of business of the Government of India.
78 Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the
President, etc.

CHAPTER II: PARLIAMENT

General

79 Constitution of Parliament.
80 Composition of the Council of States
81 Composition of the House of the People.
82 Readjustment after each census.
83 Duration of Houses of Parliament.
84 Qualification for membership of Parliament.
85 Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
86 Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.
87 Special address by the President.
88 Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.

Officers of Parliament

89 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.
90 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.

91 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Chairman.
92 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
93 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People .
94 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and
Deputy Speaker.
95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Speaker.
96 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
97 Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker
and Deputy Speaker.
98 Secretariat of Parliament.

Conduct of Business

99 Oath or affirmation by members.
100 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and
quorum.

Disqualifications of Members

101 Vacation of seats.
102 Disqualifications for membership.
103 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
104 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under
article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.

Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members

105 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members
and committees thereof.
106 Salaries and allowances of members.

Legislative Procedure

107 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
108 Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
110 Definition of “Money Bills”.
111 Assent to Bills.

Procedure in Financial Matters

112 Annual financial statement.
113 Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
114 Appropriation Bills.
115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

118 Rules of procedure.
119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial
business.
120 Language to be used in Parliament.
121 Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

CHAPTER III: LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.

CHAPTER IV: THE UNION JUDICIARY

124 Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.
125 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
127 Appointment of ad hoc judges.
128 Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.
129 Supreme Court to be a court of record.
130 Seat of Supreme Court.
131 Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
131A [Repealed.]
132 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in
certain cases.
133 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in
regard to Civil matters.
134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.
134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
135 Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be
exercisable by the Supreme Court.
136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
137 Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.
138 Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
139 Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
139A Transfer of certain cases.
140 Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
142 Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to
discovery, etc.
143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
144A [Repealed.]
145 Rules of Court, etc.
146 Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.
147 Interpretation.

CHAPTER V: COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA

148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
150 Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.
151 Audit reports.

PART VI: THE STATES

CHAPTER I - GENERAL

152 Definition.

CHAPTER II: THE EXECUTIVE

The Governor

153 Governors of States.
154 Executive power of State.
155 Appointment of Governor.
156 Term of office of Governor.
157 Qualifications for appointment as Governor.
158 Conditions of Governor’s office
159 Oath or affirmation by the Governor.
160 Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.
161 Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.
162 Extent of executive power of State.

Council of Ministers

163 Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
164 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Advocate-General for the State
165 Advocate-General for the State.

Conduct of Government Business

166 Conduct of business of the Government of a State.
167 Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to
Governor, etc.

CHAPTER III: THE STATE LEGISLATURE

General

168 Constitution of Legislatures in States.
169 Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.
170 Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.
171 Composition of the Legislative Councils.
172 Duration of State Legislatures.
173 Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.
174 Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.
175 Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
176 Special address by the Governor.
177 Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.

Officers of the State Legislature

178 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
179 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and
Deputy Speaker.
180 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Speaker.
181 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
182 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.
183 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and
Deputy Chairman.
184 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Chairman.
185 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for
his removal from office is under consideration.
186 Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman
and Deputy Chairman.
187 Secretariat of State Legislature.

Conduct of Business

188 Oath or affirmation by members.
189 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and
quorum.

Disqualifications of Members

190 Vacation of seats.
191 Disqualifications for membership.
192 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under
article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.

Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members

194 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the
members and committees thereof.
195 Salaries and allowances of members.

Legislative Procedure

196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money
Bills.
198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
199 Definition of “Money Bills”.
200 Assent to Bills.
201 Bills reserved for consideration.

Procedure in Financial Matters

202 Annual financial statement.
203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.
204 Appropriation Bills.
205 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
206 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
207 Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

208 Rules of procedure.
209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation
to financial business.
210 Language to be used in the Legislature.
211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.
212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.

CHAPTER IV - LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR

213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

CHAPTER V-THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

214 High Courts for States.
215 High Courts to be courts of record.
216 Constitution of High Courts.
217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.
218 Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.

219 Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.
220 Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.
221 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
222 Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.
223 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
224 Appointment of additional and acting Judges.
224A Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.
225 Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.
226 Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
226A [Repealed..]
227 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.
228 Transfer of certain cases to High Court.
228A [Repealed.]
229 Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.
230 Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.
231 Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States

CHAPTER VI: SUBORDINATE COURTS

233 Appointment of district judges.
233A Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain
district judges.
234 Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.

235 Control over subordinate courts.
236 Interpretation.
237 Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of
magistrates.

PART VII: THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE

238 [Repealed.]

PART VIII: THE UNION TERRITORIES

239 Administration of Union territories.
239A Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain
Union territories.
239A Special provisions with respect to Delhi.
239AA Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
239AB Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
Legislature.
240 Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.
241 High Courts for Union territories.
242 [Repealed.]

PART IX: THE PANCHAYATS

243 Definitions.
243A Gram Sabha.
243B Constitution of Panchayats.
243C Composition of Panchayats.
243D Reservation of seats.
243E Duration of Panchayats, etc.
243F Disqualifications for membership.
243G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
243H Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.
243-I Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.
243J Audit of accounts of Pachayats.
243K Elections to the Panchayats.
243L Application to Union territories.
243M Part not to apply to certain areas.
243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.
243-O Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXA: THE MUNICIPALITIES

243P Definitions.
243Q Constitution of Municipalities.
243R Composition of Municipalities.
243S Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.
243T Reservation of seats.
243U Duration of Municipalities, etc.
243V Disqualifications for membership.
243W Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.
243 Finance Commission.
243Z Audit of accounts of Municipalities.
243ZA Elections to the Municipalities.
243ZB Application to Union territories.
243ZC Part not to apply to certain areas.
243ZD Committee for district planning.
243ZE Committee for Metropolitan planning.
243ZF Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.
243ZG Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.

PART X: THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS

244 Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
244A Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam
and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.

PART XI: RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I: LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS

Distribution of Legislative Powers

245 Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
246 Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.

247 Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional
courts.
248 Residuary powers of legislation.
249 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List
in the national interest.
250 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State
List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
251 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and
laws made by the Legislatures of States.
252 Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and
adoption of such legislation by any other State.
253 Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
254 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the
Legislatures of States.
255 Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as
matters of procedure only.

CHAPTER II: ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS

General

256 Obligation of States and the Union.
257 Control of the Union over States in certain cases.
257A [Repealed.]
258 Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.
258A Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.
259 [Repealed.]
260 Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.
261 Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.

Disputes relating to Waters

262 Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or
river valleys.

Co-ordination between States

263 Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.

PART XII: FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
CHAPTER I: FINANCE

General

264 Interpretation.
265 Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.
266 Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.
267 Contingency Fund.

Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States

268 Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State.

269 Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.
270 Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.
271 Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.
272 [Repealed.]
273 Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.
274 Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in
which

States are interested

275 Grants from the Union to certain States.
276 Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
277 Savings.
278 [Repealed.]
279 Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc.
280 Finance Commission.
281 Recommendations of the Finance Commission.

Miscellaneous financial provisions

282 Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.
283 Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited
to the public accounts.
284 Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by public servants
and courts.
285 Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.
286 Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.
287 Exemption from taxes on electricity.
288 Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in
certain cases.
289 Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.
290 Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.
290A Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.
291 [Repealed.]

CHAPTER II: BORROWING

292 Borrowing by the Government of India.
293 Borrowing by States.

CHAPTER III: PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES,
OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS

294 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in
certain cases.
295 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other
cases.
296 Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia.
297 Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources
of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.
298 Power to carry on trade, etc.
299 Contracts.
300 Suits and proceedings.

CHAPTER IV: RIGHT TO PROPERTY

300A Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.

PART XIII: TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE
TERRITORY OF INDIA

301 Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.
302 Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and
intercourse.
303 Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with
regard to trade and commerce.
304 Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.
305 Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.
306 [Repealed.]
307 Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to
304.

PART XIV: SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I: SERVICES

308 Interpretation.
309 Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a
State.
310 Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.
311 Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil
capacities under the Union or a State.
312 All-India services.
312A Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of
certain services.
313 Transitional provisions.
314 [Repeated.]

CHAPTER II: PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS

315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
316 Appointment and term of office of members.
317 Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.
318 Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff
of the Commission.
319 Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing
to be such members.
320 Functions of Public Service Commissions.
321 Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
322 Expenses of Public Service Commissions.
323 Reports of Public Service Commissions.

PART XIVA TRIBUNALS

323A Administrative tribunals.
323B Tribunals for other matters.

PART XV: ELECTIONS

324 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an
Election Commission.
325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a
special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.
326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of
States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
327 Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to
Legislatures.
328 Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections
to such Legislature.
329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
329A [Repealed.]

PART XVI: SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES

330 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the
House of the People.
331 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.
332 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the
Legislative

Assemblies of the States

333 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative
Assemblies of the States.
334 Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.

335 Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
336 Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.
337 Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of
Anglo-Indian Community.
338 National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
338A National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
339 Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the
welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
340 Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward
classes.
341 Scheduled Castes.
342 Scheduled Tribes.

PART XVII OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
CHAPTER I: LANGUAGE OF THE UNION

343 Official language of the Union.
344 Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.

CHAPTER II: REGIONAL LANGUAGES

345 Official language or languages of a State.
346 Official language for communication between one State and another or between
a State and the Union.
347 Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population
of a State.

CHAPTER III: LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.

348 Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for
Acts, Bills, etc.
349 Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.

CHAPTER IV - SPECIAL DIRECTIVES

350 Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.
350A Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
350B Special Officer for linguistic minorities.
351 Directive for development of the Hindi language.

PART XVIII: EMERGENCY PROVISIONS

352 Proclamation of Emergency.
353 Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.
354 Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a
Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
355 Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal
disturbance.
356 Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.
357 Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.

358 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.
359 Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during
emergencies.
359A [Repealed.]
360 Provisions as to financial emergency.

PART XIX: MISCELLANEOUS

361 Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs.
361A Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State
Legislatures.
361B Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.
362 [Repealed.]
363 Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,
agreements, etc.
363A Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to
be abolished.
364 Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.
365 Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by
the Union.
366 Definitions.
367 Interpretation.

PART XX: AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

368 Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.

PART XXI: TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS

369 Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to
certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent
List.
370 Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
371 Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
371A Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.
371B Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.
371C Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.
371D Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.
371E Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.
371F Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.
371G Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
371H Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.
371-I Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.
372 Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.
372A Power of the President to adapt laws.
373 Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive
detention in certain cases.
374 Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the
Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.
375 Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the
provisions of the Constitution.
376 Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.
377 Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
378 Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.
378A Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.

379-391 [Repealed.]
392 Power of the President to remove difficulties.

PART XXII: SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN
HINDI AND REPEALS

393 Short title.
394 Commencement.
394A Authoritative text in the Hindi language.
395 Repeals.


















PART IXA


THE MUNUCIPALITIES



ARTICLE


243P. Definitions.



_211[PART IXA
THE MUNICIPALITIES

243P. Definitions.-

In this Part, unless the context otherwise
requires,-

(a) “Committee” means a Committee constituted under article 243S;

(b) “district” means a district in a State;

(c) “Metropolitan area” means an area having a population of ten lakhs
or more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or
more Municipalities or Panchayats or other contiguous areas,
specified by the Governor by public notification to be a Metropolitan
area for the purposes of this Part;


(d) “Municipal area” means the territorial area of a Municipality
as is notified by the Governor;

(e) “Municipality” means an institution of self-government constituted
under article 243Q;

(f) “Panchayat” means a Panchayat constituted under article 243B;

(g) “population” means the population as ascertained at the last
preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published.



243Q. Constitution of Municipalities.


PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243Q. Constitution of Municipalities.-

(1) There shall be constituted
in every State,-

(a) a Nagar Panchayat (by whatever name callled) for a transitional
area, that is to say, an area in transition from a rural area to an
urban area;

(b) a Municipal Council for a smaller urban area; and


(c) a Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area,

in accordance with the provisions of this Part:

Provided that a Municipality under this clause may not be constituted
in such urban area or part thereof as the Governor may, having regard
to the size of the area and the municipal services being provided or
proposed to be provided by an industrial establishment in that area
and such other factors as he may deem fit, by public notification,
specify to be an industrial township.

(2) In this article, “a transitional area”, “a smaller urban area” or
“a larger urban area” means such area as the Governor may, having
regard to the population of the area, the density of the population
therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the
percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic
importance or such other factors as he may deem fit, specify by public
notification for the purposes of this Part.



243R. Composition of Municipalities.




PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243R. Composition of Municipalities.-

(1) Save as provided in clause
(2), all the seats in a Municipality shall be filled by persons chosen
by direct election from the territorial constituencies in the
Municipal area and for this purpose each Municipal area shall be
divided into territorial constituencies to be known as wards.


(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, provide-

(a) for the representation in a Municipality of-

(i) persons having special knowledge or experience in Municipal
administration;

(ii) the members of the House of the People and the members of the
Legislative Assembly of the State representing constituencies which
comprise wholly or partly the Municipal area;

(iii) the members of the Council of States and the members of the
Legislative Council of the State registered as electors within the
Municipal area;

(iv) the Chairpersons of the Committees constituted under clause (5)
of article 243S:


Provided that the persons referred to in paragraph (i) shall not have
the right to vote in the meetings of the Municipality;

(b) the manner of election of the Chairperson of a Municipality.



243S. Constitution and composition of wards Committees, etc.


PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243S. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.-

(1)
There shall be constituted Wards Committees, consisting of one or more
wards, within the territorial area of a Municipality having a
population of three lakhs or more.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with
respect to-


(a) the composition and the territorial area of a Wards Committee;

(b) the manner in which the seats in a Wards Committee shall be
filled.

(3) A member of a Municipality representing a ward within the
territorial area of the Wards Committee shall be a member of that
Committee.

(4) Where a Wards Committee consists of-

(a) one ward, the member representing that ward in the Municipality;
or

(b) two or more wards, one of the members representing such wards in
the Municipality elected by the members of the Wards Committee,

shall be the Chairperson of that Committee.


(5) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to prevent the Legislature
of a State from making any provision for the constitution of
Committees in addition to the Wards Committees.



243T. Reservation of seats.


PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243T. Reservation of seats.-

(1) Seats shall be reserved for the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in every Municipality and
the number of seats so reserved shall bear, as nearly as may be, the
same proportion to the total number of seats to be filled by direct
election in that Municipality as the population of the Scheduled
Castes in the Municipal area or of the Scheduled Tribes in the
Municipal area bears to the total population of that area and such
seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a
Municipality.


(2) Not less than one-third of the total number of seats reserved
under clause (1) shall be reserved for women belonging to the
Scheduled Castes or, as the case may be, the Scheduled Tribes.

(3) Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved
for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes)
of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every
Municipality shall be reserved for women and such seats may be
allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Municipality.


(4) The offices of Chairpersons in the Municipalities shall be
reserved for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and women in
such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

(5) The reservation of seats under clauses (1) and (2) and the
reservation of offices of Chairpersons (other than the reservation for
women) under clause (4) shall cease to have effect on the expiration
of the period specified in article 334.

(6) Nothing in this Part shall prevent the Legislature of a State from
making any provision for reservation of seats in any Municipality or
offices of Chairpersons in the Municipalities in favour of ward
class of citizens.

 


243U. Duration of Municipalities, etc.


PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243U. Duration of Municipalities, etc.-

(1) Every Municipality, unless
sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall
continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting
and no longer:

Provided that a Municipality, shall be given a reasonable opportunity
of being heard before its dissolution.


(2) No amendment of any law for the time being in force shall have the
effect of causing dissolution of a Municipality at any level, which is
functioning immediately before such amendment, till the expiration of
its duration specified in clause (1).

(3) An election to constitute a Municipality shall be completed,-

(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1);

(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of
its dissolution:

Provided that where the remainder of the period for which the
dissolved Municipality would have continued is less than six months,
it shall not be necessary to hold any election under this clause for
constituting the Municipality for such period.


(4) A Municipality constituted upon the dissolution of a Municipality
before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the
remainder of the period for which the dissolved Municipality would
have continued under clause (1) had it not been so dissolved.



243V. Disqualifications for membership.


PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243V. Disqualifications for membership.-

(1) A person shall be
disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of a
Municipality-

(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in
force for the purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State
concerned:


Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is
less than twenty-five years of age, if he has attained the age of
twenty-one years;

(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the
Legislature of the State.

(2) If any question arises as to whether a member of a Municipality
has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause
(1), the question shall be referred for the decision of such authority
and in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.



243W. Powers authority and responsibilities of Municipalities etc.


PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES
243W. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities,
etc.-

Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature
of a State may, by law, endow-

(a) the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be
necessary to enable them to function as institutions of
self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution
of powers and responsibilities upon Municipalities, subject to such
conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to-


(i) the preparation of plans for economic development and social
justice;

(ii) the performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as
may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters
listed in the Twelfth Schedule;

(b) the Committees with such powers and authority as may be necessary
to enable them to carry out the responsibilities conferred upon them
including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth
Schedule,


243X. Power to impose taxes by, and funds of, the Municipalities.











PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipilities.-

The
Legislature of a State may, by law,-



(a) authorise a Municipality to levy, collect and appropriate such
taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such procedure and
subject to such limits;



(b) assign to a Municipality such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied
and collected by the State Government for such purposes and subject to
such conditions and limits;





(c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Municipalities from
the Consolidated Fund of the State; and


(d) provide for constitution of such Funds for crediting all moneys
received, respectively, by or on behalf of the Municipalities and also
for the withdrawal of such
moneys therefrom,



as may be specified in the Law.





Who are the owners of Insight-net ?

All Awakened Ones with Awareness who are loyal and practice it are the owners of Awakened One with Awareness Universe !



For practice visit:



http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


History of the Future of Insight-net

On

January 08, 2016, the International Network Council INC unanimously passed a resolution defining the

term Insight-net. This definition is developed in consultation with

members of the Insight-net and intellectual property rights communities.

RESOLUTION: The International Networking Council (INC) agrees that

following all languages of the world reflects our definition of the term “Insight-net”.

“Insight-net” refers to the global information system that — (i) is

logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on

the Insight-net Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons;

(ii) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control

Protocol/Insight-net Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent

extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and (iii)

provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high

level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure

described herein.

The Insight-net will change much in the future since

it has come into existence. It is conceived in the era of time-sharing,

but will survive into the era of personal computers, client-server and

peer-to-peer computing, and the network computer. It is designed while

LANs existed, but will accommodate this new network technology, as well

as the more recent ATM and frame switched services. It is envisioned as

supporting a range of functions from file sharing and remote login to

resource sharing and collaboration, and has spawned electronic mail and

more recently the World Wide Web. But most important, it is started as

the creation of a small band of dedicated Awakened One with Awareness

researchers, and will grow to be a commercial success with lots of money

of annual investment.

One should not conclude that the

Insight-net will now finish changing. The Insight-net, although a network

in name and geography, is a creature of the computer, not the

traditional network of the telephone or television industry. It will,

indeed it must, continue to change and evolve at the speed of the

computer industry if it is to remain relevant. It is now changing to

provide new services such as real time transport, in order to support,

for example, moving images, audio, animations, 360 panorama vision, GIFs

and video streams.

The availability of pervasive networking

(i.e., the Insight-net) along with powerful affordable computing and

communications in portable form (i.e., laptop computers, two-way pagers,

PDAs, cellular phones), is making possible a new paradigm of nomadic

computing and communications. This evolution will bring us new

applications - Insight-net telephone and, slightly further out,

Insight-net television. It is evolving to permit more sophisticated forms

of pricing and cost recovery, a perhaps painful requirement in this

commercial world. It is changing to accommodate yet another generation

of underlying network technologies with different characteristics and

requirements, e.g. broadband residential access and satellites. New

modes of access and new forms of service will spawn new applications,

which in turn will drive further evolution of the net itself.

The

most pressing question for the future of the Insight-net is not how the

technology will change, but how the process of change and evolution

itself will be managed. As this paper describes, the architecture of the

Insight-net has always been driven by a core group of designers, but the

form of that group has changed as the number of interested parties has

grown. With the success of the Insight-net has come a proliferation of

stakeholders - stakeholders now with an economic as well as an

intellectual investment in the network.

We now see, in the

debates over control of the domain name space and the form of the next

generation IP addresses, a struggle to find the next social structure

that will guide the Insight-net in the future. The form of that structure

will be harder to find, given the large number of concerned

stakeholders. At the same time, the industry struggles to find the

economic rationale for the large investment needed for the future

growth, for example to upgrade residential access to a more suitable

technology. If the Insight-net stumbles, it will not be because we lack

for technology, vision, or motivation. It will be because we cannot set a

direction and march collectively into the future.


Mayawati wants UP split into 4 parts


Bahujan Samaj Party supremo Mayawati on Wednesday reiterated her demand of dividing Uttar Pradesh into four parts.


Stating that the BSP “has always supported smaller states” Ms. Mayawati
said UP should be divided into four smaller units: Purvanchal,
Bundelkhand, Awadh Pradesh and Paschim Pradesh.


“Ministers in the Centre who hail from UP should build pressure on the
Central Government for formation of these states,” Ms. Mayawati said.
She also voiced her support for other separate state movements like
Gorkhaland and Vidarbha.

However,
her comments drew sharp criticism from the major parties.
The Bharatiya Janata Party dismissed Mayawati’s statement.

The Samajwadi Party also launched an attack on Mayawati’s proposal and
stated that it was against any division of the State.We do not believe
in dividing the country any further.

The Congress also lashed out at Mayawati for making such demands.

      
Please correct this Google Translation in your Mother Tongue. That will be your exercise !


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