“Evam me sutam” — “Thus have I heard.”
All the original sermons chanting heard during the Buddha’s forty-five year teaching career.
Most of these sermons therefore begin with the disclaimer, “Evam me sutam” — “Thus have I heard.”
the Buddha’s death the teachings continued to be passed down orally
within the monastic community, in keeping with an Prabuddha Bharathian
that long predated the Buddha.
250 BCE the Sangha had systematically arranged and compiled these
teachings into three divisions: the Vinaya Pitaka (the “basket of
discipline” — the texts
the rules and customs of the Sangha), the Sutta Pitaka (the “basket of
discourses” — the sermons and utterances by the Buddha and his close
disciples), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the “basket of special/higher
doctrine” — a detailed psycho-philosophical analysis of the Dhamma).
Together these three are known as the Tipitaka, the “three baskets.” In
the third century BCE Sri Lankan monks began compiling a series of
exhaustive commentaries to the Tipitaka; these were subsequently
collated and translated into Pali beginning in the fifth century CE.
Tipitaka plus the post-canonical texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.)
together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada
was originally a spoken language with no alphabet of its own. It wasn’t
until about 100 BCE that the Tipitaka was first fixed in writing, by
Sri Lankan scribe-monks, who wrote the
phonetically in a form of early Brahmi script. Since then the Tipitaka
has been transliterated into many different scripts (Devanagari, Thai,
Burmese, Roman, Cyrillic, to name a few).
English translations of the most popular Tipitaka texts abound, many
students of Theravada find that learning the Pali language — even just a
little bit here and there — greatly deepens their understanding and
appreciation of the Buddha’s teachings.
It is the truth towards which the words in the Tipitaka point that ultimately matters, not the words themselves.
will quietly continue to serve — as it has for centuries — as an
indispensable guide for millions of followers in their quest for
A Brief Summary of the Buddha’s Teachings
after his Awakening, the Buddha delivered his first sermon, in which he
laid out the essential framework upon which all his later teachings
were based. This framework consists of the Four Noble Truths, four
fundamental principles of nature (Dhamma) that emerged from the Buddha’s
radically honest and penetrating assessment of the human condition. He
taught these truths not as metaphysical theories or as articles of
faith, but as categories by which we should frame our direct experience
in a way that conduces to Awakening:
Dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness, discontent, stress;
cause of dukkha: the cause of this dissatisfaction is craving (tanha)
for sensuality, for states of becoming, and states of no becoming;
The cessation of dukkha: the relinquishment of that craving;
path of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: the Noble
Eightfold Path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right
of our ignorance (avijja) of these Noble Truths, because of our
inexperience in framing the world in their terms, we remain bound to
samsara, the wearisome cycle of birth, aging, illness, death, and
rebirth. Craving propels this process onward, from one moment to the
next and over the course of countless lifetimes, in accordance with
kamma, the universal law of cause and effect. According to this
immutable law, every action that one performs in the present moment —
whether by body, speech, or mind itself — eventually bears fruit
according to its skillfulness: act in unskillful and harmful ways and
unhappiness is bound to follow; act skillfully and happiness will
ultimately ensue. As long as one remains ignorant of this principle, one
is doomed to an aimless existence: happy one moment, in despair the
next; enjoying one lifetime in heaven, the next in hell.
Buddha discovered that gaining release from samsara requires assigning
to each of the Noble Truths a specific task: the first Noble Truth is to
be comprehended; the second, abandoned; the third, realized; the
fourth, developed. The full realization of the third Noble Truth paves
the way for Awakening: the end of ignorance, craving, suffering, and
kamma itself; the direct penetration to the transcendent freedom and
supreme happiness that stands as the final goal of all the Buddha’s
teachings; the Unconditioned, the Deathless, Unbinding — Nibbana the
The Eightfold Path and the Practice of Dhamma
the roots of ignorance are so intimately entwined with the fabric of
the psyche, the unawakened mind is capable of deceiving itself with
breathtaking ingenuity. The solution therefore requires more than simply
being kind, loving, and mindful in the present moment. The practitioner
must equip him- or herself with the expertise to use a range of tools
to outwit, outlast, and eventually uproot the mind’s unskillful
tendencies. For example, the practice of generosity (dana) erodes the
mind’s habitual tendencies towards craving and teaches valuable lessons
about the motivations behind, and the results of, skillful action. The
practice of virtue (sila) guards one against straying wildly off-course
and into harm’s way. The cultivation of goodwill (metta) helps to
undermine anger’s seductive grasp. The ten recollections offer ways to
alleviate doubt, bear physical pain with composure, maintain a healthy
sense of self-respect, overcome laziness and complacency, and restrain
oneself from unbridled lust. And there are many more skills to learn.
good qualities that emerge and mature from these practices not only
smooth the way for the journey to Nibbana; over time they have the
effect of transforming the practitioner into a more generous, loving,
compassionate, peaceful, and clear-headed member of society.
The individual’s sincere pursuit of Awakening is thus a priceless and timely gift to a world in desperate need of help.
Eightfold Path is best understood as a collection of personal qualities
to be developed, rather than as a sequence of steps along a linear
path. The development of right view and right resolve (the factors
classically identified with wisdom and discernment) facilitates the
development of right speech, action, and livelihood (the factors
identified with virtue). As virtue develops so do the factors identified
with concentration (right effort, mindfulness, and concentration).
as concentration matures, discernment evolves to a still deeper level.
And so the process unfolds: development of one factor fosters
development of the next, lifting the practitioner in an upward spiral of
spiritual maturity that eventually culminates in Awakening.
long journey to Awakening begins in earnest with the first tentative
stirrings of right view — the discernment by which one recognizes the
validity of the four Noble Truths and the principle of kamma.
begins to see that one’s future well-being is neither predestined by
fate, nor left to the whims of a divine being or random chance. The
responsibility for one’s happiness rests squarely on one’s own
shoulders. Seeing this, one’s spiritual aims become suddenly clear: to
relinquish the habitual unskillful tendencies of the mind in favor of
skilful ones. As this right resolve grows stronger, so does the
heartfelt desire to live a morally upright life, to choose one’s actions
this point many followers make the inward commitment to take the
Buddha’s teachings to heart, to become “Buddhist” through the act of
taking refuge in the Triple Gem: the Buddha (both the historical Buddha
and one’s own innate potential for Awakening), the Dhamma (both the
Buddha’s teachings and the ultimate Truth towards which they point), and
the Sangha (both the unbroken monastic lineage that has preserved the
teachings since the Buddha’s day, and all those who have achieved at
least some degree of Awakening). With one’s feet thus planted on solid
ground, and with the help of an admirable friend or teacher
(kalyanamitta) to guide the way, one is now well-equipped to proceed
down the Path, following in the footsteps left by the Buddha himself.
view and right resolve continue to mature through the development of
the path factors associated with sila, or virtue — namely, right speech,
right action, and right livelihood.
are condensed into a very practical form in the five precepts, the
basic code of ethical conduct to which every practicing Buddhist
subscribes: refraining from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying,
and using intoxicants. Even the monks’ complex code of 227 rules and
the nuns’ 311 ultimately have these five basic precepts at their core.
gained a foothold in the purification of one’s outward behavior through
the practice of sila, the essential groundwork has been laid for
delving into the most subtle and transformative aspect of the path:
meditation and the development of samadhi, or concentration. This is
spelled out in detail in the final three path factors: right effort, by
which one learns how to favor skillful qualities of mind over unskillful
ones; right mindfulness, by which one learns to keep one’s attention
continually grounded in the present moment of experience; and right
concentration, by which one learns to immerse the mind so thoroughly and
unwaveringly in its meditation object that it enters jhana, a series of
progressively deeper states of mental and physical tranquillity.
mindfulness and right concentration are developed in tandem through
satipatthana (”frames of reference” or “foundations of mindfulness”), a
systematic approach to meditation practice that embraces a wide range of
skills and techniques. Of these practices, mindfulness of the body
(especially mindfulness of breathing) is particularly effective at
bringing into balance the twin qualities of tranquillity (samatha) and
insight (vipassana), or clear-seeing. Through persistent practice, the
meditator becomes more adept at bringing the combined powers of
samatha-vipassana to bear in an exploration of the fundamental nature of
mind and bodyAs the meditator masters the ability to frame his
immediate experience in terms of anicca (inconstancy), dukkha, and
anatta (not-self), even the subtlest manifestations of these three
characteristics of experience are brought into exquisitely sharp focus.
the same time, the root cause of dukkha — craving — is relentlessly
exposed to the light of awareness. Eventually craving is left with no
place to hide, the entire karmic process that fabricates dukkha
unravels, the eightfold path reaches its noble climax, and the meditator
gains, at long last, his or her first unmistakable glimpse of the
Unconditioned Nibbana the Eternal Bliss.
first awakenment experience, known as stream-entry (sotapatti), is the
first of four progressive stages of Awakening, each of which entails the
irreversible shedding or weakening of several fetters (samyojana), the
manifestations of ignorance that bind a person to the cycle of birth and
marks an unprecedented and radical turning point both in the
practitioner’s current life and in the entirety of his or her long
journey in samsara. For it is at this point that any lingering doubts
about the truth of the Buddha’s teachings disappear; it is at this point
that any belief in the purifying efficacy of rites and rituals
evaporates; and it is at this point that the long-cherished notion of an
abiding personal “self” falls away. The stream-enterer is said to be
assured of no more than seven future rebirths (all of them favorable)
before eventually attaining full Awakening.
full Awakening is still a long way off. As the practitioner presses on
with renewed diligence, he or she passes through two more significant
(sakadagati), which is accompanied by the weakening of I the fetters of
sensual desire and ill-will, and non-returning (agati), in which these
two fetters are uprooted altogether.
final stage of Awakening — arahatta — occurs when even the most refined
and subtle levels of craving and conceit are irrevocably extinguished.
this point the practitioner — now an arahant, or “worthy one” — arrives
at the end-point of the Buddha’s teaching. With ignorance, suffering,
stress, and rebirth having all come to their end, the arahant at last
can utter the victory cry first proclaimed by the Buddha upon his
“Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done! There is nothing further for the sake of this world.”
— MN 36
arahant lives out the remainder of his or her life inwardly enjoying
the bliss of Nibbana, secure at last from the possibility of any future
rebirth. When the arahant’s aeons-long trail of past kamma eventually
unwinds to its end, the arahant dies and he or she enters into
parinibbana — total Unbinding. Although language utterly fails at
describing this extraordinary event, the Buddha likened it to what
happens when a fire finally burns up all its fuel.
serious pursuit of happiness” Buddhism is sometimes naïvely criticized
as a “negative” or “pessimistic” religion and philosophy. Surely life is
not all misery and disappointment: it offers many kinds of happiness
and sublime joy. Why then this dreary Buddhist obsession with
unsatisfactoriness and suffering?
The Buddha based his teachings on a frank assessment of our plight as
humans: there is unsatisfactoriness and suffering in the world. No one
can argue this fact. Dukkha lurks behind even the highest forms of
worldly pleasure and joy, for, sooner or later, as surely as night
follows day, that happiness must come to an end. Were the Buddha’s
teachings to stop there, we might indeed regard them as pessimistic and
life as utterly hopeless. But, like a doctor who prescribes a remedy for
an illness, the Buddha offers both a hope (the third Noble Truth) and a
cure (the fourth). The Buddha’s teachings thus give cause for
unparalleled optimism and joy. The teachings offer as their reward the
noblest, truest kind of happiness, and give profound value and meaning
to an otherwise grim existence. One modern teacher summed it up well:
“Buddhism is the serious pursuit of happiness.”
the late 19th century, the teachings of Theravada were little known
outside of southern Asia, where they had flourished for some two and
one-half millennia. In the past century, however, the West has begun to
take notice of Theravada’s unique spiritual legacy in its teachings of
Awakening. In recent decades this interest has swelled, with the
monastic Sangha from various schools within Theravada establishing
dozens of monasteries across Europe and North America. Increasing
numbers of lay meditation centers, founded and operated independently of
monastic Sangha, strain to meet the demands of lay men and women —
Buddhist and otherwise — seeking to learn selected aspects of the
turn of the 21st century presents both opportunities and dangers for
Theravada in the West: Will the Buddha’s teachings be patiently studied
and put into practice, and allowed toestablish deep roots in Western
soil, for the benefit of many generations to come? Will the current
popular Western climate of “openness” and cross-fertilization between
spiritual traditions lead to the emergence of a strong new form of
Buddhist practice unique to the modern era, or will it simply lead to
confusion and the dilution of these priceless teachings? These are open
questions; only time will tell.
teachings of every description inundate the media and the marketplace
today. Many of today’s popular spiritual teachings borrow liberally from
the Buddha, though only rarely do they place the Buddha’s words in
their true context. Earnest seekers of truth are therefore often faced
with the unsavory task of wading through fragmentary teachings of
How are we to make sense of it all?
the Buddha left us with some simple guidelines to help us navigate
through this bewildering flood. Whenever you find yourself questioning
the authenticity of a particular teaching, heed well the Buddha’s advice
to his stepmother:
teachings that promote] the qualities of which you may know, ‘These
qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered, not to
being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to
self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to contentment;
to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused
persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome’: You may
categorically hold, ‘This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya,
this is not the Teacher’s instruction.’ [As for the teachings that
promote] the qualities of
you may know, ‘These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to
being unfettered, not to being fettered; to shedding, not to
accumulating; to modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment,not
to discontent; to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused
persistence, not to laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being
burdensome’: You may categorically hold, ‘This is the Dhamma, this is
the Vinaya, this is the Teacher’s instruction.’
— AN 8.53
The truest test of these teachings, of course, is whether they yield the
promised results in the crucible of your own heart.
The Buddha presents the challenge; the rest is up to you.
NAM MO SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA.( 3
RESEARCH THEREVADA RELIGION BY BACH LIEN HOA.( TAM THANH
10 Life Lessons From Buddha (Buddhism)
Buddha says ‘There is little dust in the eyes of people, remove that
ignorance, they will walk on the path of Dhamma. Being learned and
skillful in craft, Disciplined in morals and well cultivated, Being
gifted with words of wisdom, Each is a great blessing – Mangala Sutta
To share the genuine Theravada Buddhism with the people of the world.
To Study, teach and practice Theravada Buddhism as found in Pali Tipitaka containing the original teachings of the Buddha.
VINAYA PITAKA – BUDDHIST ETHICS
Introduction to Vinaya both as Theory and Practice
Study of the various parts of the Vinaya as rules of Moral Discipline Vinaya as “The Life blood of Dhamma”
Importance of disciplined conduct in Theravada.
The background stories of Vinaya rules reveal their spiritual importance.
The practical Handbook called Patimokkha as the essential core of the monastic discipline.
Violation of monastic conduct in the form of the seven ‘Offences – apattis’
A general review of the concept of Sikkhapada – Vinaya discipline and apattis their violations.
SUTTA PITAKA – BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY
Sutta pitaka uses conventional languages to enunciate and practice
the Dhamma as distinct from Abhidhamma’s non-conventional, paramattha
Introduction to the Suttanata Pitaka and how it differs from the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas.
Dhammacakkapavatana Sutta – Basic teaching of the Buddha on four Noble Truths.
Topics of Dhammacakkappavattana sutta.
The Middle Path was distinct from the two extremes.
The Three phases and twelve ways of the Wheel of truth Sutta.
Digha, Majjhima, Kuddaka, Anguttara, Samyutta Nikayas-study of selected suttas
ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA- BUDDHIST PSYCHOLOGY
to the Abhidhamma Pitaka and how it is distinct from Vinaya and Sutta
Pitakas. The distinction between pannatti (conventional) and paramattha
(ultimate) dhammas. The various categories of analysis of paramattha
Citta, consciousness analyzed into 89 or 121 states Cetasikas constitute
mental factors of consciousness. What is cetasika. The four
characteristics of cetasika as it functions as an associate of citta.
What is the nature of Citta (interpretation). How to associate citta and
cetasika dhammas – sampayoga. How cetasikas are associated with cittas –
sahagata. How cetasikas function as associates of a citta.
HISTORY OF THERAVADA BUDDHISM
Definition of Dhamma as found in Theravada.
Different viewpoints regarding Dhamma.
The origin of Buddhist culture.
Ancient as found in India and elsewhere.
Practice of Buddhist culture in daily life as found in different lands.
Buddhist ceremonies – cultural, moral and their spiritual significance.
BASIC PRACTICES OF THERAVADA BUDDHA DHAMMA
The significance of the 3 Ratanas, The three ways of paying homage.
The highest attributes of the threefold refuge.
The basic concepts that everyone should understand. What is
wholesome, (Kusala), unwholesome, (Akusala) – Good and Bad, they are the
actual qualities and knowledge.
The ten meritorious and the ten de-meritorious actions form one’s
conduct, thus making life upward-moving or downward-moving the mental
The threefold basic principle : Dana, Sila, Bhavana and Sila, Samadhi, Panya
The ten perfections – Paramis
Understanding the significance of kamma and its result in life
The common pali sutta chanting and elaboration of these chanting.
Four sublime states – Brahma Viharas – Metta, Karuna, Mudita, Uppekkha
How to radiate and how they differ from each other.
Benefits of meditation in Theravada Buddhism
Samatha and Vipassana Meditation.
Meditation and its 40 subjects.
Buddha’s birth and early life
Various early life events – Mahabhinikkhamana Buddhas’ struggle for awakenment – 6 years of penance
The basic fallacies of self mortification and sensual indulgence.
The struggle for Enlightenment – Bodhi a detailed study
Setting in motion the Wheel of Truth – Dhammacakkappavattana
The spreading of the Dhamma – Establishment of Sangha
Formation of the holy order of Nuns – Bhikkhunis
The Great Demise – Mahaparinirvana.
PALI LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
To learn pali canonical language
Pali language history
(Five nik±yas, or collections)
1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)
2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]
(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)
4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)
5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)
6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)
10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)
11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)
3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided into 6 books]
(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged
purely numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]
(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)
(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)
Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]
(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i
1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423 verses in 26 vaggas)
Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in
verses, with some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the
Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i 4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas,
each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of
the best known, most popular suttas of the Buddha
(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms) 7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems
describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
states due to their demeritorious acts) 8. Therag±th± (verses of joy
and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264 elder bhikkhus;
107 poems, 1,279 g±thas) 9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder
nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)
(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama
Buddha; 547 stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the
number of verses required to tell the story. The full J±taka stories are
actually in the J±taka commentaries that explain the story behind the
11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga andthe Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the
Buddha’s teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta
Piμakas; three vaggas, each containing ten topics [kath±])
(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)
(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i
Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in
answer to a question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic
Sumedha and D2paakara Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)
(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i
16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain- ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the teaching of the Buddha)
Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after
the mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)
[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
(enumeration of the dhammas)
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)
(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)
Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V
(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7
(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______
2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the
Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha
3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism
(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li
3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]
(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.
LESSON 4035 Mon 19 Jul 2021
Do Good Purify Mind Attain Eternal Bliss
Overcome the worst Illness - Buddha.
a Missed Call to 8800662528 for Registration to be part of largest
Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for
Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them
to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal
to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries.
From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their
predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.
science behind the new technique involves the molecule Nicotinamide
Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD), which plays a role in generating energy in
the human body. Stunning anti-ageing breakthrough could see humans live
to 150 and regenerate organs ‘for the price of a coffee a day’
Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya
DN 9 -
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —
Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Note: plain texts
Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously?
perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in
dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of
reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge
after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of
Stop, stop. Do not speak. The ultimate truth is not even to think.
We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.
Just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, so also this
teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of liberation.
The one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate
becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of
Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.
Long is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to him who is
tired; long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.
Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.
Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follows a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.
Like a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words
are fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance with them.
Our theories of the eternal are as valuable as are those which a chick
which has not broken its way through its shell might form of the
An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.
There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path.
Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.
awakened one with awareness, intent on jhana, should find delight in
the forest, should practice jhana at the foot of a tree, attaining his
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened.
Happiness never decreases by being shared.
It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.
Set your heart on doing good. Do it over and over again, and you will be filled with joy.
Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the
mind on the present moment. See also: 10 Tips to Start Living in the
Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him
find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.
We are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are
shaped by selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows
them like a shadow that never leaves them.
Quotes By Buddha On Meditation And Spirituality
as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good
deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely
through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the
guidance of virtue.
The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.
The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast.
Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a
life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.
There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting.
Nothing is forever except change.
Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life.
Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.
To be idle is a short road to death and to be diligent is a way of life; foolish people are idle, wise people are diligent.
Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let them resolutely pursue a solitary course.
If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.
who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should decide that ‘I
must lead all the beings to nibbana, into that realm of nibbana which
leaves nothing behind’. What is this realm of nirvana which leaves
nothing behind ?
Looking deeply at life as it is in this very moment, the meditator dwells in stability and freedom.
brings wisdom; lack of mediation leaves ignorance. Know well what leads
you forward and what hold you back, and choose the path that leads to
Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking and pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.
Resolutely train yourself to attain peace.
Indeed, the sage who’s fully quenched rests at ease in every way; no
sense desire adheres to him whose fires have cooled, deprived of fuel.
attachments have been severed, the heart’s been led away from pain;
tranquil, he rests with utmost ease. The mind has found its way to
He who sits alone, sleeps alone, and walks alone, who is
strenuous and subdues himself alone, will find delight in the solitude
of the forest.
Do not turn away what is given you, nor reach out for what is given to others, lest you disturb your quietness.
Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.
The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser.
Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.
Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.
is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in the midst of this
world, where each person is clinging to his piece of debris? What’s the
proper salutation between people as they pass each other in this flood?
When watching after yourself, you watch after others. When watching after others, you watch after yourself.
Let none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and
commissions of others. But let one see one’s own acts, done and undone.
The true master lives in truth, in goodness and restraint, non-violence, moderation, and purity.
Offend in neither word nor deed. Eat with moderation. Live in your
heart. Seek the highest consciousness. Master yourself according to the law. This is the simple teaching of the awakened.
Life is like the harp string, if it is strung too tight it won’t
play, if it is too loose it hangs, the tension that produces the
beautiful sound lies in the middle.
Do not believe in anything simply because you have
heard it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and
by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written
in your religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the
authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions
because they have been handed down for many generations. But after
observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason
and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it
and live up to it.
Those who have failed to work toward the truth have missed the purpose of living.
Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a
life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.
There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting.
The calmed say that what is well-spoken is best; second, that one
should say what is right, not unrighteous; third, what’s pleasing, not
displeasing; fourth, what is true, not false.
Conquer the angry one by not getting angry; conquer the wicked
by goodness; conquer the stingy by generosity, and the liar by speaking the truth.
Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.
There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.
Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.
He who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a timely antidote
check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads, — such a monk gives up the
here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its worn-out skin.
May all that have life be delivered from suffering.
It is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to see one’s own
One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed in the wind, but one
conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler conceals his dice.
Those attached to the notion ‘I am’ and to views roam the world offending people.
is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates
people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up
pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a
sword that kills.
Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared hare; let
therefore mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after passionlessness
When one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in
listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.
The instant we feel anger we have already ceased striving for the truth, and have begun striving for ourselves.
You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.
Wear your ego like a loose fitting garment.
Some do not understand that we must die, but those who do realize this settle their quarrels.
All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place
of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.
I do not dispute with the world; rather it is the world that disputes with me.
blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they
blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in the world who is
Those who cling to perceptions and views wander the world offending people.
Whoever doesn’t flare up at someone who’s angry wins a battle hard to win.
Anger will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are
cherished in the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts
of resentment are forgotten.
Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.
hammer strength GIF by CasparWain
Neither fire nor wind, birth nor death can erase our good deeds.
Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.
As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.
Praise and blame, gain and loss, pleasure and sorrow come and go like
the wind. To be happy, rest like a giant tree in the midst of them all.
In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.
Be a lamp for yourselves. Be your own refuge. Seek for no other. All things must pass. Strive on diligently. Don’t give up.
Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to
live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.
If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.
Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. Buddha
To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.
Without health life is not life; it is only a state of langour and suffering – an image of death.
The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the
past, not to worry about the future, not to anticipate the future, but
to live the present moment wisely and earnestly.
Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.
Irrigators channel waters; fletchers straighten arrows; carpenters bend wood; the wise master themselves.
Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.
The greatest gift is to give people your awakenment with awareness, to share it. It has to be the greatest.
If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.
The root of suffering is attachment.
Silence the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured man with
kindness. Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar with
People with opinions just go around bothering each other.
Even as a solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so are the wise unshaken by praise or blame.
You yourself must strive. The Buddhas only point the way.
Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.
Meditate… do not delay, lest you later regret it.
Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.
Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.
Ceasing to do evil, cultivating the good, purifying the mind: this is the teaching of the Buddhas.
Delight in meditation and solitude. Compose yourself, be happy. You are a seeker.
Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.
What you are is what you have been. What you’ll be is what you do now.
If you propose to speak always ask yourself, is it true, is it necessary, is it kind.
If you find no one to support you on the spiritual path, walk alone.
Nagarjuna’s “Fundamental Wisdom” - Day 1
Dalai Lama Archive
first day of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s two day teaching on
Nagarjuna’s “The Fundamental Wisdom Treatise of the Middle Way”
organized by the Foundation for Universal Responsibility at the Taj
Mahal Hotel in New Delhi, India on March 20, 2015. At the end of his
teaching His Holiness answers questions from the audience.