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𝓛𝓔ð“Ēð“Ē𝓞𝓝 4069 Sun 22 Aug 2021 Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
Posted by: site admin @ 3:11 am

𝓛𝓔ð“Ēð“Ē𝓞𝓝 4069 Sun 22 Aug 2021

Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One

Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.

𝙆𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ𝙖𝙧𝙖 ð™‰ð™„ð˜―ð˜―Ä€ð™‰ð˜ž ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖
18𝙛ð™Đ ð˜ŋ𝙞𝙖. 𝙖 3ð˜ŋ 360 𝙙𝙚𝙜𝙧𝙚𝙚 ð™˜ð™žð™§ð™˜ð™Šð™Ąð™–ð™§ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖 𝙖ð™Đ
𝙒𝙝𝙞ð™Đ𝙚 𝙃ð™Īð™Ē𝙚,
668 5ð™Đ𝙝 𝘞 𝙈𝙖𝙞ð™Ģ 𝙍ð™Ī𝙖𝙙,
8ð™Đ𝙝 ð˜ū𝙧ð™Īð™Ļð™Ļ, 𝙃𝘞𝙇 𝙄𝙄𝙄 𝙎ð™Đ𝙖𝙜𝙚,
𝙋𝙊ð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ū𝙖 ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ ð˜―ð™šð™Ģð™œð™–ð™Ąð™Šð™§ð™Š,
𝙈𝙖𝙜𝙖𝙙𝙝𝙞 𝙆𝙖𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙖𝙠𝙖,
𝙋𝙧𝙖𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖 ð˜―ð™ð™–ð™§ð™–ð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą
𝙝ð™Đð™Đð™Ĩ://ð™Ļ𝙖𝙧ð™Ŧ𝙖𝙟𝙖ð™Ģ.𝙖ð™Ē𝙗𝙚𝙙𝙠𝙖𝙧.ð™Ī𝙧𝙜
𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖ð™Ļ𝙖𝙞𝙙2𝙊ð™Ļ@𝙜ð™Ēð™–ð™žð™Ą.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘ð™Ļ4𝙚ð™Ŧ𝙚𝙧@ð™Ī𝙊ð™Đð™Ąð™Īð™Ī𝙠.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘𝙝𝙖ð™Ģ𝙙𝙧𝙖ð™Ļ𝙚𝙠𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙖ð™Ģ@ð™Ū𝙖𝙝ð™Īð™Ī.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē

080-25203792
9449260443
9449835975

𝙎𝙞ð™Ļhes
all success to Rohini Buddha Vihar for Poornima celebration 🎉 on
22-8-21 and ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚 𝙖 𝙎ð™Ī𝙧𝙠𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Ĩ𝙖𝙧ð™Đð™Ģ𝙚𝙧 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 ð™–ð™Ąð™Ą
ð˜―ð™Šð™™ð™™ð™ð™žð™Ļð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą ð™Đ𝙚ð™Ēð™Ĩð™Ąð™šð™Ļ,
𝙈ð™Īð™Ģ𝙖ð™Ļð™Đ𝙚𝙧𝙞𝙚ð™Ļ, 𝙑𝙞𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙖ð™Ļ, 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖ð™Ļ,𝙂𝙃𝙈ð˜ū &
𝙂ð˜ūð˜ū 𝙛ð™Ī𝙧 𝙞ð™Đð™Ļ 𝙊ð™Ģ𝙚 𝙘𝙧ð™Ī𝙧𝙚 ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ 𝙖𝙧𝙚
𝙖ð™Ģð™Đ𝙞𝙘𝙞ð™Ĩ𝙖ð™Đ𝙚𝙙
ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚 ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙙 𝙖ð™Ļ 𝙖 ð™Ĩ𝙖𝙧ð™Đ ð™Ī𝙛 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
ð™Ĩ𝙧ð™Ī𝙜𝙧𝙖ð™Ēð™Ē𝙚 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 ð™Ē𝙚ð™Đ𝙧ð™Īð™Ĩð™Īð™Ąð™žð™Ļ, 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 10
ð™Ąð™–ð™ ð™ ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ ð™Ĩ𝙧ð™Īð™Ĩð™Īð™Ļ𝙚𝙙 ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚
ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙙 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙛𝙞𝙧ð™Ļð™Đ 12 ð™Ēð™Īð™Ģð™Đ𝙝ð™Ļ.

ð˜žð™Ąð™Īð™Ģ𝙜 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 𝙍𝙚ð™Ļ𝙞𝙙𝙚ð™Ģð™Đð™Ļ’ ð™Žð™šð™Ąð™›ð™–ð™§ð™š
𝙖ð™Ļð™Ļð™Ī𝙘𝙞𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™Ļ
ð™Đ𝙝𝙖ð™Đ ð™Žð™žð™Ąð™Ą ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ū 𝙖 ð™Ļ𝙚𝙧𝙞ð™Ī𝙊ð™Ļ ð™Ĩð™Īð™Ļ𝙞ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģ
𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙙𝙧𝙞ð™Ŧ𝙚. 𝘞ð™Ļ 𝙏𝙝𝙚 𝙘𝙞ð™Ŧ𝙞𝙘 ð™Ĩ𝙝ð™Ūð™Ļ𝙞ð™Ķ𝙊𝙚
𝙞ð™Ļ ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Đð™Ī 𝙚ð™Ģð™Đ𝙧𝙊ð™Ļð™Đ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
𝙖ð™Ļð™Ļð™Ī𝙘𝙞𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™Ļ 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙙𝙊ð™Đð™Ū ð™Ī𝙛
ð™Ļ𝙊ð™Ļð™Đ𝙖𝙞ð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙗𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙚ð™Ļ ð™Ī𝙛 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚𝙞𝙧
ð™Ģ𝙚𝙞𝙜𝙝𝙗ð™Ī𝙊𝙧𝙝ð™Īð™Ī𝙙.
𝘞ð™Ģ𝙙 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙊𝙛𝙛𝙞𝙘𝙚𝙧ð™Ļ ð™Ļ𝙊𝙜𝙜𝙚ð™Ļð™Đ ð™Đð™Ī 𝙧𝙚𝙎𝙖𝙧𝙙 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
𝙖ð™Ļð™Ļð™Ī𝙘𝙞𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™Ļ ð™Đ𝙝𝙖ð™Đ 𝙝𝙖ð™Ģð™™ð™Ąð™š ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ
𝙛ð™Ī𝙧 𝙖 ð™Ļ𝙊𝙧𝙚 ð™Đ𝙞ð™Ē𝙚 ð™Ĩ𝙚𝙧𝙞ð™Ī𝙙.

Let’s be part of such programmes and also support Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One
Do
Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots.
Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify
Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.
as
Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make this country Buddhist)
All
Aboriginal  Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make the whole world Prabuddha Prapanch
This will happen through
Free
Online Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention in Awakened One’s own words
For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies




https://www.buddha-vacana.org/


Buddha Vacana

— The words of the Buddha —

Learn Pali online for free and the easy way.


This website is dedicated to those who wish to understand better the
words of the Buddha by learning the basics of Pali language, but who
don’t have much time available for it. The idea is that if their purpose
is merely to get enabled to read the Pali texts and have a fair feeling
of understanding them, even if that understanding does not cover all
the minute details of grammatical rules, they don’t really need to spend
much time struggling with a discouraging learning of tedious
grammatical theory involving such things as numerous declensions and
conjugations.

In that case, it is enough to
limit themselves to simply learn the meaning of the most important Pali
words, because the repeated experience of reading provides an empirical
and intuitive understanding of the most common sentence structures.
They are thus enabled to become autodidacts, choosing the time,
duration, frequency, contents and depth of their own study.

Their understanding of the
Buddha Vacana will become much more precise as they effortlessly learn
and memorize the words and the important formulae that are fundamental
in the Buddha’s teaching, by ways of regular reading. Their learning and
the inspiration they get from it will grow deeper as their receptivity
to the messages of the Teacher will improve.



Disclaimer: This website is created by an autodidact and
is meant for autodidacts. The webmaster has not followed any official
Pali course and there is no claim that all the information presented
here is totally free from errors. Those who want academic precision may
consider joining a formal Pali course. In case the readers notice any
mistake, the webmaster will be grateful if they report it via the
mailbox mentioned under ‘Contact’.


Users of this website may have noticed that only few updates have been made in recent years. The main reason is that Sutta Central
now provides the service this website intended to make available. If
you want a quick tutorial explaining how you can use Sutta Central with a
similar Pali lookup tooltip using pop-up ‘bubbles’, click here.
The only work I keep doing on this part of the website is to expand the
glossary with definitions and references taken only from the Sutta
Pitaka and occasionally the Vinaya Pitaka.

En Français:


Search on this website


Bhavissanti
bhikkhÅŦ anāgatam·addhānaáđƒ, ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā gambhÄŦrā
gambhÄŦr·atthā lok·uttarā suÃąÃąata·p·paáđ­isaáđƒyuttā, tesu bhaÃąÃąamānesu na
sussÅŦsissanti na sotaáđƒ odahissanti na aÃąÃąÄ cittaáđƒ upaáđ­áđ­hāpessanti na ca
te dhamme uggahetabbaáđƒ pariyāpuáđ‡itabbaáđƒ maÃąÃąissanti.


In future
time, there will be bhikkhus who will not listen to the utterance of
such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in
meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with
emptiness, they will not lend ear, they will not apply their mind on
knowledge, they will not consider those teachings as to be taken up and
mastered.



Ye pana te suttantā kavi·katā kāveyyā citta·kkharā citta·byaÃąjanā bāhirakā sāvaka·bhāsitā,
tesu bhaÃąÃąamānesu sussÅŦsissanti, sotaáđƒ odahissanti, aÃąÃąÄ cittaáđƒ
upaáđ­áđ­hāpessanti, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaáđƒ pariyāpuáđ‡itabbaáđƒ maÃąÃąissanti.


On the
contrary, they will listen to the utterance of such discourses which are
literary compositions made by poets, witty words, witty letters, by
people from outside, or the words of disciples, they will lend
ear, they will apply their mind on knowledge, they will consider those
teachings as to be taken up and mastered.


Evam·etesaáđƒ,
bhikkhave, suttantānaáđƒ tathāgata·bhāsitānaáđƒ gambhÄŦrānaáđƒ
gambhÄŦr·atthānaáđƒ lok·uttarānaáđƒ suÃąÃąata·p·paáđ­isaáđƒyuttānaáđƒ antaradhānaáđƒ
bhavissati.


Thus,
bhikkhus, the discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound,
profound in meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected
with emptiness, will disappear.


Tasmātiha,
bhikkhave, evaáđƒ sikkhitabbaáđƒ: ‘ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā
gambhÄŦrā gambhÄŦr·atthā lok·uttarā suÃąÃąata·p·paáđ­isaáđƒyuttā, tesu
bhaÃąÃąamānesu sussÅŦsissāma, sotaáđƒ odahissāma, aÃąÃąÄ cittaáđƒ upaáđ­áđ­hāpessāma,
te ca dhamme uggahetabbaáđƒ pariyāpuáđ‡itabbaáđƒ maÃąÃąissāmā’ti. EvaÃąhi vo,
bhikkhave, sikkhitabbanti.


Therefore,
bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will listen to the utterance of
such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in
meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with
emptiness, we will lend ear, we will apply our mind on knowledge, we
will consider those teachings as to be taken up and mastered.’ This is
how, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves.


— Āáđ‡i Sutta —


Recent updates log:

30/03/2561


Glossary definition: bhavarāga

25/03/2561


Glossary definition: bhāvanā

22/03/2561


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āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ Vacana.
- āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ -
āŪ‡āŪēāŪĩāŪš āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŪŋ āŪ†āŪĐāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪąāŊāŪąāŊ.
āŪŽāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ,
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪđāŪļāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪđāŪļāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą āŪšāŊŠāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆ āŪšāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ, āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ, āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ,
āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, (āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ) āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪūāŪĐ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŊˆ,
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•
āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪŽāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪļāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪ
āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ.
āŪ‡āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪūāŪ•, āŪ•āŪĩāŪŋāŪžāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ, āŪĻāŪ•āŊˆāŪšāŊāŪšāŊāŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ, āŪĻāŪ•āŊˆāŪšāŊāŪšāŊāŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪ•āŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ,
āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ
āŪ‡āŪēāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪŸāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŊˆ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ,
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ , āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪŽāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪļāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ.
āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ,
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪđāŪļāŊ, āŪŸāŪĪāŪœāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ, āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ, āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ,
āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ, (āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ) āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪūāŪĐ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĪāŊ,
āŪŪāŪąāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ.
āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡,
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪđāŪļāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ: ‘āŪ‡āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊ
āŪšāŊŠāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆ āŪšāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ,
āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ, āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐ,
(āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ) āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪūāŪĐ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŊˆ, āŪĻāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ, āŪĻāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊˆāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪĻāŪŪāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪŽāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪĩāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ, āŪŪāŪūāŪļāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ. ‘ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪđāŪļāŊ, āŪĻāŊ€āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‰āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•
āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ.
Tree
May be an image of temple, outdoors and text that says

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohini_(Buddha%27s_disciple)

Rohini (Buddha’s disciple)

Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ was a princess of the Śākyas and sister of Anuruddha. She is a Śrotāpanna.

Story

When
Anuruddha visited his family in Kapilavastu, his sister Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ refused
to see him as she was suffering from a certain skin disease. Anuruddha
was persistent and requested her presence. She arrived with her face
covered with a cloth in shame due to her condition. Her brother advised
that she sell some of her clothing and jewellery and have a refectory
constructed for the Buddha and the monks, as this would bring a great
deal of merit. Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ did as she was advised and was assisted by her
relatives. The construction was supervised by Anuruddha. He instructed
her to fill the water pots every day and sweep the floors of the hall.
She did so and began to slowly recover from her disease.

Once the
hall was complete, the Buddha was invited to partake of alms-food.
After finishing his meal, he sent for Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ. He asked her if she knew
the reason for her affliction. She replied that she did not, so the
Buddha told her a story of her past.

Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ had once, in a past
life, been the queen consort of the king of Benares. The king had a
favorite dancing girl, and the queen became incredibly jealous of her
and plotted a scheme against her. One day, she had her attendant put
some itching powder made of cowhage pods in the dancer’s bed. They
called to the dancer, and when she arrived, they threw the powder on
her. In pain and desperation, the girl sought refuge in her bed, which
caused her even more suffering.

The Buddha concluded that Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ
had come to her current condition due to this evil deed. He exhorted his
audience with the following verse:

One should give up anger,
renounce pride, and overcome all fetters. Suffering never befalls him
who clings not to mind and body and is detached.

— Verse 221, the Dhammapada
After
this discourse, many in the congregation attained the fruit of
steam-entry. Princess Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ also became a stream-enterer and her
disease disappeared.

https://thebuddhistcentre.com/tags/rohini

Sangharakshita
recounts “The Buddha Prevents a War”. The Buddha’s lone voice of sanity
in this story is a wonderful template for us to work from when
considering realistic courses of action in the modern world to promote
peace and end warfare.

Rebirth in Heaven

After death,
Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ was reborn in TrāyastriáđƒÅ›a as a beautiful goddess, at the
boundary of the territories among four deities. They became enamored
with her beauty and each deity laid claim unto her. Unable to settle
their dispute, they sought the advice of Śakra, the lord of
TrāyastriáđƒÅ›a.

Upon seeing her, Śakra turned to the gods and asked
them of the condition of their minds upon seeing this new goddess. One
god said that his mind was tumultuous like battlefield, the second said
his mind was racing swiftly like a mountain river, the third said that
he could not take his eyes off her, as if they were seized in a crab’s
claw. The fourth replied that his mind would not keep still and whipped
about like a flag in the wind.

Śakra declared, “Your minds are
over-powered by this form. As for myself, I want to live; I do not want
to die. And if I do not get Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ then I shall surely die.”

The gods complied to Shakra’s heavenly authority. He took Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ as his wife and they departed to enjoy various pleasures.

Śakra (Buddhism)

 TrāyastriáđƒÅ›a Heaven according to Buddhist cosmology. He is also referred to by the title “Śakra, Lord of the Devas”


Rohini (Buddha’s disciple)
Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ was a princess of the Śākyas and sister of Anuruddha.
She is a Śrotāpanna.
Story Edit
When
Anuruddha visited his family in Kapilavastu, his sister Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ refused
to see him as she was suffering from a certain skin disease. Anuruddha
was persistent and requested her presence. She arrived with her face
covered with a cloth in shame due to her condition. Her brother advised
that she sell some of her clothing and jewellery and have a refectory
constructed for the Buddha and the monks, as this would bring a great
deal of merit. Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ did as she was advised and was assisted by her
relatives. The construction was supervised by Anuruddha. He instructed
her to fill the water pots every day and sweep the floors of the hall.
She did so and began to slowly recover from her disease.
Once
the hall was complete, the Buddha was invited to partake of alms-food.
After finishing his meal, he sent for Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ. He asked her if she knew
the reason for her affliction. She replied that she did not, so the
Buddha told her a story of her past.
Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ
had once, in a past life, been the queen consort of the king of
Benares. The king had a favorite dancing girl, and the queen became
incredibly jealous of her and plotted a scheme against her. One day, she
had her attendant put some itching powder made of cowhage pods in the
dancer’s bed. They called to the dancer, and when she arrived, they
threw the powder on her. In pain and desperation, the girl sought refuge
in her bed, which caused her even more suffering.
The
Buddha concluded that Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ had come to her current condition due to
this evil deed. He exhorted his audience with the following verse:
One
should give up anger, renounce pride, and overcome all fetters.
Suffering never befalls him who clings not to mind and body and is
detached.
— Verse 221, the Dhammapada
After
this discourse, many in the congregation attained the fruit of
steam-entry. Princess Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ also became a stream-enterer and her
disease disappeared.
Sangharakshita
recounts “The Buddha Prevents a War”. The Buddha’s lone voice of sanity
in this story is a wonderful template for us to work from when
considering realistic courses of action in the modern world to promote
peace and end warfare.
Rebirth in Heaven
After
death, Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ was reborn in TrāyastriáđƒÅ›a as a beautiful goddess, at the
boundary of the territories among four deities. They became enamored
with her beauty and each deity laid claim unto her. Unable to settle
their dispute, they sought the advice of Śakra, the lord of
TrāyastriáđƒÅ›a.
Upon
seeing her, Śakra turned to the gods and asked them of the condition of
their minds upon seeing this new goddess. One god said that his mind
was tumultuous like battlefield, the second said his mind was racing
swiftly like a mountain river, the third said that he could not take his
eyes off her, as if they were seized in a crab’s claw. The fourth
replied that his mind would not keep still and whipped about like a flag
in the wind.
Śakra
declared, “Your minds are over-powered by this form. As for myself, I
want to live; I do not want to die. And if I do not get Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ then I
shall surely die.”
The gods complied to Shakra’s heavenly authority. He took Rohiáđ‡ÄŦ as his wife and they departed to enjoy various pleasures.
Śakra (Buddhism)
TrāyastriáđƒÅ›a Heaven according to Buddhist cosmology. He is also referred to by the title “Śakra, Lord of the Devas”
Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One
Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.
𝙆𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ𝙖𝙧𝙖 ð™‰ð™„ð˜―ð˜―Ä€ð™‰ð˜ž ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖
18𝙛ð™Đ ð˜ŋ𝙞𝙖. 𝙖 3ð˜ŋ 360 𝙙𝙚𝙜𝙧𝙚𝙚 ð™˜ð™žð™§ð™˜ð™Šð™Ąð™–ð™§ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖 𝙖ð™Đ
𝙒𝙝𝙞ð™Đ𝙚 𝙃ð™Īð™Ē𝙚,
668 5ð™Đ𝙝 𝘞 𝙈𝙖𝙞ð™Ģ 𝙍ð™Ī𝙖𝙙,
8ð™Đ𝙝 ð˜ū𝙧ð™Īð™Ļð™Ļ, 𝙃𝘞𝙇 𝙄𝙄𝙄 𝙎ð™Đ𝙖𝙜𝙚,
𝙋𝙊ð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ū𝙖 ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ ð˜―ð™šð™Ģð™œð™–ð™Ąð™Šð™§ð™Š,
𝙈𝙖𝙜𝙖𝙙𝙝𝙞 𝙆𝙖𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙖𝙠𝙖,
𝙋𝙧𝙖𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖 ð˜―ð™ð™–ð™§ð™–ð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą
𝙝ð™Đð™Đð™Ĩ://ð™Ļ𝙖𝙧ð™Ŧ𝙖𝙟𝙖ð™Ģ.𝙖ð™Ē𝙗𝙚𝙙𝙠𝙖𝙧.ð™Ī𝙧𝙜
𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖ð™Ļ𝙖𝙞𝙙2𝙊ð™Ļ@𝙜ð™Ēð™–ð™žð™Ą.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘ð™Ļ4𝙚ð™Ŧ𝙚𝙧@ð™Ī𝙊ð™Đð™Ąð™Īð™Ī𝙠.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘𝙝𝙖ð™Ģ𝙙𝙧𝙖ð™Ļ𝙚𝙠𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙖ð™Ģ@ð™Ū𝙖𝙝ð™Īð™Ī.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
080-25203792
9449260443
9449835975
𝙎𝙞ð™Ļhes
all success to Rohini Buddha Vihar for Poornima celebration 🎉 on
22-8-21 and ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚 𝙖 𝙎ð™Ī𝙧𝙠𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Ĩ𝙖𝙧ð™Đð™Ģ𝙚𝙧 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 ð™–ð™Ąð™Ą
ð˜―ð™Šð™™ð™™ð™ð™žð™Ļð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą ð™Đ𝙚ð™Ēð™Ĩð™Ąð™šð™Ļ,
𝙈ð™Īð™Ģ𝙖ð™Ļð™Đ𝙚𝙧𝙞𝙚ð™Ļ, 𝙑𝙞𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙖ð™Ļ, 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖ð™Ļ,𝙂𝙃𝙈ð˜ū &
𝙂ð˜ūð˜ū 𝙛ð™Ī𝙧 𝙞ð™Đð™Ļ 𝙊ð™Ģ𝙚 𝙘𝙧ð™Ī𝙧𝙚 ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ 𝙖𝙧𝙚
𝙖ð™Ģð™Đ𝙞𝙘𝙞ð™Ĩ𝙖ð™Đ𝙚𝙙
ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚 ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙙 𝙖ð™Ļ 𝙖 ð™Ĩ𝙖𝙧ð™Đ ð™Ī𝙛 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
ð™Ĩ𝙧ð™Ī𝙜𝙧𝙖ð™Ēð™Ē𝙚 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 ð™Ē𝙚ð™Đ𝙧ð™Īð™Ĩð™Īð™Ąð™žð™Ļ, 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 10
ð™Ąð™–ð™ ð™ ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ ð™Ĩ𝙧ð™Īð™Ĩð™Īð™Ļ𝙚𝙙 ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚
ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙙 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙛𝙞𝙧ð™Ļð™Đ 12 ð™Ēð™Īð™Ģð™Đ𝙝ð™Ļ.
ð˜žð™Ąð™Īð™Ģ𝙜 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 𝙍𝙚ð™Ļ𝙞𝙙𝙚ð™Ģð™Đð™Ļ’ ð™Žð™šð™Ąð™›ð™–ð™§ð™š
𝙖ð™Ļð™Ļð™Ī𝙘𝙞𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™Ļ
ð™Đ𝙝𝙖ð™Đ ð™Žð™žð™Ąð™Ą ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ū 𝙖 ð™Ļ𝙚𝙧𝙞ð™Ī𝙊ð™Ļ ð™Ĩð™Īð™Ļ𝙞ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģ
𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙙𝙧𝙞ð™Ŧ𝙚. 𝘞ð™Ļ 𝙏𝙝𝙚 𝙘𝙞ð™Ŧ𝙞𝙘 ð™Ĩ𝙝ð™Ūð™Ļ𝙞ð™Ķ𝙊𝙚
𝙞ð™Ļ ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Đð™Ī 𝙚ð™Ģð™Đ𝙧𝙊ð™Ļð™Đ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
𝙖ð™Ļð™Ļð™Ī𝙘𝙞𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™Ļ 𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙙𝙊ð™Đð™Ū ð™Ī𝙛
ð™Ļ𝙊ð™Ļð™Đ𝙖𝙞ð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙗𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙚ð™Ļ ð™Ī𝙛 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚𝙞𝙧
ð™Ģ𝙚𝙞𝙜𝙝𝙗ð™Ī𝙊𝙧𝙝ð™Īð™Ī𝙙.
𝘞ð™Ģ𝙙 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙊𝙛𝙛𝙞𝙘𝙚𝙧ð™Ļ ð™Ļ𝙊𝙜𝙜𝙚ð™Ļð™Đ ð™Đð™Ī 𝙧𝙚𝙎𝙖𝙧𝙙 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
𝙖ð™Ļð™Ļð™Ī𝙘𝙞𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™Ļ ð™Đ𝙝𝙖ð™Đ 𝙝𝙖ð™Ģð™™ð™Ąð™š ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ
𝙛ð™Ī𝙧 𝙖 ð™Ļ𝙊𝙧𝙚 ð™Đ𝙞ð™Ē𝙚 ð™Ĩ𝙚𝙧𝙞ð™Ī𝙙.
Let’s be part of such programmes and also support Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One
Do
Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots.
Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify
Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.
as
Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make this country Buddhist)
All
Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make the whole world Prabuddha Prapanch
This will happen through
Free
Online Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention in Awakened One’s own words
For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies
2866 / 5000
Translation results
āŪŠāŪšāŪŋ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŊ‹āŪšāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪŊāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ
āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊ. āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪēāŪŋ āŪŪāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŊāŪģāŪ°āŪŋ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪ°āŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŊ€āŪĐāŊāŪļāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ.
āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĢāŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪīāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ. āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊˆ
āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ. āŪĻāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ†āŪĐāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ‡āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ
āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĻāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪ‡āŪēāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ.- āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪœāŊ€āŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ.
ð™‰ð™„ð˜―ð˜―Ä€ð™‰ð˜ž ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖
18𝙛ð™Đ. 3ð˜ŋ 360
,
668 5ð™Đ𝙝,
8ð™Đ𝙝,
,
,
ð˜―ð™ð™–ð™§ð™–ð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą
http: //ð™Ļ𝙖𝙧ð™Ŧ𝙖𝙟𝙖ð™Ģ.𝙖ð™Ē𝙗𝙚𝙙𝙠𝙖𝙧.ð™Ī𝙧𝙜
buddhasaid2𝙊ð™Ļ@𝙜ð™Ēð™–ð™žð™Ą.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
jcs4𝙚ð™Ŧ𝙚𝙧@ð™Ī𝙊ð™Đð™Ąð™Īð™Ī𝙠.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
@ð™Ū𝙖𝙝ð™Īð™Ī.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
080-25203792
9449260443
9449835975
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ
āŪŠāŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪŪāŪū āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ°āŊ‹āŪ•āŪŋāŪĢāŪŋ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪđāŪūāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ
22-8-21 āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
,
,,, 𝙂𝙃𝙈ð˜ū &
𝙂ð˜ūð˜ū 𝙛ð™Ī𝙧 𝙞ð™Đð™Ļ 𝙊ð™Ģ𝙚 𝙘𝙧ð™Ī𝙧𝙚 ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ 𝙖𝙧𝙚
?
𝙗𝙚 ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙙 𝙖ð™Ļ 𝙖 ð™Ĩ𝙖𝙧ð™Đ ð™Ī𝙛 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
, 10
ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ ð™Ĩ𝙧ð™Īð™Ĩð™Īð™Ļ𝙚𝙙 ð™Đð™Ī 𝙗𝙚
12.
?
ð™Đ𝙝𝙖ð™Đ ð™Žð™žð™Ąð™Ą ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ū 𝙖 ð™Ļ𝙚𝙧𝙞ð™Ī𝙊ð™Ļ ð™Ĩð™Īð™Ļ𝙞ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģ
. 𝙏𝙝𝙚 𝙘𝙞ð™Ŧ𝙞𝙘 ð™Ĩ𝙝ð™Ūð™Ļ𝙞ð™Ķ𝙊𝙚
ð™Ĩð™Ąð™–ð™Ģð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ģ𝙜 ð™Đð™Ī 𝙚ð™Ģð™Đ𝙧𝙊ð™Ļð™Đ ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
𝙎𝙞ð™Đ𝙝 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙙𝙊ð™Đð™Ū ð™Ī𝙛
ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙗𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙚ð™Ļ ð™Ī𝙛 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚𝙞𝙧
.
𝘞ð™Ģ𝙙 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 𝙊𝙛𝙛𝙞𝙘𝙚𝙧ð™Ļ ð™Ļ𝙊𝙜𝙜𝙚ð™Ļð™Đ ð™Đð™Ī 𝙧𝙚𝙎𝙖𝙧𝙙 ð™Đ𝙝𝙚
ð™Đ𝙝𝙖ð™Đ 𝙝𝙖ð™Ģð™™ð™Ąð™š ð™Đ𝙝𝙚 ð™Ļ𝙖ð™Ĩð™Ąð™žð™Ģ𝙜ð™Ļ
.
āŪ‡āŪĪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą āŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ, āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪĪāŪ°āŪĩāŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊ‹āŪšāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪŊāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ
āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊ
āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪē. āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪēāŪŋ āŪŪāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŊāŪģāŪ°āŪŋ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪ°āŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŊ€āŪĐāŊāŪļāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ.
āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĢāŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪīāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ. āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪŪāŪĐāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ†āŪĐāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ‡āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĻāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪ‡āŪēāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ.- āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪœāŊ€āŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ.
āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋ.āŪ†āŪ°āŊ.āŪ…āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ°āŊ “āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊ āŪŠhāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŪŊāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪū” āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ. (āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊˆ āŪŠ BuddhistāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ)
āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪ†āŪĪāŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŋ āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ āŪšāŪŪāŊ‚āŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪŋ ”āŪđāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪū
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ‡. ” (āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪāŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ
āŪ‡āŪĪāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪēāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŪŸāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ‡āŪēāŪĩāŪšāŪŪāŊ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŊŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ†āŪĐāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪœāŊ€āŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ
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Buddhism and Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

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Buddhism and Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Satyam
Penn speaking about the link between Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and
BuddhismSatyam Penn is a seminarian in the Integral Yoga Ministry,
andhas studied Inâ€Ķ

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5g3pRGwgK-4&feature=youtu.be
The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation.
Translation
and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -
Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).

Thinking to be in meditation in different postures.
The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation.
Translation
and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -
Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).
Thinking to be in meditation in different postures.
We
consider here the Yoga Suttas of Patanjali, a classical text and
revered in Hinduism, dated at approx. 200 BC and compared its semantics
and vocabulary to Buddhist canonical texts.
In
summary, this comparison is quite obvious that the author of Yoga Sutta
was highly influenced by Buddhist philosophy and meditation practice,
possibly contemporaneously to the author.
Moreover,
it appears that a student of Buddhist canonical texts may in fact be
more easily understood than the Yoga Sutta a Hindu practitioner with no
other previous reference parameter practical and philosophical.
We
do not consider comments here later Hindu / Brahman existing this text,
some of which seem to avoid (or ignore) the original references to
Buddhism in this text.
The
proximity of the Yoga Sutta-style, vocabulary, and subject to canonical
texts in Pali could also mean simply that Patanjali - or whoever it is
that inspired his writings - had practiced meditation from a Buddhist
contemplative community, a community of monks for a time before
returning to Brahmanism and then the movement would have rephrased his
experience in order to add a divine touch to your experience, making
substantial use of technical terms of Buddhist meditation, as originally
framed or developed by the Buddha for the purpose of contemplative
practice. But this would be pure speculation, because there is so far no
studies or historical finding that supports this understanding.
It
is also possible, even likely, that the Buddhist meditation had so
broadly permeated the practice Hindu / Brahman at the time (after years
of a strong cultural influence began with Buddhist proselytism promoted
by Ashoka the Buddhist Sangha in his reign and Consolidation of
Prabuddha Bharat), that these technical terms as well as descriptions of
practice of jhana / dhyana (meditative absorptions) have it built into
common knowledge at the point of no longer sounding particularly
Buddhists. Something similar to what happens today with the adoption of
the ideas of “Nibbana” and “Kamma” in Western culture, in Christian
countries.
In
particular, if the Yoga Sutta is read in one continuous line is amazing
how close the text is the thoughts and topics about samadhi, jhana
meditation and Samatha (concentration) as defined in the ancient texts
in Pali Buddhist.
For
a first analysis, an overview. Look at the “Ashtanga Yoga” or the
“Eightfold Path of Yoga” (sic) we are certainly inclined to think the
definition of the central Buddha of the Noble Eightfold Path.
Then compare these two “paths to reach the samadhi.”
First what is in the Yoga Sutta of Patanjali:
1. Yama, on the field conduct, morality or virtue
2. Niyama, self-purification and study
3. Asana, proper posture
4. Pranayama, breath control
5. Pratyahara, the removal of the five senses
6. Dharana, concentration or apprehension of the object meditative
7. Samadhi, meditative absorption
And
down the list of steps recommended by the Buddha when asked about the
gradual development through his teachings. This list is found in many
suttas of the volumes of speeches and Mean Length Long, as in other
parts of the Canon:
1. Sila, moral conduct or virtue, and Santosa, contentment
2. Samvara, containment or removal of the senses
3. Kayagata-sati and Iriyapatha, or “Asana” means the cultivation of mindfulness and four correct postures.
4. Anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing
5.
Overcoming Obstacles or five nivarana (sensual desire,
ill will, anxiety and remorse, sleep and torpor, doubt, skeptical)
6. Sati, mindfulness, keep the object in mind, often quoted along with the comments dharana canonical.
7. Jhana, levels of meditative absorption
8. Samadhi, a result of absorption, the “realization” of various kinds or Samāpatti
Of
course we’re not the first to notice similarities such as the list
above. A handful of other authors have noted some more and others less
obvious parallels. In fact, even Wikipedia has an entry for Yoga Sutta
in which we read:
“Karel
Werner writes that” the system of Patanjali is unthinkable without
Buddhism. As far as terminology goes aa long in the Yoga Sutta that
reminds us of formulations of the Buddhist Pali Canon and even more
Abhidhamma Sarvastivada Sautrantika and school. “Robert Thurman writes
that Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic
system to formulate its own matrix for the version of thought he
considered orthodox (â€Ķ) The division between Eight States (Sanskrit
Ashtanga) Yoga is reminiscent of the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddha, and
the inclusion of brahmavihara (Yoga Sutta 1:33) also shows the
influence of Buddhism in parts of the Suttas. “
Now
this is where the subject becomes interesting for us here on this blog
and its relevance to the practice of Buddhist meditation.
Does
all the above tells us that the Yoga Sutta is a comment Hindu / Brahmin
or at least a photograph of meditation practices common (influenced by
Buddhism) in the second century BC?
If
this is the case, definitely warrants a closer look at. Certainly, this
is because the text is not a Buddhist but shares a “core” of
fundamental ideas on meditation to be able to take it as a sign pointing
to a deeper understanding of some of the terminology in the context of the first centuries of Buddhist practice.
Thus,
if the Yoga Sutta is read in a Buddhist context, one can have some idea
of how people understood at that time and (ou!) practiced Buddhist
meditation? Could this be of some help in triangular or point of which
was the direction of former Buddhist meditation?
The
more we know how people practiced a few centuries after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana, the more we can understand how some of his teachings have
evolved and how they were implemented and explained / taught.
What
makes this fascinating idea is that this text would definitely be
filterable through the eyes of a Hindu / Brahman, but he is still
influenced by the “knowledge” of Buddhist meditation apparently so well
received, and the time of his writing had become the mainstream
“contemplative practices. This would show us how and in what particular
point, was considered to be the “essence” of meditation (in addition to
being philosophical discussion of its purpose) in order to be considered
universally true, then that can be “merged” into other forms of
practice religious.
Under
this view, the Yoga Sutta is actually quite revealing. Consider a few
passages that copies may shed light on this idea. Passages like the
following really seems a direct copy and paste the Buddha-Dhamma. Some
of them even make much sense in a context of religious doctrine
theological-in-search-of-the-soul-creationist , but it fits absolutely
in the philosophy of liberation through concentration and wisdom.
However, they were considered “truth” and “accepted” so that the author
Hindu / Brahman had no other choice but to incorporate them into their
theistic philosophy, reminding us Western Christians today that due to
the common acceptance of the idea karma / kamma, sometimes find ways to
incorporate this idea in their religious views.
Let’s start seeing the following list of impurities that Yoga Sutra tells us must be overcome:
“Avidya
(ignorance), Asmita (egoism), raga-Dvesha (desires and aversions),
Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life) are the five klesha or distress.
Destroy these afflictions [e] You will realize Samadhi. “
[Free translation of the original quote from Wikipedia]
What
impresses the reader as Buddhist before this paragraph is the simple
fact that all these impurities listed are those that no longer are you
supposed to Arahant one, or Awakened (!!!). That is, according to the
text of Patanjali, the “Samadhi of Conduct” would be conceptually the
same as the Buddhist Liberation.
Consider the terms used:
Avijja,
ignorance or mental turvidÃĢo is even mentioned in the first place,
while clearly a Buddhist point of view is considered the root of all
problems.
Then
“asmita”, which is superficially translated as “selfishness” by
understanding that had developed in shallow Sanskrit tradition that was
ignorant of the deeper meaning of that term as used in the suttas of the
Pali Canon (or tried to distort to suit your context religious).
This
term Buddhist in particular, pointing to the deeply embedded “notion
that it is” (ASMI-tā) has a clear explanation in the suttas, but here in
this passage and elsewhere, is reduced to a mere “selfishness” as a
moral impurity devoid of its original psychological application. In the
suttas “ASMI-Mana” is a deeply rooted psychological tendency that only a
Arahant (Iluminsfo) won [see post “The scent of am” blog Theravadin].
And
there is also “abhinivesa”, a term the Buddha uses to explain how our
mind comes in and assumes the five groups of attachment. The term
“Nives” denotes a dwelling, a house - a simile brought by the Buddha to
show how our consciousness moves “inside” of the contact experience of
the senses and settles as if living in a house (see Sutta Nipata,
Atthakavagga , and Haliddakani Magandiya Sutta Sutta). This usage is
decreased very particular psychological context in Hindu / Brahmin to
denote only an “attachment to worldly life.”But here is worth
questioning whether this was also shared by superficial understanding or
just by Patanjali Yoga Sutra later commentators, who have lost sight of
these implications for not having knowledge of or access to the
preceding context of Buddhism in the Yoga Sutra was written?
And
sometimes something awakening about the “sati” Buddhist can also be
found. We have another pearl of a Buddhist point of view, which can be
considered truly revealing: the use of the word “Dharana” in the text of
Patanjali.
This
is one area in which our contemporary knowledge of Buddhism can benefit
from insights. The term “Dharana”, which literally means short and “I
can hold, carry, keep (in mind)” is a good description of the task faced
in Buddhist contemplative practice, regardless of what tradition /
schoolconsidered.
In
meditation we also need to maintain our meditation object firmly in
focus in mind, without losing it. This central feature of the task
undertaken when trying to cultivate meditative concentration, relates as
an equivalent to the literal meaning of the Buddhist term “sati” (which
means reminder / recall) and what is general and now translated simply
as “mindfulness” - a translation that often aboard with questions.
And
the reason is as follows, in summary: To maintain the object of
meditation in mind you need to remember it. Remember here that means you
have to hold, keep in mind, your object of concentration. This is
exactly what makes the faculty of memory, usually being pushed away by
the impressions with new information by the six senses, which, if
penetrated, would result in more or less a wild spin.
If
you are able to sustain their concentration on one point however - or
even as much as you can keep it, one of the laws of functioning of the
mind that the Buddha rediscovered and explained in detail that this
rebate is “artificial” senses the support and focus on a particular
mental object equivalent to a minor sensory stimulus.
As
a result of mental calmness and happiness (piti) and happiness index
(sukha) will arise and show signs of the primeirs a stronger
concentration - these being two of the five factors of meditative
absorption (jhana), along with (i) directed thought (vitakka) (ii)
sustained (Vicara) and (iii) equanimity (Upekkha).
This
is also the reason why is quite logical that samma sati, mindfulness,
has to come before samma samadhi, full concentration in the Noble
Eightfold Path of Buddhism - or, as shown in this case in the Yoga
Sutta, “Dharana” would be the stage immediately prior to “Delivering the
Samadhi.”
In this case
the Yoga Sutra throws much light on the original meaning as understood
in the early centuries of Buddhist practice and can help us reach a more
precise understanding of what “samma sati, right mindfulness,
originally meant or pointed. (In Theravadin blog post is a rather plain
and that shows how sati yoniso manasikara are coming in practical terms,
check this link ).
On
the opposite side, or better, understanding it as a byproduct of the
practice of sati is no other term that would best be described as
“mindfulness.” The Pali term is sampajaÃąÃąÄ - which literally means
“next-consideration”, eg, be well aware of when performing an action,
then a “clear understanding” of what it does - but this activity is a
result of sati, as having the mind fixed on an object leads to a refined
consciousness that arises when during the next and keep the mind of an
object, creating a clear understanding of the few sensory impressions
that may enter. According to this concept, mindfulness would be a result
of sati and not the practice of sati in itself!
But
again, both activities are happening almost simultaneously, even if not
in the same order and then the current use of the term translated can
be done - at the same time a fine distinction, however, has its
benefits. You can not keep an object from the standpoint of mind without
which would create or develop mindfulness in mind - but
(unfortunately!) you may be aware of all your actions that you work
without the right concentration - as when eat an ice cream, in seeking
the sensual pleasure, an example of improper care. This being the fact
that unfortunately idealize the interpretations of some Westerners who
want to say “Buddhist”.
There
is a difference between deliberately let himself be led by sense
impressions by focusing on their physical pleasures and enhancing /
supporting raga (desire) and nandi (joy) - and, from the perspective of
Gotama Buddha, put his feet on the ground using the mindful memory and
thus experiencing a more refined awareness of trying to get it off the
shaft so that it results in a greater mindfulness, in the culmination of
his experience flows into total equanimity in the face of both
pleasurable and painful sensations.
Thus,
then, we must understand as vipassanā is no way a synonym for
mindfulness (sati) but something that springs from the combination of
all these factors especially the last two, samma sati (mindfulness) and
samma samadhi (right concentration) applied to the relentless
observation of what appears to be in front of (yathabhuta).
You
could say, vipassanā is a name for the Buddhist practice of sati
associated samadhi directed to the view anicca / anatta / dukkha (ie,
generating the wisdom of the vision of these three features) in the
processes of the six senses, including any mental activity. Thus, one
will find the term vipassanā but the idea of sati in the Yoga Sutra,
Buddhist texts mention as the first term clearly having samādhi as just
the beginning of the journey to insight and access - for example
aniccanupassana .
Finish
here the parenthesis. Suffice to say that any particular reference to
the Buddhist philosophy citing anicca antta or point to the goal of
Nibbana, a philosophical proposition to which the system of Yoga
certainly does not refer.
In
essence the school of Yoga can be placed below the postures
eternalists. So, while it definitely does need to produce sati-samadhi,
definitely does not need to understand is samadhi anicca, dukkha and
anatta - that does not sound very compatible with the worldview of a
eternalistic. Before this, all spiritual approach arise due to the
attempt to interpret Samadhi Yoga Sutra as marriage or at least as close
as you can get from a “God”, a “Lord.” Something that sounds quite
natural in the end to a theist - such as an Evangelical Christian would
never interpret the reduction of its focus on mental object unique
sensual ecstasy and consequently a mere effect of a psychological
technique, but he would label it “the divine sign of God touching him.
“
It is for this reason that, according to the Buddha Dhamma, in fact in
most situations we are inclined to be led by the plots of our senses,
including the mental impressions / thoughts / feelings / perceptions -
and therefore tend to limit ourselves to go beyond such experiences also
distorted the merger would allow access to insight and liberation.
Returning
to the context of comparison with the Christian interpretation of this
ecstasy, in short what Patanjali is facing such a theistic
interpretation sounds like someone moving a large portion of vocabulary
and terminology for the New Testament, which gives this ring a Buddhist.
The
funny thing is that this is exactly how many of the contemporary New
Age books are written - an amalgam of the terms of Western Spirituality /
Christian trying to express a view east. So one can imagine that the
situation in India was similar to that when the Yoga Sutta was written
addressing the Buddhist philosophy of that era.
The
remaining Buddhist philosophy with his particular terminology
established by the Buddha himself would have become so pervasive in
religious thought, so to make seemingly trusted what was written on
meditation was a need to borrow or rely on several of these Buddhist
concepts predominant. This had largely been done or even conscious, as
most New Age authors present not even reflect the content of their texts
but about the message you want to spend.
Thus,
below is done in a way a translation - or rather a translation of a
transliteration given the proximity between languages - as was done with
the text of the Yoga Sutra in Sanskrit brought back to Pāli. Similar to
what has been done this Sutra ( Theravadin available on the blog, in
English on this link ), the exercise helps us see how the same text
would sound the Pāli language, opening then find parallels in ancient
Buddhist texts, the suttas.
However,
having said all that, pragmatism invoked by the text (which is what
makes it so valuable) also indicates much more than a simple textual
exploration. As you read this you can not discern the notion, especially
since the position of a meditator concentration of whoever has written
or inspired by this text, at some point personally experienced jhana and
samadhi and wanted to convey his experience making use a rich language
Buddhist meditation on the same interpretation being directed to an
audience Brahman / proto-Hindu India 200 BC.
Anyway,
check by itself - the pauses between sets of paragraphs labeled in bold
are the author / translator and some important technical terms
Buddhists were deployed, with additional comments made in italics:
Buddhism yoga
Karishma Devi
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PataÃąjalino yogasuttaáđƒ (Part I of IV)
Introduction
atha yogānusāsanaáđƒ | | 1 | |
And now a statement about the European Union (Yoga)
[1] Read yourself to be the object of meditation, or an instruction (anusāsana) on the meditative practice (yoga).
yogo-citta-vatta nirodho | | 2 | |
The Union (Yogo) is the extinction of the movement of the mind
[2]
in this passage denotes vatta turbulence, swirl, activity - literally
wandering, circling, confused. In this context broadly means “meditation
is (â€Ķ) a stop to the busy mind,” which is very active and its activity
suggests a walk in circles. Probably the most direct (and correct)
translation.
Tada ditthi (muni) svarÅŦpe’avaáđ­áđ­hānaáđƒ | | 3 | |
(Only) then he who sees is allowed (to be) in (his) true nature.
[3]
In the Pāli language Drist the word does not exist, and it would be
something like subsitituída by Muni, which has the same meaning -
,except, of course, the fact that “he who sees” further points in
this,case the seeing process. Here was however used the term Pāli ditthi
so as to maintain the link with the term semantic ditthi. The alternate
translation is then: “So lets see who (or have the opportunity -
avaáđ­áđ­hāna) of being in their true and natural.”
Sarup-vatta itaritaraáđƒ | | 4 | |
(Otherwise) at other times we become (equal) to this activity (of mind).
â™Ķ â™Ķ Challenges
vatta Panza kilesa akilesā ca ca | | 5 | |
Activities (Mental) are five, some non-contaminating other contaminants
pamanes-vipariyesa-vikappa-Nidda-sati | | 6 | |
i)
Experience (Evident-Measurement), ii) misperception (Illusion), iii)
Intentional Thinking / Willing, iv) Sleep / Numbness, v) Memory /
Mindfulness.
i) pamanes, experience or clear-measurement
Paccakkh’ānumān’āgamā honte pamāáđ‡Äni | | 7 | |
What one sees and looks directly (paccakha), taking as a reference - it’s called experience.
[7] Literally: “What comes through direct visualization and measurement is called the experience”
ii) Vipariyesa, misperception or illusion
Micca vipariyeso-Nanam atad-rÅŦpa-patiáđ­áđ­hitaáđƒ | | 8 | |
Illusion is the wrong understanding, based on something (lit. “one way”) that is not really.
iii) Vikappa, Thought Intentional / Keen
Saddam-ÃąÄáđ‡ÄnupattÄŦ vatthu-Sunna vikappo | | 9 | |
Intentional
Thinking / Willing is any way of understanding and unfounded assertion
(ie the internal speech, voltiva, partial and willful, based on mental
speculation).
[9]
Alternative translation: “Thinking is cognition without a sound object /
cause noise (vatthu).Think about it, thoughts are no more than sounds,
silent babble that passes through our being.
iv) Nidda, Sleep / Numbness
abhava-paccay’-ārammaáđ‡Ä vatta Nidda | | 10 |
Mental activity in the absence of mental objects is called Sleep / Torpor.
v) Sati, the Memory / Mindfulness
Anubhuti-visayāsammosā sati | | 11 | |
Not to be confused (or not lose) the object (sensory) previously experienced is called Memory / Mindfulness.
Abhyasa-virāgehi Tesam nirodho | | 12 | |
The extinction of these [activities] comes from the practice of detachment / cessation of passions (turning)
[12]
We have here the words turn and nirodha in the same sentence! It can
not be more Buddhist canon than this! Interestingly, however, is the
current use and non-metaphysical terms of this stretch. They are applied
in a simple process of meditation, in particular the process of
concentration meditation. This can not go unnoticed and goes directly in
line with readings jhanic cultivation practices in Buddhism.
â™Ķ The Training â™Ķ
tatra-tiáđ­áđ­ha yatano abhyasi | | 13 |
The
practice’s commitment to non-movement (ie, become mentally property (at
the same time it parmanece fluid - an excellent description for the
concentration!)
so-Kala-pana DÄŦgha nirantara-sakkār’āsevito dalhia-bhumi | | 14 | |
Mast this (practice) must be based firmly in a long and careful exercise [excellent point here!]
[14]
This goes in line with what the author wrote the medieval Pali
subcomentÃĄrios the volume of the Digha Nikaya, where also we find the
combination of the terms and dalhia bhumi - “firmness” and
“establishment” - in the same sentence, denoting ” firm establishment
diáđ­áđ­hānusavika-visaya-vitaáđ‡hāya Vasik-Sannes viraga | | 15 |
Detachment
is the mastery (VASI-kara) of perception, the dropping of the seat
(vitaáđ‡hā) by the following (anu-savika, lit.’s Subsequent flow)
experience a prey to view.
parama-tam Puris akkhātā guáđ‡a-vitaáđ‡haáđƒ | | 16 | |
This is the climax: the abandonment of the current headquarters of the senses, based on personal revelation / knowledge of self.
[16]
Here we turned a Brahman, is this approach that allows the soul to win
the seat / attachment, Tanh. And this short sentence has much to offer!
At that moment in history, Patanjali was so convinced of the Buddhist
goal of “opening up the attachment, the seat stop,” which boils down to
vitaáđ‡hā term he uses. However, it does not give up without a soul which
its theistic philosophy simply collapses and nothing in the text would
make it distinguishable from a treatise on the Buddha Dhamma. Thus,
mounted on a meditative Buddhist terminology and guidelines in the
conversation he introduces the term “Puris, which can be read as” soul,
“saying that the more you get closer to its” intrinsic nature “(svarÅŦpa)
and inner body “Puri, or soul, you become able to stop itself this
seat/ attachment. Interesting.
â™Ķ Realization - Jhana / Dhyanas
The first jhana / Dhyāna
vitakka-vicar-Anand-Asmita rÅŦp’ānugamā sampajaÃąÃąatā | | 17 | |
This
is the alertness (sampajaÃąÃąa) from (the) (Kingdom of) form: a
self-directed thought-based consciousness, which remains (to this) and
inner happiness.
[17]
Here we describe an almost identical description of the first jhana
used time and again by the Buddha in Pali texts ( see this example ).
Indeed, we have a very beautiful description of the first jhana as a
form of sampajaÃąÃąatā (fully aware of what is happening), after the plan
of the form (the theme of our meditation is a mental form) and a
combined happiness at the thought we are trying to grasp what itself
could be described as the pure experience of “I am” (Asmita - the term
is being used more loosely in place as would suttas).
However,
the announcement vitakka / vicara the first mention of meditative
absorption is a clear reference to the origin of Buddhist Yoga Sutra.
Interesting also is the connection that is being done now with
sampajaÃąÃąatā: Think of everything we have said before about sati. If
sati is simply the seizure of an object (the paáđ­áđ­hāna of sati, so to
speak), so it’s interesting to see how sampajaÃąÃąÄ this case, is
identified with the state of the first jhana. Could this mean that when
the Buddha mentions these two texts in Pali, which implicitly means
samatha-vipassana?
This
is not at all a strange idea, like many vipassana meditators, focusing
on objects will be much more subtle quickly show signs of the first
jhana. Could it be then that the term “sampajaÃąÃąatā” was seen as the
first result of a concentrated mind?
In
any case, experience will teach you very quickly that when you try to
hold an object in your mind, your awareness of what happens at this time
will increase dramatically, simply due to the fact that his effort to
keep the object is under constant danger during the siege of sense.
saw-Paticca Abhyasa-anno-pubbo saáđƒkhāraseso | | 18 |
(This accomplishment) is based on detachment and previously applied for any subsequent activities.
bhava-Paticca videha-prakriti-layana | | 19 | |
(For example) Based on this existence and the characteristics of self
saddha-viriya-sati-samadhi-paÃąÃąÄ-pubbaka itaresam | | 20 | |
This
flower gives himself (based on these qualities)of conviction (saddha),
energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom
(paÃąÃąÄ)
[20] The Buddha mentions these five factors when he was training arupa jhana under his previous two teachers.
He
also mentions how crucial factors when striving for enlightenment under
the Bodhi tree. Later, during his years of teaching, he gave the name
of “powers” (bullet) and explained that, if perfected, would lead to
enlightenment.
Tibba-saáđƒvegānām āsanno | | 21 | |
(For those) with a firm determination reached (this accomplishment, the first Dhyana / jhana).
â™Ķ Advancing in jhana, tips and tricks. â™Ķ
Mudu-majjhim’ādhi-mattatā tato’pi Visions | | 22 | |
There is also a differentiation between (achievement) lower, middle and high
Issar paáđ‡idhānā-go | | 23 | |
Or based on devotion (devotion) to a Lord (a master of meditation).
kilesa-kamma-vipākāsayā aparāmissā Puris-visions’ Issar | | 24 | |
The Lord (the Master) that is no longer influenced by the outcome kammic impurities and past desires.
[24]
Besides the question whether the term “Issar” found here could be read
as merely referring to a master of meditation (which fits perfectly into
the discussion until verse 27, where it starts to not fit any more) is
ikely discussion, including on-line translation of the Yoga Sutra by
Geshe Michael Roach . The principle can be interpreted so as to skeptics
recalling the first sutta MN seemed more logical to assume Issar was
first used to designate “the Lord” (ie your God).
But
with a little more research found that the term Issar Theragatha us are
used to designate the “master”. Interesting is also the word in Pali
āsayih replaced simple wish / desire - “Asa.” But “almost” sounds like
“Asava” that would fit even better in the context of kamma and vipaka
Asava.But the idea is very specific (”that which flows within you,
taking it) and may or may not be what was meant in this passage.
tatra-niratisayaáđƒ sabbaÃąÃąatā bÄŦjaáđƒ | | 25 | |
It is this that lies the seed of omniscience unmatched.
sa pubbesam api guru kālen’ānavacchedanā | | 26 | |
This Master from the beginning never abandoned him or abandon
[26] Literally, “not” drop “(an + evaluation + chedana), or abandon, even for a time (short) (Kalena)
tassa vācako Panavia | | 27 | |
His Word is the breath and the clamor of living
[27]
On the panavah term, which can be interpreted as “om” in Hindu
literature. It all depends if we read verses 24-27 as involving “Issar”
to mean “God” or simply refer to consider meditation master of
meditation you learn. If you do a search in the Tipitaka, you see that
when the Buddha used the term was to refer to teachers (see for example
Theragatha)
taj-tad-japp attha-bhavana | | 28 | |
Praying in unison with this, this is the goal of meditation
touch-pratyak cetanādhigamo’pi antarāyābhāvo ca | | 29 | |
So if the mind itself and carries it away all obstacles / hazards:
Vyadha-áđ­áđ­hāna-samsaya-pamādālayāvirati-bhrānti-dassanā’laddhabhÅŦmikatvā’navatthitatāni
Diseases,
skeptical questions, be moved to laziness of attachment, wrong view of
things, not meditative placements, or not yet firmly established in
these.
citta-vikkhepā te’ntarāyā | | 30 | |
These are the causes of mental distractions (they fall due).
dukkha-domanass’aáđ…gam ejayatv’assāsa-Passaseo vikkhepa-saha-Bhuvah | | 31 | |
The physical and mental pain arises in the body, the shaking of the inhale and exhale conjuçÃĢo occur with such distractions.
[31]
Here dukkha and Domanassam mentioned. They also appear in the
definition of the Buddha’s four jhana, but in a different direction. The
problem described here meditative seems out of place and looks as if
someone had to fit these words here. Also the inhale and exhale clearly
has an important role in that they cease to exist (nirodha) so
subjective to the practitioner in the fourth jhana. It is strange that
all this is on the list, but is presented in a very different
interpretation.
â™Ķ â™Ķ The Objects of Meditation
tat-pratiáđĢedhārtham ekatattābhyāsaáļĨ | | 32 | |
In order to control these distractions, this is the practice of unification of mind:
metta-karuna-mudita Upekkha-sukha-dukkha-Visayan-puÃąÃąÄpuÃąÃąa bhāvanātassa cittapasādanaáđƒ | | 33 | |
Thecheerful
calm the mind (citta-pasada) is achieved by meditation of loving
kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity in the face of pleasure, pain
as well as luck and misfortunes.
[33]
And here we go. The four brahmavihara, of course, famous for the way
Buddha encouraged monks to practice them to subdue the obstacles and
enter the five jhana. It is also interesting as the Tipitaka sometimes
aligns them with the progression in four jhana (which deserves to be
studied separately).
pracchardana-vidhāraáđ‡Äbhyāáđƒ go prāáđ‡asya | | 34 | |
Or the inhale and exhale, which is also an excellent exercise in meditation.
Visayavati go pa-vatta uppannā manaso thiti-nibandhinÄŦ | | 35
It helps to stop and control the increasing mental activity that occurs through the power of the senses.
[34
and 35] Wow, now includes Anapanasati to the list of meditation
techniques, the most favorite topics of Buddhist meditation, in addition
to brahmavihara, which “coincidentally” was mentioned in the previous
passage. Here he almost “cites” the benefit of Anapanasati of Pali
suttas, the Buddha gave in the Anapanasatisamyutta Mahavagga, where it
is clearly said that the greatest benefit of Anapanasati is the ability
to quiet the mind. Very interesting!
Visoko go jotimatÄŦ | | 36 | |
And the mind becomes free from sorrow and radiant.
vita-raga-visaya go citta | | 37 | |
Free from desire for sense objects
[36
and 37] These two passages seem more like a copy of what the Buddha
says in the suttas: “It is almost always remain in these states, O
monks, neither my body or my eyes get tired.” Although it immediately to
Explaining how the mind free from desires and radiant moves away from
the senses, as do the experienced meditators, this passage is important
because it shows that the author knew what he was talking in terms
pragmÃĄticos.NÃĢo there is something more important to the induction of
samadhi (ie, jhana) that the resolution of the mind, the balance
againstthe attack of the senses to the mind.
svapna Nidda-go-jnānālambanaáđƒ | | 38 | |
Of dreaming and sleep,
yathābhimata dhyānād-go | | 39 | |
parama-anu-stop-mahattvānto’ssa vasÄŦkāri | | 40 | |
kkhÄŦáđ‡a-vatta abhijātass’eva grahÄŦtáđ› mani-Graham-grāhyeáđĢu stha-tat-tad-anjanatāsamāpatti | | 41 |
When
it happens in the destruction of mental activity or movement
[Khin-vatta], there is the appearance of a jewel, the emergence of
someone who carries such an object, the object and the carrying of such
an object in itself - and this immobility is what is called a
realization, or state of completion.
tatra-nana-saddattha vikappaiáļĨ saáđƒkiáđ‡áđ‡Ä savitakkā Samāpatti, | | 42 | |
There is the state of realization is “with thought” and marked by impurity of speech of conscious thought, the internal speech.
[42], in the Pali Canon parlance we would say “savitakka-jhana.”
sati-parisuddhaáđƒ svarÅŦpa-suÃąÃąevattha-matta-nibbhāsā nivitakkā | | 43 | |
(However)
there is a state of achievement without thinking (nirvitakka) with full
attention and clearer that it is the nature of emptiness without a
voice.
[43]
parisuddham sati is obviously the name the Buddha gave to the fourth
jhana. It seems that the author tries to show us the range of four
jhana, pointing to the criteria of the first, and then, in contrast to
the characteristics of the fourth jhana again using the terminology of
the Pali suttas.
etadeva savic Nirvicārā ca-sukkhuma visaya akkhātā | | 44 | |
Likewise, the state with and without research and consideration (vicara) is judged by subtlety of the object.
[44] Here we are somewhat hampered by the language, and tempted to ask: by whom discerned before the non-self (anatta)?
sukkhuma-visayattaáđƒ c’āliáđ…ga-pary’avasānam | | 45 | |
It culminates in a subtle object with no features
tā eva sa-Bijo samādhi | | 46 |
But even this is a samadhi with seed / question.
Nirvicārā-visārad’ajjhatta-pasado | | 47 | |
Happiness
is attained with the inner conviction without regard to the
concentration already (vicara, which is paired with vitakka)
itaáđƒbharā paÃąÃąÄ tatra | | 48 | |
In this way, the truth is filled with wisdom.
sut’ānumāna paÃąÃąÄyā-anna-visaya vises’atthatā | | 49 |
And this wisdom is of a different kind of knowledge acquired through learning.
taj-jo-saáđƒkhāroâ€™ÃąÃąa Samkhara-paáđ­ibaddhÄŦ | | 50 | |
Such activity (meditative and induced) obstructs born (all) other activities.
tassāpi nirodha Sabba-nirodha nibbÄŦjo samādhi | | 51 | |
With the extinction of it all is also stopped - and this is the root-without-samadhi (samadhi-unborn)
[51]
This
last sentence sounds more like a reporter who, after being invited to a
very important meeting, is eager to share what he heard from relevant
sources.
Here
we are given a definition, in fact, the definition of the Buddha
“phalasamāpatti” - a state of jhana, which can only happen after someone
has had a realization that the particular insight nirvanic, giving
youaccess to that which is samadhi no “seeds” (nibbÄŦja).
This
whole concept fits nicely into a row of theistic argument, and no
attempt is being made here in the final set of samadhi, to explain it.
Did
the Buddhists speak of this matter so that among the philosophical
circles “mainstream” of the time it was automatically understood as “the
highest you can get,” and the argument was so powerful that, despite
not fit in the school already thinking of the times (an ancient
Hinduism) was considered indisputable?
Hard
to say. This argument appears in the Sutta Ratanasutta Nipata.Vemos
this final state, without seeds, as something that would target when
trying to “Sanna-vedayita-nirodha” cessation of perception and feeling, a
realization of the Buddha described as possible Arahants Anagami for
that, after entering the eighth jhana sequentially finally leave
theactivity more subtle (the sankhara) back.
Patanjali Yoga viracite-iti-samadhi sutta paáđ­hamo-pated | | |
This is the first chapter on the Samadhi Yoga Sutra of Patanjali
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Extended Prayer Yoga Posture
Shoulder
opener Yoga Posture. This movement will teach you how to push from
under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle group of the
back. A keâ€Ķ

Instruction Table
Come
to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to the side
and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.
Move
your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the back and
shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.
2
Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.
3
Inhale,
keeping your knees and ankles together, Exhale, rolling your knees to
the right. Focus on keeping your arms pressing out wards and your
shoulders pushing firmly into the ground. You may feel or hear your
spine lengthening as it extends into the correct alignment.
Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,
4
Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.
Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side
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Dog pose Yoga Posture
The Downward Facing Dog
Adhomukha Svanasana
The
downward yoga pose is named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog
stretching itself out. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce
stiffness in the legs while strengthening and shaping the upper body.
Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time
for only one posture try this one.
Holding
this pose for a minute or longer will stimulate and restore energy
levels if you are tired. Regular practice of this pose rejuvenates the
entire body and gently stimulates your nervous system.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Come
up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip width apart and the
hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide pressing firmly into the
floor.
2
Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.
3
As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.
4
Now
push the floor away from you hands, positioning your body like an
inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to your shoulders
to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.
As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.
Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.
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Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try this one.
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Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try this one.
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Dog pose Yoga Posture
Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time forâ€Ķ
Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try this one.
Instruction Table
1
Come
up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip width apart and the
hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide pressing firmly into the
floor.
2
Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.
3
As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.
4
Now
push the floor away from you hands, positioning your body like an
inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to your shoulders
to the hips. Straight arms and
straight legs.
As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.
Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.
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siting forward bend
The Seated Forward Bend
Paschimottanasana
The
purpose of this pose is to give the entire back of your body a very
complete stretch from the heels to the head. It is excellent for posture
improvement and stimulates the internal organs as
well.
It
adds in improved mental concentration and endurance and helps to
control and calm the mind. It relieves compression while increasing the
elasticity of the spine, it also strengthens and stretches the
hamstrings.

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To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.
Move
the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the
top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your
legs.
2
Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.
Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.
Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.
Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.
3
Now
take your strap around both feet. The strap`s purpose is to keep the
spine straight. This is very important. Be aware the head is an
extension of the spine, so keep it aligned accordingly.
Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.
4
On your next exhale; come down the belt further while
maintaining the extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of
you will be able to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and
continuously. Don’t pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper
body.
Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.
5
Go
a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, as you lengthen,
exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in your
vertebrae.
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siting forward bend Yoga Asana
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siting forward bend Yoga Asana
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siting forward bend Yoga Asana
siting forward bend Yoga Asana
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzWxM_W4DNA
Yoga Shoulder rotation
The Shoulder Shrug
The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.
It
strengthens and aligns the shoulder region while releasing tension and
increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint, which is a ball and
socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the abdominal and lumber
region as you look to form a solid base. To view in flash - click the
image below
Instruction Table
1
Align yourself in mountain pose. Continuing with your smoot flowing breath
2
As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.
3
As
you exhale, rotate the shoulders around by pushing up out of the chest
and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them in a full
circle.
4
Back down into mountain pose
Repeat 3 more times
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Meditation in motion Yoga Posture. Inhale as you lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.
As you Exhale, rotate the shoulders around by pushing up out of the chest rotating them in a full circle.
Category
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Meditation
in motion Yoga Posture. Inhale as you lift your shoulders to your ear
lobes, keeping the head erect and soft. As you Exhale, rotate the
shoulders â€Ķ
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Yoga Shoulder rotation
Meditation in motion Yoga Posture. Inhale as you lift your shoulders to yourâ€Ķ
Meditation
in motion Yoga Posture. Inhale as you lift your shoulders to your ear
lobes, keeping the head erect and soft. As you Exhale, rotate the
shoulders â€Ķ
Instruction Table
1
Align yourself in mountain pose.
Continuing with your smooth
flowing breath
2
As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.
3
As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around
by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them
in a full circle.
4
Back down into mountain pose
Repeat 3 more times
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Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend
The Lying Basic Twist
Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.
The
lying twist is another pose which is very simple yet extremely
effective. This pose is soothing to the spine and neck, and warms and
frees the lower back and hips and it also improves digestion and assists
in toxin elimination. To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Come
to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to the side
and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.
Move
your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the back and
shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.
2
Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.
3
Inhale,
keeping your knees and ankles together, Exhale, rolling your knees to
the right. Focus on keeping your arms pressing out wards and your
shoulders pushing firmly into the ground. You may feel or hear your
spine lengthening as it extends into the correct alignment.
Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,
4
Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.
Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side
Please Visit:
The Downward Facing Dog
Adhomukha Svanasana
The
downward yoga pose is named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog
stretching itself out. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce
stiffness in the legs while strengthening and shaping the upper body.
Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time
for only one posture try this one.
Holding
this pose for a minute or longer will stimulate and restore energy
levels if you are tired. Regular practice of this pose rejuvenates the
entire body and gently stimulates your nervous system.

Yoga Shoulder rotation

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Yoga Shoulder rotation
Meditation
in motion Yoga Posture. Inhale as you lift your shoulders to your ear
lobes, keeping the head erect and soft. As you Exhale, rotate the
shoulders â€Ķ

image.jpeg

Instruction Table
1
Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.
Move
the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the
top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your
legs.
2
Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.
Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.
Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.
Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.
3
Now take your strap around both feet. The strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.
Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned accordingly.
Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.
4
On
your next exhale; come down the belt further while maintaining the
extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of you will be able
to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and continuously. Don’t
pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper body.
Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.5
5
Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, a you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in
your vertebrae.
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIvKigXK1mU
bridgepose
The Bridge Pose
The
Bridge Pose is a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps
to promote a healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and
buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and organs.
It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks,
Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel.
Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.
2
Inhale,
and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly into the
floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the shoulders
and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are
comfortable with.
Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.
3
Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them
contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.
This pose stretches the whole front of the body, and brings mobility to
the spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of the ribcage and
chest area.
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The Locust
The Bridge
Extended Child’s Pose
The Locust Pose
Salabhasana
The locus yoga posture is
named as such as it resembles the shape of the insect known as the
Locust. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in
the lower back while bringing flexibility to the upper back region.
When you first begin to practice this pose, your
legs may not move very far off the floor. Please continue and stay
positive as you will find your range will continue to improve the more
you practice. Learning to master this pose will hold you in good stead
for more advanced back bends.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with your arms along
side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your knees and ankles
together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and down. Push your palms
into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards, contract the buttocks, and
press the hips and pubis firmly into the floor.
2
On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.
Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.
3
Extend the front of your body as you pull the shoulder blades
together, raising the head, the arms, and upper torso away from the
floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of the chest and
pushing down the lines of the arms.
Keep the legs working strongly.
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Locus Yoga Posture
Category
Education
Locus Yoga Posture
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locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture

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Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube.

Instruction Table
1
Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with
your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your
knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and
down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,
contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the
floor.
2
On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.
Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.
3
Extend the front of your body as you pull
the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper
torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of
the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.
Keep the legs working strongly.
Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhotDI-dqREâ€Ķ
The Bridge Pose
The Bridge Pose is
a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a
healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and
organs.
It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.
To view in flash - click the image below

locus Yoga Posture

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locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture




image.jpeg

Instruction Table
1
Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.
Move
the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the
top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your
legs.
2
Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.
Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.
Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.
Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.
3
Now take your strap around both feet. The strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.
Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned accordingly.
Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.
4
On
your next exhale; come down the belt further while maintaining the
extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of you will be able
to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and continuously. Don’t
pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper body.
Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.5
5
Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, a you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in
your vertebrae.
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bridgepose
The Bridge Pose
The
Bridge Pose is a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps
to promote a healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and
buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and organs.
It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks,
Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel.
Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.
2
Inhale,
and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly into the
floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the shoulders
and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are
comfortable with.
Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.
3
Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them
contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.
This pose stretches the whole front of the body, and brings mobility to
the spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of the ribcage and
chest area.
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The Locust
The Bridge
Extended Child’s Pose
The Locust Pose
Salabhasana
The locus yoga posture is
named as such as it resembles the shape of the insect known as the
Locust. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in
the lower back while bringing flexibility to the upper back region.
When you first begin to practice this pose, your
legs may not move very far off the floor. Please continue and stay
positive as you will find your range will continue to improve the more
you practice. Learning to master this pose will hold you in good stead
for more advanced back bends.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with your arms along
side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your knees and ankles
together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and down. Push your palms
into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards, contract the buttocks, and
press the hips and pubis firmly into the floor.
2
On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.
Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.
3
Extend the front of your body as you pull the shoulder blades
together, raising the head, the arms, and upper torso away from the
floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of the chest and
pushing down the lines of the arms.
Keep the legs working strongly.
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Locus Yoga Posture
Category
Education
Locus Yoga Posture
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locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture

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Instruction Table
1
Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with
your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your
knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and
down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,
contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the
floor.
2
On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.
Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.
3
Extend the front of your body as you pull
the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper
torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of
the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.
Keep the legs working strongly.
Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhotDI-dqREâ€Ķ
The Bridge Pose
The Bridge Pose is
a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a
healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and
organs.
It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.
To view in flash - click the image below

locus Yoga Posture

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locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture
Instruction Table
Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks, Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel.
Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.
2
Inhale, and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly
into the floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the
shoulders and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are
comfortable with.
Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.
3
Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them
contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.
This pose stretches the whole front of the body, and
brings mobility to the spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of
the ribcage and chest area.
Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIvKigXK1mUâ€Ķ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrA5mN-MW5U
Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture
The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana
The Childs Yoga pose when
practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It
helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire
stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in
strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the
internal organs.
Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind
will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps
to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.
Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.
2
Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.
3
Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward, continue lifting
out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base nice and firm,
looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the stomach, which
will help keep your back flat protecting it.
Take a few breaths here.
4
Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.
If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on
your knees and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your
body, not against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.
5
Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.
Remember to keep the arches high.
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Childs Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier
every time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind.
Continue with your slow smooth breathing as you continue to stretch the
inner thigh muscles.
Category
Education
Childs
Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every
time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind. Continue
with yourâ€Ķ

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Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture
Childs Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier everyâ€Ķ
Childs
Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every
time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind. Continue
with yourâ€Ķ
Instruction Table
1
Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.
Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.
Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.
Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.
2
Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.
3
Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend
forward, continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and
your base nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the
extension on the stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting
it.
Take a few breaths here.
4
Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.
If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees
and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not
against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.
5
Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.
Remember to keep the arches high.
Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.
2
Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands
out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the
fingertips.
4
Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it
forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.
Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the slow controlled breathing.
Please Visit:
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wide legstanding forward bend
Standing Forward Bend
The Boat (beginners)
The Standing Forward Bend
This pose aids in digestion and is restorative. It frees the rib cage allowing for improved breathing. It aids in mental
concentration and helps to revive mental and pysichal exhaustion. The
heartbeat is slowed and the lower back is strengthened and pressure is
removed from the lumbar region.
It increases flexibility while strengthening and developing the
hamstrings. It also helps to strengthen the feet and ankles while
realigning the entire body.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1
Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.
Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.
2
Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.
3
Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.
Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together.
Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with
4
Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,
opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This
will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.
Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.
Advanced Variation of The Boat
Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.
Continue with the controlled breathing.
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Yoga Posture wide legstanding forward bend
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Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

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Instruction Table
1
Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.
Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.
2
Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.
3
Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.
Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together.
Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with
4
Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,
opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This
will help your stability. Continue with the controlâ€Ķ
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Buddhism video
peace of mind

Buddhism
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#buddhism # yoga #peace of mind

Buddhism yoga
#buddhism # yoga # peace of mind # mind set # beauty # the world peace.⭑




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnkQ2RY8fUM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sujata_(milkmaid)
āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŊ‡,
āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪēāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪ• ut āŪĪāŪŪ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ
āŪ•āŊ€āŪ°āŊ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ-āŪ…āŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŪŋ āŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪĩāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪĪāŊ
āŪ†āŪąāŊ āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪē āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĻāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪšāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ
āŪĪāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊˆ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ-āŪ†āŪĩāŪŋ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪĪāŪĩāŪąāŪūāŪ• āŪĻāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪģāŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪą āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ
āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪœāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŊˆ āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ
āŪ…āŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ
āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪ° ur āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŊ€āŪŸāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪĻāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ. āŪ•āŪŋāŪŪāŊ 2 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ
āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ•
āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sujata_StupaāŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū
āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ, āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋ āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū āŪ•āŪ°āŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŠ Buddhist āŪĪāŊāŪĪ
āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ€āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪšāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪšāŊ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪū (āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪ° ur āŪ°āŊ) āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪū āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•
ut āŪĪāŪŪ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪžāŪūāŪĐāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪū āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū
āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ āŪšāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪ°āŊ 20 āŪĻāŪŋāŪŪāŪŋāŪŸ āŪĻāŪŸāŊˆ. āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪŪāŊ 2 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŊ‡ āŪŪāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŪāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪĻāŪūāŪĢāŪŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ
āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪąāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ.āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪ° ur āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪšāŊ āŪšāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪēāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪŋ
āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ†āŪēāŪŪāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊ€āŪīāŊ
āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ• ut āŪĪāŪŪ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ…āŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪĩāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪēāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪĪāŊ āŪāŪīāŊ āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ
āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĻāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪšāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĻāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ° āŪĩāŪīāŪŋ
āŪŪāŊ‚āŪēāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪšāŊāŪšāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ.āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪšāŊ‹āŪ•āŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŊ‚āŪĢāŪūāŪēāŊ
āŪ…āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ 1800 āŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪŋ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• 1956 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪ…āŪšāŪēāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĢāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪē āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪŠāŪē āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪŠāŪēāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪēāŊāŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊ āŪ†āŪŊāŊāŪĩāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪŪāŊ 1973-74 āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
2001-06 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪ•āŪīāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ…āŪ•āŪīāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊŠ.āŪš. 8 āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ 9 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ
“āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŪŠāŪūāŪē āŪ°āŪūāŪœāŪļāŊāŪŊ āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪđāŪū”, āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŪū 9 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŪū āŪĩāŪŪāŊāŪš āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊ
āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ, āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡ “āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŪŠāŪūāŪē āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū āŪŪāŪūāŪģāŪŋāŪ•āŊˆâ€
āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪēāŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ .āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐ āŪ•āŪŸāŊˆāŪšāŪŋ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊŠ.āŪš. 9 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪšāŊāŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪū āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪĐāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ.āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ•āŪēāŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ
āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊ “āŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪū-āŪđāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪŋ”, “āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪĐāŊˆ
āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪĩāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊˆâ€ āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ
“āŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪū-āŪđāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŪāŊâ€ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ 7 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ
āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŊ€āŪĐ āŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊāŪ°āŊ€āŪ•āŪ°āŊ āŪđāŊāŪŊāŊ†āŪĐāŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ™āŊ (åĪ§å” čĨŋ域 čĻ˜: āŪŪāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠ
Rec āŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ) [9] āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ
āŪ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ (āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪžāŊāŪšāŪĐāŪū) āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪ°āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ, āŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪū-āŪđāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪŋ
āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪēāŊ āŪĻāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ
(āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ, āŪŪāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĻāŪąāŊāŪŪāŪĢ āŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪĩāŪŋ
āŪŽāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊ).
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Texts and Translations Home Page

Daily Chanting
a book of daily worship

A Pāli and English line by line
(interlinear) version of this collection of chanting texts from the
Theravāda tradition meant for daily recital.

edited and translated by
Ānandajoti Bhikkhu

3rd Edition
(2014/2558)

eBooks

 PDF EPUBMOBI

Cover
Html Table of Contents

 Monday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

Āáđ‡akkhettaparittaáđ, 1
Safeguard in this Order’s Domain

Dasadhammasuttaáđ
The Discourse on the Ten Things

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Tuesday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

Buddhānussati
Recollection of the Buddha

The Discourse on the Great Blessings

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Wednesday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

Āáđ‡akkhettaparittaáđ, 2
Safeguard in this Order’s Domain

Ratanasuttaáđ
The Discourse on the Treasures

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Thursday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

Mettā Bhāvanā
The Development of Friendliness Meditation

Karaáđ‡ÄŦyamettasuttaáđ
The Discourse on how Friendliness Meditation should be Done

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Friday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

AsubhasaÃąÃąÄ
Perception of the Unattractive

Khandhaparittaáđ (part)
The Protection of Mind and Body

Paáđ­iccasamuppādaáđ
Conditional Arising

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Saturday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

Maraáđ‡Änussati
Recollection of Death

Mettānisaáđsasuttaáđ
The Discourse on the Advantages of Friendliness Meditation

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Sunday

PÅŦjā
Worship (Daily)

Parittaáđ
Safeguard Recitals

Dhajaggaparittaáđ
Safeguard through the Top of a Banner

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

 Appendix

Paccavekkhaáđ‡Ä
Reflections

Khamāpanā
Asking for Forgiveness

 

Editor’s Preface

This work gives a selection of verses that are recited when
worshipping the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saáđ…gha; and a collection of
discourses that are popularly used as Safeguards.

Part of the chants found in this book are meant to be recited every day, and part rotate on a weekly basis.

The system for the chanting is as follows: first there is
Recollection of the Three Treasures and other objects of worship, this
is followed by PÅŦjā (which will depend on what is being offered).

Then the daily Parittaáđ section begins. After the Invitation to the Gods go to the chants for whatever day of the week it is.

At the end of the chants for the day there is meditation, and when finished you can proceed with the Conclusion.

In the Appendix are two other short pieces that can be recited in the indicated place when monastics are present.

Ānandajoti Bhikkhu
July 2014 - 2558

This book has been revised in April, 2014 to bring it into
line
with the format that has been adopted in my larger chanting book
Safeguard Recitals; and some small corrections and additions have been
made at the same time.

Ānandajoti Bhikkhu
April 2014 - 2559

 

This book is dedicated with great respect to the memory of

Ven. Rerukane Chandavimala

former Mahānāyaka of the Swejin Mahānikāya

who worked so tirelessly on behalf of the Sāsana

 

last updated: April 2014

 

if you would like to be informed when new texts are released
subscribe to my Dharma Records blog where all updates are posted

Subscribe to my Dharma Records  blog

about fonts & downloads outside links copyright




https://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Daily-Chanting/01-Monday.htm

Monday

Worship
Safeguards
Conclusion

PÅŦjā
Worship

right click to download mp3

https://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Audio/Daily-Chanting/01-Monday-Full.mp3

Namakkāraáđ
Reverence

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

 

Buddhaguáđ‡avandanā
Worshipping the Virtues of the Buddha

Iti pi so Bhagavā Arahaáđ Sammāsambuddho,
Such is he, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha,

vijjācaraáđ‡asampanno Sugato lokavidÅŦ,
the one endowed with understanding and good conduct, the Fortunate One, the one who understands the worlds,

anuttaro purisadammasārathÄŦ,
the unsurpassed guide for those people who need taming,

Satthā devamanussānaáđ Buddho Bhagavā ti.
the Teacher of gods and men, the Buddha, the Gracious One.

 

Buddhaáđ jÄŦvitaáđ yāva Nibbānaáđ saraáđ‡aáđ gacchāmi.
I go for life-long refuge to the Buddha right up until Nibbāna.

 

Ye ca Buddhā atÄŦtā ca, ye ca Buddhā anāgatā,
Those who were Buddhas in the past, those who will be Buddhas in the future,

paccuppannā ca ye Buddhā, ahaáđ vandāmi sabbadā!
and those who are Buddhas in the present, I worship them every day!

 

Natthi me saraáđ‡aáđ aÃąÃąaáđ, Buddho me saraáđ‡aáđ varaáđ!
For me there is no other refuge, for me the Buddha is the best refuge!

Etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamaáđ…galaáđ!
By this declaration of the truth may you have the blessing of success!

 

Uttamaáđ…gena vandehaáđ pādapaáđsu varuttamaáđ,
With my head I worship the most excellent dust of his feet,

Buddhe yo khalito doso Buddho khamatu taáđ mamaáđ!
for any fault or wrong against the Buddha may the Buddha forgive me for that!

 

Dhammaguáđ‡avandanā
Worshipping the Virtues of the Dhamma

Svākkhāto Bhagavatā Dhammo,
The Dhamma has been well-proclaimed by the Gracious One,

sandiáđ­áđ­hiko, akāliko, ehipassiko, opanayiko,
it is visible, not subject to time, inviting inspection, onward leading,

paccattaáđ veditabbo viÃąÃąÅŦhÄŦ ti.
and can be understood by the wise for themselves.

 

Dhammaáđ jÄŦvitaáđ yāva Nibbānaáđ saraáđ‡aáđ gacchāmi.
I go for life-long refuge to the Dhamma right up until Nibbāna.

 

Ye ca Dhammā atÄŦtā ca, ye ca Dhammā anāgatā,
That which was Dhamma in the past, that which will be Dhamma in the future,

paccuppannā ca ye Dhammā, ahaáđ vandāmi sabbadā!
and that which is Dhamma in the present, I worship it every day!

 

Natthi me saraáđ‡aáđ aÃąÃąaáđ, Dhammo me saraáđ‡aáđ varaáđ!
For me there is no other refuge, for me the Dhamma is the best refuge!

Etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamaáđ…galaáđ!
By this declaration of the truth may you have the blessing of success!

 

Uttamaáđ…gena vandehaáđ Dhammaáđ ca tividhaáđ varaáđ,
With my head I worship the excellent threefold Dhamma,

Dhamme yo khalito doso Dhammo khamatu taáđ mamaáđ!
for any fault or wrong against the Dhamma may the Dhamma forgive me for that!

 

Saáđ…ghaguáđ‡avandanā
Worshipping the Virtues of the Saáđ…gha

Supaáđ­ipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaáđ…gho,
The Gracious One’s Saáđ…gha of disciples are good in their practice,

ujupaáđ­ipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaáđ…gho,
the Gracious One’s Saáđ…gha of disciples are straight in their practice,

ÃąÄyapaáđ­ipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaáđ…gho,
the Gracious One’s Saáđ…gha of disciples are systematic in their practice,

sāmÄŦcipaáđ­ipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaáđ…gho,
the Gracious One’s Saáđ…gha of disciples are correct in their practice,

yad-idaáđ cattāri purisayugāni aáđ­áđ­ha purisapuggalā,
that is to say, the four pairs of persons, the eight individual persons,

esa Bhagavato sāvakasaáđ…gho,
this is the Gracious One’s Saáđ…gha of disciples,

āhuneyyo, pāhuneyyo, dakkhiáđ‡eyyo, aÃąjalikaranÄŦyo,
they are worthy of offerings, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverential salutation,

anuttaraáđ puÃąÃąakkhettaáđ lokassā ti.
they are an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

 

Saáđ…ghaáđ jÄŦvitaáđ yāva Nibbānaáđ saraáđ‡aáđ gacchāmi.
I go for life-long refuge to the Sangha right up until Nibbāna.

 

Ye ca Saáđ…ghā atÄŦtā ca, ye ca Saáđ…ghā anāgatā,
Those who were the Sangha in the past, those who will be the Sangha in the future,

paccuppannā ca ye Saáđ…ghā, ahaáđ vandāmi sabbadā!
and those who are the Sangha in the present, I worship them every day!

 

Natthi me saraáđ‡aáđ aÃąÃąaáđ, Saáđ…gho me saraáđ‡aáđ varaáđ!
For me there is no other refuge, for me the Sangha is the best refuge!

Etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamaáđ…galaáđ!
By this declaration of the truth may you have the blessing of success!

 

Uttamaáđ…gena vandehaáđ Saáđ…ghaáđ ca tividhottamaáđ,
With my head I worship the Sangha who are supreme in three ways,

Saáđ…ghe yo khalito doso Saáđ…gho khamatu taáđ mamaáđ!
for any fault or wrong against the Sangha may the Sangha forgive me for that!

 

Paáđ‡Ämagāthā
Verses on Obeisance

Buddhadhammā ca Paccekabuddhā Saáđ…ghā ca sāmikā -
The Buddhas, Dhamma, Independent Buddhas, and the revered Sangha -

dāsoham-asmi me tesaáđ, guáđ‡aáđ áđ­hātu sire sadā!
I am their servant, may that good quality always be on my head!

 

Tisaraáđ‡aáđ tilakkhaáđ‡ÅŦpekkhaáđ Nibbānam-antimaáđ,
The three refuges, equanimity about the three signs, and final Nibbāna,

suvande sirasā niccaáđ labhāmi tividhā-m-ahaáđ.
I always worship these with my head and I receive threefold (return).

 

Tisaraáđ‡aáđ ca sire áđ­hātu, sire áđ­hātu tilakkhaáđ‡aáđ,
May the three refuges be placed on my head, may the three signs be placed on my head,

upekkhā ca sire áđ­hātu, Nibbānaáđ áđ­hātu me sire!
may equanimity be placed on my head, and may Nibbāna be placed on my head!

 

Buddhe sakaruáđ‡e vande, Dhamme Paccekasambuddhe,
I worship the compassionate Buddhas, the Dhamma, the Independent Sambuddhas,

Saáđ…ghe ca sirisā yeva, tidhā niccaáđ namāmyahaáđ.
and the Sangha with my head, I constantly bow down three times.

 

Namāmi Satthuno vādā appamādavacantimaáđ,
I bow down to the words of the Teacher, and the last words on heedfulness,

sabbe pi cetiye vande, upajjhāyācariye mamaáđ -
and also to all the shrines, to my preceptor and teacher -

mayhaáđ paáđ‡Ämatejena cittaáđ pāpehi muÃącatan-ti!
by the power of this obeisance may my mind be free from evil!

 

ĀmisapÅŦjā
Material Offerings

(only chant verses for what you are offering)

(first worshipping the main objects of veneration)

Vandāmi cetiyaáđ sabbaáđ sabbaáđ­áđ­hānesu patiáđ­áđ­hitaáđ,
I worship all the shrines in all of the places that they stand,

sārÄŦrikadhātu Mahā Bodhiáđ, BuddharÅŦpaáđ sakalaáđ sadā!
the bodily relics, the Great Bodhi Tree, and all the Buddha images forever!

Iccevam-accantanamassaneyyaáđ namassamāno Ratanattayaáđ yaáđ,
In this way I can revere the Three Treasures without end, and while revering them,

puÃąÃąÄbhisandhaáđ vipulaáđ alatthaáđ, tassānubhāvena hatantarāyo!
I have received an abundant overflow of merit, by that power may (any) obstacle be destroyed!

(lights)

Ghanasārappadittena dÄŦpena tamadhaáđsinā,
With a lamp that burns intensely, destroying the darkness,

tilokadÄŦpaáđ Sambuddhaáđ pÅŦjayāmi tamonudaáđ.
I worship the Sambuddha, the light of the three worlds, the darkness-dispeller.

(incense)

Sugandhikāyavadanaáđ, anantaguáđ‡agandhinaáđ,
o With this fragrance and perfume I worship the Realised One,

Sugandhināhaáđ gandhena pÅŦjayāmi Tathāgataáđ.
who is fragrant in body and speech, and has fragrant endless virtues.

(water)

Sugandhaáđ sÄŦtalaáđ kappaáđ, pasannamadhuraáđ subhaáđ,
o Please accept this fragrant, cool, clear, sweet, and attractive drink

pānÄŦyam-etaáđ Bhagavā, paáđ­iggaáđ‡hātu-m-uttama!
that has been prepared, O Gracious One supreme!

(medicinal drink)

Bhesajjehi samāyuttaáđ gilānapaccayaáđ imaáđ,
o Please accept this medicine together with this herbal drink,

anukampaáđ upādāya, paáđ­iggaáđ‡hātu-m-uttama!
having compassion on us, O Gracious One supreme!

(flowers)

Vaáđ‡áđ‡agandhaguáđ‡opetaáđ, etaáđ kusumasantatiáđ,
o With these long lasting flowers, endowed with the qualities of beauty

pÅŦjayāmi Munindassa siripādasaroruhe.
and fragrance, I worship the glorious lotus feet of the lord of Sages.

PÅŦjemi Buddhaáđ kusamenanena, puÃąÃąena-m-etena labhāmi mokkhaáđ.
I worship the Awakened One with these flowers, may I gain release with (the help of) this merit.

Pupphaáđ milāyāti yathā idaáđ me, kāyo tathā yāti vināsabhāvaáđ.
Just as a flower withers and fades away, so too this my body will go to destruction.

(aspiration)

Imāya BuddhapÅŦjāya katāya suddhacetasā,
By this worship of the Buddha, performed with a pure mind,

ciraáđ tiáđ­áđ­hatu Saddhammo, loko hotu sukhÄŦ sadā!
may the True Dhamma last a long time, and may the world be always happy!

 

Parittaáđ
Safeguards

Devārādhanā
The Invitation to the Gods

(Chanted by One Person)

Samantā cakkavāáļ·esu atrāgacchantu devatā
May the gods from all over the universe assemble here

saddhammaáđ Munirājassa suáđ‡antu saggamokkhadaáđ:
and listen to the King of the Sage’s true Dhamma about heaven and release:

Parittassavaáđ‡akālo ayaáđ bhadantā!
Reverend Sirs, this is the time for hearing the safeguard!

Parittassavaáđ‡akālo ayaáđ bhadantā!
Reverend Sirs, this is the time for hearing the safeguard!

Dhammaparittassavaáđ‡akālo ayaáđ bhadantā!
Reverend Sirs, this is the time for hearing the Dhamma safeguard!

 

Namakkāraáđ
Reverence

(Chanted by All Present)

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Fortunate One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Fortunate One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Fortunate One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

 

(monastics can chant the Reflections found in the appendix here)

 

Āáđ‡akkhettaparittaáđ (pt 1)
Safeguard in this Order’s Domain

Ye santā santacittā, tisaraáđ‡asaraáđ‡Ä, ettha lokantare vā,
Those (gods) who are peaceful, with peaceful minds, who have taken
refuge in the triple refuge, whether here, or above the worlds,

bhummā bhummā ca devā, guáđ‡agaáđ‡agahaáđ‡Ä, byāvaáđ­Ä sabbakālaáđ,
the various earth gods, that group who have taken up, and are engaged in, virtuous deeds all of the time,

ete āyantu devā, varakanakamaye, Merurāje vasanto,
may these gods come, those who dwell on the majestic Mt. Meru, that excellent golden mountain,

santo santo sahetuáđ Munivaravacanaáđ sotumaggaáđ samaggaáđ.
peacefully, and with good reason, ( to hear) the Sage’s excellent word about entering the stream, and harmony.

 

Sabbesu cakkavāáļ·esu yakkhā devā ca brahmuno,
May all yakkhas, gods, and deities, from the whole universe,

yaáđ amhehi kataáđ puÃąÃąaáđ sabbasampattisādhukaáđ

o after partaking of the merits, and of all the thoroughly good fortune

sabbe taáđ anumoditvā samaggā sāsane ratā,
we have acquired, being in harmony, and delighting in the teaching,

pamādarahitā hontu ārakkhāsu visesato.
be not heedless and grant us complete protection.

 

Sāsanassa ca lokassa vuáļáļhi bhavatu sabbadā,
May the teaching and the world be on the increase every day,

sāsanam-pi ca lokaÃą-ca devā rakkhantu sabbadā.
and may the gods every day protect the teaching and the world.

Saddhiáđ hontu sukhÄŦ sabbe parivārehi attano,

o May you, and all those who are around you, together with

anÄŦghā sumanā hontu, saha sabbehi ÃąÄtibhi.
all your relatives, be untroubled, happy, and easy in mind.

 

Rājato vā, corato vā, manussato vā, amanussato vā,
(May you be protected) from the king, thieves, humans, and non-humans,

aggito vā, udakato vā, pisācato vā, khāáđ‡ukato vā, kaáđ‡áđ­akato vā,
from fire and water, demons, stumps, and thorns,

nakkhattato vā, janapadarogato vā,
from unlucky stars, and epidemics,

asaddhammato vā, asandiáđ­áđ­hito vā, asappurisato vā,
from what is not the true dhamma, not right view, not a good person,

caáđ‡áļahatthiassamigagoáđ‡akukkura-ahivicchikamaáđ‡isappa-
and from fierce elephants, horses, antelopes, bulls, dogs, snakes, scorpions, poisonous serpents,

dÄŦpiacchataracchasukaramahisayakkharakkhasādihi
panthers, bears, hyenas, wild boars, buffaloes, yakkhas, rakkhasas, and so on,

nānā bhayato vā, nānā rogato vā, nānā upaddavato vā, ārakkhaáđ gaáđ‡hantu!
from the manifold fears, the manifold diseases, the manifold calamities -
(from all of these troubles) may you receive protection!

 

Dasadhammasuttaáđ
The Discourse on the Ten Things

Evaáđ me sutaáđ:
Thus I have heard:

ekaáđ samayaáđ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaáđ viharati
at one time the Fortunate One was dwelling near SāvatthÄŦ

Jetavane Anāthapiáđ‡áļikassa ārāme.
at Anāthapiáđ‡áļika’s grounds in Jeta’s Wood.

Tatra kho Bhagavā bhikkhÅŦ āmantesi:
There it was that the Fortunate One addressed the monks, saying:

“Bhikkhavo!” ti, “Bhadante!” ti te bhikkhÅŦ Bhagavato paccassosuáđ,
“Monks!”, “Reverend Sir!” those monks replied to the Fortunate One,

Bhagavā etad-avoca:
and the Fortunate One said this:

“Dasa ime bhikkhave dhammā
“There are these ten things, monks,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbā.
that one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on.

Katame dasa?
What are the ten?

 

“Vevaáđ‡áđ‡iyamhi ajjhupagato” ti,
“I have become one who has no (distinctive) appearance”,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [01]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Parapaáđ­ibaddhā me jÄŦvikā” ti,
“I am bound to others for my livelihood”,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [02]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“AÃąÃąo me ākappo karaáđ‡ÄŦyo” ti,
“I should comport myself differently”,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [03]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Kacci nu kho me attā sÄŦlato na upavadatÄŦ?” ti
“Can I myself find no fault with my virtue?”

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [04]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Kacci nu kho maáđ anuvicca viÃąÃąÅŦ sabrahmacārÄŦ, sÄŦlato na upavadantÄŦ?” ti
“Will my wise companions in the spiritual life, after testing me, find no fault with my virtue?”,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [05]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Sabbehi me piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo” ti,
“There is alteration in, and separation from, all that is dear and appealing to me”,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [06]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Kammassakomhi, kammadāyādo, kammayoni,
“It is actions that I own, it is actions that I am heir to, it is actions that I am born from,

kammabandhu, kammapaáđ­isaraáđ‡o -
actions are my kinsfolk, actions are my refuge -

yaáđ kammaáđ karissāmi, kalyāáđ‡aáđ vā pāpakaáđ vā,
whatever actions I perform, whether good or bad,

tassa dāyādo bhavissāmÄŦ” ti,
to that I will be the heir”,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [07]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Kathaáđ bhÅŦtassa me rattiáđdivā vÄŦtipatantÄŦ?” ti
“In what way do the nights and days pass for me?”

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [08]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Kacci nu khohaáđ suÃąÃąÄgāre abhiramāmÄŦ?” ti
“Do I delight in empty places?”

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [09]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

“Atthi nu kho me uttarimanussadhammā -
“Has a state beyond (ordinary) human beings -

alam-ariyaÃąÄáđ‡adassanaviseso - adhigato?
the distinction of what is truly noble knowledge and seeing - been attained by me?

Soham pacchime kāle sabrahmacārÄŦhi puáđ­áđ­ho, na maáđ…ku bhavissāmÄŦ?” ti

o Will I at the end, when questioned by my companions in the spiritual life, not
be embarrassed?”

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbaáđ. [10]
one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on this.

 

Ime kho bhikkhave dasadhammā,
These are the ten things, monks,

pabbajitena abhiáđ‡haáđ paccavekkhitabbā” ti.
that one who has gone forth should frequently reflect on.

Idam-avoca Bhagavā,
The Fortunate One said this,

attamanā te bhikkhÅŦ Bhagavato bhāsitaáđ abhinandun-ti.
and those monks were uplifted and greatly rejoiced in the Fortunate One’s words.

 

ĀsÄŦvāda
Verse of Blessing

Etena saccavajjena sotthi te hotu sabbadā!
By this declaration of the truth may you be safe at all times!

Etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamaáđ…galaáđ!
By this declaration of the truth may you have the blessing of success!

Etena saccavajjena sabbarogo vinassatu!
By this declaration of the truth may all disease be destroyed!



Meditationâ€Ķ

 

Avasānaáđ
Conclusion

Dhammapadagāthā
Verses from the Dhammapada

Sabbapāpassa akaraáđ‡aáđ, kusalassa upasampadā,
Not doing any bad deeds, undertaking wholesome deeds,

sacittapariyodapanaáđ - etaáđ Buddhāna’ sāsanaáđ. [183]
and purifying one’s mind - this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

 

KhantÄŦ paramaáđ tapo titikkhā, Nibbānaáđ paramaáđ vadanti Buddhā.
Forbearing patience is the supreme austerity, Nibbāna is supreme say the Buddhas.

Na hi pabbajito parÅŦpaghāti, samaáđ‡o hoti paraáđ viheáđ­hayanto. [184]
One gone forth does not hurt another, (nor does) an ascetic harass another.

 

AnÅŦpavādo, anÅŦpaghāto, pātimokkhe ca saáđvaro,
Not finding fault, not hurting, restraint in regard to the precepts,

mattaÃąÃąutā ca bhattasmiáđ, pantaÃą-ca sayanāsanaáđ,
knowing the correct measure in food, (living in) a remote dwelling place,

adhicitte ca āyogo - etaáđ Buddhāna’ sāsanaáđ. [185]
being devoted to meditation - this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

 

Sabbe saáđ…khārā aniccā ti, yadā paÃąÃąÄya passati,
All conditioned things are impermanent, when one sees this with wisdom,

atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā. [277]
then one grows tired of suffering, this is the path to purity.

 

Sabbe saáđ…khārā dukkhā ti, yadā paÃąÃąÄya passati,
All conditioned things are suffering, when one sees this with wisdom,

atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā. [278]
then one grows tired of suffering, this is the path to purity.

 

Sabbe dhammā anattā ti, yadā paÃąÃąÄya passati,
All things are without a self, when one sees this with wisdom,

atha nibbindati dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyā. [279]
then one grows tired of suffering, this is the path to purity.

 

Bhavatu sabbamaáđ…galaáđ, rakkhantu sabbadevatā,
May there be every blessing, and may all of the gods protect you,

sabbabuddhānubhāvena sadā sotthÄŦ bhavantu te!
by the power of all the Buddhas may you be safe forever!

 

Bhavatu sabbamaáđ…galaáđ, rakkhantu sabbadevatā,
May there be every blessing, and may all of the gods protect you,

sabbadhammānubhāvena sadā sotthÄŦ bhavantu te!
by the power of all that is Dhamma may you be safe forever!

 

Bhavatu sabbamaáđ…galaáđ, rakkhantu sabbadevatā,
May there be every blessing, and may all of the gods protect you,

sabbasaáđ…ghānubhāvena sadā sotthÄŦ bhavantu te!
by the power of the whole Sangha may you be safe forever!

 

Ākāsaáđ­áđ­hā ca bhummaáđ­áđ­hā devā nāgā mahiddhikā,
May those powerful gods and nāgas stationed in the sky or on the earth,

puÃąÃąaáđ taáđ anumoditvā ciraáđ rakkhantu sāsanaáđ!
having rejoiced in this merit protect the teaching for a long time!

 

Ākāsaáđ­áđ­hā ca bhummaáđ­áđ­hā devā nāgā mahiddhikā,
May those powerful gods and nāgas stationed in the sky or on the earth,

puÃąÃąaáđ taáđ anumoditvā ciraáđ rakkhantu desanaáđ!
having rejoiced in this merit protect the preaching for a long time!

 

Ākāsaáđ­áđ­hā ca bhummaáđ­áđ­hā devā nāgā mahiddhikā,
May those powerful gods and nāgas stationed in the sky or on the earth,

puÃąÃąaáđ taáđ anumoditvā ciraáđ rakkhantu maáđ paran!-ti
having rejoiced in this merit protect me and others for a long time!

 

Idaáđ me ÃąÄtÄŦnaáđ hotu, sukhitā hontu ÃąÄtayo!
May this (merit) go to my relatives, may my relatives be happy!

Idaáđ me ÃąÄtÄŦnaáđ hotu, sukhitā hontu ÃąÄtayo!
May this (merit) go to my relatives, may my relatives be happy!

Idaáđ me ÃąÄtÄŦnaáđ hotu, sukhitā hontu ÃąÄtayo!
May this (merit) go to my relatives, may my relatives be happy!

 

Adhiáđ­áđ­hānagāthā
Verses of Determination

Iminā puÃąÃąakammena upajjhāyā guáđ‡uttarā,
By this meritorious deed may my highly virtuous preceptors,

ācariyÅŦpakārā ca, mātā pitā piyā mamaáđ, [01]
teachers, and other helpers, my dear mother and father,

 

Suriyo Candimā rājā, guáđ‡avantā narā pi ca,
the Sun and Moon kings, and also other virtuous beings,

brahmā mārā ca indrā ca, lokapālā ca devatā, [02]
brahmās, māras, and indras, and (all) world-protecting gods,

 

Yamo mittā manussā ca majjhaáđ­áđ­hā verikāpi ca -
Yama, friendly humans, neutral persons, and also foes -

sabbe sattā sukhÄŦ hontu puÃąÃąÄni pakatāni me. [03]
may all beings be happy with (all) the merits that I have made.

 

SukhaÃą-ca tividhaáđ dentu khippaáđ pāpe yathā mataáđ,
o By these meritorious deeds, by this dedication, may bad deeds

iminā puÃąÃąakammena iminā uddisena ca. [04]
be as though dead, and may (these merits) give the threefold happiness.

 

Khippāhaáđ sulabhe ceva taáđ‡hupādānachedana,
May I quickly and easily (see the) cutting off of craving and attachment,

ye santāne hÄŦnā dhammā yāva Nibbānato mamaáđ - [05]
and the whole succession of low things until I arrive at Nibbāna -

 

nassantu sabbadā yeva yattha jāto bhave bhave.
may (these things) be destroyed every day in whatever existence I am born.

Ujucitto satipaÃąÃąo, sallekho viriyavāminā, [06]
Upright mind, mindfulness, wisdom, austerity, and energy, by these (qualities),

 

mārā labhantu nokāsaáđ kātuÃą-ca viriyesu me,
may the māras find no room to do (anything) about my energy,

Buddho dÄŦpavaro nātho, Dhammo nātho varuttamo, [07]
The Buddha is an excellent light, a protector the Dhamma is the greatest, most excellent protector,

 

nātho Paccekasambuddho, Saáđ…gho nāthottaro mamaáđ,
the Independent Sambuddha is my protector, the Sangha is the greatest protector for me,

tejottamānubhāvena mārokāsaáđ labhantu mā. [08]
by this highly resplendent power may the māras find no room.

 

Ovādaáđ
Advice
(one person only)

Appamādena bhikkhave sampādetha:
Strive on, monks, with heedfulness:

Buddhuppādo dullabho lokasmiáđ,
the arising of a Buddha in this world is rare,

manussattā paáđ­ilābho dullabho,
acquiring a human existence is rare,

dullabhā saddhā sampatti,
gaining confidence is rare,

pabbajitabhāvo dullabho,
being one gone forth is rare,

Saddhammasavanaáđ atidullabhaáđ.
hearing the True Dhamma is extremely rare.

Evaáđ divase divase ovādÄŦ:
So day in and day out he advised them thus (saying):

“Handa dāni bhikkhave āmantayāmi vo vayadhammā saáđ…khārā,
“Come now, monks, for I tell you (all) conditioned things are subject to decay,

appamādena sampādetha!”
strive on with heedfulness!”

 

Vajjapakāsanaáđ
Confession of Faults

Kāyena vācā cittena pamādena mayā kataáđ,
o For any transgression I have committed through heedlessness, by way of body,

accayaáđ khama me bhante, bhÅŦripaÃąÃąa Tathāgata.
speech, or mind, please forgive me, Venerable Sir, Realised One, O greatly wise.

 

Kāyena vācā cittena pamādena mayā kataáđ,
o For any transgression I have committed through heedlessness, by way of body,

accayaáđ khama me Dhamma sandiáđ­áđ­hika, akālika.
speech, or mind, please forgive me, O Dhamma, which leads on, not subject to time.

 

Kāyena vācā cittena pamādena mayā kataáđ,
o For any transgression I have committed through heedlessness, by way of body,

accayaáđ khama me Saáđ…gha, puÃąÃąakkhetta anuttara.
speech, or mind, please forgive me, O Sangha unsurpassed field of merit.

 

(if a senior monk is present the
Asking for Forgiveness
found in the appendix can be recited here)

 

Vuddhipatthānaáđ
Benediction

AbhivādanasÄŦlissa niccaáđ vaddhā pacāyino,
For one in the habit of constantly worshipping respectable elders,

cattāro dhammā vaáļáļhanti: āyu, vaáđ‡áđ‡o, sukhaáđ, balaáđ.
four things increase: length of life, beauty, happiness, and strength.

 

Āyurārogyasampatti saggasampatti-m-eva ca,
The attainment of long life and health, the attainment of heaven,

atho Nibbānasampatti iminā te samijjhatu!
and then the attainment of Nibbāna may you be successful in this!

Daily Chanting Home Page

https://www.sariputta.com/tipitaka/english

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Tipitaka english

Cari berdasarkan

[PDF] Abhidhamma Dhammasangani - A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics

[PDF] Abhidhamma Dhatukatha - Discourse on Elements

[PDF] Abhidhamma Kathavatthu - Points of Controversy or Subjects of Discourse

[PDF] Abhidhamma Patthana1 - Conditional Relations

[PDF] Abhidhamma Patthana2 - Conditional Relations

[PDF] Abhidhamma Puggala Pannatti

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Anusaya

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Citta

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Dhamma

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Indriya

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Sankhara

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka1 - The Book On Pairs

[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka2 - The Book On Pairs

[PDF] Abhidhmma Vibhanga - The Book of Analysis

[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - Discourses of the Buddha An Anthology Part 1

[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - Discourses of the Buddha An Anthology Part 2

[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - Discourses of the Buddha An Anthology Part 3

[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha

[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - Dialogues of Buddha I

[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - Dialogues of Buddha II

[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - Dialogues of Buddha III

[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - The Long Discourses of the Buddha

[PDF] Sutta In the Buddhas Words - An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon

[PDF] Sutta Khuddaka Nikaya

[PDF] Sutta Majjhima Nikaya - The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha

[PDF] Sutta Nipata - Translated by Lesley Fowler & Tamara Ditrich with Primoz Pecenko

[PDF] Sutta Samyutta Nikaya Vol I - The Connected Discourses of the Buddha

[PDF] Sutta Samyutta Nikaya Vol.II - The Connected Discourses of the Buddha

[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.1 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births

[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.2 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births

[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.3 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births

[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.4 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births

[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.5 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births

[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.6 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births

[PDF] Vinaya Culavagga - The Book of The Discipline V

[PDF] Vinaya Magavagga - The Book of The Discipline IV

[PDF] Vinaya Parivara - The Book of The Discipline VI

[PDF] Vinaya The Book of The Discipline

[PDF] Vinaya Vibhanga - The Book of The Discipline I

[PDF] Vinaya Vibhanga - The Book of The Discipline II

[PDF] Vinaya Vibhanga - The Book of The Discipline III

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Pali Buddhist Texts Explained to the Beginner

Website:
https://archive.org/details/PaliBuddhistTextsA

Description:
An Introductory Reader and Grammar By Rune E. A. Johansson.

Pali is one of the Middle Indian idioms and the classical language of
Theravada Buddhism. It is therefore important both to linguists and
students of Buddhism. This introductory book centres on a collection of
original texts, each selected as an especially important and beautiful
formulation of a Buddhist idea. By means of a vocabulary, translation
and commentary, each text is explained so concretely that it can be read
with little preparation. Detailed explanations are provided for the
many technical terms, which have frustrated so many western explorers of
Buddhism. For reference, a grammar is provided. Sanskrit parallels to
many of the words are given, as well as a special chapter comparing the
two languages.

University of Delhi Department of Buddhist Studies

City: Delhi
Website:
http://du.ac.in/index.php?page=department-of-buddhist-studies

Description:
The
Department of Buddhist Studies was established in 1957 as follow up to
the action initiated by the Government of India on the occasion of the
celebration of 2500 years of Buddhism on 24 May 1956. This department,
the first of its kind in India, was established with the primary
objective of conducting research at the advanced level in various
subjects related to Buddhist Studies. As part of this initiative, a
Chair of Buddhist Studies was created. Professor P.V. Bapat, a scholar
of international repute, was the first scholar to occupy this chair.

Offers courses:
-    Ph.D. Buddhist Studies
-    M.Phil. Buddhist Studies
-    M.A. Buddhist Studies
-    Diploma in Pali Language & Literature
-    Diploma in Tibetan Language & Literature
-    Certificate Course in Pali Language & Literature
-    Certificate Course in Tibetan Language & Literature

 

Dhamma Talks by Ven. Amatha Gavesi

Website:
http://www.basicbuddhism.org/dharma-talks-download/

Description:
Dhamma Talks delivered by Late Ven. Amatha Gavesi Thera of Sri Lanka during meditation retreats in Singapore in 1992.

See also: http://www.oocities.com/venamathagavesi/talks.htm

 

Introduction to Mindfulness Meditation

City: Redwood City
Federal State: CA
Website:
http://www.insightmeditationcenter.org/programs/online-courses/
Description:
This course
is based on Gil Fronsdal’s six-week Introduction to Mindfulness
Meditation class. It’s supplemented with written material, exercises and
reflections for bringing the practice into daily life.

5 weeks of personal support is offered by various teachers either by
email, or at pre-arranged times, using Phone, Skype or Google Talk.  (Gil does not offer any personal support.)
The course material is not live, so it can be done at any time during the day.
The course may also be Audited without personal teacher support.
Maps of Ancient Buddhist Asia

Website:
http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Maps/MP-index.htm

Description:
A
series of maps illustrating points of interest in the Life of the
Buddha, the surroundings he taught in, and the development of Buddhism
throughout Asia.

A Buddhist Catechism

Website:
https://archive.org/details/ABuddhistCatechism

Description:
Classic text by Henry Steel Olcott updated for the modern reader.

Wide Angle Lens

Website:
https://sites.google.com/site/wideanglewilderness/home

Description:
This
site focuses on the richness of the Thai Wilderness Tradition of
Buddhism, with the aim of presenting some of the foundational influences
of the tradition, along with lesser known dimensions of the characters,
teachings, stories and lives of some of the greatest saints of modern
times.

Thai Forest Buddhism group on Reddit

Website:
https://www.reddit.com/r/thaiforest/

Description:
Thai Forest Buddhism subreddit.

Theravada Buddhism group on Reddit

Website:
https://www.reddit.com/r/theravada

Description:
Theravada subreddit that has good content posted regularly.

The Skillful Teachings of Thanissaro Bhikkhu Public Group

Federal State: California
Website:
https://www.facebook.com/groups/102608566443956/

Description:
Teachings, writings, talks and translations of Thanissaro Bhikkhu, and the teachings of Ajahn Geoff’s lineage teachers.

 

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http://paliinthaiscript.blogspot.com/

   

Pali Chanting in Thai Script â€Ķ

   
â€Ķ in Romanized Pali and

   
with English Translation

   

Collecting and publishing the Theravada

   
Chantings as recited in Thailand is the

   
purpose of this blog.

   

best viewed with Mac and Firefox

   
In case you want to download this text in Excel, please

   
use the Font Lucida Grande

   

Much more information, Audio and pdf files :

   

    Pali Sutta, Gatha and Paritta in Thai Script

   
    pdf file of the Pali Chantings

   
    Audio files, information etc

   

CONTENT:

   
The Pali Alphabet

   
The Vowels

   
The Consonants

   

Different Texts and Chantings

   
1_Abhaya Gaathaa Paritta / Abhaya Gāthā

   
2_ Tisarana / Namo Tassa

   
3_ The Three Refuges

   
4_ Attha Sila - The Eight Precepts

   
4.1_Panca Sila - The Five Precepts

   

Morning chanting

   
5_ Salutation to the Triple Gem - Ratanattaya Vandanaa

   
6_Bowing to the Triple Gem

   
7_Tisarana / Namo Tassa

   
8_Buddha Bhithuti - Praise to the Buddha

   
9_Dhamma Bhithuti / Praise to the Dhamma

   
10_Sangha Bhithuti - Praise to the Sangha

   
11_Ratanattayapanaamagaathaa - Salutation to the triple gem

   
â€Ķâ€Ķ..and passages for dispassioneteness

   
12_Samvega Parikittanapaatha - Passages conducive to

   
â€Ķâ€Ķ dispassionateness

   

Evening Chanting

   

13_Buddha Nussati - Recollection on the Buddha

   
14_Buddha Bhigiiti - Hymn to the Buddha

   
15_Dhamma Nussati - Recollection on the Dhamma

   
16_Dhamma Bhigiiti - Hymn to the Dhamma

   
17_Sangha Nussati - Recollection on the Sangha

   
18_Sangha Bhigiiti - Hymn to the Sangha (end of evening chanting)

   

Other Texts

   
Contemplation of the Body - 31 Body Parts

   

Five Subjekts for Frequent Recollection - Abhinhapacca

   
â€Ķ vekkhanāpātha

   

Phra Gāthā ĀkāravattāsÅŦtra - itipi so

   
â€Ķ.. bhagavā parts 1. + 17.

   

Pali Chanting Videos with subtitles

   
Please scroll downâ€Ķ.

   

Ältere Posts Startseite

   
Abonnieren Posts (Atom)

   


paliinthaiscript.blogspot.com

   

Pali in Thai Script


https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/03/an03-066.html

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Aáđ…guttara Nikāya >> Tika Nipāta

AN 3.66 -

Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta
— To the Kālāmas of Kesamutti —
In this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust
only our own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by
others, even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.

Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word

05) Classical Pāáļ·i,

29) Classical English,Roman,

Evaáđƒ me sutaáđƒ:

Thus have I heard:

Ekaáđƒ
samayaáđƒ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaáđƒ caramāno mahatā bhikkhu·saáđ…ghena
saddhiáđƒ yena kesamuttaáđƒ nāma kālāmānaáđƒ nigamo tad·avasari. Assosuáđƒ kho
kesamuttiyā kālāmā: ‘samaáđ‡o khalu, bho, gotamo sakya·putto sakya·kulā
pabbajito kosalesu cārikaáđƒ caramāno mahatā bhikkhu·saáđ…ghena saddhiáđƒ
kesamuttaáđƒ anuppatto. Taáđƒ kho pana bhavantaáđƒ gotamaáđƒ evaáđƒ kalyāáđ‡o
kittisaddo abbhuggato: ‘itipi so Bhagavā arahaáđƒ sammā·sambuddho,
vijjā·caraáđ‡a·sampanno, sugato, loka·vidÅŦ, anuttaro purisa·damma·sārathi,
satthā deva·manussānaáđƒ, Buddho Bhagavā·ti. So imaáđƒ lokaáđƒ sa·deva·kaáđƒ
sa·māra·kaáđƒ sa·brahma·kaáđƒ sa·s·samaáđ‡a·brāhmaáđ‡iáđƒ pajaáđƒ sa·deva·manussaáđƒ
sayaáđƒ abhiÃąÃąÄ sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaáđƒ deseti ādi·kalyāáđ‡aáđƒ
majjhe·kalyāáđ‡aáđƒ pariyosāna·kalyāáđ‡aáđƒ sātthaáđƒ sa·byaÃąjanaáđƒ;
kevala·paripuáđ‡áđ‡aáđƒ parisuddhaáđƒ brahmacariyaáđƒ pakāseti’. Sādhu kho pana
tathārÅŦpānaáđƒ arahataáđƒ dassanaáđƒ hotÄŦ’ti.

On one occasion, the
Bhagavā, traveling on tour among the Kosalans with a large saáđ…gha of
bhikkhus, arrived at a town of the Kālāmas named Kesamutti. So the
Kālāmas of Kesamutti heard: ‘The samaáđ‡a Gotama, bho, the son of the
Sakyas who has gone forth from the Sakyan family, traveling on tour
among the Kosalans with a large saáđ…gha
of bhikkhus, has reached Kesamutti. And it is that venerable Gotama,
about whom such a good reputation has spread: “surely, he is a
Bhagavā, an arahant, rightly and fully awakened, accomplished in vijjā
and [good] conduct, faring well, knowing the world, the unsurpassed
leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas and humans, a Buddha, a
Bhagavā. He makes known this world with its devas, with its Māras, with
its Brahmas, with the samaáđ‡as and brahmins, [this] generation with
rulers and peoples, having experienced himself abhiÃąÃąÄ. He teaches the
Dhamma which is advantageous in the beginning, advantageous in the
middle, advantageous in the end, with the [right] meaning and with the
[right] phrasing; he reveals the brahmacariya which is completely
perfect and pure.” And seeing such an arahant would be profitable.’

Atha
kho kesamuttiyā kālāmā yena bhagavā ten·upasaáđ…kamiáđƒsu; upasaáđ…kamitvā
app·ekacce bhagavantaáđƒ abhivādetvā ekam·antaáđƒ nisÄŦdiáđƒsu; app·ekacce
bhagavatā saddhiáđƒ sammodiáđƒsu, sammodanÄŦyaáđƒ kathaáđƒ sāraáđ‡ÄŦyaáđƒ vÄŦtisāretvā
ekam·antaáđƒ nisÄŦdiáđƒsu; app·ekacce yena bhagavā ten·aÃąjaliáđƒ paáđ‡Ämetvā
ekam·antaáđƒ nisÄŦdiáđƒsu; app·ekacce nāma·gottaáđƒ sāvetvā ekam·antaáđƒ
nisÄŦdiáđƒsu; app·ekacce tuáđ‡hÄŦbhÅŦtā ekam·antaáđƒ nisÄŦdiáđƒsu. Ekam·antaáđƒ
nisinnā kho te kesamuttiyā kālāmā bhagavantaáđƒ etad·avocuáđƒ:

So
the Kālāmas of Kesamutti approached the Bhagavā; having approached,
some of them paid respect to the Bhagavā and sat down to one side; some
of them exchanged friendly greetings with the Bhagavā
and, having exchanged friendly greetings and a cordial talk, sat down
to one side; some of them raised their joined hands in salutation to the
Bhagavā
and sat down to one side; some of them announced their name and clan
and sat down to one side. Sitting to one side, the Kālāmas of Kesamutti
said to the Bhagavā:

–
Santi,
bhante, eke samaáđ‡a·brāhmaáđ‡Ä kesamuttaáđƒ āgacchanti. Te sakaáđƒÂ·yeva vādaáđƒ
dÄŦpenti jotenti, para·ppavādaáđƒ pana khuáđƒsenti vambhenti paribhavanti
opapakkhiáđƒ karonti. Apare·pi, bhante, eke samaáđ‡a·brāhmaáđ‡Ä kesamuttaáđƒ
āgacchanti. Te·pi sakaáđƒÂ·yeva vādaáđƒ dÄŦpenti jotenti, para·ppavādaáđƒ pana
khuáđƒsenti vambhenti paribhavanti opapakkhiáđƒ karonti. Tesaáđƒ no, bhante,
amhākaáđƒ hot·eva kaáđ…khā hoti vicikicchā: ‘ko su nāma imesaáđƒ bhavataáđƒ
samaáđ‡a·brāhmaáđ‡Änaáđƒ saccaáđƒ āha, ko musā’ti?

–
There are, bhante, samaáđ‡as and brahmans
who come to Kesamutti. They expound and extol their own doctrine, but
they disparage, despise, treat with contempt and debunk the doctrines of
others. Then, bhante, some other samaáđ‡as and brahmans
come to Kesamutti. They too expound and extol their own doctrine, and
they disparage, despise, treat with contempt and debunk the doctrines of
others.
On account of that, bhante, there is for us perplexity and vicikicchā:
‘Which then, of these venerable samaáđ‡as and brahmans say the truth, and
which speak falsely?’

–
AlaÃąÂ·hi vo, kālāmā, kaáđ…khituáđƒ alaáđƒ
vicikicchituáđƒ. Kaáđ…khanÄŦy·eva pana vo áđ­hāne vicikicchā uppannā. Etha
tumhe kālāmā mā anussavena,{1} mā param·parāya,{2} mā iti·kirāya,{3} mā
piáđ­aka·sampadānena,{4} mā takka·hetu,{5} mā naya·hetu,{6} mā
ākāra·parivitakkena,{7} mā diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā,{8} mā
bhabba·rÅŦpatāya,{9} mā ‘samaáđ‡o no garÅŦ’ti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanā·va
jāneyyātha: ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā
viÃąÃąu·garahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya
saáđƒvattantÄŦ’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyātha.

–
Of course, Kālāmas, you are perplexed, of course you are doubting. Vicikicchā
has arisen in you on account of a perplexing matter. Do not go, you
Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted
[by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what has been
handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical
reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on
appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems
probable,
nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’. Whenever,
Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are akusala, these
dhammas are sāvajja, these dhammas are censured by the wise, these
dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to harm and dukkha’,
then, Kālāmas, you should abandon them.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, lobho purisassa ajjhattaáđƒ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?

–
What do you think, Kālāmas, when lobha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

–
Ahitāya, bhante.

–
For his harm, bhante.

–
Luddho
pan·āyaáđƒ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo lobhena abhibhÅŦto pariyādinna·citto
pāáđ‡am·pi hanati, adinnam·pi ādiyati, para·dāram·pi gacchati, musā·pi
bhaáđ‡ati, param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaáđƒ sa hoti dÄŦgha·rattaáđƒ
ahitāya dukkhāyā ti.

–
And this greedy person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered by lobha,
destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of another,
speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for his long
term harm and dukkha.

–
Evaáđƒ, bhante.

–
Indeed, bhante.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, doso purisassa ajjhattaáđƒ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?

–
What do you think, Kālāmas, when dosa arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

–
Ahitāya, bhante.

–
For his harm, bhante.

–
Duáđ­áđ­ho
pan·āyaáđƒ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo dosena abhibhÅŦto pariyādinna·citto
pāáđ‡am·pi hanati, adinnam·pi ādiyati, para·dāram·pi gacchati, musā·pi
bhaáđ‡ati, param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaáđƒ sa hoti dÄŦgha·rattaáđƒ
ahitāya dukkhāyā ti.

–
And this aversive person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered by dosa,
destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of another,
speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for his long
term harm and dukkha.

–
Evaáđƒ, bhante.

–
Indeed, bhante.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, moho purisassa ajjhattaáđƒ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?

–
What do you think, Kālāmas, when moha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

–
Ahitāya, bhante.

–
For his harm, bhante.

–
MÅŦáļ·ho
pan·āyaáđƒ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo mohena abhibhÅŦto pariyādinna·citto
pāáđ‡am·pi hanati, adinnam·pi ādiyati, para·dāram·pi gacchati, musā·pi
bhaáđ‡ati, param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaáđƒ sa hoti dÄŦgha·rattaáđƒ
ahitāya dukkhāyā ti.

–
And this deluded person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered by dosa,
destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of another,
speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for his long
term harm and dukkha.

–
Evaáđƒ, bhante.

–
Indeed, bhante.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā ti?

–
So what do you think, Kālāmas, are these dhammas kusala or akusala?

–
Akusalā, bhante.

–
Akusala, bhante.

–
Sāvajjā vā anavajjā vā ti?

–
Sāvajja or anavajja?

–
Sāvajjā, bhante.

–
Sāvajja, bhante.

–
ViÃąÃąu·garahitā vā viÃąÃąu·ppasatthā vā ti?

–
Censured by the wise or commended by the wise?

–
ViÃąÃąu·garahitā, bhante.

–
Censured by the wise, bhante.

–
Samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saáđƒvattanti, no vā? Kathaáđƒ vā ettha hotÄŦ ti?

–
If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and dukkha, or not? How is it in this case?

–
Samattā, bhante, samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saáđƒvattanti. Evaáđƒ no ettha hotÄŦ ti.

–
If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and dukkha. Thus it is in this case.

–
Iti
kho, kālāmā, yaáđƒ taáđƒ avocumha: ‘etha tumhe, kālāmā mā anussavena, mā
param·parāya, mā iti·kirāya, mā piáđ­aka·sampadānena, mā takka·hetu, mā
naya·hetu, mā ākāra·parivitakkena, mā diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā, mā
bhabba·rÅŦpatāya, mā ‘samaáđ‡o no garÅŦ’ti. Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanā·va
jāneyyātha: ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā
viÃąÃąu·garahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya
saáđƒvattantÄŦ’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyāthā’ti. Iti yaáđƒ taáđƒ vuttaáđƒ,
idam·etaáđƒ paáđ­icca vuttaáđƒ.

– This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do
not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been
transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what
has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of
logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on
appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems
probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’.
Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are akusala,
these dhammas are sāvajja, these dhammas are censured by the wise, these
dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to harm and dukkha’,
then, Kālāmas, you should abandon them.” Thus has it been said, it has
been said considering this.
Etha tumhe, kālāmā, mā anussavena, mā
param·parāya, mā iti·kirāya, mā piáđ­aka·sampadānena, mā takka·hetu, mā
naya·hetu, mā ākāra·parivitakkena, mā diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā, mā
bhabba·rÅŦpatāya, mā ‘samaáđ‡o no garÅŦ’ti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanā·va
jāneyyātha: ‘ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā
viÃąÃąu·ppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya
saáđƒvattantÄŦ’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyātha.

Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has
been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by
what has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of
logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on
appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems
probable,
nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’. Whenever,
Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are kusala, these
dhammas are anavajja, these dhammas are commended by the wise, these
dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to welfare and sukha’,
then, Kālāmas, having reached them, you should dwell in them.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, a·lobho purisassa ajjhattaáđƒ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?

–
What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·lobha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

–
Hitāya, bhante.

–
For his welfare, bhante.

–
A·luddho
pan·āyaáđƒ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo lobhena an·abhibhÅŦto
a·pariyādinna·citto neva pāáđ‡aáđƒ hanati, na adinnaáđƒ ādiyati, na para·dāraáđƒ
gacchati, na musā bhaáđ‡ati, na param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaáđƒ sa
hoti dÄŦgha·rattaáđƒ hitāya sukhāyā ti.

–
And this ungreedy person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not overpowered by lobha,
does not destroy life, does not take what is not given, does not go to
the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and does not prompt others
to do the same, which is for his long term welfare and sukha.

–
Evaáđƒ, bhante.

–
Indeed, bhante.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, adoso purisassa ajjhattaáđƒ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?

–
What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·dosa arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

–
Hitāya, bhante.

–
For his welfare, bhante.

–
A·duáđ­áđ­ho
pan·āyaáđƒ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo dosena an·abhibhÅŦto
a·pariyādinna·citto neva pāáđ‡aáđƒ hanati, na adinnaáđƒ ādiyati, na para·dāraáđƒ
gacchati, na musā bhaáđ‡ati, na param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaáđƒ sa
hoti dÄŦgha·rattaáđƒ hitāya sukhāyā ti.

–
And this unaversive person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not overpowered by lobha,
does not destroy life, does not take what is not given, does not go to
the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and does not prompt others
to do the same, which is for his long term welfare and sukha.

–
Evaáđƒ, bhante.

–
Indeed, bhante.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, amoho purisassa ajjhattaáđƒ uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā ti?

–
What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·moha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

–
Hitāya, bhante.

–
For his welfare, bhante.

–
A·mÅŦáļ·ho
pan·āyaáđƒ, kālāmā, purisa·puggalo mohena an·abhibhÅŦto
a·pariyādinna·citto neva pāáđ‡aáđƒ hanati, na adinnaáđƒ ādiyati, na para·dāraáđƒ
gacchati, na musā bhaáđ‡ati, na param·pi tathattāya samādapeti, yaáđƒ sa
hoti dÄŦgha·rattaáđƒ hitāya sukhāyā ti.

–
And this undeluded person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not overpowered by lobha,
does not destroy life, does not take what is not given, does not go to
the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and does not prompt others
to do the same, which is for his long term welfare and sukha.

–
Evaáđƒ, bhante.

–
Indeed, bhante.

–
Taáđƒ kiáđƒ maÃąÃąatha, kālāmā, ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā ti?

–
So what do you think, Kālāmas, are these dhammas kusala or akusala?

–
Kusalā, bhante.

–
Kusala, bhante.

–
Sāvajjā vā anavajjā vā ti?

–
Sāvajja or anavajja?

–
Anavajjā, bhante.

–
Anavajja, bhante.

–
ViÃąÃąu·garahitā vā viÃąÃąu·ppasatthā vā ti?

–
Censured by the wise or commended by the wise?

–
ViÃąÃąu·ppasatthā, bhante.

–
Commended by the wise, bhante.

–
Samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saáđƒvattanti, no vā? Kathaáđƒ vā ettha hotÄŦ ti?

–
If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and sukha, or not? How is it in this case?

–
Samattā, bhante, samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saáđƒvattanti. Evaáđƒ no ettha hotÄŦ ti.

–
If undertaken and carried out, they lead to welfare and sukha. Thus it is in this case.

–
Iti
kho, kālāmā, yaáđƒ taáđƒ avocumhā: ‘etha tumhe, kālāmā mā anussavena, mā
param·parāya, mā iti·kirāya, mā piáđ­aka·sampadānena, mā takka·hetu, mā
naya·hetu, mā ākāra·parivitakkena, mā diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhantiyā, mā
bhabba·rÅŦpatāya, mā ‘samaáđ‡o no garÅŦ’ti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanā·va
jāneyyātha – ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā
viÃąÃąu·ppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya
saáđƒvattantÄŦ’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyāthā’ti. Iti yaáđƒ
taáđƒ vuttaáđƒ idam·etaáđƒ paáđ­icca vuttaáđƒ.

–

This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have
heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by
the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a collection
of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the basis of
inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement after
pondering
views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaáđ‡a is
our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves:
‘These dhammas are kusala, these dhammas are anavajja, these dhammas are
commended by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and carried out,
lead to welfare and sukha’, then, Kālāmas, having reached them, you
should dwell in them.” Thus has it been said, it has been said
considering this.

Sa kho so kālāmā ariya·sāvako evaáđƒ
vigat·ābhijjho vigatā·byāpādo a·sammÅŦáļ·ho sampajāno patissato
mettā·sahagatena cetasā ekaáđƒ disaáđƒ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaáđƒ
tathā tatiyaáđƒ tathā catutthaáđƒ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaáđƒ sabbadhi
sabbattatāya sabbāvantaáđƒ lokaáđƒ mettā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena
mahaggatena appamāáđ‡ena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, thus devoid of abhijjhā, devoid of byāpāda, undeluded, sampajāna, (consistently) sata, dwells
pervading one direction with a citta imbued with mettā, likewise the
second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below,
transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the
entire world with a citta imbued with mettā, abundant, extensive,
boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Karuáđ‡ÄÂ·sahagatena
cetasā ekaáđƒ disaáđƒ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaáđƒ tathā tatiyaáđƒ tathā
catutthaáđƒ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaáđƒ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaáđƒ
lokaáđƒ karuáđ‡ÄÂ·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāáđ‡ena averena
abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

He
dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with karuáđ‡Ä,
likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above,
below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells
pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with karuáđ‡Ä, abundant,
extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Muditā·sahagatena
cetasā ekaáđƒ disaáđƒ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaáđƒ tathā tatiyaáđƒ tathā
catutthaáđƒ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaáđƒ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaáđƒ
lokaáđƒ muditā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāáđ‡ena averena
abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

He
dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with muditā,
likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above,
below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells
pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with muditā, abundant,
extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Upekkhā·sahagatena
cetasā ekaáđƒ disaáđƒ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaáđƒ tathā tatiyaáđƒ tathā
catutthaáđƒ; iti uddham·adho tiriyaáđƒ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaáđƒ
lokaáđƒ upekkhā·sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāáđ‡ena averena
abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.

He
dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with upekkhā,
likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above,
below, transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells
pervading the entire world with a citta imbued with upekkhā, abundant,
extensive, boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Sa
kho so, kālāmā, ariya·sāvako evaáđƒ avera·citto evaáđƒ a·byāpajjha·citto
evaáđƒ a·saáđƒkiliáđ­áđ­ha·citto evaáđƒ visuddha·citto, tassa diáđ­áđ­heva dhamme
cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti:

Such an ariya·sāvaka,
Kālāmas, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent,
having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained four
confidences in the visible order of phenomena:

‘Sace
kho pana atthi paro loko, atthi sukaáđ­a·dukkaáđ­Änaáđƒ kammānaáđƒ phalaáđƒ
vipāko, ath·āhaáđƒ kāyassa bhedā paraáđƒ maraáđ‡Ä sugatiáđƒ saggaáđƒ lokaáđƒ
upapajjissāmÄŦ’ti: ayam·assa paáđ­hamo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘If there is another world, there is a fruit and result of kamma
rightly and wrongly performed, then at the breakup of the body, after
death, I will re-arise in a good destination, a state of happiness’:
this is the first confidence he has gained.

‘Sace
kho pana n·atthi paro loko, n·atthi sukaáđ­a·dukkaáđ­Änaáđƒ kammānaáđƒ phalaáđƒ
vipāko, idh·āhaáđƒ diáđ­áđ­heva dhamme averaáđƒ a·byāpajjhaáđƒ anÄŦghaáđƒ sukhiáđƒ
attānaáđƒ pariharāmÄŦ’ti: ayam·assa dutiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And
if there is no another world, there is no fruit nor result of kamma
rightly and wrongly performed, then in the visible order of phenomena I
look after myself without hostility, without ill-will, without trouble,
happy’: this is the second confidence he has gained.

‘Sace
kho pana karoto karÄŦyati pāpaáđƒ, na kho pan·āhaáđƒ kassaci pāpaáđƒ cetemi.
A·karontaáđƒ kho pana maáđƒ pāpa·kammaáđƒ kuto dukkhaáđƒ phusissatÄŦ’ti:
ayam·assa tatiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa befalls
its doer, I do not intend any pāpa. Not having done pāpa kamma, how
would dukkha touch me?’: this is the third confidence he has gained.

‘Sace
kho pana karoto na karÄŦyati pāpaáđƒ, ath·āhaáđƒ ubhayen·eva visuddhaáđƒ
attānaáđƒ samanupassāmÄŦ’ti: ayam·assa catuttho assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa does not befall its doer, then I see myself pure in both respects’: this is the fourth confidence he has gained.

Sa
kho so, kālāmā, ariya·sāvako evaáđƒ avera·citto evaáđƒ a·byāpajjha·citto
evaáđƒ a·saáđƒkiliáđ­áđ­ha·citto evaáđƒ visuddha·citto, tassa diáđ­áđ­heva dhamme ime
cattāro assāsā adhigatā hontÄŦ·ti.

Such an ariya·sāvaka,
Kālāmas, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent,
having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained these
four confidences in the visible order of phenomena.

–
Evam·etaáđƒ,
bhagavā, evam·etaáđƒ, sugata! Sa kho so, bhante, ariya·sāvako evaáđƒ
avera·citto evaáđƒ a·byāpajjha·citto evaáđƒ a·saáđƒkiliáđ­áđ­ha·citto evaáđƒ
visuddha·citto, tassa diáđ­áđ­heva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti.

–
So it is, Bhagavā, so it is, sugata! Such an ariya·sāvaka,
Bhante, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent,
having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained four
confidences in the visible order of phenomena:

‘Sace
kho pana atthi paro loko, atthi sukaáđ­a·dukkaáđ­Änaáđƒ kammānaáđƒ phalaáđƒ
vipāko, ath·āhaáđƒ kāyassa bhedā paraáđƒ maraáđ‡Ä sugatiáđƒ saggaáđƒ lokaáđƒ
upapajjissāmÄŦ’ti: ayam·assa paáđ­hamo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘If there is another world, there is a fruit and result of kamma
rightly and wrongly performed, then at the breakup of the body, after
death, I will re-arise in a good destination, a state of happiness’:
this is the first confidence he has gained.

‘Sace
kho pana n·atthi paro loko, n·atthi sukaáđ­a·dukkaáđ­Änaáđƒ kammānaáđƒ phalaáđƒ
vipāko, ath·āhaáđƒ diáđ­áđ­heva dhamme averaáđƒ a·byāpajjhaáđƒ anÄŦghaáđƒ sukhiáđƒ
attānaáđƒ pariharāmÄŦ’ti: ayam·assa dutiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And
if there is no another world, there is no fruit nor result of kamma
rightly and wrongly performed, then in the visible order of phenomena I
look after myself without hostility, without ill-will, without trouble,
happy’: this is the second confidence he has gained.

‘Sace
kho pana karoto karÄŦyati pāpaáđƒ, na kho pan·āhaáđƒ – kassaci pāpaáđƒ cetemi.
A·karontaáđƒ kho pana maáđƒ pāpa·kammaáđƒ kuto dukkhaáđƒ phusissatÄŦ’ti:
ayam·assa tatiyo assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And if pāpa befalls
its doer, I do not intend any pāpa. Not having done pāpa kamma, how
would dukkha touch me?’: this is the third confidence he has gained.

‘Sace
kho pana karoto na karÄŦyati pāpaáđƒ, ath·āhaáđƒ ubhayen·eva visuddhaáđƒ
attānaáđƒ samanupassāmÄŦ’ti: ayam·assa catuttho assāso adhigato hoti.

‘And
if pāpa does not befall its doer, then I consider myself pure in both
respects’: this is the fourth confidence he has gained.

Sa kho
so, bhante, ariya·sāvako evaáđƒ avera·citto evaáđƒ a·byāpajjha·citto evaáđƒ
a·saáđƒkiliáđ­áđ­ha·citto evaáđƒ visuddha·citto, tassa diáđ­áđ­heva dhamme ime
cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti.

Such an ariya·sāvaka,
Bhante, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent,
having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained these
four confidences in the visible order of phenomena.

Abhikkantaáđƒ,
bhante, abhikkantaáđƒ, bhante! Seyyathāpi bhante nikkujjitaáđƒ vā
ukkujjeyya, paáđ­icchannaáđƒ vā vivareyya, mÅŦáļ·hassa vā maggaáđƒ ācikkheyya,
andhakāre vā tela·pajjotaáđƒ dhāreyya: ‘cakkhumanto rÅŦpāni dakkhantÄŦ’ti;
evam·evaáđƒ bhagavatā aneka·pariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Ete mayaáđƒ, bhante,
bhagavantaáđƒ saraáđ‡aáđƒ gacchāma dhammaÃąca bhikkhu·saáđ…ghaÃąca. Upāsake no,
bhante, bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāáđ‡upete saraáđ‡aáđƒ gate ti.

Excellent, Bhante, excellent, Bhante! Just as, Bhante, if one were to
set upright what was overturned, or to uncover what was hidden, or to
show the way to one who was erring, or to hold an oil lamp in the
darkness, [thinking:] ‘Those who have eyes will see visible forms’; in
the
same way, the Dhamma has been revealed by the Bhagavā in various ways.
So we, Bhante, go for refuge to the Bhagavā, to the Dhamma and to the
saáđ…gha of bhikkhus. Let the Bhagavā, Bhante, admit us as upāsakas having
gone for refuge from today on, for life.

 Bodhi leaf
Bodhi leaf

Notes

1. anussava: [anu+sava]
(lit: what is heard/learned along, what is in conformity with what has
been heard/learned) - ‘oral tradition’ (B. Bodhi) - ‘reports’ (Than. B.)
- ‘what has been acquired by repeated hearing’ (Soma Thera). B. Bodhi
writes about it: “generally understood to refer to the Vedic
tradition, which, according to the Brahmins, had originated with the
Primal Deity and had been handed down orally through successive
generations.”

The term is clearly used with the meaning of ‘report’ at MN 68:

Idhānuruddhā,
bhikkhu suáđ‡Äti: ‘Itthannāmo bhikkhu kālakato; so bhagavatā byākato
aÃąÃąÄya saáđ‡áđ­hahÄŦ’ti. So kho panassa āyasmā sāmaáđƒ diáđ­áđ­ho vā hoti
anussava·ssuto vā: ‘evaáđƒÂ·sÄŦlo so āyasmā ahosi

Here, Anuruddha, a bhikkhu hears: ‘The bhikkhu named so-and-so
has died; it has been declared by the Bhagavā that he was established
in (final) knowledge.’ And he has seen that venerable one himself or he
has heard the report: ‘That venerable one’s virtue was thus

At
MN 76 are given as synonyms itihitiha·parampara and piáđ­aka·sampada
(’what has been transmitted dogmatically’, ‘what has been handed down in
a collection of texts’), both of which refer to traditions (see
following notes).

So it seems that the word anussava is rather used in this case in the sense of ‘lore/tradition’:

..idh·ekacco satthā anussaviko hoti anussava·sacco. So anussavena itihitiha-paramparāya piáđ­aka-sampadāya dhammaáđƒ deseti.

..a certain teacher is one who goes by a lore/tradition, who takes a lore/tradition
for the truth. He teaches a dhamma in conformity with what he has
heard, through what has been transmitted dogmatically, through what has
been handed down in a collection of texts.

In the context of the Kālāma Sutta, given the fact that the listeners
have been hearing mutually contradicting doctrines, it would be quite
logical that the first expression would refer directly to it, so ‘what you have heard said’ seems to be a satisfying rendering.

2. paramparā: [para+para]
(lit: ‘further-further’, or ‘another-another’ ie. one after the other,
successive) - ‘lineage of teaching’ (B. Bodhi) - legends (Than. B.) -
tradition
(Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: “‘lineage’, signifies tradition
in general, an unbroken succession of teachings or teachers.” However,
it may not be that simple.

It is obviously an idiomatic expression, which is not precisely
self-explanatory, which seems to be quite loose in meaning and to accept
a
relatively large panel of contexts. As an example, we find
bāhā·paramparāya in the Pārājika of the Vinaya Pitaka, and it means ‘arm
in arm’ (Pr 282):

sambahulā itthiyo aÃąÃąataraáđƒ bhikkhuáđƒ sampÄŦáļ·etvā bāhāparamparāya ānesuáđƒ.
many women, having tightly surrounded a certain bhikkhu, drove him along arm in arm.

Parampara·bhojana·sikkhāpada
is one of the Pātimokkha rules and refers to an ‘out-of-turn/extra
meal’, which Than B. sums up as follows: “The
term out-of-turn meal covers two sorts of situations: A bhikkhu has
been invited to a meal consisting of any of the five staple foods but
then either (1) goes elsewhere and eats another meal consisting of any
of the five staple foods at the same time as the meal to which he was
originally invited; or (2) eats a staple food prior to going to the
meal.”

In
the Parivāra of the Vinaya, the word ācariya·paramparā means obviously
‘lineage of teachers’, but this may belong to relatively late
literature.

At MN 83 ‘paramparā caturāsÄŦtirājasahassāni’ means
‘84000 successive kings’ (even though this sutta seems to be of
relatively late origin too).

And at MN 95 and 99, regarding the vedic hymns, it is said:

yepi te brāhmaáđ‡Änaáđƒ pubbakā isayo mantānaáđƒ kattāro mantānaáđƒ pavattāro
yesamidaáđƒ etarahi brāhmaáđ‡Ä porāáđ‡aáđƒ mantapadaáđƒ gÄŦtaáđƒ pavuttaáđƒ samihitaáđƒ
tadanugāyanti tadanubhāsanti bhāsitamanubhāsanti vācitamanuvācenti
seyyathidaáđƒ..

among the brahman seers of the past, the creators of the hymns, the
composers of the hymns, those ancient hymns, sung, repeated, &
collected, which brahmans at present still sing, still chant, repeating
what was said, repeating what was spoken, ie..

And then, as a commentary to this situation:

Seyyathāpi (..) andhaveáđ‡i paramparā·saáđƒsattā purimopi na passati majjhimopi na passati pacchimopi na passati.

Just
as if (..) there would be a file of blind men attached one to another:
the first one does not see, the middle one does not see, and the last
one does not see.

So the word is clearly used here with a reference to an oral tradition
of blind repetition. This proves that there is indeed some ground for
the above mentioned assertion of B. Bodhi, and the interpretation of paramparā as a teaching that comes through a ‘lineage’.

We
find as well (as at MN 76) the compound itihitiha·parampara, which is
also usually associated with anussava and piáđ­aka·sampada (’what has been
transmitted dofmatically’, ‘what has been handed down in a collection
of texts’), and it seems that the simple parampara we have here is a
shortening of this term.

The reduplication itih·itiha (’thus-thus’) seems to refer to
dogmatism (’thus indeed it is!’), which would be consistent with early
exegesis: in the CÅŦáļ·aniddesa of the Khuddaka Nikāya (Nc 106), in an
explanation
of the expression ’sabbaáđƒ taáđƒ itihÄŦtiha’ (everything that is itihÄŦtiha)
all the terms of this passage are cited (itikirāya paramparāya etc.),
and the following explanation is added: ‘na sāmaáđƒ sayamabhiÃąÃąÄtaáđƒ na
attapaccakkhaáđƒ dhammaáđƒ yaáđƒ kathayiáđƒsÅŦ’ (they expounded the teaching
without having experienced it themselves, without having ascertained it
personally).

So according to the early exegesis, and keeping in
mind the examples found at MN 95 and 99, itih·itiha·param·para could
mean ‘what has been transmitted dogmatically’. And since the
reduplication param·para seems to emphasize the idea of transmission, it
would make sense in our case to render it as ‘what has been transmitted
[by a tradition]’.

3. iti·kira: [iti+kira]
(lit: ‘thus surely/one would expect’) - ‘hearsay’ (B. Bodhi) -
tradition
(Than. B.) - rumor (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: ‘“Hearsay” (or
“report”; itikarā) may mean popular opinion or general consensus’,
but we may note the misspelling of the word that might be a source of
confusion.
This word does not appear in any other context, so we are left with a
semantical analysis and guesses. ‘General consensus’ seems to make
sense.

4. piáđ­akasampadāna: [piáđ­aka+sampadāna]
- ‘a collection of scriptures’ (B. Bodhi) - scripture (Than. B.) -
‘what
is in a scripture’ (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: “‘a collection
of scriptures’ (piáđ­aka-sampadā) signifies any collection of religious
texts regarded as infallible.”
The term is quite self-explanatory. However, given the order of the
words in this compound, the emphasis seems to be rather on the last one.
And given the fact that at that time the knowledge was transmitted
orally (so
’scripture’ doesn’t seem quite appropriate), the rendering ‘what has
been handed down in a collection of texts’ seems more satisfying.

5. takka·hetu:
logical reasoning (B. Bodhi) - logical conjecture (Than. B.) - surmise
(Soma
Th.). The compound itself does not appear in any other context, so we
are again left with a semantic analysis. Takka means ‘thought,
reflection, reasoning, logic or butter-milk’. At DN 1 and MN 76, the
words takkÄŦ, and thereby takka, are explained as follows:

..idh·ekacco satthā takkÄŦ hoti vÄŦmaáđƒsÄŦ. So takka·pariyāhataáđƒ vÄŦmaáđƒs·ānucaritaáđƒ sayaáđƒÂ·paáđ­ibhānaáđƒ dhammaáđƒ deseti.

..a
certain [individual] is a reasoner, an investigator. He teaches a
dhamma hammered out by reasoning/logical thinking, following lines of
investigation as they occur to him.

So takka seems to
be satisfyingly rendered by ‘reasoning/logical thinking’. Hetu, in
compounds, may mean ‘on account of–, for the sake of–, by reason of–, in
consequence of–’ etc. So finally takka·hetu could be rendered by ‘on
the basis of logical reasoning’.

6. naya·hetu:
inferential reasoning (B. Bodhi) - inference (Than. B.) - axiom (Soma
Th.). Once again, the compound itself does not appear in any other
context. Naya comes from nayati (=neti), which
means ‘to lead, guide, conduct, to take, carry (away)’, or ‘to draw (a
conclusion),
to understand, to take as’. The expression ‘nayaáđƒ neti’ means ‘to draw a
conclusion’. Naya·hetu seems to be satisfyingly rendered by ‘on the
basis of inference’.

7. ākāra·parivitakka: reflection on
reasons, reasoned reflection (B. Bodhi) - analogies (Than. B.) -
specious reasoning (Soma Th.). Ākāra
has quite a large panel of meanings: ’state, condition, property,
quality, attribute, sign, appearance, form, way, mode, manner, reason,
ground, account’. ‘Appearance’ seems to fit the context better than
‘reasons’. In that case, ākāra·parivitakka would mean ‘reflection on appearances’,
and would refer to theories such as the big bang theory, which is based
on observations of the seeming evolution of the apparent universe.

8. diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhanti:
acceptance of a view after pondering it (B. Bodhi) - agreement through
pondering views (Than. B.) - bias toward a notion that has been
pondered
over [doesn’t seem quite appropriate] (Soma Th.). Nijjhāna·kkhanti is a
substantivation of the expression ‘nijjhānaáđƒ khamati’. The best way to
understand it is to see in which contexts it appears elsewhere:

SN 25.1

Cakkhuáđƒ..
mano anicco vipariáđ‡ÄmÄŦ aÃąÃąathā·bhāvÄŦ. (â€Ķ) Yassa kho, bhikkhave, ime
dhammā evaáđƒ paÃąÃąÄya mattaso nijjhānaáđƒ khamanti, ayaáđƒ vuccati:
‘dhamm·ānusārÄŦ..’

The eye.. the mind is inconstant,
changeable, alterable. (â€Ķ) One who, after pondering with a modicum of
discernment, has accepted that these phenomena are this way is called a
Dhamma-follower..

SN 55.24

Tathāgata·ppaveditā cassa dhammā paÃąÃąÄya mattaso nijjhānaáđƒ khamanti.

The dhammas proclaimed by the Tathāgata are approved by him after examination with a modicum of discernment.

So
it is clear that nijjhāna·kkhanti refers to an intellectual acceptation
that involves some moderate application of paÃąÃąÄ, but which is not
enough yet to come to a definite conclusion. See the example of the
elephant footprints given at MN 27. Therefore, ‘agreement after
pondering views’ seems to be an appropriate rendering for
diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhanti.

9. bhabba·rÅŦpatā:
the seeming competence of a speaker (B. Bodhi) - probability (Than. B.)
- another’s seeming ability (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi and Soma Th. simply
follow the Aáđ­áđ­hakathā (older commentary). The Aáđ­áđ­hakathā, mentions a
speaker as being a bhikkhu, but that doesn’t fit the context of the
Kālāmas (who have been seeing ascetics of different origin), and there
is no mention of any speaker in this expression. The term appears only
once at Ud 70, in a very obscure verse (’mohasambandhano loko, bhabbarÅŦpova dissati’)
out of which it is difficult to draw any clear conclusion, all the more
that the Aáđ­áđ­hakathā seems to take it rather as ‘bhavarÅŦpova’.

Bhabba
means ‘able, capable, fit for, possible’, and is mostly used in the
latter sense. RÅŦpatā means ‘appearance, accordance, conformity’. Two
renderings seem to fit the context: ‘what seems possible’, ‘what seems
probable’. That might refer for example to choosing the most adequate
rendering for a translation.

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.
———oOo———
Published as a gift of Dhamma, to be distributed free of charge.

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Friends

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRgzLPU-EHE
–
This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you
have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor
by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a
collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the
basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement
after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:]
‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for
yourselves: ‘These dhammas are kusala, these dhammas are anavajja, these
dhammas are commended by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and
carried out, lead to welfare and sukha’, then, Kālāmas, having reached
them, you should dwell in them.” Thus has it been said, it has been said
considering this.
KALAMA SUTTA
Tarun Gautam
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29) Classical English,Roman,
https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/03/an03-066.html
AN 3.66 -
Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta
  — To the Kālāmas of Kesamutti —


image.jpeg

Thus have I heard:

On
one occasion, the Bhagavā, traveling on tour among the Kosalans with a
large saáđ…gha of bhikkhus, arrived at a town of the Kālāmas named
Kesamutti. So the Kālāmas of Kesamutti heard: ‘The samaáđ‡a Gotama, bho,
the son of the Sakyas who has gone forth from the Sakyan family,
traveling on tour among the Kosalans with a large saáđ…gha of bhikkhus,
has reached Kesamutti. And it is that venerable Gotama, about whom such a
good reputation has spread: “surely, he is a Bhagavā, an arahant,
rightly and fully awakened, accomplished in vijjā and [good] conduct,
faring well, knowing the world, the unsurpassed leader of persons to be
tamed, teacher of devas and humans, a Buddha, a Bhagavā. He makes known
this world with its devas, with its Māras, with its Brahmas, with the
samaáđ‡as and brahmins, [this] generation with rulers and peoples, having
experienced himself abhiÃąÃąÄ. He teaches the Dhamma which is advantageous
in the beginning, advantageous in the middle, advantageous in the end,
with the [right] meaning and with the [right] phrasing; he reveals the
brahmacariya which is completely perfect and pure.” And seeing such an
arahant would be profitable.’
So the Kālāmas of Kesamutti approached
the Bhagavā; having approached, some of them paid respect to the Bhagavā
and sat down to one side; some of them exchanged friendly greetings
with the Bhagavā and, having exchanged friendly greetings and a cordial
talk, sat down to one side; some of them raised their joined hands in
salutation to the Bhagavā and sat down to one side; some of them
announced their name and clan and sat down to one side. Sitting to one
side, the Kālāmas of Kesamutti said to the Bhagavā:

– There are,
bhante, samaáđ‡as and brahmans who come to Kesamutti. They expound and
extol their own doctrine, but they disparage, despise, treat with
contempt and debunk the doctrines of others. Then, bhante, some other
samaáđ‡as and brahmans come to Kesamutti. They too expound and extol their
own doctrine, and they disparage, despise, treat with contempt and
debunk the doctrines of others. On account of that, bhante, there is for
us perplexity and vicikicchā: ‘Which then, of these venerable samaáđ‡as
and brahmans say the truth, and which speak falsely?’

– Of
course, Kālāmas, you are perplexed, of course you are doubting.
Vicikicchā has arisen in you on account of a perplexing matter. Do not
go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been
transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what
has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of
logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on
appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems
probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’.
Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are akusala,
these dhammas are sāvajja, these dhammas are censured by the wise, these
dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to harm and dukkha’,
then, Kālāmas, you should abandon them.

– What do you think, Kālāmas, when lobha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

– For his harm, bhante.

–
And this greedy person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered
by lobha, destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of
another, speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for
his long term harm and dukkha.

– Indeed, bhante.

– What do you think, Kālāmas, when dosa arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

– For his harm, bhante.

–
And this aversive person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome,
overpowered by dosa, destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the
wife of another, speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same,
which is for his long term harm and dukkha.

– Indeed, bhante.

– What do you think, Kālāmas, when moha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

– For his harm, bhante.

–
And this deluded person, Kālāmas, his citta being overcome, overpowered
by dosa, destroys life, takes what is not given, goes to the wife of
another, speaks falsely, and prompts others to do the same, which is for
his long term harm and dukkha.

– Indeed, bhante.

– So what do you think, Kālāmas, are these dhammas kusala or akusala?

– Akusala, bhante.

– Sāvajja or anavajja?

– Sāvajja, bhante.

– Censured by the wise or commended by the wise?

– Censured by the wise, bhante.

– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and dukkha, or not? How is it in this case?

– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and dukkha. Thus it is in this case.

–
This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you
have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor
by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a
collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the
basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement
after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:]
‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for
yourselves: ‘These dhammas are akusala, these dhammas are sāvajja, these
dhammas are censured by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and
carried out, lead to harm and dukkha’, then, Kālāmas, you should abandon
them.” Thus has it been said, it has been said considering this.
Do
not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been
transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what
has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of
logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on
appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems
probable, nor by [the thought:] ‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’.
Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for yourselves: ‘These dhammas are kusala,
these dhammas are anavajja, these dhammas are commended by the wise,
these dhammas, when undertaken and carried out, lead to welfare and
sukha’, then, Kālāmas, having reached them, you should dwell in them.

– What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·lobha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

– For his welfare, bhante.

–
And this ungreedy person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not
overpowered by lobha, does not destroy life, does not take what is not
given, does not go to the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and
does not prompt others to do the same, which is for his long term
welfare and sukha.

– Indeed, bhante.

– What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·dosa arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

– For his welfare, bhante.

–
And this unaversive person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not
overpowered by lobha, does not destroy life, does not take what is not
given, does not go to the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and
does not prompt others to do the same, which is for his long term
welfare and sukha.

– Indeed, bhante.

– What do you think, Kālāmas, when a·moha arises within an individual, does it arise for his welfare or his harm?

– For his welfare, bhante.

–
And this undeluded person, Kālāmas, his citta not being overcome, not
overpowered by lobha, does not destroy life, does not take what is not
given, does not go to the wife of another, does not speak falsely, and
does not prompt others to do the same, which is for his long term
welfare and sukha.

– Indeed, bhante.

– So what do you think, Kālāmas, are these dhammas kusala or akusala?

– Kusala, bhante.

– Sāvajja or anavajja?

– Anavajja, bhante.

– Censured by the wise or commended by the wise?

– Commended by the wise, bhante.

– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to harm and sukha, or not? How is it in this case?

– If undertaken and carried out, they lead to welfare and sukha. Thus it is in this case.

–
This, Kālāmas, is what I said: “Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you
have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor
by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a
collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the
basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement
after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:]
‘The samaáđ‡a is our revered teacher’. Whenever, Kālāmas, you know for
yourselves: ‘These dhammas are kusala, these dhammas are anavajja, these
dhammas are commended by the wise, these dhammas, when undertaken and
carried out, lead to welfare and sukha’, then, Kālāmas, having reached
them, you should dwell in them.” Thus has it been said, it has been said
considering this.

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, thus devoid of
abhijjhā, devoid of byāpāda, undeluded, sampajāna, (consistently) sata,
dwells pervading one direction with a citta imbued with mettā, likewise
the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below,
transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the
entire world with a citta imbued with mettā, abundant, extensive,
boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

He dwells
pervading one direction with a citta imbued with karuáđ‡Ä, likewise the
second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below,
transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the
entire world with a citta imbued with karuáđ‡Ä, abundant, extensive,
boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

He dwells
pervading one direction with a citta imbued with muditā, likewise the
second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below,
transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the
entire world with a citta imbued with muditā, abundant, extensive,
boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

He dwells
pervading one direction with a citta imbued with upekkhā, likewise the
second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below,
transversely, everywhere and in every respect, he dwells pervading the
entire world with a citta imbued with upekkhā, abundant, extensive,
boundless, devoid of hostility, devoid of ill-will.

Such an
ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus
unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has
gained four confidences in the visible order of phenomena:

‘If
there is another world, there is a fruit and result of kamma rightly and
wrongly performed, then at the breakup of the body, after death, I will
re-arise in a good destination, a state of happiness’: this is the
first confidence he has gained.

‘And if there is no another
world, there is no fruit nor result of kamma rightly and wrongly
performed, then in the visible order of phenomena I look after myself
without hostility, without ill-will, without trouble, happy’: this is
the second confidence he has gained.

‘And if pāpa befalls its
doer, I do not intend any pāpa. Not having done pāpa kamma, how would
dukkha touch me?’: this is the third confidence he has gained.

‘And if pāpa does not befall its doer, then I see myself pure in both respects’: this is the fourth confidence he has gained.

Such
an ariya·sāvaka, Kālāmas, having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind
thus unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure,
has gained these four confidences in the visible order of phenomena.

–
So it is, Bhagavā, so it is, sugata! Such an ariya·sāvaka, Bhante,
having a mind thus unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent, having a
mind thus unsoiled, having a mind thus pure, has gained four confidences
in the visible order of phenomena:

‘If there is another world,
there is a fruit and result of kamma rightly and wrongly performed, then
at the breakup of the body, after death, I will re-arise in a good
destination, a state of happiness’: this is the first confidence he has
gained.

‘And if there is no another world, there is no fruit nor
result of kamma rightly and wrongly performed, then in the visible order
of phenomena I look after myself without hostility, without ill-will,
without trouble, happy’: this is the second confidence he has gained.

‘And
if pāpa befalls its doer, I do not intend any pāpa. Not having done
pāpa kamma, how would dukkha touch me?’: this is the third confidence he
has gained.

‘And if pāpa does not befall its doer, then I
consider myself pure in both respects’: this is the fourth confidence he
has gained.

Such an ariya·sāvaka, Bhante, having a mind thus
unhostile, having a mind thus unmalevolent, having a mind thus unsoiled,
having a mind thus pure, has gained these four confidences in the
visible order of phenomena.

Excellent, Bhante, excellent, Bhante!
Just as, Bhante, if one were to set upright what was overturned, or to
uncover what was hidden, or to show the way to one who was erring, or to
hold an oil lamp in the darkness, [thinking:] ‘Those who have eyes will
see visible forms’; in the same way, the Dhamma has been revealed by
the Bhagavā in various ways. So we, Bhante, go for refuge to the
Bhagavā, to the Dhamma and to the saáđ…gha of bhikkhus. Let the Bhagavā,
Bhante, admit us as upāsakas having gone for refuge from today on, for
life.

1. anussava: [anu+sava] (lit: what is heard/learned along,
what is in conformity with what has been heard/learned) - ‘oral
tradition’ (B. Bodhi) - ‘reports’ (Than. B.) - ‘what has been acquired
by repeated hearing’ (Soma Thera). B. Bodhi writes about it: “generally
understood to refer to the Vedic tradition, which, according to the
Brahmins, had originated with the Primal Deity and had been handed down
orally through successive generations.”

The term is clearly used with the meaning of ‘report’ at MN 68:

Here,
Anuruddha, a bhikkhu hears: ‘The bhikkhu named so-and-so has died; it
has been declared by the Bhagavā that he was established in (final)
knowledge.’ And he has seen that venerable one himself or he has heard
the report: ‘That venerable one’s virtue was thus

At MN 76 are
given as synonyms itihitiha·parampara and piáđ­aka·sampada (’what has been
transmitted dogmatically’, ‘what has been handed down in a collection
of texts’), both of which refer to traditions (see following notes).

So it seems that the word anussava is rather used in this case in the sense of ‘lore/tradition’:

..a
certain teacher is one who goes by a lore/tradition, who takes a
lore/tradition for the truth. He teaches a dhamma in conformity with
what he has heard, through what has been transmitted dogmatically,
through what has been handed down in a collection of texts.
In the
context of the Kālāma Sutta, given the fact that the listeners have been
hearing mutually contradicting doctrines, it would be quite logical
that the first expression would refer directly to it, so ‘what you have
heard said’ seems to be a satisfying rendering.

2. paramparā:
[para+para] (lit: ‘further-further’, or ‘another-another’ ie. one after
the other, successive) - ‘lineage of teaching’ (B. Bodhi) - legends
(Than. B.) - tradition (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about it: “‘lineage’,
signifies tradition in general, an unbroken succession of teachings or
teachers.” However, it may not be that simple.

It is obviously an
idiomatic expression, which is not precisely self-explanatory, which
seems to be quite loose in meaning and to accept a relatively large
panel of contexts. As an example, we find bāhā·paramparāya in the
Pārājika of the Vinaya Pitaka, and it means ‘arm in arm’ (Pr 282):

sambahulā itthiyo aÃąÃąataraáđƒ bhikkhuáđƒ sampÄŦáļ·etvā bāhāparamparāya ānesuáđƒ.
many women, having tightly surrounded a certain bhikkhu, drove him along arm in arm.

Parampara·bhojana·sikkhāpada
is one of the Pātimokkha rules and refers to an ‘out-of-turn/extra
meal’, which Than B. sums up as follows: “The term out-of-turn meal
covers two sorts of situations: A bhikkhu has been invited to a meal
consisting of any of the five staple foods but then either (1) goes
elsewhere and eats another meal consisting of any of the five staple
foods at the same time as the meal to which he was originally invited;
or (2) eats a staple food prior to going to the meal.”

In the
Parivāra of the Vinaya, the word ācariya·paramparā means obviously
‘lineage of teachers’, but this may belong to relatively late
literature.

At MN 83 ‘paramparā caturāsÄŦtirājasahassāni’ means
‘84000 successive kings’ (even though this sutta seems to be of
relatively late origin too).

And at MN 95 and 99, regarding the vedic hymns, it is said:

among
the brahman seers of the past, the creators of the hymns, the composers
of the hymns, those ancient hymns, sung, repeated, & collected,
which brahmans at present still sing, still chant, repeating what was
said, repeating what was spoken, ie..

Just as if (..) there would
be a file of blind men attached one to another: the first one does not
see, the middle one does not see, and the last one does not see.

So
the word is clearly used here with a reference to an oral tradition of
blind repetition. This proves that there is indeed some ground for the
above mentioned assertion of B. Bodhi, and the interpretation of
paramparā as a teaching that comes through a ‘lineage’.

We find
as well (as at MN 76) the compound itihitiha·parampara, which is also
usually associated with anussava and piáđ­aka·sampada (’what has been
transmitted dofmatically’, ‘what has been handed down in a collection of
texts’), and it seems that the simple parampara we have here is a
shortening of this term.

The reduplication itih·itiha
(’thus-thus’) seems to refer to dogmatism (’thus indeed it is!’), which
would be consistent with early exegesis: in the CÅŦáļ·aniddesa of the
Khuddaka Nikāya (Nc 106), in an explanation of the expression ’sabbaáđƒ
taáđƒ itihÄŦtiha’ (everything that is itihÄŦtiha) all the terms of this
passage are cited (itikirāya paramparāya etc.), and the following
explanation is added: ‘na sāmaáđƒ sayamabhiÃąÃąÄtaáđƒ na attapaccakkhaáđƒ
dhammaáđƒ yaáđƒ kathayiáđƒsÅŦ’ (they expounded the teaching without having
experienced it themselves, without having ascertained it personally).

So
according to the early exegesis, and keeping in mind the examples found
at MN 95 and 99, itih·itiha·param·para could mean ‘what has been
transmitted dogmatically’. And since the reduplication param·para seems
to emphasize the idea of transmission, it would make sense in our case
to render it as ‘what has been transmitted [by a tradition]’.

3.
iti·kira: [iti+kira] (lit: ‘thus surely/one would expect’) - ‘hearsay’
(B. Bodhi) - tradition (Than. B.) - rumor (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes
about it: ‘“Hearsay” (or “report”; itikarā) may mean popular opinion or
general consensus’, but we may note the misspelling of the word that
might be a source of confusion. This word does not appear in any other
context, so we are left with a semantical analysis and guesses. ‘General
consensus’ seems to make sense.

4. piáđ­akasampadāna:
[piáđ­aka+sampadāna] - ‘a collection of scriptures’ (B. Bodhi) - scripture
(Than. B.) - ‘what is in a scripture’ (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi writes about
it: “‘a collection of scriptures’ (piáđ­aka-sampadā) signifies any
collection of religious texts regarded as infallible.” The term is quite
self-explanatory. However, given the order of the words in this
compound, the emphasis seems to be rather on the last one. And given the
fact that at that time the knowledge was transmitted orally (so
’scripture’ doesn’t seem quite appropriate), the rendering ‘what has
been handed down in a collection of texts’ seems more satisfying.
5.
takka·hetu: logical reasoning (B. Bodhi) - logical conjecture (Than. B.)
- surmise (Soma Th.). The compound itself does not appear in any other
context, so we are again left with a semantic analysis. Takka means
‘thought, reflection, reasoning, logic or butter-milk’. At DN 1 and MN
76, the words takkÄŦ, and thereby takka, are explained as follows:

..a
certain [individual] is a reasoner, an investigator. He teaches a
dhamma hammered out by reasoning/logical thinking, following lines of
investigation as they occur to him.

So takka seems to be
satisfyingly rendered by ‘reasoning/logical thinking’. Hetu, in
compounds, may mean ‘on account of–, for the sake of–, by reason of–, in
consequence of–’ etc. So finally takka·hetu could be rendered by ‘on
the basis of logical reasoning’.

6. naya·hetu: inferential
reasoning (B. Bodhi) - inference (Than. B.) - axiom (Soma Th.). Once
again, the compound itself does not appear in any other context. Naya
comes from nayati (=neti), which means ‘to lead, guide, conduct, to
take, carry (away)’, or ‘to draw (a conclusion), to understand, to take
as’. The expression ‘nayaáđƒ neti’ means ‘to draw a conclusion’. Naya·hetu
seems to be satisfyingly rendered by ‘on the basis of inference’.

7.
ākāra·parivitakka: reflection on reasons, reasoned reflection (B.
Bodhi) - analogies (Than. B.) - specious reasoning (Soma Th.). Ākāra has
quite a large panel of meanings: ’state, condition, property, quality,
attribute, sign, appearance, form, way, mode, manner, reason, ground,
account’. ‘Appearance’ seems to fit the context better than ‘reasons’.
In that case, ākāra·parivitakka would mean ‘reflection on appearances’,
and would refer to theories such as the big bang theory, which is based
on observations of the seeming evolution of the apparent universe.

8.
diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhanti: acceptance of a view after pondering it (B.
Bodhi) - agreement through pondering views (Than. B.) - bias toward a
notion that has been pondered over [doesn’t seem quite appropriate]
(Soma Th.). Nijjhāna·kkhanti is a substantivation of the expression
‘nijjhānaáđƒ khamati’. The best way to understand it is to see in which
contexts it appears elsewhere:

SN 25.1

The eye.. the mind
is inconstant, changeable, alterable. (â€Ķ) One who, after pondering with a
modicum of discernment, has accepted that these phenomena are this way
is called a Dhamma-follower..

SN 55.24

The dhammas proclaimed by the Tathāgata are approved by him after examination with a modicum of discernment.

So
it is clear that nijjhāna·kkhanti refers to an intellectual acceptation
that involves some moderate application of paÃąÃąÄ, but which is not
enough yet to come to a definite conclusion. See the example of the
elephant footprints given at MN 27. Therefore, ‘agreement after
pondering views’ seems to be an appropriate rendering for
diáđ­áđ­hi·nijjhāna·kkhanti.

9. bhabba·rÅŦpatā: the seeming competence
of a speaker (B. Bodhi) - probability (Than. B.) - another’s seeming
ability (Soma Th.). B. Bodhi and Soma Th. simply follow the Aáđ­áđ­hakathā
(older commentary). The Aáđ­áđ­hakathā, mentions a speaker as being a
bhikkhu, but that doesn’t fit the context of the Kālāmas (who have been
seeing ascetics of different origin), and there is no mention of any
speaker in this expression. The term appears only once at Ud 70, in a
very obscure verse (’mohasambandhano loko, bhabbarÅŦpova dissati’) out of
which it is difficult to draw any clear conclusion, all the more that
the Aáđ­áđ­hakathā seems to take it rather as ‘bhavarÅŦpova’.

Bhabba
means ‘able, capable, fit for, possible’, and is mostly used in the
latter sense. RÅŦpatā means ‘appearance, accordance, conformity’. Two
renderings seem to fit the context: ‘what seems possible’, ‘what seems
probable’. That might refer for example to choosing the most adequate
rendering for a translation.

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
 Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.

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Awakened One with
Awareness the crown prince of Shakya Kingdom in the Northern Prabuddha
Bharat introduced his religion as a revolt against the governance system
prevailing in a strongly stratified feudal society characterized by the
dominance rigid class and caste system Centralization of authority
based on tradition and coercive power, dependency, discrimination in the
distribution of resources, and status and dignity sustaining
exploitation in institutionalized forms legitimized by strong religious
belief system were the basic features of that governance system. This
system was generating sufferings of millions of downtrodden people
termed as Sudras or Dassha. Awakened One with Awareness realized the
sufferings of these people along with the common suffering of all human
beings during their impermanent life time. One day Awakened One with
Awareness would become the number one man in that system assuming
supreme power to steer the kingdom, he would become the head of that
governance system based on the prevalent Vedic values and norms, but it
was quite clear to him that it was not possible to ensure the salvation
of the oppressed human being materially and mentally within the existing
system of governance and/or by using the prevalent power structure.
The
power he inherited was externally exposed and exercised, bestowed on
him due to his position in the social structure where individual self
was uncounted and ignored. Awakened One with Awareness moved on to a
different way, he took individual as basic point of reference and basic
source of power, and lastly he explored a new way of life and new type
of power with a corresponding system of governance. His contemplative
intellectual ability with higher-level mental makeup helped him clearly
understand the evils of the state governance that left the crown,
palace, and his family in search of alternative system for the salvation
of all entities including human being. He took a declassed form, and
after being enlightened through a hazardous process, he revealed a new
lifestyle within new system of governance.

Awakened One with
Awareness introduced this revolutionary governance system during his
lifetime without encountering any opposition from the vested interest
group. Because of universal and massive conversion of common people into
his system, he did not encounter any resistance to introduce the
system. Later on during the period of Ashoka, Prabuddha Bharatiya
society in general predominantly became under the social governance
system of Awakened One with Awarenessism. Historical record shows that
in the third century four fifth of the total population of Prabuddha
Bharat Awakened One with Awareness who would lead centered life.Due to a
theoretical weakness emanating from the principles of prohibiting
killing of any living being and winning enemies through friendship,
Awakened One with Awareness Due to a theoretical weakness emanating from
the principles of prohibiting killing of any living being and winning
enemies through friendship,  Awakened One with Awareness governance
could not develop any mechanism to protect and sustain itself in the
birth place of Awakened One with Awareness.But in Bangladesh, it
survived unto mid twelfth century, and the period from 750 to 1150
during Pala kingdom may be termed as the most glorious period of
Awakened One with Awareness governance throughout the history all over
the world.


101) Classical Tamil-āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ‡āŪšāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪŋāŪīāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊŠāŪīāŪŋ,
May be a cartoon of tree
https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/03/an03-066.html
AN 3.66 -
āŪ•āŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋ [aka Kālāmā] Sutta
- āŪ•āŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪŪāŪūāŪļāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ -
āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:

āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ, āŪ•āŊ‹āŪšāŪēāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ
āŪšāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŊāŪĢāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ, āŪ•āŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪą āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŪūāŪļāŊ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊ. āŪ†āŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡, āŪ•āŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ: ‘āŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋ, āŪ•āŊ‹āŪīāŪēāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŊāŪĢāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪĢāŪŪāŊ
āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪ āŪšāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪĪāŪŪāŪū, āŪŠāŊ‹, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪšāŪūāŪ•āŪūāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ,
āŪ•āŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊ. āŪŪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŪāŪū, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪē āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ°āŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ: “āŪĻāŪŋāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪ•, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪ…āŪ°āŪđāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ, āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊ, āŪĩāŪŋāŪœāŊāŪœāŊ‹ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
[āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪē] āŪĻāŪŸāŪĪâ€Ķ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ·āŊāŪĢāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊ ! | āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪžāŪūāŪĐāŪŪāŪŸāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋ āŪŪāŪ°āŪŪāŊ ! The Most Prestigious Historical Temple Gaya!

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āŪĩāŪŋāŪ·āŊāŪĢāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊ ! | āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪžāŪūāŪĐāŪŪāŪŸāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋ āŪŪāŪ°āŪŪāŊ ! The Most Prestigious Historical Temple Gaya!
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āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĢāŪŋ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ
22-08-2021 (62 āŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊ)

āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ

Dhamma 2.3.1

āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ 3

āŪĩāŪģāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‹āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ  

1. āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊ

1.
āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŪļāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪą āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŪĐāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ•
āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪžāŊāŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪšāŊ‡āŪĩāŊˆ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪŊ āŪ…āŪīāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪŸāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪūāŪŸāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

2.
āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ? āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ
āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪĩāŪŋâ€Ķ
āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĢāŪŋ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ
22-08-2021 (62 āŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊ)

āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ

Dhamma 2.3.1

āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ 3

āŪĩāŪģāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‹āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ  

1. āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊ

1.
āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŪļāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪą āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŪĐāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ•
āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪžāŊāŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪšāŊ‡āŪĩāŊˆ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪŊ āŪ…āŪīāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪŸāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪūāŪŸāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

2.
āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ? āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ
āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊŠāŪ°āŊ
āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪū? āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊˆ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ
āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡āŪąāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

3. āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪ°āŪēāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŊˆ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ.  

4. āŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ“āŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŽāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ? āŪŽāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋ? āŪāŪŊāŊ‹! āŪŽāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆ āŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŊâ€Œ! āŪāŪŊāŊ‹! āŪŽāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆ
āŪ…āŪŠāŪūāŪŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ!  

5. āŪ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪīāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪ°āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŊˆ āŪĻāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪēāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪē āŪ‡āŪģāŊˆāŪžāŪĐāŪūāŪĐ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

6.
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪēāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ,‌ “āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ…āŪŠāŪūāŪŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ. āŪĩāŪū! āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ.” āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ.
 āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊāŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪšāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
 

7. āŪ…āŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.
āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ†āŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪ•āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ, āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

8. āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊˆ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ, āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

9. āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊˆ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪļāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

10.
āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪūāŪŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪģāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪŊāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ,
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪšāŊāŪŪāŊ  āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ,
“āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪšāŊˆ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪū? āŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

11.
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, “āŪāŪŊāŪū! āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ! āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ.” āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ.  āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŊ‡
āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ†āŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊˆ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

12. āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ,
āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊˆ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ
āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

13.
āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ, “āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ! āŪ‰āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĪāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŊ‚āŪīāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪĩāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ‰āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪŊāŪūāŪ•.”
āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

14. āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ
āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, “āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ āŪŪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋ āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪū?” āŪŽāŪĐ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

15.
āŪ…āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ, “āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ†āŪĐāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.” āŪŽāŪĐ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.  

16. āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊˆ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆ, “āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.”
āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

17. āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪŸāŊˆ āŪ…āŪĢāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪŪāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪēāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪšāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.

18. āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
āŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ‰āŪĢāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪūāŪ•
āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

19. āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪšāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪĩāŪģāŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•
āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĻāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŪāŪēāŪū‌, āŪšāŊāŪŠāŪđāŊ, āŪŠāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŊāŪœāŪŋāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĩāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĐāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.  

20.
āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ, āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪšāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŽāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ‹, āŪ…āŪĪāŊ
āŪĪāŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ†āŪĐ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

21. āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ• āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ āŪ…āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ
āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  

22. āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ ‌
āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ, “āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ
āŪĻāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪĐ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪēāŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.” āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪŊāŪūāŪ·āŪūāŪļāŊ  āŪĻāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
           -āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ

āŪŠāŊŒāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ…āŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪĢāŪŪāŊ


101) Classical Tamil-āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ‡āŪšāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪŋāŪīāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊŠāŪīāŪŋ,



up a level
āŪĪāŪŪāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪ•  āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪĪāŊ†āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊTIPITAKA-

āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪ•-Section-C-


āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ 
āŪĻāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ€āŪŸāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋ āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŠāŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪ•  āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŪđāŊāŪđāŊāŪĩ āŪļāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŊāŪĐ (āŪ†āŪąāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊ) āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ.



This outline displays the publication of books in the DevanÂągari-script edition of the
ChaΞΞha Saag¹yana (Sixth Council) TipiΞaka. The names of the volumes are displayed
in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root TipiΞaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
Please note: These books are in PÂąli only, in DevanÂągari script, and are not for sale.


No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

āŪĩāŪŋāŪĻāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪ• Vinaya PiΞaka
(āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŪāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ, 5 āŪĻāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪšāŊāŪšāŪŸāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŠāŪūāŪ•(āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪ°  āŪŪāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪēāŪŪāŊ) [āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐ āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊ†āŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ]


Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]


āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪ•  āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ





Tipiξaka (three “baskets”)


āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪ•


( āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ)


Sutta PiΞaka


(Five nikÂąyas, or collections)


The
Sutta Piáđ­aka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
dwelling).

āŪĻāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊˆ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪū āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ
āŪ•āŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊˆ āŪšāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ.  āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĻāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ
āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ. āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ ( āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŊ†āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆ,
āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪ•āŊˆ, āŪĩāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊˆāŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆ, āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ, āŪ“āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ,
āŪŠāŊŠāŪĪāŊāŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊ,
āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪĻāŊ€āŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪ ) āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ.

DÄŦgha Nikāya
[dÄŦgha:
long] The DÄŦgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

āŪĻāŊ€āŪģāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ)
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ 34 āŪĻāŊ€āŪģāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŊāŊāŪšāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

 āŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŪ (āŪĻāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ) āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ)


āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪūāŪēāŊ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ 152 āŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŪ ( āŪĻāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋ ) āŪŠāŪēāŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ āŪĩāŪ•āŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ·āŪŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŊāŊāŪšāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.


Saáđƒyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saáđƒyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saáđƒyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ)


āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ) āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆ āŪ…āŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ
āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠ 56 āŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋ āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŪūāŪ• āŪ•āŊŠāŪŊāŊāŪšāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĩāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŊ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪĻāŊ€āŪģāŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ
āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪšāŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ.

Aáđ…guttara Nikāya
[aáđ…g:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aáđ…guttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.


āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ (āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊ) āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ)


āŪ‡āŪąāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ
āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪĢāŪŋ, āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą, āŪ•āŊ€āŪīāŊ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪī āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ‰āŪĪāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊŠāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋ, āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪŊāŊāŪšāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆ āŪ•āŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŸāŪēāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊ āŪŽāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪĩāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ‹āŪŸāŪŋ āŪŪāŪūāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋ āŪ‡āŪąāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ
āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪĢāŪŋ. āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ†āŪĢāŊˆ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ. āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ°āŊ


Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short,
small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-TherÄŦgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

āŪšāŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ, āŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ)


āŪšāŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ,
āŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ (āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ) āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪēāŊ‹āŪšāŪĐāŊˆ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŪūāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋ āŪĪāŪĢāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ : āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪŠāŪĪ (āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊ āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŊ ,
āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ  āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ , āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŪāŊ), āŪ‰āŪĪāŪūāŪĐ (āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ,
āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊāŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪŪāŊ, āŪ†āŪĩāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŊ, āŪšāŊŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊ , āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ, āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ
āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊāŪģāŊ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ), āŪ‡āŪĪāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ• ( āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŊ
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ), āŪļāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ ( āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪ°āŪŪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪīāŊˆ ,: āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪšāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪĪāŪĻāŊ‚āŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŪāŊ; āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŪŋ, āŪĻāŊ€āŪĪāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪąāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪĢāŪŋ),āŪĪāŊ‡āŪ°āŪ•āŪūāŪĪ-āŪĪāŊ‡āŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪĪ(
āŪĪāŊ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŊ), āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪ°āŪŸāŊ āŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪ• ( āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ , āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊ ,
āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ : āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĩāŊ‡āŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ , āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪœāŪūāŪĪāŪ•, āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ•āŪĪāŊˆāŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ.)

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