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𝓛𝓔ð“Ēð“Ē𝓞𝓝 4077 Mon 30 Aug 2021 Mahaparinibbana and Mahasatipatthana Suttas in9 Happy to see work progressing for renovating Rohni Buddha Vihara. Wish all Buddhists Donate Liberally for the Good Cause. Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One Let us encourage all people to Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
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𝓛𝓔ð“Ēð“Ē𝓞𝓝  4077 Mon 30 Aug 2021

Mahaparinibbana and Mahasatipatthana Suttas in9

Happy to see work progressing for renovating Rohni Buddha Vihara. Wish all Buddhists Donate Liberally for the Good Cause.

Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One
Let us encourage all people to Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space.
Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.


𝙆𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ𝙖𝙧𝙖 ð™‰ð™„ð˜―ð˜―Ä€ð™‰ð˜ž ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖
18𝙛ð™Đ ð˜ŋ𝙞𝙖. 𝙖 3ð˜ŋ 360 𝙙𝙚𝙜𝙧𝙚𝙚 ð™˜ð™žð™§ð™˜ð™Šð™Ąð™–ð™§ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖 𝙖ð™Đ
𝙒𝙝𝙞ð™Đ𝙚 𝙃ð™Īð™Ē𝙚,
668 5ð™Đ𝙝 𝘞 𝙈𝙖𝙞ð™Ģ 𝙍ð™Ī𝙖𝙙,
8ð™Đ𝙝 ð˜ū𝙧ð™Īð™Ļð™Ļ, 𝙃𝘞𝙇 𝙄𝙄𝙄 𝙎ð™Đ𝙖𝙜𝙚,
𝙋𝙊ð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ū𝙖 ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ ð˜―ð™šð™Ģð™œð™–ð™Ąð™Šð™§ð™Š,

𝙈𝙖𝙜𝙖𝙙𝙝𝙞 𝙆𝙖𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙖𝙠𝙖,
𝙋𝙧𝙖𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖 ð˜―ð™ð™–ð™§ð™–ð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą
𝙝ð™Đð™Đð™Ĩ://ð™Ļ𝙖𝙧ð™Ŧ𝙖𝙟𝙖ð™Ģ.𝙖ð™Ē𝙗𝙚𝙙𝙠𝙖𝙧.ð™Ī𝙧𝙜
𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖ð™Ļ𝙖𝙞𝙙2𝙊ð™Ļ@𝙜ð™Ēð™–ð™žð™Ą.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘ð™Ļ4𝙚ð™Ŧ𝙚𝙧@ð™Ī𝙊ð™Đð™Ąð™Īð™Ī𝙠.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘𝙝𝙖ð™Ģ𝙙𝙧𝙖ð™Ļ𝙚𝙠𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙖ð™Ģ@ð™Ū𝙖𝙝ð™Īð™Ī.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē

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90) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
91) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
92) Classical Sindhi,
93) Classical Sinhala-ā·ƒāķļā·Šāķ·ā·ā·€ā·Šāķš ā·ƒā·’āķ‚ā·„āķ―,


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Diving Deeper into Buddhism: Mapping the Buddhist Cosmos
Objective
Students
already familiar with Siddhartha Gautama, or Shakyamuni, the Historical
Buddha, will deepen their understanding of Buddhist beliefs and
artwork. They will analyze and interpret works of art that reveal how
people live around the world and what they value. They will identify how
works of art reflect times, places, cultures, and beliefs.
Essential Questions
What other stories are told in Buddhism beyond Shakyamuni, the Historical Buddha?
How were Buddhist beliefs transmitted between teachers and students?
How do works of art capture and communicate the development of Buddhist beliefs in China?
How has art inspired Buddhist believers and scholars throughout history?
Why did Buddhists create a symbolic map of the world, or cosmology?
Image
Image
āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĢāŪŋ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ
27-08-2021 (67 āŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊ)

āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ

Dhamma 2.3.4

4. āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ

1. āŪ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪœāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪđāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŪūāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

2.
āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪūāŪĐ āŪœāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪĻāŪ•āŪ° āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ‡āŪšāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

3.. āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŪūāŪ•, āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

4.
“āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŊˆāŪĪāŊ€āŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪĩāŊˆāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪœāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊāŪąāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ.” āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; “āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪīāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ’āŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•,
āŪĪāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•, āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŊˆ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•, āŪšāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪ•āŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪĪāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.” 

5. “āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪĐāŪŋāŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ•, āŪšāŊŠāŪēāŊāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐ āŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•,
āŪ‰āŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ; āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪĐ
āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊ, āŪ‰āŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪ•āŪŸāŪĐāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ.” 

6. āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‹āŪŸāŊ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ, āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ,
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

7. āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. “āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪ†āŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ? āŪ‡āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŪū? āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē 
āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪūāŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŪū?” āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

8. āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪĐ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊāŪ•āŊâ€ŒāŪ•āŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ! “āŪ“! āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊ‡!
āŪŪāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‹āŪ°āŊ†āŪĐ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪŽāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ? āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪ™āŊāŪ™āŪĐāŪŪāŊâ€Œ?” 

9. 
āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; “āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ,
āŪšāŊāŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŊ†āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŪĩāŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊˆ āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ; āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪūāŪšāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪēāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪą āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪŊāŪēāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ.” 

10. “āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪŸāŊāŪšāŊ‡āŪŠāŪĐāŊˆ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ‌ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ!” 

11.
āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪžāŊāŪšāŪūāŪĢāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ€āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ,
“āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪ•āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ‡ āŪ†āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪĐāŊ.” āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  āŪ…āŪĪāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ
āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ.

12.
āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. ‌
āŪĩāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡āŪĪāŊāŪŪāŪąāŊāŪą āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊ  āŪ†āŪŸāŊˆ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪē, āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ‹āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ,
āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĪāŊāŪŊ, āŪ•āŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€ŒāŪŪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊ āŪ‰āŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪ•āŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

13.
āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĻāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĻāŪŋāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŊāŪŪāŪąāŊāŪą āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•,
āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ:
“āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪģāŪĩāŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ, āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĐ. 

14.
“āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ‡āŪģāŪĩāŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ
āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ: ‘āŪ“! āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋ āŪšāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ!’ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ“āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ!’ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ!
āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.’ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ!
āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€ŒāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.’ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ•
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.’ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ†āŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ.
āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪģāŪĩāŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐ. 

15. “āŪ…āŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ!
āŪ…āŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĩāŊ€āŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ, āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪŪāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ, āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŪĩāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ, āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ“āŪģāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ•, āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŊāŪģāŊ‹āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŪūāŪ•,
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪē āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ.
āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‰āŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪ•āŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪ°āŪūāŪ•.”
          -āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ

āŪŠāŊŒāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ…āŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪĢāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĢāŪŋ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ
27-08-2021 (67 āŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊ)

āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ

Dhamma 2.3.4

4. āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ

1. āŪ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪœāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪđāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŪūāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

2.
āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪūāŪĐ āŪœāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪĻāŪ•āŪ° āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ‡āŪšāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

3.. āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŪūāŪ•, āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

4.
“āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŊˆāŪĪāŊ€āŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪĩāŊˆāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪœāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊāŪąāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ.” āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; “āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪīāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ’āŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•,
āŪĪāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•, āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŊˆ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•, āŪšāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪ•āŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪĪāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.” 

5. “āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪĐāŪŋāŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ•, āŪšāŊŠāŪēāŊāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐ āŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•,
āŪ‰āŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ; āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪĐ
āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊ, āŪ‰āŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪ•āŪŸāŪĐāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ.” 

6. āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‹āŪŸāŊ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ, āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ,
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊ‡ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

7. āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. “āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪ†āŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ? āŪ‡āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŪū? āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē 
āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪūāŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŪū?” āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

8. āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪĐ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊāŪ•āŊâ€ŒāŪ•āŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ! “āŪ“! āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊ‡!
āŪŪāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‹āŪ°āŊ†āŪĐ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪŽāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ? āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪ™āŊāŪ™āŪĐāŪŪāŊâ€Œ?” 

9. 
āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; “āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ,
āŪšāŊāŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŊ†āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŪĩāŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊˆ āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ; āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪūāŪšāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪēāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪą āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪŊāŪēāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ.” 

10. “āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪŸāŊāŪšāŊ‡āŪŠāŪĐāŊˆ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ‌ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ!” 

11.
āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪžāŊāŪšāŪūāŪĢāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ€āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ,
“āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪ•āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ‡ āŪ†āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪĐāŊ.” āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  āŪ…āŪĪāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ
āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪē  āŪ•āŪūāŪļāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪšāŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ.

12.
āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. ‌
āŪĩāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡āŪĪāŊāŪŪāŪąāŊāŪą āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊ  āŪ†āŪŸāŊˆ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪē, āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ‹āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ,
āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĪāŊāŪŊ, āŪ•āŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪū āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€ŒāŪŪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊ āŪ‰āŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪ•āŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

13.
āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪŪāŪ•āŪĪ āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ‡āŪĐāŪŋāŪŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĻāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪĻāŪŋāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŊāŪŪāŪąāŊāŪą āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•,
āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ•, āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ:
“āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪģāŪĩāŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ, āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĐ. 

14.
“āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ‡āŪģāŪĩāŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ
āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ: ‘āŪ“! āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋ āŪšāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ!’ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ“āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ!’ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ!
āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.’ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ!
āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€ŒāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.’ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪ•
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ. ‘āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ.’ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ†āŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ.
āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪģāŪĩāŪ°āŪšāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐ. 

15. “āŪ…āŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ!
āŪ…āŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĩāŊ€āŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ, āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪŪāŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ, āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŪĩāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ, āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ“āŪģāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ•, āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŊāŪģāŊ‹āŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŪūāŪ•,
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪē āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ.
āŪāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ€āŪ°āŊâ€Œ! āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‰āŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪ•āŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪ°āŪūāŪ•.”
          -āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ

āŪŠāŊŒāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ…āŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪĢāŪŪāŊ”āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆ”
            ——————————  
                 ‘27-08-2021′

  
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪĩāŪ°āŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‡ āŪ‰āŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪ°āŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ. āŪŽāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‡… *”āŪĻāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊˆ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪĩāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ” āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪēāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ†āŪĐ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŊ‡āŪĐāŊ.

   āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ, āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪīāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪīāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪ‡āŪīāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ. āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪīāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ.

           - ‘āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪšāŪūāŪĐāŊ’ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ -
            _________

        # āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ Dr B.R.āŪ…āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ “āŪŠāŊ‡āŪšāŊāŪšāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ” āŪĻāŊ‚āŪēāŊ, āŪĪāŊŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ - 10 #
           

        - āŪ‡āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ -
                                ———-

āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ…..

  
āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĪ āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ•
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊŠāŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŊāŪšāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊ
āŪ…āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŽāŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪūāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪģāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐ. āŪ‡āŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪāŪĪāŊ‡āŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊ āŪŽāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ‡ āŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠ āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ.

  
āŪ“āŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‹, āŪāŪ°āŊ‹āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŊāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‹ āŪŽāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊ āŪāŪĪāŊ‹ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ… āŪĪāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪŊ
āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪĪāŊ
āŪšāŊŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪēāŊˆ, āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ, āŪŪāŪĐāŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ, āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪĐāŊ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪĪāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ•
āŪŪāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ‡ āŪŠāŊŠāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪĐāŊ.

   āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĻāŪŠāŪ°āŊ,
āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪēāŊ… āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪēāŊāŪēāŪū āŪ‰āŪąāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŊ‡
āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐ. āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ… āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪ·āŪŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊāŪē, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŽāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĻāŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪē.
āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪēāŊ… āŪ•āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪšāŪ•āŪē āŪ‰āŪąāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸ
āŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ‡ āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐ.

  
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĩāŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ,
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆ āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ… āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ•
āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪĻāŪŋāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŊāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐ. āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ,
āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ… āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŪūāŪ•, āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĻāŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ
āŪĻāŪŠāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ. āŪ…āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ āŪ‡āŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪšāŊ āŪšāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ.

   āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ… āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ
āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪūāŪĐ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪ‰āŪąāŪĩāŊ… āŪĻāŪūāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪŠāŪīāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪšāŊ āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪšāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ•āŊāŪēāŪŪāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŪĩāŪŋ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ‰āŪąāŪĩāŊˆ āŪ’āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ.

- ‘āŪ•āŪŋāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪģāŪ°āŊ’ āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ Dr B.R.āŪ…āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ°āŊ -

āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ…..

# K.B.G.Thilagar #

Image

Prabuddha Bharat
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/28/untouchables-caste-system-us-race-martin-luther-king-india

The long read
America’s ‘untouchables’: the silent power of the caste system

We
cannot fully understand the current upheavals, or almost any turning
point in American history, without accounting for the human pyramid that
is encrypted into us all: the caste system. By Isabel Wilkerson
by Isabel Wilkerson
Tue 28 Jul 2020 06.00 BST

Last modified on Fri 4 Sep 2020 12.00 BST

In
the winter of 1959, after leading the Montgomery bus boycott that arose
from the arrest of Rosa Parks and before the trials and triumphs to
come, Martin Luther King Jr and his wife, Coretta, landed in Prabuddha
Bharat, at Palam Airport in New Delhi​, to visit the land of Mohandas K
Gandhi, the father of nonviolent protest. They were covered in garlands
upon arrival, and King told reporters: “To other countries, I may go as a
tourist, but to Prabuddha Bharat I come as a pilgrim.”

He
had long dreamed of going to Prabuddha Bharat, and they stayed an
entire month. King wanted to see for himself the place whose fight for
freedom from British rule had inspired his fight for justice in America.
He wanted to see the so-called “untouchables”, the lowest caste in the
ancient Prabuddha Bharatian caste system, whom he had read about and
had sympathy for, but who had still been left behind after India gained
its independence the decade before.

TOPSHOT-US-POLITICS-RACE-UNREST
TOPSHOT
- A demonstrator pauses in front of a wall displaying names of black
people who have been killed by police, across from the White House
during a peaceful protest against police brutality and the death of
George Floyd, on June 7, 2020 in Washington, DC. - On May 25, 2020,
Floyd, a 46-year-old black man suspected of passing a counterfeit $20
bill, died in Minneapolis after Derek Chauvin, a white police officer,
pressed his knee to Floyd’s neck for almost nine minutes. (Photo by
Olivier DOULIERY / AFP) (Photo by OLIVIER DOULIERY/AFP via Getty Images)
America’s ‘untouchables’: the silent power of the caste system – podcast
Read more

He
discovered that people in India had been following the trials of his
own oppressed people in the US, and knew of the bus boycott he had led.
Wherever he went, the people on the streets of Bombay and Delhi crowded
around him for an autograph. At one point in their trip, King and his
wife journeyed to the southern tip of the country, to the city of
Trivandrum in the state of Kerala, and visited with high-school students
whose families had been untouchables. The principal made the
introduction.

“Young people,” he said, “I would like to present to you a fellow untouchable from the United States of America.”

King
was floored. He had not expected that term to be applied to him. He
was, in fact, put off by it at first. He had flown in from another
continent, and had dined with the prime minister. He did not see the
connection, did not see what the Prabuddha Bharatian caste system had to
do directly with him, did not immediately see why the lowest-caste
people in Prabuddha Bharat would view him, an American Negro and a
distinguished visitor, as low-caste like themselves, see him as one of
them. “For a moment,” he later recalled, “I was a bit shocked and peeved
that I would be referred to as an untouchable.”

Then
he began to think about the reality of the lives of the people he was
fighting for – 20 million people, consigned to the lowest rank in the US
for centuries, “still smothering in an airtight cage of poverty,”
quarantined in isolated ghettoes, exiled in their own country.

And
he said to himself: “Yes, I am an untouchable, and every negro in the
United States of America is an untouchable.” In that moment, he realised
that the land of the free had imposed a caste system not unlike the
caste system of India, and that he had lived under that system all of
his life. It was what lay beneath the forces he was fighting in the US.
TOPSHOT-US-POLITICS-RACE-UNREST<br/>TOPSHOT - A demonstrator pauses in front of a wall displaying names of black people who have been killed by police, across from the White House during a peaceful protest against police brutality and the death of George Floyd, on June 7, 2020 in Washington, DC. - On May 25, 2020, Floyd, a 46-year-old black man suspected of passing a counterfeit $20 bill, died in Minneapolis after Derek Chauvin, a white police officer, pressed his knee to Floyd’s neck for almost nine minutes. (Photo by Olivier DOULIERY / AFP) (Photo by OLIVIER DOULIERY/AFP via Getty Images)” class=”gmail-css-q4dzvk” width=”3198″ height=”1917″></span></div>
	<div class=

What Martin Luther King
Jr, recognised about his country that day had begun long before the
ancestors of our ancestors had taken their first breaths. More than a
century and a half before the American Revolution, a human hierarchy had
evolved on the contested soil of what would become the United States – a
concept of birthright, the temptation of entitled expansion that would
set in motion what has been called the world’s oldest democracy and,
with it, a ranking of human value and usage.

It
would twist the minds of men, as greed and self-reverence eclipsed
human conscience and allowed the conquering men to take land and human
bodies that they convinced themselves they had a right to. If they were
to convert this wilderness and civilise it to their liking, they
decided, they would need to conquer, enslave or remove the people
already on it, and transport those they deemed lesser beings in order to
tame and work the land to extract the wealth that lay in the rich soil
and shorelines.

To justify their plans, they
took pre-existing notions of their own centrality, reinforced by their
self-interested interpretation of the Bible, and created a hierarchy of
who could do what, who could own what, who was on top and who was on the
bottom and who was in between. There emerged a ladder of humanity,
global in nature, as the upper-rung people would descend from Europe,
with rungs inside that designation – the English Protestants at the very
top, as their guns and resources would ultimately prevail in the bloody
fight for North America. Everyone else would rank in descending order,
on the basis of their proximity to those deemed most superior. The
ranking would continue downward until one arrived at the very bottom:
African captives transported in order to build the New World and to
serve the victors for all their days, one generation after the next, for
12 generations.

There developed a caste
system, based upon what people looked like – an internalised ranking,
unspoken, unnamed and unacknowledged by everyday citizens even as they
go about their lives adhering to it and acting upon it subconsciously,
to this day. Just as the studs and joists and beams that form the
infrastructure of a building are not visible to those who live in it, so
it is with caste. Its very invisibility is what gives it power and
longevity. And though it may move in and out of consciousness, though it
may flare and reassert itself in times of upheaval and recede in times
of relative calm, it is an ever-present through-line in the country’s
operation.



A
caste system is an artificial construction, a fixed and embedded
ranking of human value that sets the presumed supremacy of one group
against the presumed inferiority of others, on the basis of ancestry and
often of immutable traits – traits that would be neutral in the
abstract, but are ascribed life-and-death meaning in a hierarchy
favouring the dominant caste whose forebears designed it. A caste system
uses rigid, often arbitrary boundaries to keep the ranked groupings
apart, distinct from one another and in their assigned places.

Across
time and culture, the caste systems of three very different countries
have stood out, each in their own way. The tragically accelerated,
chilling and officially vanquished caste system of Nazi Germany. The
lingering, millennia-long caste system of India. And the shape-shifting,
unspoken, race-based caste pyramid in the US. Each version relied on
stigmatising those deemed inferior in order to justify the
dehumanisation necessary to keep the lowest-ranked people at the bottom,
and to rationalise the protocols of enforcement. A caste system endures
because it is often justified as divine will, originating from a sacred
text or the presumed laws of nature, reinforced throughout the culture
and passed down through the generations.

As we
go about our daily lives, caste is the wordless usher in a darkened
theatre, the flashlight cast down the aisles, guiding us to our assigned
seats for a performance. The hierarchy of caste is not about feelings
or morality. It is about power: which groups have it and which do not.
It is about resources: which caste is seen as worthy of them, and which
are not; who gets to acquire and control them, and who does not. It is
about respect, authority and assumptions of competence: who is accorded
these, and who is not.

As a means of assigning
value to
entire swaths of humankind, caste guides each of us, often
beyond the reaches of our awareness. It embeds into our bones an
unconscious ranking of human characteristics, and sets forth the rules,
expectations and stereotypes that have been used to justify brutalities
against entire groups within our species. In the American caste system,
the signal of rank is what we call race, the division of humans on the
basis of their appearance. In the US, race is the primary tool and the
visible decoy – the frontman – for caste.

Racial segregation at a bus station in North Carolina in 1940.

Race
does the heavy lifting for a caste system that demands a means of human
division. If we have been trained to see humans in the language of
race, then caste is the underlying grammar that we encode as children,
as when learning our mother tongue. Caste, like grammar, becomes an
invisible guide not only to how we speak, but to how we process
information – the autonomic calculations that figure into a sentence
without our having to think about it. Many of us have never taken a
class in grammar, yet we know in our bones that a transitive verb takes
an object, that a subject needs a predicate, and we know without
thinking the difference between third-person singular and third-person
plural. We might mention “race”, referring to people as black or white
or Latino or Asian or indigenous, when what lies beneath each label is
centuries of history, and the assigning of assumptions and values to
physical features in a structure of human hierarchy.

What
people look like – or rather, the race they have been assigned, or are
perceived to belong to – is the visible cue to their caste. It is the
historic flashcard to the public, showing how people are to be treated,
where they are expected to live, what kinds of positions they are
expected to hold, whether they belong in this section of town or that
seat in a boardroom, whether they should be expected to speak with
authority on this or that subject, whether they will be administered
pain relief in a hospital, whether their neighbourhood is likely to
adjoin a toxic waste site or to have contaminated water flowing from
their taps, whether they are more or less likely to survive childbirth
in the most advanced nation in the world, whether they may be shot by
authorities with impunity.

Caste
and race are neither synonymous nor mutually exclusive. They can and do
coexist in the same culture, and serve to reinforce each other. Caste
is the bones, race the skin. Race is what we can see, the physical
traits that have been given arbitrary meaning and become shorthand for
who a person is. Caste is the powerful infrastructure that holds each
group in its place.

Caste
is fixed and rigid. Race is fluid and superficial, subject to periodic
redefinition to meet the needs of the dominant caste in what is now the
US. While the requirements to qualify as white have changed over the
centuries, the fact of a dominant caste has remained constant from its
inception – whoever fit the definition of white, at whatever point in
history, was granted the legal rights and privileges of the dominant
caste. Perhaps more critically and tragically, at the other end of the
ladder, the subordinated caste, too, has been fixed from the beginning
as the psychological floor
beneath which all other castes cannot fall.

Caste
is not a term often applied to the US. It is considered the language of
India or feudal Europe. But some anthropologists and scholars of race
in the US have made use of the term for decades. Before the modern era,
one of the earliest Americans to take up the idea of caste was the
antebellum abolitionist and US senator Charles Sumner, as he fought
against segregation in the north. “The separation of children in the
Public Schools of Boston, on account of color or race,” he wrote, “is in
the nature of Caste, and on this account is a violation of Equality.”
He quoted a fellow humanitarian: “Caste makes distinctions among
creatures where God has made none.”

We
cannot fully understand the current upheavals, or almost any turning
point in American history, without accounting for the human pyramid that
is encrypted into us all. The caste system, and the attempts to defend,
uphold or abolish the hierarchy, underlay the American civil war and
the civil rights movement a century later, and pervade the politics of
the 21st-century US. Just as DNA is the code of instructions for cell
development, caste has been the operating system for economic, political
and social interaction in the US since the time of its gestation.

In
1944, the Swedish social economist Gunnar Myrdal and a team of the most
talented researchers in the country produced a 2,800-page, two-volume
work that is still considered perhaps the most comprehensive study of
race in the US. It was titled An American Dilemma. Myrdal’s
investigation into race led him to the realisation that the most
accurate term to describe the workings of US society was not race, but
caste – and that perhaps it was the only term that really addressed what
se
emed a stubbornly fixed ranking of human value.

The
anthropologist Ashley Montagu was among the first to argue that race is
a human invention – a social construct, not a biological one – and that
in seeking to understand the divisions and disparities in the US, we
have typically fallen into the quicksand and mythology of race. “When we
speak of ‘the race problem in America’,” he wrote in 1942, “what we
really mean is the caste system and the problems which that caste system
creates in America.”

There
was little confusion among some of the leading white supremacists of
the previous century as to the connections between India’s caste system
and that of the American south, where the purest legal caste system in
the US existed. “A record of the desperate efforts of the conquering
upper classes in India to preserve the purity of their blood persists to
until this very day in their carefully regulated system of castes,”
wrote Madison Grant, a popular eugenicist, in his 1916 bestseller, The
Passing of the Great Race. “In our Southern States, Jim Crow cars and
social discriminations have exactly the same purpose.”

In
1913, Bhimrao Ambedkar, a man born to the bottom of India’s caste
system, born an untouchable in the central provinces, arrived in New
York City from Bombay. He came to the US to study economics as a
graduate student at Columbia, focused on the differences between race,
caste and class. Living just blocks from Harlem, he would see first-hand
the condition of his counterparts in the US. He completed his thesis
just as the film The Birth of a Nation – the incendiary homage to the
Confederate south – premiered in New York in 1915. He would study
further in L
ondon and return to India to become the foremost leader of
the untouchables, and a pre-eminent intellectual who would help draft a
new Indian constitution. He would work to dispense with the demeaning
term “untouchable”. He rejected the term Harijans, which had been
applied to them by Gandhi, to their minds patronisingly. He embraced the
term Dalits, meaning “broken people” – which, due to the caste system,
they were.
A statue of Bhimrao Ambedkar under a flyover in Amritsar, India.
A statue of Bhimrao Ambedkar under a flyover in Amritsar, India. Photograph: Narinder Nanu/AFP/Getty Images

It
is hard to know what effect his exposure to the American social order
had on him personally. But over the years, he paid close attention, as
did many Dalits, to the subordinate caste in the US. Indians had long
been aware of the plight of enslaved Africans, and of their descendants
in the US. Back in the 1870s, after the end of slavery and during the
brief window of black advancement known as Reconstruction, an Indian
social reformer named Jyotirao Phule found inspiration in the US
abolitionists. He expressed hope “that my countrymen may take their
example as their guide”.

Many
decades later, in the summer of 1946, acting on news that black
Americans were petitioning the United Nations for protection as
minorities, Ambedkar reached out to the best-known African American
intellectual of the day, WEB Du Bois. He told Du Bois that he had been a
“student of the Negro problem” from across the oceans, and recognised
their common fates.

“There
is so much similarity between the position of the Untouchables in India
and of the position of the Negroes in America,” Ambedkar wrote to Du
Bois, “that the study of the latter is not only natural but necessary.”

Du
Bois wrote back to Ambedkar to say that he was, indeed, familiar with
him, and that he had “every sympathy with the Untouchables of India”. It
had been Du Bois who seemed to have spoken for the marginalised in both
countries as he identified the double consciousness of their existence.
And it was Du Bois who, decades before, had invoked an Indian concept
in channelling the “bitter cry” of his people in the US: “Why did God
make me an outcast and a stranger in mine own house?”

I
began investigating the American caste system after nearly two decades
of examining the history of the Jim Crow south, the legal caste system
that grew out of enslavement and lasted into the early 70s, within the
lifespans of many present-day Americans. I discovered that I was not
writing about ge
ography and relocation, but about the American caste
system – an artificial hierarchy in which most everything that you could
and could not do was based upon what you looked like, and which
manifested itself north and south. I had been writing about a
stigmatised people – 6 million of them – who were seeking freedom from
the caste system in the south, only to discover that the hierarchy
followed them wherever they went, much in the way that the shadow of
caste (as I would soon discover) follows Indians in their own global
diaspora.

The
American caste system began in the years after the arrival of the first
Africans to the Colony of Virginia in the summer of 1619, as the colony
sought to refine the distinctions of who could be enslaved for life and
who could not. Over time, colonial laws granted English and Irish
indentured servants greater privileges than the Africans who worked
alongside them, and the Europeans were fused into a new identity – that
of being categorised as white, the polar opposite of black. The
historian Kenneth M Stampp called this assigning of race a “caste
system, which divided those whose appearance enabled them to claim pure
Caucasian ancestry from those whose appearance indicated that some or
all of their forebears were Negroes”. Members of the Caucasian caste, as
he called it, “believed in ‘white supremacy’, and maintained a high
degree of caste solidarity to secure it”.

While
I was in the midst of my research, word of my inquiries spread to some
Indian scholars of caste based in the US. They invited me to speak at an
inaugural conference on caste and race at the University of
Massachusetts in Amherst, the town where WEB Du Bois was born and where
his papers are kept.

There,
I told the audience that I had written a 600-page book about the Jim
Crow era in the American south – the time of naked white supremacy – but
that the word “racism” did not appear anywhere in the narrative. I told
them that, after spending 15 years studying the topic and hearing the
testimony of the survivors of the era, I had realised that the term was
insufficient. “Caste” was the more accurate term, and I set out to them
the reasons why. They were both stunned and heartened. The plates of
Indian food kindly set before me at the reception thereafter sat cold
due to the press of questions and the sharing that went on into the
night.

At
a closing ceremony, the hosts presented to me a bronze-coloured bust of
the patron saint of the low-born of India, Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Dalit
leader who had written to Du Bois all those decades before.

It
felt like an initiation into a caste to which I had somehow always
belonged. Over and over, they shared stories of what they had endured,
and I responded in personal recognition, as if even to anticipate some
particular turn or outcome. To their astonishment, I began to be able to
tell who was high-born and who was low-born among the Indian people
there, not from what they looked like, as one might in the US, but on
the basis of the universal human response to hierarchy – in the case of
an upper-caste person, an inescapable certitude in bearing, demeanour,
behaviour and a visible expectation of centrality.

On
the way home, I was snapped back into my own world when airport
security flagged my suitcase for inspection. The TSA worker happened to
be an African American who looked to be in his early 20s. He strapped on
latex gloves to begin his work. He dug through my suitcase and
excavated a small box, unwrapped the folds of paper and held in his palm
the bust of Ambedkar that I had been given.

“This
is what came up in the X-ray,” he said. It was heavy like a
paperweight. He turned it upside down and inspected it from all sides,
his gaze lingering at the bottom of it. He seemed concerned that
something might be inside.
People kneeling at a protest in Trafalgar Square, London, on 5 June 2020
What black America means to Europe
Read more

“I’ll
have to swipe it,” he warned me. He came back after some time and
declared it OK, and I could continue with it on my journey. He looked at
the bespectacled face, with its receding hairline and steadfast
expression, and seemed to wonder why I would be carrying what looked
like a totem from another culture.

“So who is this?” he asked.

“Oh,” I said, “this is the Martin Luther King of India.”

“Pretty cool,” he said, satisfied now, and seeming a little proud.

He then wrapped Ambedkar back up as if he were King himself, and set him back gently into the suitcase.

Caste: The Lies That Divide Us is published by Allen Lane on 4 August

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A statue of Bhimrao Ambedkar under a flyover in Amritsar, India.
People kneeling at a protest in Trafalgar Square, London, on 5 June 2020
āŪĪāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŊ 🏠🏚ïļðŸ˜ïļ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ

āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪ•āŊˆ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ, āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŪāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊ:

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āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŪĪāŊ
āŪĪāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊˆāŪšāŊ āŪšāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ€āŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪū āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐāŪ°āŊ;

āŪ…āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪĢāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ . āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŊ€āŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŸāŊˆāŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊˆ
āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸ āŪ…āŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ.

āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪŊāŪūāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪŊāŪūāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ
āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ. āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŊˆāŪĩāŊˆ
āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪāŪąāŊ āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ.

āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊˆāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸ āŪ…āŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ.
āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊ
āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪŠāŪŸāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪāŪŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ;

āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ
āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪĪāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊ
āŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐāŪ°āŊ. āŪšāŊāŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ, āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ.

āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪŪāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋ āŪ†āŪīāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸ āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ; āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊˆ
āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪŸāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪē āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ - āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ
āŪšāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŪūāŪœāŊāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪģāŪĩāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪŪāŊ; āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ°āŪūāŪœāŊāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊ
āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŊ - āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ,
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°, āŪšāŪŪāŊ‚āŪ•āŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ…āŪģāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ
āŪ’āŪīāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪē āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŊ€āŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ, āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪŪ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪĪāŊ€āŪĩāŪŋāŪ° āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ .

āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ. āŪĪāŊŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ-36
āŪŠ- 237 to 239
āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ. āŪœāŊ†āŪŊāŊ āŪŠāŊ€āŪŪāŊ.                               -āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪšāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪ°āŊ. āŪ°āŪžāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊ


 SEPARATE SETTLEMENT FOR HIS PEOPLE

As to the provision for separate settlements, it is the considered opinion of the Working Committee that :

The
existing village system has the effect of making the Scheduled Castes
in the villages slaves of the Caste Hindus . And if notwithstanding that
the Penal Code: does not recognize slavery, the Scheduled Castes in
every village all over India are in fact the slaves of the Hindus, it is
because of the village system.

Indeed, a more effective method of enforcing slavery upon the Untouchables could not have been devised.

The
existing village system under which everyone knows who is a touchable
and who is an Untouchable, has the effect of making Untouchability
permanent.

 Indeed, a more effective method of making Untouchability permanent could not have been found.
So
long as this village organisation remains unbroken, there can be no
doubt that the Scheduled Castes will continue to remain the
Untouchables, subject to the tyranny and oppression of the Caste Hindus
and will never be able to enjoy free, full and honourable life.

The
Working Committee has, after long and mature deliberation, come to the
conclusion that for the better protection of the Scheduled Castes from
the tyranny and oppression of the Caste Hindus, which may assume vast
magnitude under Swaraj , which is only another name for Hindu Raj , and
to enable the Scheduled Castes to develop to their fullest manhood, to
give them economic and social security, as also to pave the way for the
removal of Untouchability, radical change must be made in the village
system if the Scheduled Castes are to be freed from the ills from which
they are suffering for so many centuries at the hands of the Hindus.

- Babasaheb.
 Vol-17 (Part-2) P- 176 to 178. Good Morning.       Jai Bhim. -Prof. Ranjith


https://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/sewage-suction-truck.html


Pointing
to the rape of a nine-year-old girl in Delhi recently, Bama says: “The
government is incapable of delivering justice to numerous Aboriginal
SC/STs women and girls who continue to face violence and oppression, but
they want to stop those who document their fights. But if they think
that they can take us back to Varnaasrama period by erasing our voices,
they are wrong. I am sure people would want to know more about Sangati
now. Also, I firmly believe the young writers will continue our fight.”






The
Honourable CJI must take up such cases to see that CAPITAL Punishment
is accorded to the Offenders.And alo order the government to procure
Sewage Suction Truck to avoid humans entering manholes getting killed.





In
a statement, the chief minister said that the Delhi University should
stop “looking at the works of Bama and Sukirtharani through political
and communal lens, and should include them back in the syllabus”.





Congress MP Jothimani and CPI(M) leader S. Venkatesan have also demanded that the decision of the Delhi University be repealed.







Mere
Lip sympathy is not enough The Delhi CM is a Rowdy Swayam Sevak (RSS)
when he raised the voice against the fraud EVMs the votes were cast on
behalf of AAM party who symbol is BROOM STICK. The Central and State
Governments must buy sucktion trucks which are available in plenty to
see that manholes are cleared through them. Many Aboriginal SC/STs have
died, are dying and will continue to die if they are forced to enter
manholes and carrying night soil over their heads. Just 0.1% chitpavan
brahmin foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africk, Western
Europe, Western Germany, Eastern Europe, South Russia, Hungary and their
Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) headed by Mad murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi) wanted to retain their manusmriti only to commit
atrocities against SC/STs because of their intolerant, violent, number
one terrorism, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity attitude against 99.9%
Aboriginal societies which is awakened now .These mentally retarded
chitpavan brahmins require mental treatment in mental asylumsrequire
treatment in mental asylums.

https://mc.webpcache.epapr.in/mcms.php?size=large&in=https://mcmscache.epapr.in/post_images/website_350/post_24139367/full.png

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tamil-writers-not-surprised-at-dus-decision-to-remove-their-works/article36116079.ece

The
Delhi University’s decision to remove certain works by two Tamil
writers, Sukirtharani and Bama — whose works on Aboriginal SC/STs women
and their struggles have been celebrated by literary world — has caused
uproar among sections of the progressive and intellegenstia in Tamil
Nadu and rest of Prabuddha Bharat.






Ms.
Sukirtharani, whose works Kaimaru (recompense) and En Udal (My Body)
speak about injustices faced by oppressed women, said that she was “not
surprised at all” by the decision taken by the University to omit her
works.





She
said: “I was not surprised at all. Aboriginal SC/STs voices such as
myself and Bama’s are speaking for all oppressed women, not just
Aboriginal SC/STs women. Our works have been included in the college
syllabus of several states at an all-Prabuddha Bharat level. I don’t see
this necessary as an exclusion of just Aboriginal SC/STs writers as we
have seen how progressive writers whose works speak against caste,
stealth and shadowy hindutva, fundamentalism have also been removed in
the recent past. These things will happen in our society, but we cannot
be ignored. Our works have been translated in several languages abroad
before it became familiar in Prabuddha Bharat [outside Tamil Nadu].”





The
writer felt that it was not correct on the part of Delhi University
administration to remove her works from the syllabus without formal
intimation.





“We
should have been formally informed about why our works were removed. At
the same time, we should also appreciate those who decided to include
it in the first place. I am not going to seek an explanation. My work is
for the society, for all oppressed women. My work Kaimaaru is about
manual scavenging. We are sending human beings to space etc. but we
still allow manual scavenging to continue in our society. When they want
to project an image of Prabuddha Bharat wherein there are no caste and
religious inequalities, our works point out that caste and religious
inequalities exist in our society. So, it is obvious that they want such
works removed from the syllabus.”





Reacting
to Delhi University’s decision, Ms. Bama said that she was “more angry
than upset” and said that the anger would be reflected in future works.





Stating
that she wasn’t sure which of her works - Karukku and Sangati – have
been removed, Ms. Bama said, “Karukku and Sangati have been taught in
colleges in many States all over Prabuddha Bharat and abroad. Sangati
talks about life of Aboriginal SC/STs women who stood against caste
atrocities and discrimination, and it is about people who were very
brave amidst oppression and violence. Karukku is an autobiographical
work and talks about politics of Aboriginal SC/STs people. For more
than 25 years, it has been celebrated by students and many other people.
It is not just my work which has been removed - works of Kancha Ilaiah
and Mahaswetha Devi and Sukirthirani’s - have also been removed,” she
said. [The DU had removed Sangati.]





DU’s move is part of erasure, say writers Sukirtharani and Bama say their work speaks for the oppressed.





For
more than 2000 years, we have been segregated, our histories have not
been written. This government is trying to strangulate our voices, but
we will shout. Bama, writer





She
added, “For more than 2,000 years, we have been segregated, our
histories have not been written. This government is trying to
strangulate our voices, but we will shout. The youth of this nation have
understood [what is happening]. Rather than being upset, we are angry.
The anger will reflect in our works in future.”









https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.thewire.in/article/rights/who-is-afraid-of-womens-voices-ask-tamil-dalit-writers-after-du-drops-them-from-syllabus/amp





‘Who Is Afraid of Women’s Voices?’ Ask Tamil Aboriginal SC/STs Writers After DU Drops Them from Syllabus





‘Both
Bama and Sukirtharani have consistently written on the rights of women,
liberation of the oppressed and the strength of humanity.’





Chennai:
Sukirtharani distinctly remembers the two years she had spent
undergoing teacher’s training at her hometown, Ranipet in Tamil Nadu.





“Every
single day of those two years, I encountered them. I have watched them
from a distance, walked along in silence. I have been a witness to the
casual humiliation they had faced on the streets and still continued
with what they did – carrying shit on their heads. The image stayed with
me, somewhere deep down,” she recalls.





Years
later, the image revisited her when she came across a manual scavenger
on a railway line. “No matter which party is in power, they continue to
exist. They are forced to do the same work. If this is not caste
discrimination, what else is?” she asks. “I have no power to change
things for them. I honestly feel helpless and all I can do is write a
poem.”





Her
poem Kaimaaru translated as ‘Debt’ into English is a powerful
articulation of the indignity associated with manual scavenging, a
brilliant takedown of the caste structure that lent them this indignity
and a sensitive portrayal of manifestation of this guilt at a deeply
personal level.








A piece of hide





sewn into the base of the basket





she sets out.





The blunt-edged scrap-iron sheet





Piled with gathered ashes





is heavy in her arms.





Behind a house that’s fit to split





with too many people in it





she goes – stops there,





her eyes falling on a square





iron sheet





swinging from a nail.





Raising it with one hand





she throws a handful of ashes





inside.





And then,





scraping her forearm on the hole’s jagged edges, she





sweeps and scoops, sweeps and scoops from left to right





tilting it





into the basket.





And when it’s full, and heavy on her head





with the back of her hand





she wipes away yellow water





streaming down her brow.








And then with easy grace





she goes her way.





what I can do for her is not to defecate once





[From
The Oxford Anthology of Tamil Aboriginal SC/STs Writing, edited by D.
Ravikumar and R. Azhagarasan. This excerpt was translated into English
by Vasanta Surya.]





According
to reports, ‘Debt’ is among the two poems of Sukirtharani, along with
some chapters of Bama’s novel Sangati (‘Events’) and Mahasweta Devi’s
story Draupadi, which have been dropped from the syllabus of Delhi
University’s English course. The other poem dropped – My Body – is an
equally powerful work that draws parallels between a woman’s body and
nature – both subject to persistent exploitation.





“It
is how a woman’s body is either wilfully ignored and destroyed by
‘powers.’ I am definitely not surprised that these poems were dropped.
We now have a Union government that believes in Sanatana. But clearly,
they are troubled by what I write. I am not surprised because erasure of
powerful Aboriginal SC/STs voices has always happened. When they cannot
face the truths in our works – mine, Bama’s or Mahasweta Devi’s – they
try to stop us. But our works speak for themselves. They continue to be
taught in many colleges and universities. It’s not just about one Bama
or Sukirtharani, our works are representative of thousands of Bamas and
Sukirtharanis who continue to fight oppression. It is just hard to stop
us speaking,” says Sukirtharani.





Bama
wouldn’t agree more. “We have a Union government that lives 2,000 years
ago and we live in the present. They think women shouldn’t speak out or
fight. Sangati was all about that.”





Published
first in Tamil in 1994 and in English in 2001, Sangati captures the
lives of Aboriginal SC/STs women – their fights to assert their
individual identity even when fighting against caste and patriarchy.
“Every woman in Sangati engages in this fight. But today, we have a
government that doesn’t want women to fight, that doesn’t want to even
give any space to women. They are believers of Manusmriti. Their
politics is too evident in what they have decided to drop,” says Bama.





As
a novel, Sangati continues to be more relevant today given the
struggles of Aboriginal SC/STs women across the country. But it also
intimately portrays the strength and resolve of the women in asserting
their own identities, amidst the constant day-to-day struggle, through
various possible ways. A paradox perhaps best illustrated by this
paragraph from the novel.





“In
our streets the girls hardly ever enjoy a period of childhood. Before
they can sprout three tender leaves, so to speak, they are required to
behave like young women, looking after the housework, taking care of
babies, going out to work for daily wages. Yet, in spite of all their
suffering and pain one cannot but be delighted by their sparkling words,
their firm tread and their bubbling laughter.”





[From
The Oxford Anthology of Tamil Aboriginal SC/STs Writing, edited by D
Ravikumar and R Azhagarasan. This excerpt was translated into English by
Lakshmi Holmstrom]







Kavitha Muralidharan is an independent journalist.
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āŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŊ
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āŪŸāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŸāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ

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āĪķāĨāĪ°āĨ€ āĪ•āĪĻāĨāĪđāĨˆāĪŊāĪūāĪēāĪūāĪē āĪ­āĨ€āĪē āĪ•āĨ€ āĪŪāĪūāĪŪāĨ‚āĪēāĨ€ āĪŽāĪūāĪĪ āĪŠāĪ° āĪ•āĨ€ āĪ—āĪˆ āĪŠāĪŋāĪŸāĪūāĪˆ āĪĩ āĪŦāĪŋāĪ° āĪ‰āĪļāĨ‡ āĪ—āĪūāĪĄāĪžāĨ€ āĪŪāĨ‡āĪ‚
āĪŽāĪūāĪūāĪ‚āĪ§āĪ•āĪ° āĪ˜āĪļāĨ€āĪŸāĪĻāĨ‡ āĪļāĨ‡ āĪđāĨāĪˆ āĪŪāĨŒāĪĪ āĪĶāĪŋāĪē āĪĶāĪđāĪēāĪūāĪĻāĨ‡ āĪĩāĪūāĪēāĨ€ āĪŪāĨ‰āĪŽ āĪēāĪŋāĪ‚āĪšāĪŋāĪ‚āĪ— āĪ•āĨ€ āĪŊāĪđ āĪ˜āĪŸāĪĻāĪū
āĪ…āĪĪāĪŋ-āĪĻāĪŋāĪĻāĨāĪĶāĪĻāĨ€āĪŊāĨĪ āĪļāĪ°āĪ•āĪūāĪ° āĪĶāĨ‹āĪ·āĪŋāĪŊāĨ‹āĪ‚ āĪ•āĨ‹ āĪļāĪ–āĨāĪĪ āĪļāĪœāĪū āĪĶāĨ‡, āĪŽāĨ€āĪāĪļāĪŠāĨ€ āĪ•āĨ€ āĪŊāĪđ āĪŪāĪūāĪāĪ—āĨĪ
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āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĢāŪŋ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ
29-08-2021 (69 āŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪģāŊ)

āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪŠāŪūāŪšāŪūāŪ•āŊ‡āŪŠāŊ

Dhamma 2.3.6

6. āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪšāŊ‡āŪžāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊâ€Œ

1.
āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪģāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪą āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪšāŊ‡āŪžāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪšāŊ‚āŪī āŪœāŊ‡āŪĪāŪĩāŪĐ āŪĩāŪŋāŪđāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪ°āŪŪāŊ
āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĩāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ; 

2. āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ, āŪĪāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪąāŊāŪą,
āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪīāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪīāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪ°āŪšāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪŊāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪŊāŊāŪĩāŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŪĪāŊ. āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŊāŪīāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪŠāŪūāŪŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪ°āŪūāŪœāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪ•āŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°
āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪĢāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. 

3. āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊ, āŪŽāŪĐāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆ āŪĻāŊ€āŪ°āŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪ• āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ…āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ. 

4.
“āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ“āŪŸāŪŋ āŪŪāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪĐ, āŪ…āŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪĐ; āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊ āŪĻāŪēāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‹
āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŊˆ, āŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŊˆ, āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĐāŊ‡āŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ,
āŪĪāŊŠāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĢ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐ
āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ.” 

5. āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŪāŊ, āŪŠāŪĢāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŊ€āŪĪāŊāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪŠ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪŊāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊˆ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ: 

6. “āŪĪāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ,
āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ†āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊâ€ŒāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊāŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ° āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪŽāŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪģāŪĩāŊ
āŪŪāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊˆ āŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪĻāŪŋāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ.

7. “āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪđāŪūāŪ°āŪūāŪœāŪū āŪ‡āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ,
āŪŽāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊŠāŪąāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ€āŪēāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪĩāŪĐāŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ āŪĻāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ€āŪ°āŪūāŪ•. 

8. “āŪĻāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪēāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‹, āŪĪāŊ€āŪŊāŪĐāŪĩāŊ‹ āŪĻāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪīāŪēāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪē āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐ. 

9. “āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪĐ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ‡!  

10.
“āŪ‰āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŋāŪģāŊāŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ.  āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ
āŪ’āŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‰āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪēāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ†āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĪ āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪģāŊāŪģāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪīāŪŋ
āŪĻāŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĩāŊ€āŪīāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪĻāŊ€āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ‡āŪąāŪūāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ.
āŪĪāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪąāŊāŪąāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪīāŪŪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ. 

11. “āŪ…āŪ°āŪš āŪŪāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪĩāŪēāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪĩāŊ‹, āŪĩāŊ€āŪĢāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊâ€ŒāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪĩāŪŋāŪŪāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĩāŊ‹ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ. 

12.
“āŪšāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪšāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŪēāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊˆāŪĩāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ. āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ 
āŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ. 

13.
“āŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪēāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŋāŪšāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪšāŊ‚āŪīāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‹āŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪŸāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€ŒāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪēāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪŪāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪąāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪēāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•
āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. 

14. “āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŸāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪĐ āŪēāŪūāŪŠāŪŪāŊâ€Œ? 

15.
“āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‹āŪ°āŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪēāŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪūāŪŪ āŪ‡āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŊâ€Œ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪŪāŪŊ āŪ’āŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĩāŪģāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĩāŊ‡
āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊˆāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

16. āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŪ°āŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪŽāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŪąāŪĩāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ
āŪ…āŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪī āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ? āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪĪāŊ. āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĐāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪąāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŪāŪūāŪŪāŊāŪĐāŪŋ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪ°āŊ‡āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ. 

17.
“āŪŽāŪĩāŪ°āŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ‹ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ‡ āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪ°āŪūāŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.  āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊˆ āŪŽāŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ‡ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪĩāŊˆ. āŪ‡āŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ
āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪēāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. 

18. “āŪŽāŪēāŊāŪēāŪū āŪĩāŪ•āŊˆāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĢāŊˆāŪŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ. 

19.
“āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆ, āŪĪāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ; āŪĪāŊāŪąāŪĩāŊ‹āŪ°āŊâ€Œ- āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪ’āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊŠāŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ. āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ
āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ‹āŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ
āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ. āŪĩāŊ€āŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪĪāŊāŪąāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ,
āŪ°āŪŋāŪ·āŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪĐ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ. 

20.
“āŪ•āŪūāŪŪ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŊāŪģāŪŪāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊŠāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐ āŪ…āŪŠāŪūāŪŊāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ; āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ. āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ†āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪŊāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠ
āŪ‡āŪŊāŪēāŪūāŪĪāŊ. āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ‡ āŪ‰āŪĪāŪĩāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪĢāŪŋ; āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŊ
(rudder). āŪšāŪŪāŪŊ āŪ…āŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‚āŪĩāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪĻāŊ€āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ. 

21. “āŪĻāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŊˆāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ āŪŊāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪąāŊāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪīāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊ‹āŪŪāŪūāŪ•.

22. “āŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊ€āŪŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŽāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪūāŪĪāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪĻāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŪāŪūāŪ•, āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. 

23.
“āŪ’āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ, āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪģāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪ’āŪģāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ. āŪŪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪ’āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪŸ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ. āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŊŠāŪģāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ. āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŪāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŪĐāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪ’āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ’āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪąāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŪŊāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. āŪ…āŪĩāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊˆ āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊâ€Œ
āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊâ€Œ. 

24. “āŪĻāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ†āŪąāŪŋ āŪĻāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ, āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪ°āŪūāŪ•; āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŪāŊˆ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ āŪ†āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĪ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ. 

25. “āŪšāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ
āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ‹āŪŸāŊ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ āŪĻāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ; āŪ…āŪ°āŪš āŪĻāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ
āŪŽāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪŪāŊ€āŪąāŪūāŪĪāŊ€āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪŪāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊāŪąāŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊâ€Œ, āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪšāŊâ€Œ āŪšāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŪūāŪ•, āŪĪāŪūāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ
āŪŠāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊâ€Œ āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊâ€Œ āŪĻāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆāŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ•āŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊâ€Œ. 

26. āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪŽāŪēāŊāŪēāŪū āŪ…āŪąāŪĩāŊāŪ°āŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŊˆāŪŠāŊâ€Œ āŪŠāŪĢāŪŋāŪĩāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊâ€Œ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸ
āŪŪāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊâ€Œ āŪ…āŪĩāŪąāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪ‡āŪĪāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊâ€Œ āŪ‡āŪąāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋ, āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪąāŪšāŊāŪšāŊ€āŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋ
āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊâ€Œ.
             -āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ

āŪŠāŊŒāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ‡āŪŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ…āŪąāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪ°āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪĢāŪŪāŊ



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