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𝓛𝓔ð“Ēð“Ē𝓞𝓝 4071 Tue 24 Aug 2021 Mahaparinibbana and MahasatipatthanaSuttas in 82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguÊs ClÃĄssico, 83) Classical Punjabi-āĻ•āĻēāĻūāĻļāЀāĻ•āĻē āĻŠāĐ°āĻœāĻūāĻŽāЀ, Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.
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Posted by: site admin @ 4:05 am

𝓛𝓔ð“Ēð“Ē𝓞𝓝 4071 Tue 24 Aug 2021

Mahaparinibbana and MahasatipatthanaSuttas in
82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguÊs ClÃĄssico,
83) Classical Punjabi-āĻ•āĻēāĻūāĻļāЀāĻ•āĻē āĻŠāĐ°āĻœāĻūāĻŽāЀ,

Hunger is the worst kind of illness said Awakened One

Do Good. Grow Broccoli ðŸĨĶ Pepper ðŸŦ‘ Cucumber ðŸĨ’ Carrots ðŸĨ• Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees ðŸŒģ all over the world 🌎 and in Space. Purify Mind. Lead Hilarious 😆 Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal.- Universal Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention.

𝙆𝙊ð™Ļ𝙝𝙞ð™Ģ𝙖𝙧𝙖 ð™‰ð™„ð˜―ð˜―Ä€ð™‰ð˜ž ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖
18𝙛ð™Đ ð˜ŋ𝙞𝙖. 𝙖 3ð˜ŋ 360 𝙙𝙚𝙜𝙧𝙚𝙚 ð™˜ð™žð™§ð™˜ð™Šð™Ąð™–ð™§ 𝙋𝙖𝙜ð™Ī𝙙𝙖 𝙖ð™Đ
𝙒𝙝𝙞ð™Đ𝙚 𝙃ð™Īð™Ē𝙚,
668 5ð™Đ𝙝 𝘞 𝙈𝙖𝙞ð™Ģ 𝙍ð™Ī𝙖𝙙,
8ð™Đ𝙝 ð˜ū𝙧ð™Īð™Ļð™Ļ, 𝙃𝘞𝙇 𝙄𝙄𝙄 𝙎ð™Đ𝙖𝙜𝙚,
𝙋𝙊ð™Ģ𝙞ð™Ū𝙖 ð˜―ð™ƒð™ð™ˆð™„ ð˜―ð™šð™Ģð™œð™–ð™Ąð™Šð™§ð™Š,
𝙈𝙖𝙜𝙖𝙙𝙝𝙞 𝙆𝙖𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙖𝙠𝙖,
𝙋𝙧𝙖𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖 ð˜―ð™ð™–ð™§ð™–ð™Đ 𝙄ð™Ģð™Đ𝙚𝙧ð™Ģ𝙖ð™Đ𝙞ð™Īð™Ģð™–ð™Ą
𝙝ð™Đð™Đð™Ĩ://ð™Ļ𝙖𝙧ð™Ŧ𝙖𝙟𝙖ð™Ģ.𝙖ð™Ē𝙗𝙚𝙙𝙠𝙖𝙧.ð™Ī𝙧𝙜
𝙗𝙊𝙙𝙙𝙝𝙖ð™Ļ𝙖𝙞𝙙2𝙊ð™Ļ@𝙜ð™Ēð™–ð™žð™Ą.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘ð™Ļ4𝙚ð™Ŧ𝙚𝙧@ð™Ī𝙊ð™Đð™Ąð™Īð™Ī𝙠.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē
𝙟𝙘𝙝𝙖ð™Ģ𝙙𝙧𝙖ð™Ļ𝙚𝙠𝙝𝙖𝙧𝙖ð™Ģ@ð™Ū𝙖𝙝ð™Īð™Ī.𝙘ð™Īð™Ē

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82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguÊs ClÃĄssico,
83) Classical Punjabi-āĻ•āĻēāĻūāĻļāЀāĻ•āĻē āĻŠāĐ°āĻœāĻūāĻŽāЀ,


82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguÊs ClÃĄssico,

Visit to Mahasatipatthana Place at New Delhi
Ven Sumanananda Bhikkhu
DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaáđ­áđ­hāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaáđ­áđ­hāna ]
This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.
Note: infobubbles on all Pali words
Pāáļ·i
Uddesa
I. Kāyānupassanā
A. Ānāpāna Pabba
B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
C. Sampajāna Pabba
D. Paáđ­ikÅŦlamanasikāra Pabba
E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
F. Navasivathika Pabba
II. Vedanānupassanā
English
Introduction
I. Observation of Kāya
A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajaÃąÃąa
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds
II. Observation of Vedanā
Uddesa
Evaáđƒ me sutaáđƒ:
Introduction
Thus have I heard: â€Ļ
Ekaáđƒ samayaáđƒ bhagavā kurÅŦsu viharati kammāsadhammaáđƒ nāma kurÅŦnaáđƒ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhÅŦ āmantesi:
On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhÅŦ bhagavato paccassosuáđƒ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: â€Ļ
– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: â€Ļ
–
Ekāyano ayaáđƒ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaáđƒ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaáđƒ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaáđƒ atthaáđ…gamāya, ÃąÄyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaáđƒ cattāro satipaáđ­áđ­hānā. â€Ļ
– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaáđ­áđ­hānas.
Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassÄŦ viharati ātāpÄŦ
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaáđƒ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassÄŦ viharati ātāpÄŦ sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaáđƒ. Citte cittānupassÄŦ viharati ātāpÄŦ sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaáđƒ. Dhammesu dhammānupassÄŦ viharati ātāpÄŦ
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaáđƒ.
Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpÄŦ
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpÄŦ sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpÄŦ sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
Visit to Mahasatipatthana Place at New Delhi



82) Classical Portuguese-PortuguÊs ClÃĄssico,

Mahasatipatthana Sutta - Goenka
Pov Sochon

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

KathaÂ·ÃąÂ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassÄŦ viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
araÃąÃąa-gato vā rukkha-mÅŦla-gato vā suÃąÃąâ€™Ägāra-gato vā nisÄŦdati pallaáđ…kaáđƒ
ābhujitvā ujuáđƒ kāyaáđƒ paáđ‡idhāya parimukhaáđƒ satiáđƒ upaáđ­áđ­hapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. DÄŦghaáđƒ vā assasanto ‘dÄŦghaáđƒ
assasāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; dÄŦghaáđƒ vā passasanto ‘dÄŦghaáđƒ passasāmÄŦ’ ti
pajānāti;
rassaáđƒ vā assasanto ‘rassaáđƒ assasāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; rassaáđƒ vā passasanto
‘rassaáđƒ passasāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paáđ­isaáđƒvedÄŦ assasissāmÄŦ’ ti
sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paáđ­isaáđƒvedÄŦ passasissāmÄŦ’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaáđƒ kāya-saáđ…khāraáđƒ assasissāmÄŦ’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaáđƒ
kāya-saáđ…khāraáđƒ passasissāmÄŦ’ ti sikkhati. â€Ļ
āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪ•āŊ‡āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:


āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪŪāŪūāŪĐ Kammāsadhamma
(āŪ•āŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪšāŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪū) āŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊ, Kurus (āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪ°āŊ) āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ Bhagavā (āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊ) āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ
āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ.

āŪ…āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ•āŪīāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ:
- āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪū
- āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ Bhaddante (āŪŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ‡) āŪŠāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ.Bhagavā (āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪū) āŪšāŊŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊ:
-
āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ,
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪū,āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ āŪ‡āŪĐāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪĪāŊ‚āŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪĻāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪšāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪĪāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪēāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪēāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ,
dukkha-domanassa(āŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ-āŪĪāŊāŪŊāŪ°āŪŪāŊ)āŪŪāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŊ , Nibbāna(āŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ™āŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆ
āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ) āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪēāŊ,āŪ…āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊŠāŪ°āŊāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸ
satipaáđ­áđ­hānas(āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪģāŪĪāŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŊˆ) āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪąāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŊ.

āŪŽāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊ?

āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪū,āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ kāye kāyānupassÄŦ (āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ)
āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ ātāpÄŦ sampajāno satimā,āŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋ āŪŽāŪšāŊāŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪāŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋ āŪŽāŪšāŊāŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪāŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•
Vedanāsu vedanānupassÄŦ āŪ‰āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ
āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋ āŪŽāŪšāŊāŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪāŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•
Citte cittānupassÄŦ viharati ātāpÄŦ sampajāno satimā, āŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪēāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŪŋ
āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.

āŪŪāŪĐāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪēāŊ
āŪ‡āŪŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪ…āŪŠāŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŪŊāŪū(āŪ’āŪīāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ) āŪ•āŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪŪāŪēāŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋ āŪŽāŪšāŊāŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪāŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ
āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.
I. Kāyānupassanā
A. Section on ānāpāna
And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaáđƒ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saáđ…khāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saáđ…khāras, I will breathe out’.
āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ,āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‡,kāya in kāya (āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ?

āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ
āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪū,āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ,āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŸāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊ
āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪŋ āŪ…āŪąāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪšāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‹,āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŊˆ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪ•āŊ€āŪīāŊāŪĻāŊ‹āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋ
āŪŪāŪŸāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ,āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ āŪšāŊ†āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ,āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
sati parimukhaáđƒ. āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ. sato
āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪ•āŪĩāŪĐāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ. āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ
āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ: āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ: āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ: āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ:āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ
āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ: āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊ kāya āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ•āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ,āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡
āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊ kāya āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ,āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ
āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:
kāya-saáđ…khāras āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪū āŪ‡āŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪšāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ.āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ
āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:,āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ
āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:
Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsÄŦ vā dÄŦghaáđƒ vā aÃąchanto
‘dÄŦghaáđƒ aÃąchāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; rassaáđƒ vā aÃąchanto ‘rassaáđƒ aÃąchāmÄŦ’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dÄŦghaáđƒ vā assasanto ‘dÄŦghaáđƒ
assasāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; dÄŦghaáđƒ vā passasanto ‘dÄŦghaáđƒ passasāmÄŦ’ ti
pajānāti; rassaáđƒ vā assasanto ‘rassaáđƒ assasāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; rassaáđƒ vā
passasanto ‘rassaáđƒ passasāmÄŦ’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paáđ­isaáđƒvedÄŦ
assasissāmÄŦ’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paáđ­isaáđƒvedÄŦ passasissāmÄŦ’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaáđƒ kāya-saáđ…khāraáđƒ assasissāmÄŦ’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaáđƒ kāya-saáđ…khāraáđƒ passasissāmÄŦ’ ti sikkhati. â€Ļ
Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saáđ…khāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saáđ…khāras, I will breathe out’.

āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪĪāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪŋ,āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‡,āŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŪŪāŊˆ
āŪ•āŪŸāŊˆāŪšāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊˆāŪšāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪīāŪ•āŊāŪĻāŪ°āŊ, āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪģāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪšāŊāŪīāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪąāŪŋāŪĪāŊ: ‘āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪģāŪŪāŪūāŪĐ āŪšāŊāŪīāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€™;āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪĐ āŪšāŊāŪīāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪąāŪŋāŪĪāŊ: ‘āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪĐ āŪšāŊāŪīāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ
āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊâ€™;āŪ…āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪīāŪŋ,āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ‡,āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ,āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ•
āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ: āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ
āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ: āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ: āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ
āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ:āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŊˆāŪĩāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ.āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ
āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ: āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊ kāya āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ
āŪ•āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ,āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡
āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊ kāya āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊˆ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊ‚āŪ°āŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ,āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ
āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:
kāya-saáđ…khāras
āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪū āŪ‡āŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪšāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‰āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ.āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:,āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪšāŊāŪšāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡
āŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ:āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ‡ āŪŠāŪŊāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ:
Iti
ajjhattaáđƒ vā kāye kāyānupassÄŦ viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassÄŦ
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassÄŦ viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassÄŦ
vā kāyasmiáđƒ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄŦ vā kāyasmiáđƒ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassÄŦ vā kāyasmiáđƒ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaáđ­áđ­hitā hoti, yāvadeva
ÃąÄáđ‡a·mattāya paáđ­issati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiÃąci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassÄŦ
viharati. â€Ļâ€Ļâ€Ļ

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ÃąÄáđ‡a and mere paáđ­issati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. â€Ļ
āŪ‡āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪąāŊ
āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊ kāya in kāya āŪ‰āŪŸāŪēāŊ/āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ,
āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ, āŪ…āŪēāŊāŪēāŪĪāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ
āŪ•āŪūāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŊ‡ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ;āŪŠāŊāŪēāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ
āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋ āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ, āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪēāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ
āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊˆ āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊāŪšāŊ†āŪēāŊāŪēāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ; āŪ‡āŪēāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ
āŪŽāŪšāŊāŪšāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪą āŪ‰āŪĢāŪ°āŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŪĐāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊˆ,āŪšāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŪāŪū āŪĩāŊ†āŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ“āŪ°āŊāŪ…āŪģāŪĩāŊ āŪžāŪūāŪĐāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ“āŪ°āŊāŪ…āŪģāŪĩāŊ paáđ­issati āŪŽāŪĐ āŪŽāŪĢāŊāŪĢāŪŋ āŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪąāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ°āŊ
Mahasatipatthana Sutta - Goenka




As Últimas instruçÃĩes nas prÃģprias palavras de Buddha citaçÃĩes em Sutta Piáđ­aka-Digha Nikāya Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
DN 16 - (D II 137)
Mahāparinibbāna sutta.
{trechos}
As Últimas instruçÃĩes de Buddha em Mahā-Parinibbāna
Este
sutta reÚne vÃĄrias instruçÃĩes que o Buda deu por uma questÃĢo de
seguidores depois de sua morte, o que faz com que seja um conjunto muito
importante de instruçÃĩes para nÃģs hoje em dia.
Eu
vou expor o discurso sobre o Dhamma que ÃĐ chamado Dhammādāsa, possuído
pelo qual o Ariyasāvaka, se ele tÃĢo desejos, pode declarar-se: ‘Para
mim, nÃĢo hÃĄ mais Niraya, nÃĢo mais Tiracchāna-yoni, nÃĢo mais Pettivisaya,
nÃĢo mais Mais estado de infelicidade, de desgraça, de misÃĐria, eu sou
um Sotāpanna, por natureza livre de estados de misÃĐria, certos de ser
destinado a Sambodhi.
E o que, ānanda, ÃĐ
Esse
discurso sobre o Dhamma que ÃĐ chamado Dhammādāsa, possuidor do qual o
Ariyasāvaka, se ele deseja, pode declarar-se: ‘Para mim, nÃĢo hÃĄ mais
Niraya, nÃĢo mais Tiracchāna-yoni, nÃĢo mais Pettivisaya, nÃĢo mais
Infelicidade, de desgraça, de misÃĐria, eu sou um Sotāpanna, por natureza
livre de estados de misÃĐria, certo de ser destinado a Sambodhi?
Aqui, ānanda, um ariyasāvaka ÃĐ dotado de Buddhe AvecCappasāda:
Ele ÃĐ dotado de Dhamme AvecCappasāda:
Ele ÃĐ dotado de saáđ…ghe aveccappasāda:
Ele ÃĐ dotado de um SÄŦla que ÃĐ agradÃĄvel aos Ariyas,
Isso,
ānanda, ÃĐ o discurso sobre o Dhamma que ÃĐ chamado de Dhammādāsa,
possuidor do qual o ariyasāvaka, se ele assim deseja, pode declarar-se:
‘Para mim, nÃĢo hÃĄ mais Niraya, nÃĢo mais Tiracchāna-yoni, nÃĢo mais
Pettivisaya NÃĢo hÃĄ mais estado de infelicidade, de desgraça, de misÃĐria,
sou um Sotāpanna, por natureza livre de estados de misÃĐria, certo de
ser destinado a Sambodhi.
Sato VocÊ deve permanecer, Bhikkhus e Sampajānos. Esta ÃĐ a nossa intruçÃĢo para vocÊ.
E como, Bhikkhus, ÃĐ um BHIKKHU SATO? Aqui, bhikkhus, um bhikkhu
Assim, Bhikkhus, ÃĐ um BHIKKHU SATO. E como, Bhikkhus, ÃĐ um Bhikkhu Sampajāno? Aqui, Bhikkhus,
Assim, Bhikkhus, ÃĐ um Bhikkhu Sampajāno. Sato VocÊ deve permanecer, Bhikkhus e Sampajānos. Esta ÃĐ a nossa intruçÃĢo para vocÊ.
- ANANDA, THE TWIN SALA
As
ÃĄrvores estÃĢo em plena floraçÃĢo, embora nÃĢo seja a estaçÃĢo de floraçÃĢo.
E as flores da chuva no corpo do Tathagata e soltar e espalhar e sÃĢo
espalhadas em adoraçÃĢo do Tathagata. E flores corais celestiais e pÃģ de
sÃĒndalo celestial do cÃĐu chuva para baixo sobre o corpo do Tathagata, e
soltar e espalhar e sÃĢo espalhados em adoraçÃĢo do Tathagata. E o som das
vozes celestiais e instrumentos celestiais faz mÚsica no ar fora da
reverÊncia pelo Tathagata.
NÃĢo
ÃĐ por isso, ānanda, que a Tathāgata ÃĐ respeitada, venerada, estimada,
homenagem e honrada. Mas, Ananda, qualquer bhikkhu ou Bhikkhuni, leigo
ou leigo, restante Dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáđ­ipanna, SāmÄŦci’p'paáđ­ipanna,
Vivendo
de acordo com o Dhamma, que um respeito, venerates, esteiÊncias,
homenageia e honra o Tathāgata com a mais excelente homenagem. Portanto,
ānanda, vocÊ deve treinar-se assim: “Vamos nos manter
Dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáđ­ipanna, SāmÄŦci’p'paáđ­ipanna, vivendo de acordo com o
Dhamma”.
Bhagawan Buddha diz
“Meus
irmÃĢos, existem esses dois extremos que uma pessoa no caminho deve
evitar. Que dois? Um ÃĐ mergulhar a si mesmo em prazeres sensuais. E o
outro ÃĐ praticar asusteridades que privam o corpo de suas necessidades.
Ambos os extremos levam ao fracasso.
“O
caminho que descobri ÃĐ o caminho do meio, que evita ambos os extremos e
tem a capacidade de levar um a entender, libertaçÃĢo e paz. É o nobre
caminho oito do entendimento correto, pensamento certo, discurso
direito, açÃĢo correta, meios de subsistÊncia corretos, esforço certo,
atençÃĢo certa e concentraçÃĢo certa. Eu segui este nobre caminho oito
doito e percebi compreensÃĢo, libertaçÃĢo e paz.
A
primeira ÃĐ a existÊncia de sofrimento. Nascimento, velhice, doença e
morte sofrem. Tristeza, raiva, ciÚme, preocupaçÃĢo, ansiedade, medo e
desespero sofrem. A separaçÃĢo dos entes queridos estÃĄ sofrendo.
AssociaçÃĢo com aqueles que vocÊ nÃĢo gosta estÃĄ sofrendo. Desejo, apego e
agarrar-se aos cinco agregados estÃĢo sofrendo.
“IrmÃĢos, a segunda verdade revela a causa do sofrimento. Por causa
da ignorÃĒncia, as pessoas nÃĢo podem ver a verdade sobre a vida, e elas
se tornam capturadas nas chamas de desejo, raiva, ciÚme, pesar,
preocupaçÃĢo, medo e desespero.
“IrmÃĢos, a terceira verdade ÃĐ a cessaçÃĢo do sofrimento.
Entender a verdade da vida traz a cessaçÃĢo de toda dor e tristeza e dÃĄ origem à paz e alegria.
“IrmÃĢos, a quarta verdade ÃĐ o caminho que leva à cessaçÃĢo do
sofrimento. É o nobre caminho de oitubro, que acabei de explicar. O
nobre caminho de oitados ÃĐ nutrido vivendo conscientemente. A atençÃĢo
plena leva à concentraçÃĢo e compreensÃĢo, com liberta vocÊ de toda dor e
tristeza e leva à paz e à alegria. Eu vou guiÃĄ-lo ao longo deste caminho
de realizaçÃĢo.
“A visÃĢo surgiu, surgiu insights, surgiu discernimento, surgiu o
conhecimento, a iluminaçÃĢo surgiu dentro de mim em relaçÃĢo às coisas
nunca ouvidas antes:” Esta verdade nobre da estresse foi compreendida “.
“A
verdade nobre da cessaçÃĢo do estresse: a completa desbotamento e
cessaçÃĢo, renÚncia, renÚncia, liberaçÃĢo e deixar de lado esse desejo.
Esta verdade nobre da cessaçÃĢo do estresse foi realizada. Esta ÃĐ a nobre
verdade do modo de prÃĄtica, levando à cessaçÃĢo do estresse.
“Assim
que meu conhecimento e visÃĢo em relaçÃĢo a essas quatro verdades nobres
como eles vieram - era verdadeiramente puro, entÃĢo eu reivindicei ter
despertado diretamente para o auto-despertar auto-despertÃĄvel sem graça
no cosmos com todas as suas guias invisíveis, contemplativos, Brahmans,
sua realeza e commonfolk. Conhecimento e visÃĢo surgiram em mim:
‘InabalÃĄvel ÃĐ meu lançamento. Este ÃĐ meu Último nascimento. NÃĢo hÃĄ agora
nenhuma existÊncia renovada “.
Enquanto
Siddhartha estava explicando as quatro verdades nobres, um dos monges,
Kondanna de repente sentiu um grande brilho dentro de sua prÃģpria mente.
Ele poderia provar a libertaçÃĢo que ele havia procurado por tanto
tempo. Seu rosto sorriu de alegria. O Buda apontou para ele e chorou:
“Kondanna! VocÊ tem! VocÊ tem! “
Kondanna
se juntou a suas palmas e curvou-se antes de Siddhartha. Com mais
profundo respeito, ele falou, “Gautama venerÃĄvel, por favor me aceite
como seu discípulo. Eu sei que, sob sua orientaçÃĢo, atingirei o grande
despertar “.
Os
outros quatro monges tambÃĐm se curvaram nos pÃĐs de Siddhartha,
juntaram-se às palmas das mÃĢos e pediram para serem recebidos como
discípulos. Siddhartha disse: “IrmÃĢos! Os filhos da aldeia me deram o
nome “The Buddha”. VocÊ tambÃĐm pode me ligar por esse nome, se quiser. “
Kondanna perguntou: “Buda” nÃĢo significa “quem ÃĐ despertado”? “
“Isso estÃĄ correto, e eles chamam o caminho que descobri” o modo de despertar. “O que vocÊ acha desse nome?”
“Aquele
que ÃĐ despertado ‘! ‘The Way of Despertar’! Maravilhoso! Maravilhoso!
Esses nomes sÃĢo verdadeiros, mas simples. Vamos felizmente te chamar do
Buda, e o caminho que vocÊ descobriu o caminho do despertar. Como vocÊ
acabou de dizer, viver cada dia conscientemente ÃĐ a base da prÃĄtica
espiritual “. Os cinco monges eram de uma mente para aceitar gautama
como seu professor e chamÃĄ-lo de Buda.
O
Buda sorriu para eles. Por favor, irmÃĢos, pratique com um espírito
aberto e inteligente, e em trÊs meses vocÊ terÃĄ alcançado o fruto da
libertaçÃĢo “.
Mountain GIF by Sunshine Village
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As prÃģprias palavras de Buddha citaçÃĩes na assistÊncia à consciÊncia
Mahā + satipaáđ­áđ­hana.
ReligiÃĩes, raças, castas, desigualdades,
Estavam lÃĄ
Existem
E
ContinuarÃĄ a estar lÃĄ!
Dr b.r.bedkar trovejou “Main Bharat Baudhmay Karunga”. (Eu farei este país budista)
Todas
as sociedades despertadas aborígenes trovÃĢo hilarianto “Hum Prapanch
Prabuddha PrapancheMay Karunge.” (NÃģs faremos o mundo inteiro Prabuddha
Prapanch
Isso vai acontecer atravÃĐs
ConvençÃĢo
de intelectuais de prabuddha on-line gratuita em despertar as prÃģprias
palavras para o bem-estar, felicidade e paz para todas as sociedades e
para eles alcançar uma felicidade eterna como objetivo final atravÃĐs de
Mahā + Satipaáđ­áđ­hana - atendimento à consciÊncia por observaçÃĢo da seçÃĢo
de Kāya em ānāpāna, posturas, SampajaÃąÃąa, repulsividade, os elementos,
os nove terrenos de charnel, de Vedanā e citta
EntÃĢo
ReligiÃĩes, raças, castas e desigualdades
NÃĢo estarÃĄ lÃĄ!
Tipitaka.
DN 22 - (D II 290)
Mahāsatipaáđ­áđ­hana Sutta.
Atendimento à consciÊncia de Buddha
Mahā + satipaáđ­áđ­hana.
Este sutta ÃĐ amplamente considerado como a principal referÊncia para a prÃĄtica de meditaçÃĢo.
IntroduçÃĢo
I. ObservaçÃĢo de Kāya
A. SeçÃĢo em ānāpana
B. SeçÃĢo sobre posturas
C. SeçÃĢo em SampajaÃąÃąa
D. seçÃĢo sobre repulsividade
E. SeçÃĢo sobre os elementos
F. SeçÃĢo nos nove terrenos de charnel
Ii. ObservaçÃĢo de Vedanā.
IntroduçÃĢo
Assim eu ouvi:
Em
uma ocasiÃĢo, o Bhagavā ficou entre os Kurus em Kammāsadhamma, uma
cidade de mercado dos Kurus. LÃĄ, ele se dirigiu ao Bhikkhus:
- Bhikkhus.
- Bhaddante respondeu ao Bhikkhus. O Bhagavā disse:
- Esse,
Bhikkhus, ÃĐ o caminho que leva a nada alÃĐm da purificaçÃĢo de
Seres,
a superaçÃĢo de tristeza e lamentaçÃĢo, o desaparecimento de
Dukkha-Domanassa, a realizaçÃĢo do caminho certo, a realizaçÃĢo de
Nibbana, isto ÃĐ, os quatro satipaáđ­áđ­hanas.
Quais quatro?
Aqui, Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya, ātāpÄŦ
Sampajāno, Satimā, tendo desistido de Abhijjhā-Domanassa em relaçÃĢo ao mundo.
Ele
habita observando Vedanā em Vedanā, ātāpÄŦ Sampajāno, Satimā, tendo
desistido de Abhijjhā-Domanassa em relaçÃĢo ao mundo. Ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Citta em Citta, ātāpÄŦ Sampajāno, Satimā, tendo desistido
de Abhijjhā-Domanassa em relaçÃĢo ao mundo. Ele habita observando Dhamma ·
S em Dhamma · S, ātāpÄŦ Sampajāno, Satimā, tendo desistido de
Abhijjhā-Domanassa em relaçÃĢo ao mundo.
I. Kāyānupassanā.
A. SeçÃĢo em ānāpana
E
Como,
Bhikkhus, faz um Bhikkhu Dwell observando Kāya em Kāya? Aqui, Bhikkhus,
um Bhikkhu, tendo ido para a floresta ou tendo ido para a raiz de uma
ÃĄrvore ou tendo ido a uma sala vazia, senta-se dobrando as pernas
transversalmente, configurando Kāya na posiçÃĢo vertical, e definindo
Sati Parimukhaáđƒ. Ser, portanto, Sato, ele respira, sendo, portanto, ele
respira. Respirar hÃĄ muito tempo ele entende: ‘Estou respirando por
muito tempo’; Respirando muito tempo ele entende: ‘Estou respirando por
muito tempo’; RespiraçÃĢo em breve, ele entende: ‘Estou respirando
curto’; RespiraçÃĢo para fora, ele entende: ‘Estou respirando curto’; Ele
se treina: ‘Sentindo o Kāya, eu vou respirar’; Ele se treina: “Sentindo
todo o Kāya, vou respirar”; Ele se treina: “Acalme-se do
Kāya-Saáđ…khāras, vou respirar”; Ele se treina: “Acalme-se do
Kāya-Saáđ…khāras, eu vou respirar”.
Somente
Como,
Bhikkhus, um turner hÃĄbil ou um aprendiz de um turner, fazendo um longo
turno, entende: ‘Estou fazendo um longo turno’; Fazendo uma curta
volta, ele entende: ‘Eu estou fazendo um curto turno’; Da mesma forma,
Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu, respirando por muito tempo, entende: ‘Estou
respirando por muito tempo’; respirando muito tempo ele entende: ‘Estou
respirando por muito tempo’; RespiraçÃĢo em breve, ele entende: ‘Estou
respirando curto’; RespiraçÃĢo para fora, ele entende: ‘Estou respirando
curto’; Ele se treina: “Sentindo todo o Kāya, vou respirar”; Ele se
treina: “Sentindo todo o Kāya, vou respirar”; Ele se treina: “Acalme-se
do Kāya-Saáđ…khāras, vou respirar”; Ele se treina: “Acalme-se do
Kāya-Saáđ…khāras, eu vou respirar”.
Assim, ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente,
ou
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a
observaçÃĢo do Samudaya de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o
passar do fenÃīmeno em Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se
afastando dos fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!”
Sati estÃĄ presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera
paáđ­issati, ele morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim,
Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
B. Iriyāpatha Pabba.
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, enquanto caminhava, entende: ‘Eu estou andando’, ou
Enquanto de pÃĐ ele entende: ‘Eu estou de pÃĐ’, ou enquanto sentado ele
Compreende:
‘Eu estou sentado’, ou enquanto deitei ele entende: ‘Estou deitado’. Ou
entÃĢo, em qualquer posiçÃĢo que seu Kāya esteja disposto, ele entende
isso de acordo.
C. SeçÃĢo em SampajaÃąÃąa
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus,
um bhikkhu, enquanto se aproxima e, ao se aproximar, age com
SampajaÃąÃąa, enquanto olha para a frente e enquanto olha em volta, ele
age com SampajaÃąÃąa, enquanto se dobra e enquanto se alongamento, ele age
com SampajaÃąÃąa, enquanto vocÊ estÃĄ usando as vestes e o roupÃĢo superior
e o roupÃĢo. A tigela, ele age com SampajaÃąÃąa, enquanto comendo,
enquanto bebe, enquanto mastigando, enquanto degustaçÃĢo, ele age com
SampajaÃąÃąa, enquanto participava do negÃģcio de defecar e urinar, ele age
com SampajaÃąa, enquanto estÃĄ sentado, enquanto Dormindo, enquanto
estiver acordado, enquanto fala e ficando em silÊncio, ele age com
SampajaÃąÃąa.
Assim, ele habita observando Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele
habita
observando Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em
Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
D. seçÃĢo sobre repulsividade
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu considera este prÃģprio corpo, desde as solas do
pÃĐs
para cima e do cabelo na cabeça para baixo, que ÃĐ delimitado por sua
pele e cheio de vÃĄrios tipos de impurezas: “Neste Kāya, hÃĄ os cabelos da
cabeça, pÊlos do corpo, pregos, dentes, pele, carne ,
tendÃĩes, ossos, medula Ãģssea, rins, coraçÃĢo, fígado, pleura, baço,
pulmÃĩes, intestinos, mesentery, estÃīmago com seus conteÚdos, fezes, bílis,
fleuma, pus, sangue, suor, gordura, lÃĄgrimas, graxa, saliva, muco nasal,
fluido sinovial e urina “.
Assim
como se, Bhikkhus, havia uma sacola com duas aberturas e cheias de
vÃĄrios tipos de grÃĢos, como colina, paddy, feijÃĢo de mungo, ervilhas,
sementes de gergelim e arroz descascado. Um homem com boa visÃĢo, nÃĢo o
desfilinou, consideraria [seu conteÚdo]: “Isso ÃĐ Hill-Paddy, isso ÃĐ
paddy, esses sÃĢo feijÃĩes de mungo, aqueles sÃĢo ervilhas de vaca, essas
sÃĢo sementes de gergelim e isso ÃĐ arroz descascado”. Da mesma forma,
Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu considera este corpo, das solas dos pÃĐs para cima e
do cabelo na cabeça para baixo,
que ÃĐ delimitado por sua pele e cheia de vÃĄrios tipos de impurezas:
“Neste Kāya, hÃĄ os cabelos da cabeça, pÊlos do corpo,
pregos,
dentes, pele, carne, tendÃĩes, ossos, Ãģssea medula, rins, coraçÃĢo,
fígado, pleura, baço, pulmÃĩes, intestinos, mesentery, estÃīmago com o seu
conteÚdo, fezes, bile, fleuma, pus, sangue, suor, gordura, LÃĄgrimas,
graxa, saliva, muco nasal, fluido sinovial e urina. “
Assim, ele habita observando Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele
habita
observando Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em
Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
apresentando ele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
E. SeçÃĢo sobre os elementos
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu reflete sobre este muito kāya, no entanto, ÃĐ colocado,
No entanto, ÃĐ disposto: “Neste Kāya, hÃĄ o elemento da terra, o
elemento de ÃĄgua, o elemento de fogo e o elemento de ar. “
Assim
como, Bhikkhus, um açougueiro hÃĄbil ou um aprendiz de um açougueiro,
tendo matado uma vaca, se sentava em uma encruzilhada cortando em
pedaços; Da mesma forma, Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu reflete nesta muito kāya,
no entanto, ÃĐ colocado, no entanto, ÃĐ disposto: “Nestekāya, hÃĄ o
elemento da terra, o elemento de ÃĄgua e o elemento de fogo”.
Assim,
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou ele habita
Observando
Kāya em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do
Samudaya de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do
fenÃīmeno em Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando
dos fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de mero Ñāáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Thus ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya;
(1)
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus,
um bhikkhus, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, elenco em um chÃĢo,
um dia morto, ou dois dias mortos ou trÊs dias mortos, inchados,
azulejos e lutados, ele considera isso muito kāya: “This kāya TambÃĐm ÃĐ
de tal natureza, vai se tornar assim, e nÃĢo estÃĄ livre de tal condiçÃĢo
“.
Assim, ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo de
Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya
internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya de
fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(2)
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus,
um bhikkhus, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, elenco em um chÃĢo,
sendo comido por corvos, sendo comido por falcÃĩes, sendo comido por
abutres, sendo comido por garças, sendo comido por cÃĢes, Tigres, sendo
comidos por panteras, sendo comidos por vÃĄrios tipos de seres, ele
considera isso muito Kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal natureza, vai se
tornar assim, e nÃĢo ÃĐ livre de tal condiçÃĢo”.
Assim,
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya
em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita observando o Samudaya de
fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou habita observando a morte de fenÃīmenos em Kāya,
ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e
falando
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(3)
AlÃĐm
disso, Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto,
elenco em um chÃĢo, um esqueleto com carne e sangue, mantido juntos por
tendÃĩes, ele considera isso muito kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal
natureza, vai se tornar assim, e nÃĢo estÃĄ livre de tal condiçÃĢo “.
Assim, ele habita observando Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele
habita
observando Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em
Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(4)
AlÃĐm disso,
Bhikkhus,
um bhikkhus, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto, elenco em um chÃĢo,
um esqueleto sem carne e manchado de sangue, mantido juntos por
tendÃĩes, ele considera isso muito kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal
natureza, vai se tornar assim, e nÃĢo estÃĄ livre de tal condiçÃĢo “.
Assim,
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya
em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(5)
AlÃĐm
disso, Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto,
elenco em um chÃĢo, um esqueleto sem carne nem sangue, mantido juntos por
tendÃĩes, ele considera isso muito kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal
natureza, vai se tornar assim, e nÃĢo estÃĄ livre de tal condiçÃĢo “.
Assim, ele habita observando Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele
habita
observando Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em
Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(6)
AlÃĐm
disso, Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu, como se estivesse vendo um corpo morto,
elenco em um chÃĢo, desconectado ossos espalhados aqui e ali, aqui um
osso da mÃĢo, hÃĄ um osso de pÃĐ, aqui um osso de tornozelo, hÃĄ um osso de
tornozelo Aqui um osso da coxa, hÃĄ um osso do quadril, aqui uma costela,
hÃĄ um osso traseiro, aqui um osso da coluna, hÃĄ um osso do pescoço,
aqui um osso da mandíbula, hÃĄ um osso dente, ou hÃĄ o crÃĒnio, ele
considera isso muito kāya : “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal natureza, vai se
tornar assim, e nÃĢo estÃĄ livre de tal condiçÃĢo”.
Assim,
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya
em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(7)
AlÃĐm disso, Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, assim como se ele fosse
Ver
um corpo morto, elenco em um chÃĢo chÃĢo, os ossos branqueados como uma
concha, ele considera isso muito kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal
natureza, vai se tornar assim, e nÃĢo ÃĐ livre de tal doença.”
(😎.
AlÃĐm disso, Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, assim como se ele fosse
Ver
um corpo morto, elengue-se em um chÃĢo, amontoou os ossos ao longo de um
ano, ele considera isso muito kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal
natureza, vai se tornar assim, e nÃĢo ÃĐ livre de tal uma condiçÃĢo.”
Assim,
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya
em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
(9)
AlÃĐm disso, Bhikkhus, um bhikkhu, assim como se ele fosse
Vendo
um corpo morto, elenco em um chÃĢo chÃĢo, ossos podres reduzidos a pÃģ,
ele considera isso muito kāya: “Este Kāya tambÃĐm ÃĐ de tal natureza, vai
se tornar assim, e nÃĢo estÃĄ livre de tal condiçÃĢo . “
Assim,
ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya internamente, ou ele habita a
observaçÃĢo de Kāya em Kāya externamente, ou habita a observaçÃĢo de Kāya
em Kāya internamente e externamente; Ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya
de fenÃīmenos em Kāya, ou ele habita observando o passar do fenÃīmeno em
Kāya, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se afastando dos
fenÃīmenos em Kāya; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ Kāya!” Sati estÃĄ
presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera paáđ­issati, ele
morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim, Bhikkhus, um
Bhikkhu habita observando Kāya em Kāya.
Ii. ObservaçÃĢo de Vedanā.
E alÃĐm disso, Bhikkhus, como um Bhikkhu habita observando Vedanā em Vedanā?
Aqui,
Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu, experimentando um Sukha Vedanā, Undersands:
“Estou experimentando um Sukha Vedanā”; experimentando um dukkha vedanā,
undersands:
“Estou
experimentando um dukkha vedanā”; Experimentando um Adukkham-Asukhā
Vedanā, Undersands: “Estou experimentando um Adukkham-Asukhā Vedanā”;
Experimentando um Sukha Vedanā Sāmisa, Undersands: “Estou experimentando
um Sukha Vedanā Sāmisa”; Experimentando um Sukha Vedanā Nirāmisa,
Undersands:
“Estou
experimentando um sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; Experimentando um Dukkha
Vedanā Sāmisa, Undersands: “Estou experimentando um dukkha Vedanā
Sāmisa”; experimentando um dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “Estou
experimentando um dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; Experimentando um
Adukkham-Asukhā Vedanā Sāmisa, Undersands: “Estou experimentando um
Adukkham-Asukhā Vedanā Sāmisa”; Experimentando um Adukkham-Asukhā Vedanā
Nirāmisa, Undersands: “Estou experimentando um Adukkham-Asukhā Vedanā
Nirāmisa”.
Assim, ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Vedanā em Vedanā internamente,
ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Vedanā em Vedanā externamente, ou ele habita
observando vedanā em vedanā internamente e externamente; ele habita
Observando
o Samudaya de fenÃīmenos em Vedanā, ou ele habita observando a morte dos
fenÃīmenos em Vedanā, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e se
afastando dos fenÃīmenos em Vedanā; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ
vedanā!” Sati estÃĄ presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e
mera paáđ­issati, ele morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo.
Assim, Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu habita observando Vedanā em Vedanā.
Iii ObservaçÃĢo de Citta.
E alÃĐm disso, Bhikkhus, como um Bhikkhu habita observando citta em citta?
Aqui, Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu entende Citta com Rāga como “citta com
Rāga”, ou ele entende a Citta sem Rāga como “Citta sem Rāga”, ou ele
entende Citta com Dosa como “Citta com Dosa”, ou ele entende a Citta sem
a Dosa “Citta sem Dosa”, ou ele entende Citta com Moha como “Citta com
Moha”, ou ele entende Citta sem Moha como “citta sem moha”, ou ele
entende uma citta coletada como “uma citta coletada”, ou ele entende um
espalhado citta como “uma citta espalhada”, ou ele entende uma citta
expandida como “uma citta expandida”, ou ele entende uma citta
inexperiente como “uma citta inexpancha”, ou ele entende uma citta
superÃĄvel como “uma citta superÃĄvel”, ou ele entende uma citta
insuperÃĄvel como “uma citta insuperÃĄvel”, ou ele entende uma citta
concentrada como “uma citta concentrada”, ou ele entende uma citta nÃĢo
compreendida como “uma citta nÃĢo compreendida”, ou ele entende uma citta
liberada como “uma citta liberada”, ou ele entende uma citta
unliberated como “um Unli citta bered “.
Assim, ele habita a observaçÃĢo de Citta em Citta internamente, ou
habita a observaçÃĢo de Citta em Citta externamente, ou habita a
observaçÃĢo de Citta em Citta internamente e externamente; Ele habita
observando o Samudaya de fenÃīmenos em Citta, ou ele habita observando a
morte dos fenÃīmenos em Citta, ou ele habita a observaçÃĢo do Samudaya e
se afastando dos fenÃīmenos em Citta; ou entÃĢo, [percebendo:] “Isso ÃĐ
citta!” Sati estÃĄ presente nele, apenas na extensÃĢo de meros ÃąÄáđ‡a e mera
paáđ­issati, ele morava destacado, e nÃĢo se apega a nada no mundo. Assim,
Bhikkhus, um Bhikkhu habita observando citta em citta.
OBSERVAÇÕES DIÁRIAS (EP. 39)
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Kannada Meditation Session -11th May 2020 By Ven. Bhikkhu Ananda Bhante
Maha Bodhi Society Bengaluru
āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē§āģāēŊāēūāēĻ āē…āē§āēŋāēĩāģ‡āēķāēĻ -11th āēŪāģ‡ 2020. āē­āēŋāē•āģāē°āģ āē†āēĻāē‚āēĶ āē­āēūāē‚āēŸāģ†
āēŪāēđāēū āēŽāģ‹āē§āēŋ āēļāģŠāēļāģˆāēŸāēŋ āēŽāģ†āē‚āē—āēģāģ‚āē°āģ
āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†: āē‡āēĪāēŋāēđāēūāēļ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēĩāēŋāē•āēūāēļāēĶ āē…āēĶāģāē­āģāēĪ āē•āēĨāģ†
āēĻāēūāēĩāģ āēŪāēūāēĻāēĩāē°āģ āēšāģ†āēĻāģāēĻāēūāē—āēŋ āēŪāēūāēĄāēŽāēđāģāēĶāēūāēĶāē°āģ†, āē…āēĶāģ āēļāē‚āēĩāēđāēĻāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†.
7,117 āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ āē‡āē‚āēĶāģ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĪāģāēĪāēĩāģ†.

āē†
āēļāē‚āē–āģāēŊāģ†āēŊāģ āēĻāēŋāē°āē‚āēĪāē°āēĩāēūāē—āēŋ āēŦāģāēēāē•āģāēļāģāēĻāēēāģāēēāēŋāēĶāģ†, āēāē•āģ†āē‚āēĶāē°āģ† āēĻāēūāēĩāģ āēŠāģāē°āēĪāēŋāēĶāēŋāēĻ āēĩāēŋāēķāģāēĩāēĶ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģ
āēŽāē—āģāē—āģ† āēđāģ†āēšāģāēšāģ āē•āēēāēŋāēŊāģāēĪāģāēĪāēŋāēĶāģāēĶāģ‡āēĩāģ†. āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē…āēĶāē•āģāē•āēŋāē‚āēĪāēēāģ‚ āēđāģ†āēšāģāēšāēūāē—āēŋ, āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ
āēĪāēŪāģāēŪāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēŦāģāēēāē•āģāēļāģāēĻāēēāģāēēāēŋāēĩāģ†. āē…āēĩāē°āģ āēœāģ€āēĩāēĻ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē•āģāē°āēŋāēŊāēūāēķāģ€āēēāē°āēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģāēĶāēūāē°āģ†, āēĻāēŪāģāēŪ
āēķāģ€āē˜āģāē°āēĩāēūāē—āēŋ āēŽāēĶāēēāēūāē—āģāēĩ āēŠāģāē°āēŠāē‚āēšāēĶāēŋāē‚āēĶ āēœāģ€āēĩāē‚āēĪāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāē°āģāēĩāģāēĶāē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ āēļāēŪāģāēĶāēūāēŊāē—āēģāģ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĪāģāēĪāēūāē°āģ†.

āē‡āēĶāģ āēĶāģāē°āģāēŽāēēāēĩāēūāēĶ āēļāēŪāēŊ: āēļāē°āēŋāēļāģāēŪāēūāē°āģ 0% āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ āēˆāē— āē…āēģāēŋāēĩāēŋāēĻāē‚āēšāēŋāēĻāēēāģāēēāēŋāē°āģāēĩāēĩāģ, āēļāēūāēŪāēūāēĻāģāēŊāēĩāēūāē—āēŋ āē‰āēģāēŋāēĶ 1,000 āēļāģāēŠāģ€āē•āē°āģāē—āēģāģ āē‰āēģāēŋāēĶāēŋāēĩāģ†. āēāēĪāēĻāģāēŪāē§āģāēŊāģ†, āē•āģ‡āēĩāēē 23
āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ āē–āēūāēĪāģ†āē—āēŋāē‚āēĪ āēđāģ†āēšāģāēšāģ āēĩāēŋāēķāģāēĩāēĶ āēœāēĻāēļāē‚āē–āģāēŊāģ†āē—āģ†.

āēœāēĻāēŋāēļāēŋāēĶ āēŪāē—āģāēĩāēŋāēĻāģŠāē‚āēĶāēŋāē—āģ† āēŊāēūāē°āēŋāē—āēūāēĶāē°āģ‚ āēļāē‚āēĩāēđāēĻ āēŪāēūāēĄāēĶāģ†āēŊāģ‡ āēŠāģāē°āēĪāģāēŊāģ‡āē•āēŋāēļāēēāģāēŠāēŸāģāēŸāēūāē—
āēŽāģ‡āēŽāēŋ,
āē•āģ†āēēāēĩāģ āēĶāēŋāēĻāē—āēģ āēĻāē‚āēĪāē° āē…āēĶāģ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĩ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēŪāēūāēĻāēĩ āēĻāģˆāēļāē°āģāē—āēŋāē• (āēŠāģāē°āē•āģƒāēĪāēŋāēŊāģ) āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ
āēĩāģāēŊāēūāē•āē°āēĢāēĶ āēŠāģāē°āē•āēūāēšāēŋāēĪ āēŠāģāē°āē­āēūāēĩ āēŽāēĻāģāēĻāģāēĩāģāēĶāģ āē†āē—āēūāē—āģāē—āģ† āēđāģŠāē°āēđāģŠāēŪāģāēŪāģāēĩ āēšāē°āģāēšāģ†āēŊ āēĩāēŋāē·āēŊāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†.
āēĩāēŋāēĶāģāēĩāēūāē‚āēļāē° āēŠāģāē°āē•āēūāē°, āē†āē°āē‚āē­āēŋāē• āēĩāēŊāēļāģāēļāēŋāēĻ āēĻāē‚āēĪāē° āē•āē°āģāēĻāēūāēŸāē•āēĶ āēļāēŪāēūāēœāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēĩāģˆāēĶāģāēŊāē°āģ āēļāģāēĨāēūāēĻ
āēđāģŠāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģāēĶāēūāē°āģ†.
āēķāēūāēļāģāēĪāģāē°āģ€āēŊ āēŪāģāēŊāēūāē—āēœāēŋ āēŪāģāēŊāēūāē—āēĄāēŋ / āē•āģāēēāēūāēļāēŋāē•āēēāģ āēšāē‚āēĶāēļāģŠ āē­āēūāē·āģ† / āēŪāģāēŊāēūāē—āēĄāēŋāē•āē°āēĢ,

āēķāēūāēļāģāēĪāģāē°āģ€āēŊ āēđāģ†āēēāēū āēŽāēļāēū (āēđāģ†āēēāēū āē­āēūāē·āģ†), āēķāēūāēļāģāēĪāģāē°āģ€āēŊ āēŠāēĪāēŋ

āē‡āēĶāģ āē’āē‚āēĶāģ‡ āē†āē—āēŋāē°āģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†. āēŽāģāēĶāģāē§ āēŪāē—āēūāēĄāēŋāēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāēŋāēĶāē°āģ. āēŽāēēāģāēēāēū 7,117 āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ
āē‰āēŠāē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ
āēķāēūāēļāģāēĪāģāē°āģ€āēŊ āēŪāē—āēūāēœāēŋ Magadhi āēķāģ‚āēŸāģ āē†āēŦāģ. āē†āēĶāģāēĶāē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ āē…āēĩāē°āģ†āēēāģāēēāē°āģ‚ āēŪāēūāēĻāēĩ āēœāģ€āēĩāēŋāē—āēģ
āēŠāģāē°āē•āģƒāēĪāēŋāēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēķāēūāēļāģāēĪāģāē°āģ€āēŊāē°āēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģāēĶāēūāē°āģ† (āēŠāģāē°āē•āģƒāēĪāēŋ), āēŽāēēāģāēēāēū āē‡āēĪāē° āēœāģ€āēĩāēŪāēūāēĻāē—āēģāē‚āēĪāģ†āēŊāģ‡
āēĪāēŪāģāēŪāēĶāģ‡ āē†āēĶ āēĻāģāēŊāēūāēšāģāē°āēūāēēāģāēŊāēūāē‚āēœāēūāēœāģāē—āēģāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēļāē‚āēĩāēđāēĻāē•āģāē•āēūāē—āēŋ āēđāģŠāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģāēĶāēūāē°āģ†.
āēĩāē°āģāēĻāēūāē•āģāēŊāģāēēāē°āģ
āēŠāģāē°āēūāē•āģāē°āēŋāēŸāēŋāēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēĪāģŠāēĄāē—āēŋāē°āģāēĩ āēœāēĻāē°āģ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĩ āēœāēĻāēļāē‚āē–āģāēŊāģ†āēŊāēĻāģāēĻāģ (āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ
āē†āēĄāēģāēŋāēĪāēūāēĪāģāēŪāē• āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋ āēŽāēģāēļāēēāēūāē—āģāēĪāģāēĪāēŋāēĪāģāēĪāģ) āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē…āēĶāē°āēēāģāēēāēŋ āēđāģ†āēšāģāēšāēŋāēĻ āē­āēūāē—āēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ
āēŠāģāē°āē­āēūāēĩāēŋāēļāēŋāēĩāģ† āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēŪāģ‚āēēāē—āēģāģ āēļāģ‚āēšāēŋāēļāģāēĪāģāēĪāēĩāģ†. āē‰āēĶāēūāēđāē°āēĢāģ†āē—āģ†, āēŽāēĢāģāēĢāē•āģāē•āēūāē—āēŋ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŠāēĶāēĩāģ
āēŽāēĻāģāēĻāēū āē†āē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āēŽāēĢāģāēĢāē•āģāē•āēūāē—āēŋ āēŠāģāē°āēūāē•āģāē°āēŋāēŸāģ āēŠāēĶāēĩāģ āēĩāēūāēĻāģāēĻāēū āē†āē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āēŠāē°āēŋāēšāēŋāēĪ āē§āģāēĩāēĻāēŋ?

āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊ āē‡āēĪāēŋāēđāēūāēļ

āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāēĩāģ
3 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻ BCE āēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēŠāģāē°āēšāēēāēŋāēĪāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋāē°āģāēĩ āē’āē‚āēĶāģ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊ
āē…āēļāģāēĪāēŋāēĪāģāēĩāēĶ āēŠāģāē°āēūāēĩāģ†āē—āēģāģ āēļāēūāē•āē·āģāēŸāģ āē‡āēĩāģ† āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē­āēūāē°āēĪāēĶāēūāēĶāģāēŊāē‚āēĪ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē•āģ†āēēāēĩāģŠāēŪāģāēŪāģ†
āēĩāēŋāēĶāģ‡āēķāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēđāē°āēĄāēŋāēĩāģ†. āē‰āēĶāēūāēđāē°āēĢāģ†āē—āģ†, ‘āēāēļāēŋāēēāēū’ āēŽāē‚āēŽ āēŠāēĶāēĩāģ āē…āēķāģ‹āē•āēĻ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ
āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģ†, āēĻāē‚āēĪāē° āē…āēĶāēĻāģāēĻāģ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēŋāē‚āēĶ āē’āē‚āēĶāģ āēŠāēĶ āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēĶāģƒāēĒāēŠāēĄāēŋāēļāēēāēūāēŊāēŋāēĪāģ. āēˆ
āē•āģāēĪāģ‚āēđāēēāē•āēūāē°āēŋ āē…āēķāģ‹āē•āēĻ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēđāēēāēĩāēūāē°āģ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŠāēĶāē—āēģāģ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĩāģ†. āēŪāģāē‚āēĶāģ†, āēĻāēūāēĩāģ
āē•āē°āģāēĻāēūāēŸāē• āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē…āēĩāē° āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋāēĻ āēļāģāēĨāēģāē—āēģ āē•āģāē°āēŋāēĪāģ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĩ āē­āģ‚āē—āģ‹āēģāēķāēūāēļāģāēĪāģāē°āēĶ
āē­āģ‚āē—āģ‹āēģāēĶāēŋāē‚āēĶ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊ āēŽāē—āģāē—āģ† āēĩāēŋāēĩāē°āē—āēģāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēĪāēŋāēģāēŋāēŊāģāēĪāģāēĪāģ‡āēĩāģ†.

āē‡āēĶāēēāģāēēāēĶāģ†,
āē•āēĶāē‚āēŽāēļāģāēĻ āēŠāģāē°āēļāēŋāēĶāģāē§ āēđāēēāģāēŪāēŋāēĄāēŋ āēĶāēūāē–āēēāģ†āēŊāģ 5 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶ AD āēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊ
āē…āēļāģāēĪāēŋāēĪāģāēĩāēĶ āēŠāģāē°āēūāēĩāģ†āē—āēģ āēŠāģāē°āēūāēĩāģ†āē—āēģ āēŠāģāē°āēūāēĩāģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āē‡āēĶāē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāēĩāģ āē…āē­āēŋāēĩāģƒāēĶāģāē§āēŋ
āēđāģŠāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģāēĶ āēļāēĪāģāēŊāēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēĻāēūāēĩāģ āēļāģāēĨāēūāēŠāēŋāēļāēŽāēđāģāēĶāģ; āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĩ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēđāēŋāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĻ
āēĩāēŊāēļāģāēļāēŋāēĻāēĩāē°āģ†āē—āģ‚ āēŽāē°āģ†āēŊāēēāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āē•āēūāēĻāģāēĻāēūāēĄāēū āēđāēēāēĩāēūāē°āģ āēĪāēŪāēŋāēģāģ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāē—āēģāēēāģāēēāēŋ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģ†
āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģŠāē‚āēĶāģ āē†āēķāģāēšāē°āģāēŊāē•āē° āēŽāēđāēŋāē°āē‚āē—āēŠāēĄāēŋāēļāģāēĩāģāēĶāģ. 1 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ CE āēĪāēŪāēŋāēģāģ
āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ, āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŠāēĶ ‘āē…āēŊāģāēœāēŊāēūāēŊāēū’ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģ†. āē…āē‚āēĪāģ†āēŊāģ‡, 3 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻ āēĪāēŪāēŋāēģāģ
āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ, ‘āē’āēŠāēŠāēū āēĻāēŠāģāēŠ āēĩāģāēēāēūāēĻāģ’ āēŽāē‚āēŽ āēŠāēĶāēĩāģ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĶāēūāēĶāģāēŊāē‚āēĪ āēŠāģāēĻāē°āēūāēĩāē°āģāēĪāēĻāģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†.
‘āē’āēŠāēĻāēūāēŠāģāēŠ’ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŠāēĶ ‘āē…āēŠāģāēŠāēū’ āē…āēĻāģāēĻāģ āēđāģŠāē‚āēĶāēŋāē°āģāēĩāģāēĶāē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ āē‡āēĶāģ āē—āēŪāēĻāēūāē°āģāēđāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āēˆ
āēķāēūāēļāēĻāē—āēģāēēāģāēēāēŋ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē°āģāēĩ āēĩāģāēŊāēūāē•āē°āēĢ āēĩāēŋāē­āēūāē—āē—āēģāģ āēĪāēŪāēŋāēģāģāē—āēŋāē‚āēĪ āēđāģ†āēšāģāēšāēūāē—āēŋ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāē•āģāē•āģ† āēđāģ†āēšāģāēšāģ
āēļāģ‡āē°āēŋāēĩāģ† āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēđāēēāēĩāēūāē°āģ āēĩāēŋāēĶāģāēĩāēūāē‚āēļāē°āģ āēĻāē‚āēŽāģāēĪāģāēĪāēūāē°āģ†.
āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāēĩāģ
450 āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶ AD āēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āē†āēĄāēģāēŋāēĪāēūāēĪāģāēŪāē• āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋ āēŪāēūāē°āģāēŠāēŸāģāēŸāēŋāēĶāģ†. āēđāģāēŊāēūāēēāģāēŪāēŋāēĄāēŋ
āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĩāģ†āē‚āēĶāģ āē•āē°āģ†āēŊāēēāģāēŠāēĄāģāēĩ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēļāē‚āēŠāģ‚āē°āģāēĢāēĩāēūāē—āēŋ āēŠāģ‚āē°āģāēĢ-āē‰āēĶāģāēĶāēĶ āē•āēēāģāēēāēŋāēĻ
āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĶāēŋāē‚āēĶāēūāē—āēŋ āēĻāēūāēĩāģ āē‡āēĶāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēĪāēŋāēģāēŋāēĶāēŋāēĶāģāēĶāģ‡āēĩāģ†. āē•āē°āģāēĻāēūāēŸāē•āēĶ āēļāēŪāēūāēœ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēļāē‚āēļāģāē•āģƒāēĪāēŋāēŊ
āē†āē°āē‚āē­āēŋāē• āēļāē‚āēļāģāē•āģƒāēĪāēŋ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēŪāēūāēĶāē°āēŋāē—āēģāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēŠāēĪāģāēĪāģ†āēđāēšāģāēšāģāēĩāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēˆ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĩāģ āē…āēŪāģ‚āēēāģāēŊāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†.
āē•āģāēĪāģ‚āēđāēēāē•āēūāē°āēŋāēŊāēūāē—āēŋ, āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāē—āēģāģ āē•āē°āģāēĻāēūāēŸāē•āēĶāēēāģāēēāģ‡ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē°āģāēĩāģāēĶāēŋāēēāģāēē āē†āēĶāē°āģ†
āēŪāēđāēūāē°āēūāē·āģāēŸāģāē°, āē†āē‚āē§āģāē°āēŠāģāē°āēĶāģ‡āēķ, āēĪāģ†āēēāē‚āē—āēūāēĢ, āēĪāēŪāēŋāēģāģāēĻāēūāēĄāģ, āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē•āģ†āēēāēĩāģŠāēŪāģāēŪāģ† āēŪāē§āģāēŊāēŠāģāē°āēĶāģ‡āēķāēĶ
āē‰āēĪāģāēĪāē°āēĶ āē°āēūāēœāģāēŊāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēĩāģāēŊāēūāēŠāē•āēĩāēūāē—āēŋ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē°āģāēĪāģāēĪāēĩāģ†. āēđāģŒāēĶāģ, āēŪāē§āģāēŊāēŠāģāē°āēĶāģ‡āēķ. āēœāēŽāēēāģāēŠāģāē°āģ
(āē‡āē‚āēĶāēŋāēĻ āēŪāē§āģāēŊāēŠāģāē°āēĶāģ‡āēķ) āēŽāēģāēŋ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāēĩāģ āē•āē‚āēĄāģāēŽāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģ†, āē‡āēĶāģ āē•āģƒāē·āģāēĢ III āē°
āē†āēģāģāēĩāēŋāē•āģ†āēŊāēŋāē‚āēĶ āēŽāē‚āēĶāēŋāēĶāģ† āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēĻāē‚āēŽāēēāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āē‡āēĶāģ āē‡āē‚āēĄāēŋāēŊāēū āēĻāē—āē°āē—āēģ āēĻāēĄāģāēĩāēŋāēĻ āē…āē‚āēĪāē°-āēļāē‚āēĩāēđāēĻ
āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģ āēŽāē—āģāē—āģ† āēĻāēŪāē—āģ† āēđāģ‡āēģāģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†. āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēĩāēŋāēĩāēŋāē§ āēķāēūāēļāēĻāē—āēģāģ āēŽāē°āēĄāģ
āē­āēūāē—āē—āēģāēūāē—āēŋāēĩāģ†-āēŠāģ‚āē°āģāēĩ-āēđāēģāģ†āēŊ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ (450 āē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ 800 AD) āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēđāēģāģ†āēŊ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ (800 āē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ
1000 AD) āē†āē—āēŋ āēĩāē°āģāē—āģ€āē•āē°āēŋāēļāēŽāēđāģāēĶāģ āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēĪāēŋāēģāēŋāēŊāģāēĩāģāēĶāģ āēļāēđ āēŪāģāē–āģāēŊāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āēļāēđāēœāēĩāēūāē—āēŋ,
āēŠāģāē°āēļāģāēĪāģāēĪ āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĩ āē­āēūāē·āģ† āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āē•āē°āģ†āēŊāēēāēūāē—āģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†.
117 āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāēĻāģāēĻāģ https://translate.google.com āēĻāēŋāē‚āēĶ āē…āēĻāģāēĩāēūāēĶāēŋāēļāēēāēūāē—āģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†

āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊ

āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ
āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēŪāģ‚āē°āģ āē­āēūāē—āē—āēģāēūāē—āēŋ āēĩāēŋāē‚āē—āēĄāēŋāēļāēēāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ† - āēđāēģāģ†āēŊ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ, āēŪāē§āģāēŊ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ,
āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ. āē†āē°āē‚āē­āēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē•āģ†āēēāēļāēĩāģ āē…āēĶāē° āēĩāģāēŊāēūāē•āē°āēĢ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊ āēķāģˆāēēāēŋāē—āēģ
āēŽāē—āģāē—āģ† āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĪāģāēĪāēūāēģāģ† āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē†āē°āē‚āē­āēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēŠāē āģāēŊāē—āēģāģ āē…āē­āēŋāē§āēĩ āēŠāē‚āēŠāēūāēĶāēŋāē‚āēĶ 12 āēĻāģ‡
āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶ āē°āēūāēŪāēūāēŊāēĢ āēŪāģāē‚āēĪāēūāēĶ āē§āēūāē°āģāēŪāēŋāē• āēĩāēŋāē·āēŊāē—āēģ āēŪāģ‡āēēāģ† āē•āēĩāēŋāēĪāģ†āē—āēģāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģāēĶāēĩāģ. āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ
āē•āēūāēĶāē‚āēŽāē°āēŋāē—āēģ āēŽāē—āģāē—āģ† āēŪāēūāēĪāēĻāēūāēĄāģāēĪāģāēĪāēū, āē•āēūāēĻāģāēĻāēūāēĄāēū āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĶ āēŪāģāē‚āēšāēŋāēĻ āē°āģ‚āēŠāē—āēģāēēāģāēēāēŋ
āē’āē‚āēĶāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†, āē‡āēĶāēĻāģāēĻāģ āē•āēūāēĶāē‚āēŽāē°āēŋ āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āēŠāē°āēŋāē—āēĢāēŋāēļāēŽāēđāģāēĶāģ. āē•āēĨāģ†āēŊāģ āē°āēūāēœāē•āģāēŪāēūāē° āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ
āē°āēūāēœāē•āģāēŪāēūāē°āēŋāēŊ āēĻāēĄāģāēĩāēŋāēĻ āēŠāģāē°āģ€āēĪāēŋāēŊ āē•āēĨāģ†āēŊāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēĻāēŋāē°āģ‚āēŠāēŋāēļāģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†. āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģŠāē‚āēĶāģ āēŠāģāē°āēļāēŋāēĶāģāē§
āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĩāģ āēļāēĶāēūāē•āē°āēūāēĶāģ‡āēĩāē°āēŋāē‚āēĶ “āē°āēūāēœāēķāģ‡āē–āē°āēū āēĩāēŋāēēāēūāēļ” āē†āē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āē‡āēĶāģ 1657 āē°āēēāģāēēāēŋ
āēŽāē°āģ†āēŊāēēāģāēŠāēŸāģāēŸ āē•āēūāēēāģāēŠāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĨāģ†āēŊāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģāēĶāģ, āē‡āēĶāģ āē—āēĶāģāēŊ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē•āēĩāēŋāēĪāģ†āē—āēģāēĻāģāēĻāģ
āē’āēģāē—āģŠāē‚āēĄāēŋāē°āģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†. 20 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶāēŋāē‚āēĶ, āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĩāģ āēŽāē°āēĩāēĢāēŋāē—āģ†āēŊ āēŠāē°āēŋāē•āēēāģāēŠāēĻāģ†āēŊāēŋāē‚āēĶ
āēŠāģāē°āē­āēūāēĩāēŋāēĪāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēŽāē°āēĩāēĢāēŋāē—āģ†āēŊ āēķāģˆāēēāēŋāē—āēģ āēŪāē§āģāēŊāē‚āēĪāē°āēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ āē•āē‚āēĄāēŋāēĪāģ.

āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēŠāģāē°āēŪāģāē– āēĩāģāēŊāē•āģāēĪāēŋāē—āēģāģ

āēŪāēđāēūāē°āēūāēœ
āē•āģƒāē·āģāēĢāē°āēūāēœ āēĩāģŠāēĄāģ†āēŊāē°āģ III 19 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶ āē†āē°āē‚āē­āēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āēļāē‚āēļāģāē•āģƒāēĪ āēŪāēđāēūāē•āēūāēĩāģāēŊāē—āēģ āē†āē§āēūāē°āēĶ
āēŪāģ‡āēēāģ† āē—āēĶāģāēŊāēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēŽāē°āģ†āēŊāēēāģ āēŠāģāē°āēūāē°āē‚āē­āēŋāēļāēŋāēĶāēūāē— āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĩāģ āēĪāēĻāģāēĻ
āēŽāģ†āēģāēĩāēĢāēŋāē—āģ†āēŊāēĻāģāēĻāģ āē•āē‚āēĄāēŋāēĪāģ. āēŪāģŠāēĶāēē āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē•āēūāēĶāē‚āēŽāē°āēŋāēŊāģ āē•āģ†āē‚āēŠāģ āēĻāēūāē°āēūāēŊāēĢ
“āēŪāģāēĶāģāē°āēŪāē‚āēœ”. 20 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶ āēŪāģāē‚āēœāēūāēĻāģ† b.m. āēķāģāē°āģ€āē•āēūāē‚āēĪāēūāēŊ āē…āēĨāēĩāēū āēŽāēŋ.āēŽāēŪāģ. āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē•
āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ āē•āģāē°āēūāē‚āēĪāēŋāē—āģŠāēģāēŋāēļāēŋāēĶ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēđāģ€āē—āģ† āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĶ āēĪāē‚āēĶāģ†
‘āēŽāē‚āēĶāģ āē•āē°āģ†āēŊāēēāģāēŠāēĄāģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†. B.m. āēķāģāē°āģ€ āēĪāēĻāģāēĻ āē•āģ†āēēāēļāēĩāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēŠāģāē°āē•āēŸāēŋāēļāēŋāēĶāē°āģ - āē‡āē‚āē—āģāēēāēŋāē·āģ
āē—āģ€āēĪāēūāēŊāģāē—āēūāēēāģ - āē‡āē‚āē—āģāēēāēŋāē·āģāē—āģ† āē…āēĻāģāēĩāēūāēĶāēŋāēļāēēāēūāēĶ āē•āēĩāēŋāēĪāģ†āē—āēģ āēļāē‚āē—āģāē°āēđ. āē†āē§āģāēĻāēŋāē• āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ
āēđāģŠāēļ, āēŪāģ‚āēē āē•āģ†āēēāēļāēĶ āēŽāē°āēĩāēĢāēŋāē—āģ†āēŊāēŋāē‚āēĶ āēˆ āēŊāģāē—āēĩāģ āē—āģāē°āģāēĪāēŋāēļāēēāģāēŠāēŸāģāēŸāēŋāēĪāģ, āē†āēĶāē°āģ† āēāē•āē•āēūāēēāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ
āēđāēģāģ†āēŊ āē°āģ‚āēŠāē—āēģāēĻāģāēĻāģ āēŽāēŋāēŸāģāēŸāģāēđāģ‹āē—āģāēĪāģāēĪāēĶāģ†. āē•āģ†āēēāēĩāģ āēŠāģāē°āēļāēŋāēĶāģāē§ 21 āēĻāģ‡ āēķāēĪāēŪāēūāēĻāēĶ āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ
āēŽāē°āēđāē—āēūāē°āē°āģ āē•āģāēĩāģ†āē‚āēŠāģ, āēĩāēŋ.āē•āģ†. āē—āģ‹āē•āēūāē•āģ, āē•āģ†. āēķāēŋāēĩāē°āēūāēŪāģ āē•āē°āēūāē‚āēĪāģ, āēķāģāē°āģ€āēĻāēŋāēĩāēūāēļ, āē—āēŋāē°āģ€āēķāģ
āē•āēūāē°āģāēĻāēūāēĄāģ, āēŊāģ.āē†āē°āģ. āē…āēĻāē‚āēĪāēŪāģ‚āē°āģāēĪāēŋ, āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē…āē‚āēŽāēŋāē•āēūāēŸāēĻāēŸāēŸāģāēŸāēū.

āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ
āē­āēūāē·āģ† āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēļāēūāēđāēŋāēĪāģāēŊāēĶ āēœāēĻāēĻ āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēĻāē‚āēĪāē°āēĶ āēŽāģ†āēģāēĩāēĢāēŋāē—āģ† āēĻāēŋāēœāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēŊāģ‚ āē†āē•āē°āģāē·āē•āēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†.
āēŪāģāē‚āēšāēŋāēĻ āē…āēĩāē§āēŋāē—āēģāēŋāē‚āēĶ āēđāģŠāē°āēđāģŠāēŪāģāēŪāģāēĪāģāēĪāēŋāēĶāģ† āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē‡āēĻāģāēĻāģ‚ āēŽāēēāēĩāēūāēĶāēĶāģāēĶāģ, āē•āēĻāģāēĻāēĄ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊāēēāģāēēāēŋāēĻ
āē•āģƒāēĪāēŋāē—āēģāģ āē†āēķāģāēšāē°āģāēŊ. āēŠāģāē°āēĪāēŋāēŊāģŠāē‚āēĶāģ āēŠāģāē°āēĶāģ‡āēķāēĶāēēāģāēēāēŋ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āēŊ āē°āģ‚āēŠāēūāē‚āēĪāē°āēĶ āēđāē‚āēĪāē—āēģāģ
āēļāēūāēŪāēūāēĻāģāēŊāēĩāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āēđāēŋāē‚āēĶāēŋ, āēŪāē°āēūāē āēŋ, āēŠāē‚āēœāēūāēŽāēŋ, āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āē‡āē‚āē—āģāēēāēŋāē·āģāēĻāē‚āēĪāēđ āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāģ
āēĩāē°āģāē·āē—āēģāēŋāē‚āēĶ āēĩāēŋāē•āēļāēĻāē—āģŠāē‚āēĄāēŋāēĩāģ† āēŪāēĪāģāēĪāģ āēŽāēĶāēēāēūāē—āēŋāēĶāģ†. āēˆ āēŽāēĶāēēāēūāēĩāēĢāģ†āē—āēģāģ āēĻāēŪāē—āģ† āēĪāēŋāēģāēŋāēĶāēŋāē°āģāēĩāē‚āēĪāģ†
āē­āēūāē·āģ†āē—āēģāēŋāē—āģ† āēœāēĻāģāēŪ āēĻāģ€āēĄāģāēĪāģāēĪāēĩāģ†.

Kannada Language: A Glorious Story of History and Evolution
If there is anything we humans can do well, it is communication.

7,117 languages are spoken today.

That
number is constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the
world’s languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves
are in flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whose
lives are shaped by our rapidly changing world.

This
is a fragile time: Roughly 0% of languages are now endangered, often
with less than 1,000 speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23
languages account for more than half the world’s population.

When a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby,
after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) a topic of
discussion which frequently emerges when one talks about Kannada is the
influence of Prakrit on Kannada grammar. According to scholars, Prakrit
has had a spot in Karnataka’s society since the early ages.

Classical Magahi Magadhi /Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit,
Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),Classical Pāáļ·i
which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7,117 languages and
dialects
are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are
Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other
living speices have their own naturallanguages for communication.

Sources
suggest that people engaging in vernacular Prakrit may have come into
contact with the Kannada speaking population (before Kannada was used as
an administrative language) and thus influenced a large part of it. For
example, the Kannada word for colour is Banna. The Prakrit word for
color is Vanna. Sound familiar?

History of Kannada Language

Kannada
is a language that was prevalent even in the 3rd Century BCE. The proof
of the existence of the Kannada language is plenty and scattered all
around India and sometimes abroad. For instance, a word called ‘isila’
was found on an Ashokan inscription, which was later confirmed to be a
word from the Kannada language. Several Kannada words were found on this
curious Ashokan inscription. Next, we know the details regarding the
language from Ptolemy’s book, The Geography which speaks of the places
in Karnataka and their language.

Moreover,
the famous Halmidi record of the Kadambas is one of the oldest living
pieces of evidence of the existence of the Kannada language in the 5th
century AD. From this we can well establish the fact that Kannada was a
developed language; both spoken and written from the very early ages.
Another surprising revelation suggested that Kannada was also found in
several Tamil inscriptions. In a 1st century CE Tamil inscription, the
Kannada word ‘ayjayya ‘was found. Similarly, in a 3rd Century Tamil
inscription, the word ‘oppa nappa vlan’ has been repeated throughout the
inscription. This is noteworthy because ‘oppanappa’ contains the
Kannada word ‘Appa’. Several scholars believe that the grammatical
categories found in these inscriptions belong more to Kannada rather
than to Tamil.

Kannada
had become an administrative language around 450 century AD. We know
this due to a full-length stone inscription entirely in the Kannada
language known as the Halmidi inscription. This inscription has been
invaluable in tracing the early culture and paradigms of the society and
culture in Karnataka. Interestingly, Kannada inscriptions are not only
found in Karnataka but are also extensively found in Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, and sometimes in the northern state of
Madhya Pradesh. Yes, Madhya Pradesh. A Kannada inscription was found
near Jabalpur (present-day Madhya Pradesh) which is believed to have
been from the reign of Krishna III. This also tells us about the
inter-communication and reach of languages between the then-cities of
India. It is also important to know that the various inscriptions in
Kannada can be categorized into two segments- Pre-old Kannada (450 to
800 AD) and old Kannada (800 to 1000 AD). Of course, the language
currently spoken is termed Modern Kannada.

117 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com

Kannada Literature

The
Kannada literature has been divided into three parts – Old Kannada,
Middle Kannada, and Modern Kannada. The earliest Kannada work speaks
about its grammar and literary styles and most of the early Kannada
texts were poems on religious subjects such as the 12th century Ramayana
by Abhinava Pampa. Speaking about Kannada novels, one of the earliest
forms of Kannada literature which can be considered as a novel is,
“Nemicandra’s Lilavati”. The story narrates the love story between a
prince and a princess. Another famous Kannada literature is “Rajashekara
Vilasa” by Sadaksaradeva. It is a fictional story written in 1657 which
contains both prose and poetry. From the 20th century, Kannada
literature was influenced by the Western concept of writing and saw an
intermix of writing styles.

Key Figures in Modern Kannada Literature

Modern
Kannada literature saw its development when Maharaja Krishnaraja
Wodeyar III began writing prose based on Sanskrit epics in the early
19th century. The first Modern Kannada novel is”Mudramanjusha” by Kempu
Narayana. The dawn of the 20th century saw the emergence of B.M.
Srikantaiah or B.M. Sri, who revolutionized Modern Kannada literature
and is thus termed as the ‘Father of modern Kannada literature’. B.M.
Sri published his work – English Geethegalu – a collection of poems that
are translated into English. This era was marked by the writing of new,
original work in Modern Kannada, while simultaneously leaving behind
the old forms. Some other famous 21st century Kannada writers include
Kuvempu, V.K. Gokak, K. Shivaram Karanth, Srinivasa, Girish Karnad, U.R.
Ananthamurthy, and Ambikatanayadatta.

The
birth and subsequent development of the Kannada language and literature
is truly fascinating. Emerging from the earliest periods and still
going strong, the works in the Kannada language are a wonder. The stages
of transformation of a language are common in every region. Even
languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Punjabi, and English have evolved and
changed over the years. These changes give birth to the languages as we
know them.

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Kannada Meditation Session -11th May 2020 By Ven. Bhikkhu Ananda Bhante


83) Classical Punjabi-āĻ•āĻēāĻūāĻļāЀāĻ•āĻē āĻŠāĐ°āĻœāĻūāĻŽāЀ,
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āĻ‡āĻļ
āĻļāЂāĻŸāĻū āĻĻāЇ āĻ•āĻˆ āĻĪāĻ°āЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЀāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻđāĻĶāĻūāĻ‡āĻĪāĻūāĻ‚ āĻ‡āĻ•āĐąāĻĪāĻ° āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻĩāĻūāĻēāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ‰āĻļ āĻĶāЇ āĻŽāЀāĻĪāĻĢ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŽāĻūāĻ…āĻĶ
āĻšāЇāĻēāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻĶāЀ āĻ–āĻžāĻūāĻĪāĻ° āĻŠāЈāĻēāЇ āĻĶāЀ āĻ–āĻžāĻūāĻĪāĻ° āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻĶāĻŋāĐąāĻĪāĻū, āĻœāЋ āĻ…āĐąāĻœ āĻ•āĐąāĻē āĻļāĻūāĻĄāЇ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ‡āĻđ āĻ‡āĻ• āĻŽāĻđāЁāĻĪ
āĻđāЀ āĻŪāĻđāĐąāĻĪāĻĩāĻŠāЂāĻ°āĻĢ āĻļāĻŪāЂāĻđ āĻŽāĻĢāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ.
āĻŪāЈāĻ‚
āĻ§āĻŪāĻĶāĻļāĻžāĻū āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ­āĻūāĻļāĻžāĻĢ āĻĶāĻŋāĐąāĻĪāĻū āĻœāĻŋāĻļ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ…āĻĪāĻ°āĻļāĻĩāĻūāĻ•āĻū āĻļāЀ, āĻœāЋ āĻ•āĻŋ āĻ‰āĻđ āĻšāĻūāĻđāЁāĐ°āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ: āĻ‡āĐąāĻĨāЇ
āĻŪāЇāĻ°āЇ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ•āЋāĻˆ āĻĻāĻŋāĻ°āĻļāĻŋāĻšāĻĻāĻū-āĻŊāЋāĻĻāЀ āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚, āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ āĻŽāĻĶāĻ•āĻŋāĻļāĻŪāĻĪāЀ, āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ– āĻĶāЀ āĻĩāĻ§āЇāĻ°āЇ āĻļāĻĨāĻŋāĻĪāЀ, āĻŪāЈāĻ‚
āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЇ āĻ°āĻūāĻœāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻļāЁāĻ­āĻūāĻ… āĻŪāЁāĻ•āĻĪ āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ‡āĻ• āĻļāЋāĻŸāЀāĻŠāЈāĻĻāĻū āĻđāĻūāĻ‚, āĻļāĻŪāĻŽāĻĶāЀ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻĻāĻŋāĻļāĻžāĻšāĻĪ
āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻēāĻˆ.
āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ•āЀ, āĻĪāĻūāĻ†āĻ‚āĻĄāĻū, āĻđāЈ
āĻ‰āĻđ
āĻ§āĻūāĻŪāĻĶāĻĶāĻūāĻļāЀāĻ† āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ­āĻūāĻļāĻžāĻĢ āĻĶāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ āĻœāĻŋāĻļ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ…āĻĪāĻ°āĻļāĻĩāĻūāĻ•āĻū āĻļāЀ, āĻœāЋ āĻ•āĻŋ āĻ‰āĻļāĻĻāЇ āĻ†āĻŠāĻĢāЀ
āĻ‡āĐąāĻ›āĻūāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāĻū āĻāĻēāĻūāĻĻ āĻ•āĻ° āĻļāĻ•āĻĶāĻū āĻđāĻūāĻ‚: āĻ‡āĐąāĻĨāЇ āĻŪāЇāĻ°āЇ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ•āЋāĻˆ āĻĻāĻŋāĻ°āĻūāĻ–āЀāĻ† āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚, āĻ•āЋāĻˆ āĻđāЋāĻ° āĻ°āĻūāĻœ
āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚, āĻŽāĻĶāĻ•āĻŋāĻļāĻŪāĻĪāЀ, āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ– āĻĶāĻū āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–, āĻŪāЈāĻ‚.. āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЇ āĻ°āĻūāĻœāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŪāЁāĻĶāĻ°āĻĪ āĻĶāЁāĻ†āĻ°āĻū,
āĻļāĻŪāĻŽāĻūāĻĄāЀ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ•āĻŋāĻļāĻĶāЀ āĻĻāĻŋāĻļāĻžāĻšāĻĪ āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ‡āĻ• āĻļāЋāĻŸāЀāĻŠāЈāĻĻāĻū āĻđāЈ?
āĻ‡āĐąāĻĨāЇ, āĻ…āĻĻāĻūāĻĶ, āĻ‡āĐąāĻ• āĻ…āĻ°āĻŋāĻŊāĻūāĻļāĻĩāĻūāĻ•āĻū āĻŽāЁāĻĄāĻŋāĻ† āĻ…āĻĩāЇāĻļāĻ•āĻūāĻŠāĻūāĻļāĻĶāĻū āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻŽāĻ–āĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻ† āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ:
āĻ‰āĻļāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ§āĻūāĻŪ āĻ…āĻĩāЇāĻ•āĻūāĻ°āĻāĻ•āĻļāĻŠāЀāĻļāĻĶāĻū āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻŽāĻ–āĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻ† āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ:
āĻ‰āĻļāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ‰āĻŠāĻšāĻūāĻ°āЀ āĻāĻĩāЀāĻ•āĻūāĻļāĻĶāĻū āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻĶāĻŋāĐąāĻĪāĻū āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ:
āĻ‰āĻđ āĻ‡āĐąāĻ• āĻļāЀāĻēāĻū āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻŽāĻ–āĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻ† āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ āĻœāЋ āĻ…āĻĪāĻ°āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻđāĻŋāĻŪāĻĪ āĻđāЈ,
āĻ‡āĻđ,
āĻ…āĻĻāĻūāĻĶ, āĻ§āĻŪāĻĶāЂāĻĶāĻļāĻū āĻĻāĻūāĻŪ āĻĶāĻū āĻ­āĻūāĻļāĻžāĻĢ āĻđāЈ āĻœāĻŋāĻļ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻāĻ°āЀāĻ…āĻļāĻĩāĻūāĻ•āĻū āĻđāЈ: ‘āĻŪāЇāĻ°āЇ āĻēāĻˆ āĻđāЁāĻĢ āĻ•āЋāĻˆ
āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ āĻđāЈ āĻ•āĻŋāĻļāЇ āĻĩāЀ āĻŽāĻĶāĻ•āĻŋāĻļāĻŪāĻĪāЀāĻĩāĻūāĻĶāЀ, āĻĶāЁāĻ–āЀ āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻĶāЀ āĻ•āЋāĻˆ āĻļāĻĨāĻŋāĻĪāЀ āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚, āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻĶāЁāĻ–āЀ,
āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЇ āĻ°āĻūāĻœāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻļāЁāĻ­āĻūāĻ… āĻĶāЁāĻ†āĻ°āĻū āĻŪāЁāĻĶāĻ°āĻĪ āĻĶāЁāĻ†āĻ°āĻū āĻ‡āĻ• āĻļāЋāĻŸāЀāĻŠāЈāĻĻ āĻđāĻūāĻ‚, āĻļāĻŪāĻŽāĻĶāЀ āĻĻāЂāĐ°
āĻĻāĻŋāĻļāĻžāĻšāĻĪ āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ‡āĻ• āĻļāЋāĻŸāЀāĻŠāЈāĻĻāĻū āĻđāĻūāĻ‚.
āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ°, āĻ­āЁāĐąāĻ•āĻļ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĐ°āĻŠāĐąāĻĻāЋāĻļ āĻ°āĻđāĻŋāĻĢāĻū āĻšāĻūāĻđāЀāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ‡āĻđ āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĄāЀ āĻ…āĐ°āĻĶāĻ°āЂāĻĻāЀ āĻļāĐ°āĻŠāĻĪāЀ āĻđāЈ.
āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ•āĻŋāĻĩāЇāĻ‚, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ•āЀ āĻļāĻĪāЋ āĻđāЈ? āĻ‡āĐąāĻĨāЇ, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ–āЂ, āĻ­āĻŋāĻ•āĻđāЂ
āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĪāĻ°āЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ–āЀ, āĻ­āĻŋāĻ•āĻđāЂ āĻļāĻĪāЋ āĻđāЈ. āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ•āĻŋāĻĩāЇāĻ‚, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ•āЀāĻļ, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ–āЀ āĻļāЁāĻđāĻŠāĻœāĻūāĻĻāЋ āĻđāЈ? āĻ‡āĐąāĻĨāЇ, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ–āĻļ,
āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĪāĻ°āЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ–āЀ, āĻ­āĻŋāĐąāĻ–āЀ āĻļāЁāĻđāĻŠāĻœāĻūāĻĻāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ°, āĻ­āЁāĐąāĻ•āĻļ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĐ°āĻŠāĐąāĻĻāЋāĻļ āĻ°āĻđāĻŋāĻĢāĻū āĻšāĻūāĻđāЀāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ‡āĻđ āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĄāЀ āĻ…āĐ°āĻĶāĻ°āЂāĻĻāЀ āĻļāĐ°āĻŠāĻĪāЀ āĻđāЈ.
- āĻ…āĻĻāĻūāĻĶāĻū, āĻœāЁāМāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚ āĻļāĻēāĻū
āĻ°āЁāĐąāĻ–
āĻŠāЂāĻ°āЇ āĻ–āĻŋāМ āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻš āĻđāĻĻ, āĻđāĻūāĻēāĻūāĻ‚āĻ•āĻŋ āĻ‡āĻđ āĻŦāЁāĐąāĻē āĻĶāĻū āĻŪāЌāĻļāĻŪ āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ āĻđāЈ. āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĪāĐąāĻĪ āĻĶāЇ āĻļāĻ°āЀāĻ° ‘āĻĪāЇ
āĻŪāЀāĻ‚āĻđ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ–āĻŋāМāĻĶāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāЁāĐąāĻŸāĻĢ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ–āĻŋāĐ°āĻĄāĻūāĻ‰āĻĢ āĻĩāĻūāĻēāЇ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĪāĻūāĻŪāĻĨāĻūāĻĪāĻū āĻĶāЀ āĻŠāЂāĻœāĻū āĻĩāĻŋāĻš āĻ‡āĻļ
āĻ‰āĐąāĻĪāЇ āĻ–āĻŋāĐąāĻšāЇ āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ. āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ…āĻļāĻŪāĻūāĻĻ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻļāĻĩāĻ°āĻ—āЀ āĻ•āЋāĻ°āĻē āĻŦāЁāĐąāĻē āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻĩāĻ°āĻ—āЀ āĻļāЈāĻ‚āĻĄāĻēāĻĩāЁāĐąāĻĄ
āĻŠāĻū powder āĻĄāĻ° āĻŸāĻūāĻĨāĻūāĻ—āĻūāĻĪāĻū āĻĶāЇ āĻļāĻ°āЀāĻ° āĻĪāЇ āĻŪāЀāĻ‚āĻđ āĻŠāЈāĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ, āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāЁāĐąāĻŸāĻĶāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ–āĻŋāĐ°āĻĄāĻūāĻ‰āĻ‚āĻĶāĻū
āĻđāЈ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĪāĐąāĻĪāĻ—āĻūāĻŸāĻū āĻĶāЀ āĻŠāЂāĻœāĻū āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻš āĻ‡āĻļ āĻ‰āĐąāĻĪāЇ āĻŦāĻļ āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻĩāĻ°āĻ—āЀ āĻ†āĻĩāĻūāĻœāĻžāĻūāĻ‚ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ
āĻļāĻĩāĻ°āĻ—āЀ āĻŊāĐ°āĻĪāĻ°āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЀ āĻ…āĻĩāĻūāĻœāĻž āĻŸāĻūāĻĨāĻūāĻ—āĻūāĻĪāĻū āĻēāĻˆ āĻļāĻĪāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ° āĻĶāЇ āĻŽāĻūāĻđāĻ° āĻđāĻĩāĻū āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻš āĻļāĐ°āĻ—āЀāĻĪ āĻŽāĻĢāĻūāĻ‰āĻ‚āĻĶāЀ
āĻđāЈ.
āĻ‡āĻđ
āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĶāЁāĻ†āĻ°āĻū āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚, āĻĪāЁāĐąāĻĪāĻ—āĻūāĻŸāĻū āĻĶāĻū āĻļāĻĪāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ° āĻ•āЀāĻĪāĻū āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ, āĻŠāЂāĻœāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻĻāĻŪāĻūāĻĻāĻŋāĻĪ āĻ•āЀāĻĪāĻū
āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻŠāĻ°, āĻ…āĻĻāĻūāĻĶāĻū, āĻ•āЋāĻˆ āĻ­āЀāĻ–āĻ–āЁāĻ–āĻŋ or āĪ•āĪĩāĻ–āЁāĻĻāЀ, āĻ•āĻļāĻŽāЇāĻĶāĻūāĻ° āĻœāĻūāĻ‚ āĻēāЇāĻĩāЂāĻŪāЈāĻĻ,
āĻœāЀāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚āĻĄāЀ’āĻŠ’āĻŠāЈāĻ‚āĻŸāЀ, āĻļāĻūāĻœāĻūāĻˆ’āĻŠ’āĻŠāЁāĻŠāĻŋāĻŠāĐ°āĻĻāĻū,
āĻ§āĻūāĻŪāĻū
āĻĶāЇ āĻ…āĻĻāЁāĻļāĻūāĻ° āĻœāЀāĻĢāĻū, āĻ‡āĻđ āĻ‡āĻ• āĻļāĻĪāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ°, āĻļāĐ°āĻŠāĻĪāЀ, āĻļāĻĪāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ° āĻĶāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ, āĻŪāĐąāĻĨāĻū āĻŸāЇāĻ•āĻĢ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻ­
āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻ‰āĐąāĻĪāĻŪ āĻļāĻžāĻ°āĻ§āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻĪāĻŋāĻĪāĻū āĻĶāĻū āĻļāĻĻāĻŪāĻūāĻĻ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ‡āĻļ āĻēāĻˆ, āĻ…āĻŦāĻžāĻļāĻĄāĻū, āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ†āĻŠāĻĢāЇ
āĻ†āĻŠ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĪāĻ°āЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻļāĻŋāĻ–āĻēāĻūāĻˆ āĻĶāЇāĻĢāĻū āĻšāĻūāĻđāЀāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ: ‘āĻ…āĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻ§āĻūāĻŪāĻūāĻĻāЁāĻ§āĻđāĻūāĻŪ’ āĻĪāЇ āĻ°āĻđāЇāĻ—āĻū,
āĻ­āĻūāĻĩāĻĻāĻūāĻļāĻž āĻĶāЇ āĻ…āĻĻāЁāĻļāĻūāĻ° āĻ°āĻđāĻŋ āĻ•āЇ āĻ°āĻđāĻŋ āĻ°āĻđāЇ āĻđāĻūāĻ‚.
āĻ­āĻĩāĻĩāĻūāĻĻ āĻŽāЁāĐą .āĻū āĻ•āĻđāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ
“āĻŪāЇāĻ°āЇ
āĻ­āĻ°āĻūāĻĩāЋ, āĻ‡āĻđ āĻĶāЋ āĻ…āĻĪāĻŋ āĻšāĻŋāМāЀāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻđāĻĻ āĻœāЋ āĻ°āĻļāĻĪāЇ āĻĪāЇ āĻ‡āĐąāĻ• āĻĩāĻŋāĻ…āĻ•āĻĪāЀ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŽāĻšāĻĢāĻū āĻšāĻūāĻđāЀāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ.
āĻ•āĻŋāĻđāМāЇ āĻĶāЋ? āĻ‡āĻ• āĻ†āĻŠāĻĢāЇ āĻ†āĻŠ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĐ°āĻĩāЇāĻĶāĻĻāĻļāĻžāЀāĻē āĻļāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĩāĻŋāĻš āĻĩāĐ°āĻĄāĻĢāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĶāЂāĻļāĻ°āĻū āĻĪāĐ°āĻĪāЂ
āĻĶāĻū āĻ…āĻ­āĻŋāĻ†āĻļ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻāĻū āĻđāЈ āĻœāЋ āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĶāЀāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻœāĻžāĻ°āЂāĻ°āĻĪāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЇ āĻļāĻ°āЀāĻ° āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻĩāĻūāĻ‚āĻāĻū āĻ•āĻ° āĻĶāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ. āĻ‡āĻđ
āĻĶāЋāĻĩāЇāĻ‚ āĻ…āĻĪāĻŋ āĻ…āĻļāĻŦāĻēāĻĪāĻū āĻĩāĐąāĻē āĻēāЈ āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ.
“āĻŪāĻūāĻ°āĻ—
āĻœāЋ āĻŪāЈāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻēāĐąāĻ­āĻŋāĻ† āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ āĻ‰āĻđ āĻĩāĻŋāĻšāĻ•āĻūāĻ°āĻēāĻū āĻĪāĻ°āЀāĻ•āĻū āĻđāЈ, āĻœāЋ āĻĶāЋāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЋāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻŠāЍāĻ°āĻđāЇāĻœ
āĻ•āĻ°āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‡āĻ• āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻŪāĻāĻĢ āĻĶāЀ āĻļāĻŪāĻ°āĐąāĻĨāĻū, āĻŪāЁāĻ•āĻĪāЀ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻ‚āĻĪāЀ āĻēāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‰āĻĢ āĻĶāЀ āĻļāĻŪāĻ°āĐąāĻĨāĻū āĻđāЈ.
āĻ‡āĻđ āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻļāĻŪāĻ āĻĶāЇ āĻĻāЇāĻ• āĻ…āĐąāĻ  āĻ—āЁāĻĢāĻū, āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻ­āĻūāĻļāĻžāĻĢ, āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻāĻ•āĻļāĻžāĻĻ, āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻ°āЋāĻœāĻžāЀ-āĻ°āЋāĻŸāЀ, āĻļāĻđāЀ
āĻ•āЋāĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻļāĻž, āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻšāЇāĻĪāĐ°āĻĻāĻĪāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻĻāĻœāĻžāĻ°āĻŽāĐ°āĻĶāЀ. āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĻāЇāĻ• āĻ…āĐąāĻ  āĻ—āЁāĻĢāĻū āĻ°āĻļāĻĪāЇ āĻĶāЀ āĻŠāĻūāĻēāĻĢāĻū
āĻ•āЀāĻĪāЀ āĻđāЈ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻŪāĻ, āĻŪāЁāĻ•āĻĪāЀ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻ‚āĻĪāЀ āĻŠāЍāĻ°āĻūāĻŠāĻĪ āĻ•āЀāĻĪāЀ āĻđāЈ.
āĻļāĻ­
āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŠāĻđāĻŋāĻēāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЀ āĻđāЋāĻ‚āĻĶ āĻđāЈ. āĻœāĻĻāĻŪ, āĻŽāЁ old āĻūāĻŠāĻū, āĻŽāĻŋāĻŪāĻūāĻ°āЀ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻŪāЌāĻĪ āĻļāĻūāĻđāĻŪāĻĢāЇ
āĻđāĻĻ. āĻ‰āĻĶāĻūāĻļāЀ, āĻ•āЍāĻ°āЋāĻ§, āĻˆāĻ°āĻ–āĻū, āĻšāĻŋāĐ°āĻĪāĻū, āĻšāĻŋāĐ°āĻĪāĻū, āĻĄāĻ° āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĻāĻŋāĻ°āĻūāĻļāĻžāĻū āĻĶāЁāĻ–āЀ āĻđāĻĻ. āĻ…āĻœāĻžāЀāĻœāĻžāĻūāĻ‚
āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻĩāĻŋāĻ›āЋāМāĻū āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ– āĻāĐąāĻē āĻ°āĻŋāĻđāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ‰āĻĻāЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻļāĐ°āĻ—āĻĪ, āĻœāЋ āĻĪāЁāĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻĻāĻūāĻŠāĻļāĐ°āĻĶ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĶāЇ āĻđāЋ
āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ– āĻĶāĻū. āĻ‡āĐąāĻ›āĻū, āĻēāĻ—āĻūāĻĩ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻŠāĐ°āĻœ āĻļāĻŪāЂāĻđāĻŽāĐąāĻ§ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻšāĻŋāĻŠāĻ•āĻĶāЇ āĻđāЋāĻ āĻŠāЀāМāĻĪ āĻđāĻĻ.
“āĻ­āĻ°āĻūāĻĩāЋ, āĻĶāЂāĻļāĻ°āĻū āĻļāĐąāĻšāĻūāĻˆ āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ– āĻĶāЇ āĻ•āĻūāĻ°āĻĻāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻĶāĻ°āĻļāĻūāĻ‰āĻ‚āĻĶāЀ āĻđāЈ. āĻ…āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†āĻĻāĻĪāĻū āĻĶāЇ āĻ•āĻūāĻ°āĻĻ,
āĻēāЋāĻ• āĻœāĻžāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāĻ—āЀ āĻŽāĻūāĻ°āЇ āĻļāĐąāĻšāĻūāĻˆ āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ āĻĩāЇāĻ– āĻļāĻ•āĻĶāЇ, āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‰āĻđ āĻ‡āĐąāĻ›āĻū, āĻ•āЍāĻ°āЋāĻ§, āĻˆāĻ°āĻ–āĻū, āĻļāЋāĻ—,
āĻšāĻŋāĐ°āĻĪāĻū, āĻšāĻŋāĐ°āĻĪāĻū, āĻšāĻŋāĐ°āĻĪāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĻāĻŋāĻ°āĻūāĻļāĻžāĻū āĻĶāЀāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻēāĻūāĻŸāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĪāЇ āĻŦāĻļ āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ.
“āĻ­āĻ°āĻūāĻĩāЋ, āĻĪāЀāĻļāĻ°āЀ āĻļāĐąāĻšāĻūāĻˆ āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāĻū āĻļāĻūāĻŪāЍāĻđāĻĢāĻū āĻđāЈ.
āĻœāĻžāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāĻ—āЀ āĻĶāЀ āĻļāĐąāĻšāĻūāĻˆ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻŪāĻāĻĢāĻū āĻđāĻ° āĻđāĻ° āĻļāЋāĻ— āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‰āĻĶāĻūāĻļ āĻĶāЀ āĻļāĻŪāĻūāĻŠāĻĪāЀ āĻēāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‰āĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻ‚āĻĪāЀ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ–āЁāĻļāĻžāЀ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻœāĻĻāĻŪ āĻĶāĻŋāĐ°āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ.
“āĻ­āĻ°āĻūāĻĩāЋ, āĻšāЌāĻĨāĻū āĻļāĐąāĻš āĻ‰āĻđ āĻ°āĻļāĻĪāĻū āĻđāЈ āĻœāЋ āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ–āĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЇ āĻ…āĐ°āĻĪ āĻĩāĐąāĻē āĻēāЈ āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻ‡āĻđ āĻĻāЇāĻ•
āĻ…āĐąāĻ  āĻ—āЁāĻĢāĻū āĻ°āĻļāĻĪāĻū āĻđāЈ, āĻœāЋ āĻ•āĻŋ āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻđāЁāĻĢāЇ āĻļāĻŪāĻāĻūāĻ‡āĻ† āĻđāЈ. āĻĻāЇāĻ• āĻ…āĐąāĻ  āĻ—āЁāĻĢāĻū āĻ°āĻļāĻĪāĻū āĻĻāĻŋāĻ°āĻĶāЋāĻļāĻž
āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻœāЀ āĻ•āЇ āĻŠāĻūāĻēāĻĢ āĻŠāЋāĻļāĻžāĻĢ āĻ•āЀāĻĪāĻū āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻšāЇāĻĪāĐ°āĻĻāĻĪāĻū āĻ‡āĻ•āĻūāĻ—āĻ°āĻĪāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻŪāĻ āĻĩāĐąāĻē āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāЀ
āĻđāЈ, āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻđāĻ° āĻĶāЁāĐąāĻ– āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĶāЁāĻ– āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŪāЁāĻ•āĻĪ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĶāЀ āĻđāЈ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻ‚āĻĪāЀ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ–āЁāĻļāĻžāЀ āĻĩāĐąāĻē
āĻœāĻūāĻ‚āĻĶāЀ āĻđāЈ. āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ…āĻđāĻŋāĻļāĻūāĻļ āĻĶāЇ āĻ°āĻūāĻđ āĻĪāЇ āĻ…āĻ—āĻĩāĻūāĻˆ āĻ•āĻ°āĻūāĻ‚āĻ—āĻū.
“āĻĩāĻŋāĻœāĻžāĻĻ āĻ‰āĻĶāЋāĻ‚ āĻđāЀ āĻŠāЈāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЋāĻ‡āĻ†, āĻļāĻŪāĻāĻĶāĻūāĻ° āĻđāЋ āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†, āĻļāĻŪāĻāĻĶāĻūāĻ°āЀ āĻŠāЈāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЋāĻˆ, āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†āĻĻ āĻŠāЈāĻĶāĻū āĻđāЋ
āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻœāЋ āĻŠāĻđāĻŋāĻēāĻūāĻ‚ āĻ•āĻĶāЇ āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ āĻļāЁāĻĢāĻŋāĻ† āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻļāЀ: ‘āĻĪāĻĢāĻūāĻ… āĻĶāЀ āĻĻāЇāĻ• āĻļāĐąāĻš āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻŪāĻāĻŋāĻ† āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†
āĻđāЈ.’
“āĻĪāĻĢāĻūāĻ…
āĻĶāЇ āĻļāĻŪāĻūāĻ°āЋāĻđ āĻĶāЀ āĻĻāЇāĻ• āĻļāĐąāĻš: āĻŠāЂāĻ°āЀ āĻŦāЇāĻĄāĻŋāĐ°āĻ— āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻŪāĻūāĻŠāĻĪāЀ, āĻĪāĻŋāĻ†āĻ—, āĻĪāĻŋāĻ†āĻ—, āĻĪāĻŋāĻ†āĻ—, āĻ›āĐąāĻĄ āĻ•āЇ,
āĻ›āĐąāĻĄ āĻ•āЇ, āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‰āĻļ āĻŽāĻđāЁāĻĪ āĻĪāĻ°āĻļ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻĶāЀ āĻ•āЋāĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻļāĻž āĻ•āЀāĻĪāЀ. āĻĪāĻĢāĻūāĻ… āĻĶāЇ āĻ–āĻžāĻĪāĻŪ āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻĶāЀ āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĻāЇāĻ•
āĻļāĐąāĻš āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ…āĻđāĻŋāĻļāĻūāĻļ āĻ•āĻ° āĻĶāĻŋāĐąāĻĪāĻū āĻ—āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ. āĻ‡āĻđ āĻ…āĻ­āĻŋāĻ†āĻļ āĻĶāЇ āĻ°āĻūāĻđ āĻĶāЀ āĻ‡āĻđ āĻ‰āĐąāĻĪāĻŪ āĻļāĐąāĻš āĻđāЈ āĻœāЋ
āĻĪāĻĢāĻūāĻ… āĻĶāЇ āĻ–āĻžāĻĪāĻŪ āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻĶāЀ āĻ‡āĐąāĻ›āĻū āĻđāЈ.
“āĻœāĻŋāĻĩāЇāĻ‚
āĻđāЀ āĻ‡āĻđ āĻšāĻūāĻ° āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†āĻĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĶāĻ°āĻļāĻžāĻĢ āĻŽāĻūāĻ°āЇ āĻ‡āĻđ āĻšāĻūāĻ° āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†āĻĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĶāĻ°āĻļāĻžāĻĢ āĻļāĐąāĻšāĻŪāЁāĐąāĻš āĻļāĻžāЁāĐąāĻ§ āĻļāĻĻ,
āĻŦāĻŋāĻ° āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĶāЇ āĻļāĻūāĻ°āЇ āĻ…āĻĢāĻĶāЇāĻ–āЇ āĻ—āĻūāĻˆāĻĄāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻļāĻŋāĐąāĻ§āЇ āĻļāĻĩāЈ-āĻœāĻūāĻ—āЍāĻ°āĻŋāĻĪāЀ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŽāĻŋāĻĻāĻūāĻ‚ āĻ•āĻŋāĻļāЇ
āĻĩāЀ āĻļāĻĩāЈ-āĻœāĻūāĻ—āЍāĻ°āĻŋāĻĪāЀ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻŽāĻŋāĻĻāĻūāĻ‚ āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻļāĻĩāЈ-āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻ°āЂāĻ•āĻĪāĻū āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻ°āЂāĻ• āĻ•āЀāĻĪāĻū āĻļāЀ,
āĻŽāЍāĻ°āĻūāĻđāĻŪāĻĢāĻūāĻ‚, āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĶāĻū āĻ°āĻūāĻ‡āĻēāĻŸāЀ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ†āĻŪāĻŦāЋāĻ•. āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†āĻĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĶāĻ°āĻļāĻžāĻĻ āĻŪāЇāĻ°āЇ āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻš āĻ‰āĐąāĻ āĻŋāĻ†: ‘āĻ…āĻŸāĐąāĻē
āĻŪāЇāĻ°āЀ āĻ°āĻŋāĻđāĻūāĻˆ āĻđāЈ. āĻ‡āĻđ āĻŪāЇāĻ°āĻū āĻ†āĻ–āĻ°āЀ āĻœāĻĻāĻŪ āĻđāЈ. āĻđāЁāĻĢ āĻ•āЋāĻˆ āĻĻāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚ āĻđāЋāĻ‚āĻĶ āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ āĻđāЈ. “
āĻļāĻŋāĻ§āĻūāĻ°āĻĨ
āĻšāĻūāĻ° āĻĻāЇāĻšāĻē āĻļāĐąāĻšāĻūāĻˆ āĻĶāЀ āĻĩāĻŋāĻ†āĻ–āĻŋāĻ† āĻ•āĻ° āĻ°āĻŋāĻđāĻū āĻļāЀ, āĻœāĻŋāĻĻāЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻšāЋāĻ‚ āĻ‡āĐąāĻ• āĻ°āĻūāĻ–āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЇ
āĻ…āĻšāĻūāĻĻāĻ• āĻ†āĻŠāĻĢāЇ āĻŪāĻĻ āĻ…āĐ°āĻĶāĻ° āĻ‡āĐąāĻ• āĻĩāĐąāĻĄāĻū āĻšāĻŪāĻ•āĻŋāĻ† āĻŪāĻđāĻŋāĻļāЂāĻļ āĻ•āЀāĻĪāĻū. āĻ‰āĻđ āĻ‰āĻļ āĻŪāЁāĻ•āĻĪāЀ āĻĶāĻū āĻļāЁāĻ†āĻĶ āĻēāЈ
āĻļāĻ•āĻĶāĻū āĻœāЋ āĻ‰āĻļāĻĻāЇ āĻ‡āĐ°āĻĻāЀ āĻĶāЇāĻ° āĻēāĻˆ āĻ­āĻūāĻēāĻŋāĻ† āĻļāЀ. āĻ‰āĻļ āĻĶāĻū āĻšāĻŋāĻđāĻ°āĻū āĻ–āЁāĻļāĻžāЀ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻđāЋāĻ‡āĻ† āĻđāЈ. āĻŽāЁāĐąāĻ§
āĻĻāЇ āĻ‰āĻļ āĻĩāĐąāĻē āĻ‡āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻ°āĻū āĻ•āЀāĻĪāĻū āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻšāЀāĻ•āĻŋāĻ†, “āĻŪāĐ°āĻ—āЋāĻ‚āĻĻāĻū! āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ‡āĻđ āĻŪāĻŋāĻē āĻ—āĻŋāĻ†! āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ°
āĻ‡āĻđ āĻŪāĻŋāĻēāĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ! “
āĻŪāĐ°āĻ—āЋāĻ‚āĻĻāĻū
āĻ‰āĻļāĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻļāĻžāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻŪāĻē āĻđāЋāĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻŋāĻ§āĻūāĻ°āĻĨ āĻ…āĐąāĻ—āЇ āĻŪāĐąāĻĨāĻū āĻŸāЇāĻ•āĻŋāĻ†. āĻļāĻ­ āĻĪāЋāĻ‚ āĻĄāЂāĐ°āĻ˜āĻū
āĻļāĻĪāĻŋāĻ•āĻūāĻ° āĻĻāĻūāĻē, āĻ‰āĻđ āĻŽāЋāĻēāĻŋāĻ†, “āĻŠāĻ°āĻ•āĻūāĻ“āĻŪāĻū, āĻ•āĻŋāĻ°āĻŠāĻū āĻ•āĻ°āĻ•āЇ āĻŪāЈāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ†āĻŠāĻĢāĻū āĻšāЇāĻēāĻū āĻŪāĐ°āĻĻ āĻēāĻ“. āĻŪāЈāĻ‚
āĻœāĻūāĻĢāĻĶāĻū āĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻ•āĻŋ āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĄāЀ āĻļāЇāĻ§ āĻĶāЇ āĻĪāĻđāĻŋāĻĪ, āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻĩāĐąāĻĄāЀ āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻ°āЂāĻ•āĻĪāĻū āĻŠāЍāĻ°āĻūāĻŠāĻĪ āĻ•āĻ°āĻūāĻ‚āĻ—āĻū. “
āĻĶāЂāĻļāĻ°āЇ
āĻšāĻūāĻ° āĻ­āĻŋāĻ•āĻļāĻžāЂ āĻļāĻŋāĻ§āĻūāĻ°āĻĨ āĻĶāЇ āĻŠāЈāĻ°āĻūāĻ‚ ‘āĻĪāЇ āĻĩāЀ āĻŪāĐąāĻĨāĻū āĻŸāЇāĻ•āĻĢ āĻĩāĻūāĻēāЇ āĻļāĻŋāĻ§āĻūāĻ°āĻĨ āĻĶāЇ āĻŠāЈāĻ°āĻūāĻ‚’ āĻĪāЇ
āĻāЁāĻ• āĻ—āĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‰āĻĻāЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻšāЇāĻēāЇ āĻĩāĻœāЋāĻ‚ āĻŠāЍāĻ°āĻūāĻŠāĻĪ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ•āĻŋāĻđāĻū. āĻļāĻŋāĻ§āĻūāĻ°āĻĨāĻūāĻđāĻū āĻĻāЇ āĻ•āĻŋāĻđāĻū,
“āĻ­āĻ°āĻūāĻĩāЋ! āĻŠāĻŋāĐ°āĻĄ āĻĶāЇ āĻŽāĐąāĻšāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻĻāЇ āĻŪāЈāĻĻāЂāĐ° ‘āĻŽāЁāĐą b āĻū “āĻĻāĻūāĻŪ āĻĶāĻŋāĐąāĻĪāĻū āĻđāЈ. āĻœāЇ āĻĪāЁāĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻšāĻūāĻđāЁāĐ°āĻĶāЇ
āĻđāЋ āĻĪāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĪāЁāĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻĩāЀ āĻ‰āĻļ āĻĻāĻūāĻŪ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻŪāЈāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻŽāЁāĻēāĻū āĻļāĻ•āĻĶāЇ āĻđāЋ. “
āĻŪāĐ°āĻ—āЋāĻ‚āĻĻāĻū āĻĻāЇ āĻŠāЁāĐąāĻ›āĻŋāĻ†, “āĻĻāĻđāЀāĻ‚ ‘āĻŽāЁāĐąāĻ§’ āĻĶāĻū āĻŪāĻĪāĻēāĻŽ āĻđāЈ ‘āĻ‰āĻđ āĻœāĻŋāĻđāМāĻū āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ’?”
“āĻ‡āĻđ āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻđāЈ, āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‰āĻđ āĻ‰āĻļ āĻ°āĻūāĻđ āĻĪāЇ āĻ•āĻūāĻē āĻ•āĻ°āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ āĻœāЋ āĻŪāЈāĻ‚ āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻ°āЂāĻ• āĻđāЋāĻĢ āĻĶāĻū āĻĪāĻ°āЀāĻ•āĻū āĻēāĐąāĻ­āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ. ‘āĻĪāЁāĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻ‡āĻļ āĻĻāĻūāĻŪ āĻŽāĻūāĻ°āЇ āĻ•āЀ āĻļāЋāĻšāĻĶāЇ āĻđāЋ?”
“‘āĻœāĻŋāĻđāМāĻū
āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻĶāĻū āĻđāЈ’! ‘āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻ°āЂāĻ• āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻĶāĻū āĻĪāĻ°āЀāĻ•āĻū’! āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻĻāĻĶāĻūāĻ°! āĻļāĻžāĻūāĻĻāĻĶāĻūāĻ°! āĻ‡āĻđ āĻĻāĻūāĻŪ āĻļāĻđāЀ āĻđāĻĻ, āĻŦāĻŋāĻ°
āĻĩāЀ āĻļāĻ§āĻūāĻ°āĻĻ. āĻ…āĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻ–āЁāĻļāĻžāЀ āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻŽāЁāĐąāĻ§ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻŽāЁāĻēāĻū āĻēāĻĩāĻūāĻ‚āĻ—āЇ, āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ°āĻļāĻĪāЇ āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻš
āĻĪāЁāĻđāĻūāĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻœāĻūāĻ—āĻ°āЂāĻ• āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻĶāĻū āĻ°āĻūāĻđ āĻēāĐąāĻ­āĻŋāĻ† āĻđāЈ. āĻœāĻŋāĻĩāЇāĻ‚ āĻ•āĻŋ āĻĪāЁāĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻđāЁāĻĢāЇ āĻ•āĻŋāĻđāĻū āĻļāЀ, āĻđāĻ° āĻĶāĻŋāĻĻ
āĻœāЀāĻ‰āĻ‚āĻĶāЇ āĻ°āĻđāĻŋāĻĢāĻū āĻ…āĻ§āĻŋāĻ†āĻĪāĻŪāĻŋāĻ• āĻ…āĻ­āĻŋāĻ†āĻļ āĻĶāĻū āĻŽāĻđāЁāĻĪ āĻļāĻūāĻ°āĻū āĻ…āĻ§āĻūāĻ° āĻđāЈ. ” āĻ—āЌāĻĪāĻŪāĻū āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ‰āĻĻāЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĶāЇ
āĻ…āĻ§āĻŋāĻ†āĻŠāĻ• āĻĩāĻœāЋāĻ‚ āĻ‰āĻĻāЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻ…āĻ§āĻŋāĻ†āĻŠāĻ• āĻŪāĐ°āĻĻāĻĢ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻ‰āĻļ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻŽāЁāĐąāĻ§ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻļāĻĩāЀāĻ•āĻūāĻ° āĻ•āĻ°āĻĻ āĻēāĻˆ āĻ‡āĻ•
āĻŪāĻĻ āĻĶāЇ āĻĶāЋ āĻ­āĻŋāĻ•āĻĪāЇ āĻļāĻĻ.
āĻŽāЁāĐąāĻ§
āĻĻāЇ āĻ‰āĻĻāЍāĻđāĻūāĻ‚ āĻĻāЂāĐ° āĻŪāЁāĻļāĻ•āĻ°āĻūāĻ‡āĻ†. ” āĻ•āЍāĻ°āĻŋāĻŠāĻū āĻ•āĻ°āĻ•āЇ, āĻ­āĻ°āĻū āĻ–āЁāĐąāĻēāЇ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻŽāЁāĐąāĻ§āЀāĻĩāĻūāĻĶāЀ āĻ­āĻūāĻĩāĻĻāĻū
āĻĻāĻūāĻē āĻ…āĻ­āĻŋāĻ†āĻļ āĻ•āĻ°āĻĶāЇ āĻđāĻĻ āĻ…āĻĪāЇ āĻĪāĻŋāĐ°āĻĻ āĻŪāĻđāЀāĻĻāĻŋāĻ†āĻ‚ āĻĩāĻŋāĐąāĻš āĻĪāЁāĻļāЀāĻ‚ āĻŪāЁāĻ•āĻĪāЀ āĻĶāĻū āĻŦāĻē āĻŠāЍāĻ°āĻūāĻŠāĻĪ āĻ•āĻ°
āĻēāĻĩāЋāĻ‚āĻ—āЇ. ”
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83) Classical Punjabi-āĻ•āĻēāĻūāĻļāЀāĻ•āĻē āĻŠāĐ°āĻœāĻūāĻŽāЀ,

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  • āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ
    āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ‡ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŊ€āŪīāŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪ
    āŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊ āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪąāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪ•āŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪīāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪūāŪĐ
    āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ, āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪēāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪšāŊāŪšāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ.

    āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŪāŊ
    āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ, ​​āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊ āŪšāŊ‚āŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪĐāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
    āŪ‡āŪąāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋ, āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŊˆāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŊŠāŪīāŪŋāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪ•āŪŸāŪĻāŊāŪĪ 2500 āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ,
    āŪŠāŪēāŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ, āŪŠāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ†āŪŸāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊˆ
    āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐ.

    āŪŠ BuddhismāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊ
    āŪĪāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ
    āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŽāŪīāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪ°āŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪģāŪ°āŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪŠāŊŠāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪ•āŪūāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪĩāŪĢāŪŋāŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ
    āŪĪāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪŪāŊ, āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪŪāŊ.

    āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ
    2500 āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪĩāŪ°āŪēāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪēāŊ 24 āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪĪāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŊ†āŪžāŊāŪšāŊ,
    āŪŸāŪšāŊāŪšāŊ, āŪ•āŊāŪ·āŪĐāŊ, āŪ·āŪūāŪ•āŊ, āŪŊāŪŪāŪĐāŊ, āŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŊ‡āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ, āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŪēāŪūāŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ·āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪū āŪŪāŊ€āŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪē āŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪĻāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĐ.
    āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪŪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪ°āŊ, āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ, āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊ, āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪŪāŪēāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪū āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą
    āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪĪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪĩāŪ°āŪēāŪūāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŽāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊāŪąāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ, āŪāŪĐāŊ†āŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĩāŊˆ
    āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐ.

    āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ
    āŪšāŊāŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ° āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŪūāŪ• 1876 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ€āŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ, 1906 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ, 1935
    āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ, 1947 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ. 1875 āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊ, āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ,
    āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪŪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪ°āŊ, āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ, āŪĩāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪĪāŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ, āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŊˆ
    āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐ. āŪ†āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ 1857 āŪēāŊ
    āŪ†āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŽāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪĐ āŪŠāŊāŪ°āŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪąāŊāŪąāŪŋ, 1876 āŪēāŊ āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊˆ āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ 1947 āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ.

    āŪŪāŪēāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪū, āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊ‡āŪ·āŪŋāŪŊāŪū,
    āŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊˆāŪĐāŊāŪļāŊ, āŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪŸāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪū āŪŠāŊ‹āŪĐāŊāŪą āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĪ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĐ. āŪšāŪŋāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ
    āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪ°āŊ.

    āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪūāŪĪ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ āŪ‡āŪŪāŪŊāŪŪāŪēāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
    āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŸāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪˆāŪ°āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪū āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪĩāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪŸāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. 1857 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪģāŪĩāŊ 83 āŪēāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪĪāŊāŪ°
    āŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ 33 āŪēāŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪšāŪĪāŊāŪ° āŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ€āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģāŪĪāŊ.
    1857 āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ 1947 āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ, āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪē āŪŪāŊāŪąāŊˆ āŪĩāŊ†āŪģāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪą āŪšāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ
    āŪĪāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ 1876 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ, 1904 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊ,
    1906 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ, 1907 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪĪāŊ, 1935 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ, 1937 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪ°āŊ
    āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ 1947 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.

    āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ

    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ·āŪūāŪ°āŊ
    1935 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊˆ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĐāŪ°āŊ. āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪīāŊˆāŪŊ
    āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪđāŪēāŊāŪĪāŊ€āŪŠāŊ. āŪšāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪđāŪēāŊāŪĪāŊ€āŪŠāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪą āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪēāŊ‹āŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐ
    āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪšāŊ‹āŪ•āŪ°āŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪūāŪŪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪ°āŪĢāŪŋ.
    āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪšāŊ‹āŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŊ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪū āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪšāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪ°āŪū āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŊ‹āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ
    āŪŪāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŠāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŪąāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ āŪšāŊ†āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪĐāŪ°āŊ. āŪ‡āŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊˆ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
    āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ.

    āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ

    āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ
    āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪ‰āŪŠāŪ•āŪĐāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪđāŪūāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪū. āŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪđāŪūāŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ
    āŪ•āŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪģāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪ·āŪūāŪœāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ†āŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ āŪ•āŪūāŪĢāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪĪāŊ
    āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. 1876 ​​āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ°āŪ·āŊāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ•āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪ•āŊ āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŊˆāŪŊāŊ†āŪīāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŊ. āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊ
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ•āŊ, āŪ†āŪŠāŊāŪ•āŪūāŪĐāŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŪūāŪ• āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪģāŊāŪģāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.

    āŪŪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪ°āŊ (āŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪū)

    1937 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ, āŪŪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĐāŊāŪŪāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪ°āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ€āŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪīāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.

    āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊ

    āŪŠāŪ•āŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŊ
    āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪēāŊāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŪŋāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ. āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ·āŪūāŪ°āŊ 1904 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ
    āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŪūāŪ• āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ. āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪŪāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĢāŊˆāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•
    āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊ‡āŪ°āŪ°āŪšāŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪšāŊ‹āŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŊ. āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
    āŪŪāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪūāŪœāŪū āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪĩāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŪŋāŪ™āŊ, āŪ…āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊˆāŪŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŪ°āŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŸāŊ
    āŪœāŪĩāŪđāŪ°āŊāŪēāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪŠāŪūāŪģāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ
    āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪĢāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŪūāŪąāŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪģāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ, āŪ†āŪĐāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪœāŪĩāŪđāŪ°āŊāŪēāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊ āŪ…āŪĻāŊāŪĪ
    āŪĪāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪĻāŪŋāŪ°āŪūāŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪ°āŊ.

    āŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ

    āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪŪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪĩāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŪūāŪĐāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪĪāŊŠāŪŸāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ. āŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŊāŪēāŪūāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ 1939 āŪĩāŪ°āŊˆ āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪ…āŪīāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.

    āŪ•āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪū

    āŪ•āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŪū
    āŪ‰āŪŸāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŪūāŪĪ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ
    āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊ. āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪĩāŊāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŪŋāŪŊāŪū āŪĩāŪŪāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪ āŪĪāŊ‹āŪąāŊāŪąāŪŪāŊ
    āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪĻāŊ‚āŪąāŊāŪąāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ‡āŪŊāŊ‡ āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪ†āŪŸāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪšāŊ†āŪŊāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊāŪģāŊāŪģ āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊˆ
    āŪĩāŪīāŪŋāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪąāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ. āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪŊāŪšāŊ‹āŪĪāŪ°āŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪ°āŊ.

    āŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪŸāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŊ

    āŪĩāŪŋāŪŊāŪŸāŊāŪĻāŪūāŪŪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ‡āŪ·āŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪĻāŪ•āŪ°āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪ°āŊ, āŪ…āŪŪāŪ°āŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŪŋ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪœāŪŊāŊ.

    āŪŪāŪēāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪū

    āŪŪāŪēāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪŪāŪēāŪūāŪŊāŊ āŪĪāŊ‡āŪ·āŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪēāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŪŪāŊ.

    āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪū

    āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ‹āŪĐāŊ‡āŪšāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŊ€āŪŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‰āŪģāŊāŪģ āŪ•āŪŸāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŊ.

    āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪĪāŊ

    āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
    āŪŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪŠāŊ†āŪŊāŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪ·āŊāŪŸāŪŪāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪ°āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ•āŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ.
    1907 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪšāŊ€āŪĐāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ·āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ°āŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŪūāŪĐ
    āŪ’āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪšāŊ€āŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊŠāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪēāŪūāŪŪāŪūāŪĩāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪĩāŪīāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. 1954 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪšāŊ€āŪĐ āŪŪāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪĪāŊ āŪ’āŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊˆāŪŊāŊˆāŪ•āŊ āŪ•āŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸ
    āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŪ°āŊ āŪœāŪĩāŪđāŪ°āŊāŪēāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪĻāŊ‡āŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪŋāŪŠāŊ†āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪšāŊ€āŪĐāŪūāŪĩāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ•
    āŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊŠāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪ°āŊ.

    āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ

    āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ 1906 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ·āŪūāŪ°āŪūāŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŪūāŪ• āŪ…āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ€āŪ•āŪ°āŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ. āŪŠāŊ‚āŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŪūāŪēāŊ āŪ‰āŪŊāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪŋāŪēāŪŪāŊ.

    āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ

    āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ
    āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŪļāŊāŪŸāŊ 14, 1947 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪ·āŪūāŪ°āŪūāŪēāŊ
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊ‡āŪąāŊāŪ•āŊ
    āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŊ. āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŪŪāŪĪāŊ āŪ…āŪēāŪŋ āŪœāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪū 1940 āŪ†āŪŪāŊ āŪ†āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪēāŊ āŪŪāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
    āŪ…āŪŸāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊˆāŪŊāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪĪāŪĐāŪŋ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊˆ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪŋāŪŊāŪĪāŊ.
    1971 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ’āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪīāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪģāŪĩāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪĩāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪģāŪĪāŊ‡āŪšāŪŪāŊ
    āŪ‰āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪūāŪĐāŪĪāŊ. āŪŠāŪūāŪ•āŪŋāŪļāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪĪāŊ‡āŪ·āŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŪŋāŪŊāŪĩāŊˆ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊ,
    āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊ.

    1947 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪšāŊāŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ°āŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪąāŊāŪ•āŊāŪŠāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪąāŪ•āŊ, 1954
    āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪĢāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪšāŊāŪšāŊ‡āŪ°āŪŋ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŊ†āŪžāŊāŪšāŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. 1961
    āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪ•āŊ‹āŪĩāŪū āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŸāŪūāŪŪāŪĐāŊ āŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊ‚ āŪŠāŊ‹āŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊāŪ•āŊ€āŪšāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ†āŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪ°āŪŪāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŪŋāŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŊ
    āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĐāŪ°āŊ. āŪšāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŪāŊ 1975 āŪ‡āŪēāŊ āŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪĩāŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ
    āŪ’āŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊ.

    āŪŪāŊāŪĐāŊāŪĐāŪĪāŪūāŪ• āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪŊ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪ‡āŪ°āŊāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪŪāŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ, āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪšāŊāŪĪāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ° āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ• āŪŪāŪūāŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪŋāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĐ.
    āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ, āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪĢāŊˆāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪūāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊāŪŪāŪŋāŪēāŊāŪēāŊˆ

    āŪĩāŊ†āŪĩāŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ
    āŪ•āŪūāŪēāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪēāŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪąāŊ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪ•āŪģāŪūāŪ•āŪŠāŊ
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŋāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŪĪāŊ. āŪ‡āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊ‹āŪĪāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪ•āŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊˆ āŪœāŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‚āŪĪāŊāŪĩāŊ€āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ…āŪĪāŪūāŪĩāŪĪāŊ āŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪ°āŊ‚āŪĪāŊ
    āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪŪāŊ€āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ’āŪĐāŊāŪąāŪŋāŪĢāŊˆāŪ•āŊāŪ• āŪŪāŊāŪŸāŪŋāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ.
    āŪŸāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪŸāŪ°āŊ āŪŠāŪŋ.āŪ†āŪ°āŊ.āŪ…āŪŪāŊāŪŠāŊ‡āŪĪāŊāŪ•āŪ°āŊ “āŪŪāŊ†āŪŊāŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪūāŪ°āŪĪāŊ āŪŠhāŪĪāŊāŪŪāŪŊāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪū” āŪŽāŪĐāŊāŪąāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪŋāŪĐāŪūāŪ°āŊ. (āŪĻāŪūāŪĐāŊ āŪ‡āŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊāŪŸāŊˆ āŪŠ BuddhistāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊ‡āŪĐāŊ)

    āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪ†āŪĪāŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪšāŪŋ āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪŠāŊāŪŠāŊāŪĢāŪ°āŊāŪĩāŊ āŪšāŪŪāŊ‚āŪ•āŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‡āŪŸāŪŋ “āŪđāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪū
    āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŊ āŪ•āŪ°āŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŊ‡. ” (āŪ‰āŪēāŪ•āŪŪāŊ āŪŪāŊāŪīāŊāŪĩāŪĪāŊˆāŪŊāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŪžāŊāŪšāŪŪāŪūāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪĩāŊ‹āŪŪāŊ
    āŪ‡āŪĪāŪĐāŊ āŪŪāŊ‚āŪēāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŪŸāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ
    āŪĩāŪŋāŪīāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ’āŪ°āŊāŪĩāŪ°āŪŋāŪĐāŊ āŪšāŊŠāŪĻāŊāŪĪ āŪĩāŪūāŪ°āŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆāŪ•āŪģāŪŋāŪēāŊ āŪ‡āŪēāŪĩāŪš āŪ†āŪĐāŊāŪēāŊˆāŪĐāŊ āŪŠāŪŋāŪ°āŪŠāŊāŪĪāŊāŪĪ āŪ…āŪąāŪŋāŪĩāŪūāŪģāŪŋāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪŪāŪūāŪĻāŪūāŪŸāŊ
    āŪ…āŪĐāŊˆāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊ āŪšāŪŪāŊāŪĪāŪūāŪŊāŪ™āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŊāŪŪāŊ āŪĻāŪēāŊāŪĩāŪūāŪīāŊāŪĩāŊ, āŪŪāŪ•āŪŋāŪīāŊāŪšāŊāŪšāŪŋ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪŪāŊˆāŪĪāŪŋ āŪŪāŪąāŊāŪąāŊāŪŪāŊ āŪ…āŪĩāŪ°āŊāŪ•āŪģāŊ āŪ‡āŪąāŊāŪĪāŪŋ āŪ‡āŪēāŪ•āŊāŪ•āŪūāŪ• āŪĻāŪŋāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŪŋāŪŊ āŪ†āŪĐāŪĻāŊāŪĪāŪĪāŊāŪĪāŊˆ āŪ…āŪŸāŊˆāŪŊ āŪĩāŊ‡āŪĢāŊāŪŸāŊāŪŪāŊ.

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    Jambudvipe
    Bharatkhande       falls under Jambudweep        ie., Prabuddha Bharat
    culture is the greatest culture in the world and is the oldest nation in
    the world has been a nation providing knowledge, science and culture to
    the world.              

    When the world was living in the
    darkness of ignorance, the Sun of Knowledge descended from Jambudweep
    and showered knowledge on the whole world. In the last 2500 years,
    various organizations, invaders and countries invaded Jambudweep and
    attacked it repeatedly.          

    Buddhism exerted an enormous
    influence on the civilizations of Southeast Asia and contributed greatly
    to the development of a written tradition in that area. About the
    beginning of the Common Era,  merchants may have settled there, bringing
    Buddhist monks with them.                                    

    Jambudweep
    has been fragmented 24 times in the known history of 2500 years. Many
    attacks were made on India by French, Dutch, Kushan, Shak, Yemen,
    Greeks, Mughals and British. Nowhere in history it is mentioned that
    they attacked countries like Afghanistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Nepal,
    Tibet, Bhutan, Malaysia because all these were part of Jambudweep.

    Afghanistan
    was recognized as an independent country in 1876, Bhutan in 1906, Sri
    Lanka in 1935, Pakistan in 1947. Before 1875, Afghanistan, Bhutan,
    Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Tibet were important parts of
    India. The British were frightened by the revolution against the British
    in 1857 and, following the principle of divide and rule, first
    separated Afghanistan from India in 1876 and this continued till 1947.

    Countries
    like Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia
    were also unbreakable parts of Jambudweep. The ancient name of Singapore
    was Singhpur.

    Unbroken Jambudweep extended from the Himalayas to
    the Indian Ocean and from Iran to Indonesia. Jambudweep’s area in 1857
    was 83 lakh square kilometers, which is currently 33 lakh square
    kilometers. From 1857 to 1947, Jambudweep was fragmented many times by
    external powers. Afghanistan was separated from Jambudweep in 1876,
    Nepal in 1904, Bhutan in 1906, Tibet in 1907, Sri Lanka in 1935, Myanmar
    in 1937 and Pakistan in 1947.

    Sri Lanka

    The British
    separated Sri Lanka from Jambudweep in 1935. The old name of Sri Lanka
    was Sinhaldeep. The name Sinhaldeep was later renamed Ceylon. Sri
    Lanka’s name was Tamraparni during the reign of Emperor Ashoka.
    Mahendra, son of Emperor Ashoka and daughter Sanghamitra went to Sri
    Lanka to propagate Buddhism. Sri Lanka is a part of united Jambudweep.

    Afghanistan

    The
    ancient name of Afghanistan was Upganasthan and Kandahar’s was
    Gandhara. The description of Kandahar i.e. Gandhara is found till the
    reign of Shah Jahan. It was a part of Jambudweep. In 1876 Gandamak
    treaty was signed between Russia and Britain. After the treaty,
    Afghanistan was accepted as a separate country.

    Myanmar (Burma)

    In 1937, the recognition of a separate country to Myanmar i.e. Burma was given by the British.

    Nepal

    Lord
    Buddha was born in Lumbini. Nepal was made a separate country in 1904
    by the British. Nepal was an integral part of Jambudweep        ie.,
    Prabuddha Bharat during the reigns of Emperor Ashoka.  Maharaja
    Tribhuvan Singh of Nepal appealed to the then Prime Minister of India,
    Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to merge Nepal with Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha
    Bharat, but Jawaharlal Nehru rejected the proposal.

    Thailand

    The construction of Buddhist temples in Syam began in the third century.Thailand was known as Syam until 1939.

    Cambodia

    Cambodia
    was part of unbroken Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat. The Kaundinya
    dynasty of Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat origin ruled here from the
    first century itself. People here used to worship Buddha. The ancient
    name of Ankorwat is Yashodharpur.

    Vietnam

    The ancient name of Vietnam is Champadesh and its principal cities were Indrapur, Amravati and Vijay.

    Malaysia

    The ancient name of Malaysia was Malay Desh which means the land of mountains.

    Indonesia

    The ancient name of Indonesia is Dipantar Bharat means the ocean across Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat.

    Tibet

    The
    ancient name of Tibet was Trivishtam which was divided into two parts.
    One part was given to China and the other to Lama after an agreement
    between the Chinese and the British in 1907. In 1954, India’s Prime
    Minister Jawaharlal Nehru accepted Tibet as part of China to show his
    solidarity to Chinese people.

    Bhutan

    Bhutan was separated
    from Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat by the British in 1906 and
    recognized as a separate country. Bhutan means high ground.

    Pakistan

    There
    was partition of Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat on August 14, 1947 by
    the British and Pakistan came into existence as East Pakistan and West
    Pakistan. Mohammad Ali Jinnah had been demanding a separate country on
    the basis of religion since 1940 which later became Pakistan. In 1971
    with the cooperation  Pakistan was divided again and Bangladesh came
    into existence. Pakistan and Bangladesh are parts Jambudweep ie.,
    Prabuddha Bharat.

    After independence in 1947, Pondicherry was
    freed from French occupation in 1954. Goa and Daman Diu were liberated
    from Portuguese occupation in 1961. Sikkim was liberated in 1975 and
    made part of Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat.

    All the countries
    which were earlier important parts of Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat
    have become independent countries today.
    It is not impossible to merge these countries into Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat

    In
    different periods Jambudweep ie., Prabuddha Bharat was divided into
    different countries. Now these parts can be reconstituted in Jambudweep
    ie., Prabuddha Bharat only by merging them one by one as
    Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make this country Buddhist)

    All Aboriginal  Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
    Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make the whole world Prabuddha Prapanch
    This will happen through
    Free Online Prabuddha Intellectuals Convention in Awakened One’s own words
    For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

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