Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU)
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LESSON 3307 Wed 18 Mar 2020 Free Online NIBBANA TRAINING from KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN PEACE and ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL DO GOOD! PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT! Even a seven year old can Understand. A seventy year old must practice. Say YES to Paper Ballots NO to EVMs/VVPATs to save Democracy, Liberty, Equality and Fraternityfor the welfare, happiness and peace for all Awakened aboriginalsocieties. is the HONEST VOICE of ALL ABORIGINAL AWAKENED SOCIETIES (VoAAAS) Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist) All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch) Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness —63) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
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LESSON 3308 Thu 19 Mar 2020

Free Online NIBBANA TRAINING
from

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN PEACE and ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL

DO GOOD! PURIFY MIND AND ENVIRONMENT!
Even a seven year old can Understand. A seventy year old must practice.

Say YES to Paper Ballots
NO to EVMs/VVPATs to save Democracy, Liberty, Equality and Fraternityfor
the welfare, happiness and peace for all Awakened aboriginal societies.

is the

HONEST

VOICE of ALL ABORIGINAL AWAKENED SOCIETIES (VoAAAS)

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist)

All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness —64) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,



„Satipaṭṭhāna
Sutta“ (MN 10). Sąmoningumo nustatymo diskursas) ir Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna
Sutta (DN 22) (Didysis sąmoningumo nustatymo diskursas) yra du
svarbiausi ir plačiausiai tirti Theravada budizmo Pali kanono diskursai.
Buvęsis taip pat yra kitų ankstyvųjų mokyklų „Agamas“ ir jį apėmė
šiuolaikiniai mahajanos praktikai, tokie kaip Thich Nhat Hanh.


Šie diskursai („Pāli: sutta“) suteikia galimybę praktikuoti sąmoningumą
įvairiuose kontekstuose ir potencialiai nuolat. Garsiai, Buda šio
diskurso pradžioje skelbia: „Tai yra tiesioginis būdas (Pāli: ekāyano
… maggo), vienuoliams, būtybėms apsivalyti, liūdesiui ir apmaudui
įveikti, kančioms ir sielvartas, už ėjimą tiesos keliu, už nibbanos
suvokimą … “

Pavadinimo vertimas
„Buddha4u4ia.jpg“

Pavadinimo „Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta“ vertimai į anglų kalbą apima:

„Įdomumo suvokimo diskursas“ tipitaka / mn / mn.010.soma.html (Soma, 1999)
„Sąmoningumo suvokimo diskurso pagrindai“ tipitaka / mn / mn.010.nysa.html („Nyanasatta“, 1994)
„Pagrindinio diskurso rėmai“ tipitaka / mn / mn.010.than.html (Thanissaro, 1995)


Anot Anālayo (2006, p. 29–30), Thanissaro (2000) ir Nyanaponika (1996,
p. 9–10), dalis šio pavadinimo vertimo įvairovės priežasčių yra susijusi
su tuo, kaip junginys Pali žodis “ satipaṭṭhāna “analizuojama. Tai gali
būti aiškinama kaip „sati-paṭṭhāna“ („sąmoningumo pagrindas“) arba
„sati-upaṭṭhāna“ („sąmoningumo buvimas“).

Kalbant apie priešdėlį
„Maha-“ DN 22 „Pāli“ pavadinime, tai paprasčiausiai reiškia „puiku“ arba
„didesnis“ ir greičiausiai reiškia išplėstą DN 22 skyrių apie
Ketvirtųjų didžiųjų tiesų sąmoningumą.

Įvairios atrakcijos ir kanoninė vieta
BUDDMoon.jpg


Kinijos kanone Nian Chu Jing (念 處 經, Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra), paremtas
Sarvastivadin šaltiniu, randamas Taisho Tripitaka t. 582 psl. 1,
Madhyama Āgama. Nr. 26. Antroji „Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra“ versija nebuvo
išversta į tibetiečių kalbą, išskyrus dalį ilgosios „Prajñapāramita
Sūtra“, į kurią ji buvo įtraukta. Tibeto vertime egzistuoja „Saddharma
Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra“ (dam pa’i chos dran pa nye bar bzhag pa’i mdo //
dampé chödren panyé barzhak pé do), tačiau tai yra labai didelis
ankstyvasis mahajanų sutra ir yra visiškai kitoks tekstas. Ven. Ajahn
Sujato baigė išsamų įvairių Sutta išgyvenimų palyginamąjį tyrimą
pavadinimu „Mindfulness istorija“. Šios įvairios versijos yra gana
panašios.

Theravadin Pali kanone „Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta“ yra
dešimtasis diskursas Majjhima Nikaya (MN), todėl jis dažnai žymimas „MN
10“; „Canon“ leidinyje „Pali Text Society“ (PTS) šis tekstas prasideda
jo trijų tomų Majjhima Nikaya (M) pirmojo tomo 55-ame puslapyje ir todėl
pakaitomis vaizduojamas kaip „M i 55“.

Kalbant apie
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, tai yra 22-asis diskursas Digha Nikaya (DN) ir
todėl dažnai žymimas „DN 22“; kanono PTS leidime „Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna
Sutta“ prasideda PTS trijų tomų „Digha Nikaya“ (D) antrojo tomo 289-ame
puslapyje, taigi pakaitomis pavaizduotas kaip „D ii 289.“


Postkanoninėje Pali literatūroje klasikinis Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (kaip ir
visos Majjhima Nikaya) komentaras yra Buddhaghosa Papañcasudani
(Bullitt, 2002; Soma, 2003).

Turinys
„Burma012.jpg“


Šioje svatoje Buda išskiria keturias sąmoningumo (satipatthana)
nustatymo nuorodas: kūną, pojūčius (ar jausmus), protą (arba sąmonę) ir
psichinį turinį. Tada jie dar suskirstomi į šiuos skyrius ir
poskirsnius:

Kūnas (Kāya)
Kvėpavimas (taip pat žr. Anapanasati Sutta)
Pozicijos (vaikščiojimas, stovėjimas, sėdėjimas, gulėjimas)
Aiškus supratimas
Kūno atgailavimo atspindžiai
Materialiųjų elementų atspindžiai
Kapinių pamąstymai
Pojūčiai / jausmai (Vedanā)
malonūs ar nemalonūs arba nei malonūs, nei nemalonūs (neutralūs) jausmai
žemiški ar dvasiniai jausmai
Protas / Sąmonė (Cittā)
geismas (sarāgaṃ) arba be geismo (vītarāgaṃ)
neapykanta (sadosaṃ) arba be neapykantos (vītadosaṃ)
kliedesys (samohaṃ) arba be kliedesių (vītamohaṃ)
pagal sutartis (saṅkhittaṃ) arba išsibarstę (vikkhittaṃ)
kilnus (mahaggataṃ) arba ne aukštas (amahaggataṃ)
pralenkiamas (sa-uttaraṃ) arba nepralenkiamas (anuttaraṃ)
tylus (samāhitaṃ) arba netylus (asamāhitaṃ)
paleistas (vimuttaṃ) arba neišleistas (avimuttaṃ)
Psichikos turinys (Dhamma)
Kryptys
Susikaupimo agregatai
Jausmų bazės ir jų pančiai
Sąmoningumo žadinimo veiksniai
Keturios kilnios tiesos

Kontekstas
Asmenybės pagrįsta tipografija
Gb.buddha.moon.jpg


Anot Analāyo (2006, p. 24–25) ir Somos (2003, p. Xxii – xxiv),
papañcasudani rekomenduoja kitokią satipaṭṭhānu priklausomai nuo to, ar
asmuo:

labiau linkęs į emocinį potraukį ar intelektualias spekuliacijas; ir,
labiau išmatuojama jų reakcijose ar greitai reaguojant.


Remiantis šiomis dviem dimensijomis, komentare rekomenduojama asmenybė
pagrįsta satipaṭṭhāna atsispindi žemiau esančiame tinklelyje.
patirtinė orientacija
(charakteris)
emocinis
(ekstravertas) pažintinis
(intravertas)
reaktyvumas /
temperamentas lėtas kūno protas
greiti pojūčiai protinis turinys


Soma (2003, p. Xxiv) priduria, kad visi praktikuojantys asmenys
(nepaisant jų charakterio ir temperamento) taip pat turėtų manyti apie
laikysenas (juda, stovi, sėdi, gulėti) ir aiškų supratimą, apie kurį
rašo: „Visa praktika dėmesingumas priklauso nuo to, ar teisingai
supranti pratimus, įtrauktus į dvi čia nurodytas dalis “.
Vienas dėmesys, viena po kitos einanti ir tuo pat metu vykdoma praktika

Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta aprašytus metodus galima naudoti įvairiais būdais, įskaitant:

Susitelkite į vieną metodą. Metodas, apie kurį dažniausiai rašoma anglų kalba, yra kvėpavimo maniera.
Praktikuoji įvairius metodus atskirai iš eilės.
Palaikykite budrumą kaip pagrindinį objektą, naudodamiesi kitais metodais, kad pašalintumėte kvėpavimo takų dirgiklius.
Treniruokitės keliais metodais, kartu arba atsižvelgiant į kontekstą

Taip pat žiūrėkite

Sąmoningumas (budizmas)
Budistinė meditacija
Vipassana
Mahasati meditacija

Susiję diskursai:

Anapanasati Sutta
Kayagata-sati Sutta
Maha-satipatthana Sutta

Susijusi praktika:

Sampajanna
Patikulamanasikara

Susijusios sąvokos:

Mahabhuta
Kammatthana
Vedana
Vijnana
Skandha
Sadayatana / Ayatana
Septyni nušvitimo veiksniai
Keturios kilnios tiesos

Šaltinis

Vikipedija: Satipatthana Sutta


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta - Sąmoningumo lankomumas - su geriausiu
animaciniu Buda vaizdu, daina, šokiu klasikinėje latvių klasikoje
latviešu valoda

https://www.youtube.com/watch
Satipatthana Sutta (sąmoningumo pamatų diskursas)

Yuttadhammo Bhikkhu
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Satipatthana Sutta (sąmoningumo pamatų diskursas)
Rytinis pokalbis privačioje gyvenamojoje vietoje Kolombyje, 2014 m. Gruodžio 21 d
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta - Sąmoningumo lankomumas - 29) Klasikinė anglų, romėnų,

Ši sutta plačiai laikoma pagrindine meditacijos praktikos nuoroda.
Įvadas

I. Kājos stebėjimas
A. Skyrius apie ānāpāna
B. Skyrius apie pozas
C. Skyrius apie sampajaną
D. Skyrius apie atstumiamumą
E. Skyrius apie elementus
F. Skyrius devyniose šarnelių vietose

II. Stebėjimas Vedanā

III. Citta stebėjimas

IV. Dhammų stebėjimas
A. Skirsnis apie Nīvarą
B. Skyrius apie Khandhas
C. Skyrius apie juslių sferas
D. Skyrius apie Bojjhaṅgas
E. Skyrius apie tiesas
E1. Dukkhasacca ekspozicija
E2. Samudayasacca ekspozicija
E3. „Nirodhasacca“ ekspozicija
E4. Maggasakos ekspozicija

Įvadas

Taigi aš girdėjau:
Vieną kartą Bhagavā buvo apsistoję tarp Kurusų Kammāsadhamma mieste - Kuruso turgavietėje. Ten jis kreipėsi į bhikkhus:
- Bhikkhus.– Bhaddante atsakė bhikkhus. Bhagavā sakė:
- Tai, bhikkhus, kelias, vedantis į ne ką kita, kaip į būtybių
apsivalymą, liūdesio ir apkalbų įveikimą, dukkha-domanassa išnykimą,
teisingo kelio pasiekimą, Nibbanos, tai yra keturių, suvokimą
satipaṭṭhānas.

Kurios keturios? Čia, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena
stebėdamas kāya kājā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, atsisakęs
abhijjhā-domanassa pasaulio link. Jis gyvena stebėdamas vedaną vedanā,
ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, atsisakydamas pasaulio abhijjhā-domanassa. Jis
gyvena stebėdamas citatą cittoje, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, atsisakęs
abhijjhā-domanassa pasaulio. Jis gyvena stebėdamas dhammas · s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, atsisakęs abhijjhā-domanassa pasaulio.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Skyrius apie ānāpāna


Ir kaip, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya? Čia
bhikkhus, bhikkhu, nuėjęs į mišką, nuėjęs prie medžio šaknies ar nuėjęs į
tuščią kambarį, atsisėda, sulenkdamas kojas kryžminiu būdu,
nustatydamas kāya vertikaliai ir nustatydamas sati geriausiąukhaṃ.
Būdamas tokiu sato jis kvėpuoja, būdamas sato jis kvėpuoja. Kvėpuodamas
ilgai supranta: „Aš ilgai kvėpuoju“; ilgai kvėpuodamas supranta: „aš
ilgai kvėpuoju“; trumpai kvėpuodamas supranta: „kvėpuoju trumpai“;
trumpai kvėpuodamas supranta: „Aš trumpai kvėpuoju“; jis treniruojasi:
‘jausdamas visą kaipya, aš įkvėpsiu’; jis treniruojasi: „pajutęs visą
kāją, aš iškvėpsiu“; jis treniruojasi: „nuramindamas kāya-saṅkharas, aš
įkvėpsiu“; jis treniruojasi: „nuramindamas kāya-saṅkharas, aš
iškvėpsiu“.

Lygiai taip pat, bhikkhus, sumanus tekintojas arba
pasukėjas, padaręs ilgą posūkį, supranta: „Aš darau ilgą posūkį“;
Apsisukęs trumpai supranta: „Aš darau trumpą posūkį“; tuo pačiu būdu
bhikkhus, bhikkhu, ilgai kvėpuojantis, supranta: „aš ilgai kvėpuoju“;
ilgai kvėpuodamas supranta: „aš ilgai kvėpuoju“; trumpai kvėpuodamas
supranta: „kvėpuoju trumpai“; trumpai kvėpuodamas supranta: „Aš trumpai
kvėpuoju“; jis treniruojasi: „pajutęs visą kaipya, aš įkvėpsiu“; jis
treniruojasi: „pajutęs visą kāją, aš iškvėpsiu“; jis treniruojasi:
„nuramindamas kāya-saṅkharas, aš įkvėpsiu“; jis treniruojasi:
„nuramindamas kāya-saṅkharas, aš iškvėpsiu“.

Taigi jis gyvena
stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya
“išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip
reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir
perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra
kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati
apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

B. Skyrius apie pozas


Be to, bhikkhus, bhikkhu, eidamas supranta: „Aš einu“, arba stovėdamas
supranta: „Aš stoviu“, o sėdėdamas supranta: „Aš sėdžiu“, arba gulėdamas
supranta: Aš guliu “. Arba, nesvarbu, kurioje pozicijoje yra jo kaipja,
jis atitinkamai tai supranta.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya
in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„
kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya
reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip
kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius
kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien
tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs
ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas
kāya in kāya.

C. Skyrius apie sampajaną

Be to, bhikkhus,
bhikkhu, artėdamas ir išvažiuodamas, veikia kartu su sampajañña,
žvelgdamas į priekį ir apžiūrėdamas jis veikia su sampajañña,
lenkdamasis ir tempdamasis jis veikia su sampajañña, dėvėdamas chalatą
ir viršutinę chalatą bei. nešdamas dubenį, jis veikia su sampajaña,
valgydamas, gerdamas, kramtydamas, ragaudamas jis elgiasi su sampajaña, o
užsiimdamas išmatų ir šlapinimosi verslu, elgiasi su sampajañña,
eidamas, stovėdamas, sėdėdamas. , miegodamas, pabudęs, kalbėdamas ir
tylėdamas jis elgiasi su sampajaña.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas
„kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis
stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip
sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina
kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas
reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra
jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena
atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena
stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

D. Neatitikimo skyrius

Be to,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu, mano, kad tai yra pats kūnas, nuo kojų padų aukštyn
ir nuo plaukų ant galvos žemyn, kurį riboja jos oda ir kupinas įvairių
rūšių priemaišų: „Šioje kājoje yra plaukai galvos, kūno plaukai, nagai,
dantys, oda, minkštimas, sausgyslės, kaulai, kaulų čiulpai, inkstai,
širdis, kepenys, pleura, blužnis, plaučiai, žarnos, raumenys, skrandis
su jo turiniu, išmatos, tulžis, skrepliai , pūliai, kraujas, prakaitas,
riebalai, ašaros, riebalai, seilės, nosies gleivės, sinovinis skystis ir
šlapimas “.

Lygiai taip, tarsi, ten buvo maišas, turintis dvi
angas ir pripildytas įvairių rūšių grūdų, tokių kaip plikytas,
žaliavinis, mung pupelių, karvių žirnių, sezamo sėklų ir lukštentų
ryžių. Žmogus su geru regėjimu, jį atplėšęs, pagalvotų apie jo turinį:
“Tai yra kalnuota žaliava, tai yra žaliava. Tai yra mung pupos, tai yra
karvės žirniai, tai yra sezamo sėklos ir tai yra lukštenti ryžiai”. tuo
pačiu būdu, bhikkhus, bhikkhu laiko šį patį kūną, nuo kojų padų aukštyn
ir plaukus ant galvos žemyn, kurį riboja jos oda ir kupinas įvairių
rūšių priemaišų: „Šioje kājoje yra galvos plaukai, kūno plaukai, nagai,
dantys, oda, minkštimas, sausgyslės, kaulai, kaulų čiulpai, inkstai,
širdis, kepenys, pleura, blužnis, plaučiai, žarnos, akys, skrandis, jo
turinys, išmatos, tulžis, skrepliai, pūliai, kraujas, prakaitas,
riebalai, ašaros, riebalai, seilės, nosies gleivės, sinovinis skystis ir
šlapimas “.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje,
arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš
vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip
kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis
gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar
dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir
paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo
pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

E. Skyrius apie elementus


Be to, bhikkhus, bhikkhu, atspindi šią labai kāya, tačiau yra
išdėstytas, tačiau yra išdėstytas kaip sudarytas iš elementų: “Šioje
kāya yra žemės elementas, vandens elementas, ugnies ir oro elementas”.


Lygiai taip pat, bhikkhus, sumanus mėsininkas arba mėsininko mokinys,
nužudęs karvę, sėdėtų kryžkelėje, pjaustydamas ją į gabalus; tuo pačiu
būdu, bhikkhus, bhikkhu atspindi šią labai kāya, tačiau jis yra
išdėstytas, tačiau yra išdėstytas: “Šioje kāya yra žemės elementas,
vandens elementas, ugnies ir oro elementas”.

Taigi jis gyvena
stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya
“išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip
reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir
perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra
kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati
apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

(6)
Be to,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu, tarsi matydamas negyvą kūną, išmeta į ramunėlių žemę,
čia ir ten išsibarstę atskirti kaulai, čia rankos kaulas, ten pėdos
kaulas, čia kulkšnies kaulas, blauzdos kaulas , čia šlaunies kaulas, ten
klubo kaulas, čia šonkaulis, ten nugaros kaulas, čia stuburo kaulas,
ten kaklo kaulas, čia žandikaulio kaulas, danties kaulas arba kaukolė,
jis tai laiko labai kaip : “Ši kāya taip pat yra tokio pobūdžio, ji taps
tokia ir nėra laisva nuo tokios būklės”.

Taigi jis gyvena
stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya
“išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip
reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir
perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra
kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati
apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

(7)
Be to,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu, lyg pamatęs negyvą kūną, išmestą ant rauginto grunto,
kaulus balina kaip jūros kriauklę, mano, kad tai labai kāya: „Ši kāya
taip pat yra tokio pobūdžio, ji eina tapti tokiu ir nėra laisvas nuo
tokios būklės “.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“
viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in
kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya
reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip
kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius
kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien
tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs
ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas
kāya in kāya.

(8)
Be to, „bhikkhus“, „bhikkhu“, tarsi
matydamas negyvą kūną, išmestą ant raguolių žemės, per metus sukauptus
kaulus, mano, kad tai labai kaipya: „Ši kāya taip pat yra tokio
pobūdžio, ji yra taps tokia ir nėra laisva nuo tokios būklės “.


Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya
in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės;
jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis
stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas
samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:]
“tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio
paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje.
Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

(9

Be to, bhikkhus, bhikkhu, tarsi matydamas negyvą kūną, išmestą į
ramunėlių žemę, supuvusius kaulus, susmulkintus į miltelius, mano, kad
tai labai kāya: „Ši kāya taip pat yra tokio pobūdžio, ji ketina tapti
tokiu ir nėra laisvas nuo tokios būklės “.

Taigi jis gyvena
stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya
“išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip
reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir
perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra
kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati
apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

Taigi jis
gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya
“išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip
reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir
perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra
kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati
apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

F. Skyrius devyniose šarnelių vietose

(1)
Be to, „bhikkhus“, „bhikkhu“, tarsi matydamas negyvą kūną, išmestą ant
žvynelio žemės, vieną dieną negyvą arba dvi dienas ar tris dienas
negyvą, patinusią, melsvą ir žaižaruojantį, jis laiko tai labai
„kaipya“: ” Ši „kāya“ taip pat yra tokio pobūdžio, ji taps tokia ir nėra
laisva nuo tokios būklės “.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in
kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„
kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya
reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip
kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius
kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien
tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs
ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas
kāya in kāya.

(2)
Be to, bhikkhus, bhikkhu, tarsi matydamas
negyvą kūną, išmeta į ramunėlių žemę, buvo varnų suvalgytas, vanagų
​​valomas, grifų, garnių, šunų, šunų valgydamas tigrų, valgydamas
panterų, valgydamas įvairių būtybių, jis mano, kad tai labai kāya: „Ši
kāja taip pat yra tokio pobūdžio, ji taps tokia ir nėra laisva nuo
tokios būklės. “

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“
viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in
kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya
reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip
kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius
kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien
tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs
ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas
kāya in kāya.

(3)
Be to, „bhikkhus“, „bhikkhu“, tarsi
matydamas negyvą kūną, išmestą į ramunėlių žemę, sausgyslę su kūnu ir
krauju, laikomą sausgyslėse, jis laiko tai labai kaipya: „Ši kāya taip
pat yra tokia gamta, ji taps tokia ir nėra laisva nuo tokios būklės “.


Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„
kāya in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir
išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba
jis stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena,
stebėdamas samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar:
[suprasdamas:] “tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir
paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo
pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

(4)
Be to, „bhikkhus“, „bhikkhu“, tarsi matydamas negyvą kūną, išmestą ant
žvynelinės žemės, skruostą be kūno ir suteptą krauju, kurį laiko
sausgyslės, jis laiko šią labai kaipya: „Ši kāya taip pat yra tokios
prigimties, ji taps tokia ir nėra laisva nuo tokios būklės “.


Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas „kāya in kāya“ viduje, arba jis „stebi„ kāya
in kāya “išorėje, arba jis stebi„ kāya in kāya “iš vidaus ir išorės;
jis gyvena stebėdamas kaip sajadaya reiškinius kaip kasoje, arba jis
stebi, kaip reiškiniai praeina kaip kasy, arba jis gyvena, stebėdamas
samudaya ir perkeldamas reiškinius kaip paroje; ar dar: [suprasdamas:]
“tai yra kāya!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio
paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje.
Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas kāya in kāya.

(5)

Be to, „bhikkhus“, „bhikkhu“, tarsi matydamas negyvą kūną, išmestą į
ramunėlių žemę, sausgyslę, neturinčią nei kūno, nei kraują, laikomą
sausgyslėse, jis laiko tai labai kaipya: „Ši kāya taip pat yra tokia
gamta, ji taps tokia ir nėra laisva nuo tokios būklės “.

Jis
supranta mana, supranta dhammas, supranta saṃyojaną, atsirandantį dėl
šių dviejų, supranta, kaip kyla neprikėlusioji saṃyojana, supranta, kaip
apleista iškilusi saṃyojana, ir supranta, kaip apleista saṃyojana
neatsiranda. ateityje.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas dhammas
dhammose iš vidaus, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose išorėje,
arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas dhammų reiškinių samudaya, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammų
reiškinių praeitį, arba gyvena stebėdamas samudaya ir pašalindamas
reiškinius dhamomis; ar dar, [suprasdamas:] “tai yra dhammos!” sati yra
jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena
atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena
stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis šešiais vidiniais ir išoriniais
āyatanais.

D. Skyrius apie Bojjhaṅgas

Be to, bhikkhus,
bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose su nuoroda į septynias
bojjhaṅgas. Be to, bhikkhus, kaip bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas dhammas
dhammose, remdamasis septyniais bojjhaṅgais?

Čia bhikkhus,
bhikkhu, būdamas sati sambojjhaṅga viduje, supranta: „manyje yra sati
sambojjhaṅga“; Jei nėra sati sambojjhaṅgos, jis supranta: „manyje nėra
sati sambojjhaṅga“; jis supranta, kaip atsiranda neprisikėlęs sati
sambojjhaṅga; jis supranta, kaip iškilęs sati sambojjhaṅga yra
tobulinamas.

Būdamas dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga viduje, jis
supranta: „manyje yra dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga“; Kadangi nėra
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga viduje, jis supranta: „manyje nėra
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga“; jis supranta, kaip kyla neprikėlęs
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga; jis supranta, kaip iškilusi dhammavicaya
sambojjhaṅga yra tobulinama.

Būdamas vyriya sambojjhaṅga viduje,
jis supranta: „manyje yra vīriya sambojjhaṅga“; Kadangi viduje nėra
vyriya sambojjhaṅga, jis supranta: „manyje nėra vīriya sambojjhaṅga“;
jis supranta, kaip atsiranda neprikeltas vīriya sambojjhaṅga; jis
supranta, kaip iškilusi vīriya sambojjhaṅga yra tobulinama iki tobulumo.


Būdamas pīti sambojjhaṅga viduje, jis supranta: „manyje yra pitu
sambojjhaṅga“; Jei viduje nėra piti sambojjhaṅga, jis supranta: „manyje
nėra pitu sambojjhaṅga“; jis supranta, kaip atsiranda nepakilęs pīti
sambojjhaṅga; jis supranta, kaip iškilęs pīti sambojjhaṅga yra
tobulinamas iki tobulumo.

Kai viduje yra passaddhi sambojjhaṅga,
jis supranta: „manyje yra passaddhi sambojjhaṅga“; Ten, kur nėra
passaddhi sambojjhaṅga, jis supranta: „manyje nėra passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga“; jis supranta, kaip kyla neprisikėlęs passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga; jis supranta, kaip iškilęs passaddhi sambojjhaṅga yra
tobulinamas.

Kai viduje yra samādhi sambojjhaṅga, jis supranta:
„manyje yra samādhi sambojjhaṅga“; Kadangi viduje nėra Samādhi
sambojjhaṅgos, jis supranta: „manyje nėra Samādhi sambojjhaṅgos“; jis
supranta, kaip kyla neprikėlęs samādhi sambojjhaṅga; jis supranta, kaip
iškilęs samādhi sambojjhaṅga yra tobulinamas.

Kadangi viduje yra
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga, jis supranta: „manyje yra upekkhā sambojjhaṅga“;
Kadangi viduje nėra upekkhā sambojjhaṅga, jis supranta: „manyje nėra
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga“; jis supranta, kaip kyla neprikėlęs upekkhā
sambojjhaṅga; jis supranta, kaip iškilusi upekkhā sambojjhaṅga yra
tobulinama iki tobulumo.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas dhammas
dhammose iš vidaus, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose išorėje,
arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena
stebėdamas dhammų reiškinių samudaya, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammų
reiškinių praeitį, arba gyvena stebėdamas samudaya ir pašalindamas
reiškinius dhamomis; ar dar, [suprasdamas:] “tai yra dhammos!” sati yra
jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena
atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena
stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis septyniais bojjhaṅgais.


Čia bhikkhus, bhikkhu, kuriame yra uddhacca-kukkucca, supranta: „manyje
yra uddhacca-kukkucca“; ten, kur nėra uddhacca-kukkucca, jis supranta:
„manyje nėra uddhacca-kukkucca“; jis supranta, kaip atsiranda neprikėlęs
uddhacca-kukkucca; jis supranta, kaip apleista iškilusi
uddhacca-kukkucca; ir jis supranta, kaip apleista uddhacca-kukkucca
neatsiranda ateityje.

Čia bhikkhus, bhikkhu, būdamas vicikicchā
viduje, supranta: „manyje yra vicikicchā“; ten, kur nėra vicikicchā, jis
supranta: „manyje vicikicchā nėra“; jis supranta, kaip atsiranda
neprisikėlęs vikikachas; jis supranta, kaip atsisakoma iškilusios
vicikicchos; ir jis supranta, kaip ateityje neatsiras apleista
vikikachas.

Taigi jis gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose iš
vidaus, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose išorėje, arba gyvena
stebėdamas dhammas dhammose iš vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas
dhammų reiškinių samudaya, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammų reiškinių
praeitį, arba gyvena stebėdamas samudaya ir pašalindamas reiškinius
dhamomis; ar dar, [suprasdamas:] “tai yra dhammos!” sati yra jame, vien
tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs
ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje. Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas
dhammas dhammose, remdamasis penkiomis nīvaraṇomis.

B. Skyrius apie Khandhas


Be to, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis
penkiomis khandhas. Be to, bhikkhus, kaip bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas
dhammas dhammose, kalbėdamas apie penkias khandhas?

Čia,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu [išskiria]: „tokia yra rūpa, tokia yra rūpos samudaya,
tokia yra rūpos išnykimas; tokia yra vedanā, tokia yra vedanos
samudaya, tokia yra vedanos išnykimas; tokia yra yra sañña, tokia yra
sañña samudaya, tokia yra saññā išnykimas, toks yra saṅkāra, toks yra
saṅkhāra samudaya, toks yra saṅkhāra išnykimas; toks yra viññāṇa, toks
yra viññāṇa samudaya, toks yra Viññāṇa išnykimas “.

Taigi jis
gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose iš vidaus, arba gyvena stebėdamas
dhammas dhammose išorėje, arba gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose iš
vidaus ir išorės; jis gyvena stebėdamas dhammų reiškinių samudaya, arba
gyvena stebėdamas dhammų reiškinių praeitį, arba gyvena stebėdamas
samudaya ir pašalindamas reiškinius dhamomis; ar dar, [suprasdamas:]
“tai yra dhammos!” sati yra jame, vien tik šnaanos ir paprasčiausio
paṭissati apimties, jis gyvena atsiskyręs ir nieko nelipdo pasaulyje.
Taigi, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis
penkiomis khandhas.

C. Skyrius apie juslių sferas

Be to,
bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis šešiais
vidiniais ir išoriniais āyatanais. Be to, bhikkhus, kaip bhikkhu gyvena
stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis šešiais vidiniais ir išoriniais
āyatanais?

Čia, bhikkhus, bhikkhu supranta cakkhu, jis supranta
rūpa, supranta saṃyojana, kuri atsiranda dėl šių dviejų, jis supranta,
kaip kyla neprikėlusioji saṃyojana, jis supranta, kaip apleista iškilusi
saṃyojana, ir supranta, kaip apleista saṃyojana. neatsiranda ateityje.


Jis supranta sota, supranta sadda, supranta saṃyojana, kuri kyla dėl
šių dviejų, supranta, kaip kyla neprikėlusioji saṃyojana, jis supranta,
kaip apleista iškilusi saṃyojana, ir supranta, kaip apleista saṃyojana
neatsiranda. ateityje.

Jis supranta ghana, supranta gandą,
supranta saṃyojaną, atsirandantį dėl šių dviejų, supranta, kaip kyla
neprikėlusioji saṃyojana, supranta, kaip apleista iškilusi saṃyojana, ir
supranta, kaip apleista saṃyojana neatsiranda. ateityje.

Jis
supranta dzivą, supranta razą, supranta saṃyojaną, atsirandantį dėl šių
dviejų, supranta, kaip kyla neprikėlusioji saṃyojana, supranta, kaip
apleista iškilusi saṃyojana, ir supranta, kaip apleista saṃyojana
neatsiranda. ateityje.

Jis supranta kāya, supranta fobababą,
supranta saṃyojana, kylančią dėl šių dviejų, supranta, kaip kyla
neprikėlusioji saṃyojana, supranta, kaip apleista iškilusi saṃyojana, ir
supranta, kaip apleista saṃyojana neatsiranda. ateityje.

E. Skyrius apie tiesas


Be to, bhikkhus, bhikkhu gyvena stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis
keturiomis ariya · saccomis. Be to, bhikkhus, kaip bhikkhu gyvena
stebėdamas dhammas dhammose, remdamasis keturiomis ariya · saccomis?

E1. Dukkhasacca ekspozicija


O kas, bhikkhus, yra dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti yra dukkha, senėjimas -
dukkha (liga yra dukkha) maraṇa yra dukkha, liūdesys, liūdesys, dukkha,
domanassa ir kančia yra dukkha, asociacija su tuo, kas nepatinka,
dukkha, atsiribojimas nuo to, kas mėgstama, yra dukkha, o ne tam, ko
nori. yra dukkha; trumpai tariant, penki upādāna · k · khandhas yra
dukkha.

O kas, bhikkhus, yra jāti? Įvairioms būtybėms,
priklausančioms skirtingoms būtybių klasėms, taip, gimimas, nusileidimas
[įsčiose], atsirandantis [pasaulyje], pasirodymas, khandhų apreiškimas,
ājatanų įgijimas. Tai, bhikkhus, vadinama jāti.

O kas, bhikkhus,
yra jarā? Įvairioms būtybėms, priklausančioms skirtingoms būtybių
klasėms, jarā, nualinta būsena, lūžę dantys, turintys žilus plaukus,
susiraukšlėję, gyvybingumo sumažėjimas, indrijų irimas: šitas, bhikkhus,
yra vadinamas jarā.

O kas, bhikkhus, yra maraṇa? Įvairioms
būtybėms, priklausančioms skirtingoms būtybėms, mirimas, pasikeitimo
būsena [iš buvimo], iširimas, išnykimas, mirtis, marana, mirimas,
khandhų suskaidymas, paguldymas lavono: tai, bhikkhus, vadinama maraṇa.


O kas, bhikkhus, yra liūdesys? Viename bhikkhus, susijęs su įvairių
rūšių nelaimėmis, paliestas įvairių rūšių dukkha dhammų, liūdesio,
liūdesio, sielvarto būsenos, vidinio liūdesio, vidinio didelio liūdesio:
tai, bhikkhus, vadinami liūdesiu.

O kas, bhikkhus, yra liūdesys?
Viename bhikkhus, susijęs su įvairių rūšių nelaimėmis, paliestas
įvairių rūšių dukkha dhammų, verkimų, raudų, verkimo, verkimo, verkimo
būsenos, raudojimo būsenos: tai, bhikkhus, vadinama raudojimu.

O
kas, bhikkhus, yra dukkha? Kad ir kas būtų, bhikkhus, kūniška dukkha,
kūniškas nemalonumas, dukkha, sąlygotas kūno kontakto, nemalonus
vedayitas: tai, bhikkhus, vadinama dukkha.

O kas, bhikkhus, yra
domanassa? Kad ir kas būtų, bhikkhus, psichinis dukkha, psichinis
nemalonumas, dukkha, kurį sukelia protinis kontaktas, nemalonus
vedayitas: tai, bhikkhus, vadinama domanassa.

O kas, bhikkhus,
yra neviltis? Viename bhikkhus, susijęs su įvairių rūšių nelaimėmis,
paliestas įvairių rūšių dukkha dhammų, bėdų, nevilties, bėdos būsenos,
nevilties būsenos: tai, bhikkhus, vadinama neviltimi.

O kas,
bhikkhus, yra dukra, susijusi su tuo, kas nesutinka? Kalbant apie
formas, garsus, skonį, kvapus, kūniškus reiškinius ir psichinius
reiškinius, kurie yra nemaloni, nepatikimi, nemalonūs, ar dar tie, kurie
trokšta savo nepalankumo, tie, kurie nori prarasti, tie, kurie nori
savo diskomforto, tie, kurie kurie nori neišlaisvinti iš prisirišimo,
susitikti, būti susieti, būti kartu, susidurti su jais: tai, bhikkhus,
vadinama dukkha, susijusi su tuo, kas nesutariama.

O kas,
bhikkhus, yra atsiribojimas nuo to, kas yra priimtina? Kalbant apie
formas, garsus, skonį, kvapus, kūno reiškinius ir psichinius reiškinius,
kurie yra malonūs, malonūs, malonūs, ar dar tie, kurie nori savo
pranašumo, tie, kurie nori naudos, tie, kurie nori savo komforto, tie,
kurie nori norisi išsilaisvinti iš prisirišimo, nesimatyti, nesisieiti,
nebūti kartu, nesusidurti su jais: tai, bhikkhus, vadinama atsiribojimu
nuo to, kas yra malonu.

O kas, bhikkhus, yra dukkha negauti to,
ko nori? Esant būtybėms, bhikkhus, turintiems gimimo požymį, kyla toks
noras: „O, tikrai, mums gali būti ne jāti, o jei ne ateisime į jati“.
Bet to negalima pasiekti norint. Tai dukra, negavusi to, ko nori.


Būtybėse bhikkhus, turėdamas bruožą sensti, iškyla toks noras: „O,
tikrai, mums negali būti jarā, ir tikrai, jei mes neateisime į jarā“.
Bet to negalima pasiekti norint. Tai dukra, negavusi to, ko nori.


Esant būtybėms, bhikkhus, turintiems savybę susirgti, kyla toks noras:
„O, tikrai, mums nesirgs liga, ir tikrai negalime susirgti“. Bet to
negalima pasiekti norint. Tai dukra, negavusi to, ko nori.


Būtybėse bhikkhusas, turėdamas bruožą sensti, iškyla toks noras: „O,
tikrai, ne mums gali būti marana, ir tikrai mes negalime ateiti pas mara
maą“. Bet to negalima pasiekti norint. Tai dukra, negavusi to, ko nori.


Bodhgya-atue.jpg

The
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (MN 10). The Discourse on the Establishing of
Mindfulness) and the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) (The Great Discourse
on the Establishing of Mindfulness) are two of the most important and
widely studied discourses in the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. The
former is also found in the Āgamas of other early schools, and has been
embraced by contemporary Mahayana practitioners such as Thich Nhat Hanh.

These discourses (Pāli: sutta) provide a means for practicing
mindfulness in a variety of contexts and potentially continuously.
Famously, the Buddha declares at the beginning of this discourse:”This
is the direct way (Pāli: ekāyano … maggo), monks, for the purification
of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the
extinguishing of suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth,
for the realization of nibbāna….”

Title translation

Buddha4u4ia.jpg
English translations of the title, “Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta,” include:

    “The Arousing of Mindfulness Discourse” tipitaka/mn/mn.010.soma.html (Soma, 1999)
    “The Foundations of Mindfulness Discourse” tipitaka/mn/mn.010.nysa.html (Nyanasatta, 1994)
    “The Frames of Reference Discourse” tipitaka/mn/mn.010.than.html (Thanissaro, 1995)

According
to Anālayo (2006, pp. 29–30), Thanissaro (2000) and Nyanaponika (1996,
pp. 9–10), part of the reason for the variety in this title’s
translation has to do with how the compound Pāli word “satipaṭṭhāna” is
analyzed. It can be interpreted as “sati-paṭṭhāna” (”foundation of
mindfulness”) or “sati-upaṭṭhāna” (”presence of mindfulness”).

In
regard to the prefix “Maha-” in the Pāli title of DN 22, this simply
means “great,” or “larger” and likely refers to DN 22’s expanded section
on mindfulness of the Fourth Noble Truths.

Various Recensions & Canonical placement

BUDDMoon.jpg
In
the Chinese Canon, the Nian Chu Jing (念處經, Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra), based
on a Sarvastivadin source, is found on page 582 of the Taisho Tripitaka
Vol. 1, Madhyama Āgama No. 26. A second version with the The
Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra was not translated into Tibetan, except as part of
the long Prajñapāramita Sūtra into which it had been incorporated. There
does exist in Tibetan translation a “Saddharma Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra”
(dam pa’i chos dran pa nye bar bzhag pa’i mdo//dampé chödren panyé
barzhak pé do) but this is a very large early Mahayana sutra and is an
entirely different text. Ven. Ajahn Sujato completed an extensive
comparative survey of the various recensions of Sutta, entitled A
History of Mindfulness. These various versions are quite similar.

In
the Theravadin Pali Canon, the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta is the tenth
discourse in the Majjhima Nikaya (MN) and is thus often designated by
“MN 10″; in the Pali Text Society (PTS) edition of the Canon, this text
begins on the 55th page of the first volume of its three-volume Majjhima
Nikaya (M), and is thus alternately represented as “M i 55.”

As
for the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, this is the 22nd discourse in the Digha
Nikaya (DN) and is thus often designated by “DN 22″; in the PTS edition
of the Canon, the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta begins on the 289th page of the
second volume of the PTS’ three-volume Digha Nikaya (D), and is thus
alternately represented as “D ii 289.”

In post-canonical Pali
literature, the classic commentary on the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (as well as
for the entire Majjhima Nikaya) is found in Buddhaghosa’s Papañcasudani
(Bullitt, 2002; Soma, 2003).

Contents
Burma012.jpg
In
this sutta, the Buddha identifies four references for establishing
mindfulness (satipatthana): body, sensations (or feelings), mind (or
consciousness) and mental contents. These are then further broken down
into the following sections and subsections:

    Body (Kāyā)
        Breathing (also see the Anapanasati Sutta)
        Postures (Walking, Standing, Sitting, Lying Down)
        Clear Comprehending
        Reflections on Repulsiveness of the Body
        Reflections on Material Elements
        Cemetery Contemplations
    Sensations/Feelings (Vedanā)
        pleasant or unpleasant or neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant (neutral) feelings
        worldly or spiritual feelings
    Mind/Consciousness (Cittā)
        lust (sarāgaṃ) or without lust (vītarāgaṃ)
        hate (sadosaṃ) or without hate (vītadosaṃ)
        delusion (samohaṃ) or without delusion (vītamohaṃ)
        contracted (saṅkhittaṃ) or scattered (vikkhittaṃ)
        lofty (mahaggataṃ) or not lofty (amahaggataṃ)
        surpassable (sa-uttaraṃ) or unsurpassed (anuttaraṃ)
        quieted (samāhitaṃ) or not quieted (asamāhitaṃ)
        released (vimuttaṃ) or not released (avimuttaṃ)
    Mental Contents (Dhammā)
        The Hindrances
        The Aggregates of Clinging
        The Sense-Bases and their Fetters
        The Factors of Awakenment with Awareness
        The Four Noble Truths

Context
Personality-based typography

Gb.buddha.moon.jpg
According
to Analāyo (2006, pp. 24–25) and Soma (2003, pp. xxii - xxiv), the
Papañcasudani recommends a different satipaṭṭhāna depending on whether a
person:

    tends more toward affective craving or intellectual speculation; and,
    is more measured in their responses or quick reacting.

Based on these two dimensions the commentary’s recommended personality-based satipaṭṭhāna is reflected in the grid below.
  experiential orientation
(character)
  affective
(extrovert) cognitive
(introvert)
reactivity /
temperament slow body mind
quick sensations mental contents

Soma
(2003, p. xxiv) adds that all practitioners (regardless of their
character and temperament) should also practice mindfulness of Postures
(moving, standing, sitting, lying down) and Clear Understanding, about
which he writes: “The whole practice of mindfulness depends on the
correct grasp of the exercises included in the two parts referred to
here.”
Single-focused, successive and simultaneous practices

There are a variety of ways that one could use the methods described in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta including:

    Focus on a single method. The method most written about in the English language is that of mindfulness of breath.
    Practice the various methods individually in succession.
    Maintain breath mindfulness as a primary object while using other methods to address non-breath stimuli.
    Practice multiple methods either in tandem or in a context-driven manner

See also

    Mindfulness (Buddhism)
    Buddhist meditation
    Vipassana
    Mahasati Meditation

    Related discourses:

        Anapanasati Sutta
        Kayagata-sati Sutta
        Maha-satipatthana Sutta

    Related practices:

        Sampajanna
        Patikulamanasikara

    Related concepts:

        Mahabhuta
        Kammatthana
        Vedana
        Vijnana
        Skandha
        Sadayatana/Ayatana
        Seven factors of enlightenment
        Four Noble Truths

Source

Wikipedia:Satipatthana Sutta

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — with best animated Buddha image, song, dance  in Classical English

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Lord Buddha Short Stories For Kids in English - Inspiring Stories From The Life of Buddha

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Lord Buddha Short Stories For Kids in English - Inspiring Stories From The Life of Buddha


The Buddha, the founder of the great religious philosophy of Buddhism,
lived in North India over two thousand and five hundred years ago and
was known as Siddhattha (Siddhartha = one whose purpose has been
achieved). Gotama (Sanskrit= Gautama) was his family name. His father,
King Suddhodana, ruled over the land of the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu on
the Nepalese frontier. His queen was Mahamaya, a princess of the
Koliyas.

On a full-moon day of May, when the trees were laden
with leaf, flower and fruit, and man, bird and beast were in joyous
mood, Queen Mahamaya was travelling in state from Kapilavatthu to
Devadaha, her parental home, according to the custom of the times, to
give birth to her child. But that was not to be, for halfway between the
two cities, in the Lumbini grove, under the shade of a flowering Sal
tree, she brought forth a son.

Lumbini or Rummindei, the name by
which it is now known, is 100 miles north of Variinasi and within sight
of the snowcapped Himalayas. At this memorable spot where Prince
Siddhattha, the future Buddha, was born, Emperor Asoka, 316 years after
the event, erected a mighty stone pillar to mark the holy spot. The
inscription engraved on the pillar in five lines consists of
ninety-three Asokan (brahmi) characters, amongst which occurs the
following:

‘Hida Budhe jate Sakyamuni’, ‘Here was born the
Buddha, the sage of the Sakyans’. The mighty column is still to be seen.
The pillar, ‘as crisp as the day it was cut’, had been struck by
lightning even when Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim, saw it towards
the middle of the seventh century after Christ.

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Mahasatipatthana Sutta

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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness —in,29) Classical English,Roman,

This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.
Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajañña
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
B. Section on the Khandhas
C. Section on the Sense Spheres
D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas
E. Section on the Truths
E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca
E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca
E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca
E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

Introduction

Thus have I heard:
On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhus.– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said:

This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Just as, bhikkhus, a
skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn,
understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Thus he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he
dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing
the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly.

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña.

Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet
up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin
and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the
hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.”

Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag
having two openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as
hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A
man with good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its
contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans,
those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in
the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the
soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is
delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this
kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth,
skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura,
spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal
mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

 E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed as consisting of elements: “In this kāya, there
is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air
element.”

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s
apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it
into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very
kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there
is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air
element.”

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu,
just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground,
disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a hand bone, there a
foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone, here a thigh bone,
there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here a spine bone,
there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone, or there the
skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature,
it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or
he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(7)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if
he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up
bones over a year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is
of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(9
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya.

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in
kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or
he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(3)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or
he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(5)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

He
understands mana, he understands dhammas, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or
he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas;
or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the six internal
and external āyatanas.

D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
seven bojjhaṅgas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati
sambojjhaṅga present within, understands: “there is the sati
sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present
within, he understands: “there is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
understands how the unarisen sati sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen sati sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There
being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being
the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the
vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is no vīriya sambojjhaṅga within
me”; he understands how the unarisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga is developed to
perfection.

There being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is the pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being
the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pīti
sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the
passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the
passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the samādhi
sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the samādhi
sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is no samādhi sambojjhaṅga within
me”; he understands how the unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga comes to
arise; he understands how the arisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga is developed
to perfection.

There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present
within, he understands: “there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”;
there not being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is no upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the
unarisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the
arisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

Thus he
dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing
dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being uddhacca-kukkucca present within,
understands: “there is uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being
uddhacca-kukkucca present within, he understands: “there is no
uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he understands how the unarisen
uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned
uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise in the future.

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being vicikicchā present within, understands:
“there is vicikicchā within me”; there not being vicikicchā present
within, he understands: “there is no vicikicchā within me”; he
understands how the unarisen vicikicchā comes to arise; he understands
how the arisen vicikicchā is abandoned; and he understands how the
abandoned vicikicchā does not come to arise in the future.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the five nīvaraṇas.

B. Section on the Khandhas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does
a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five
khandhas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rūpa,
such is the samudaya of rūpa, such is the passing away of rūpa; such is
vedanā, such is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of
vedanā; such is saññā, such is the samudaya of saññā, such is the
passing away of saññā; such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of
saṅkhāra, such is the passing away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is
the samudaya of viññāṇa, such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the five khandhas.

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas. And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas?

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu, he understands rūpa, he
understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands sota, he understands sadda, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands ghāna, he understands
gandha, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands jivha, he understands rasa, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands kāya, he understands
phoṭṭhabba, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these
two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he
understands how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands
how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

E. Section on the Truths

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the four ariya·saccas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
four ariya·saccas?

E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca

And what,
bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging is dukkha
(sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation, dukkha,
domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is disliked is
dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to get what one
wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are dukkha.

And
what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various classes
of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the arising [in
the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas, the
acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

And
what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various classes
of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken [teeth],
of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of vitality, the
decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

And what,
bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various classes of
beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of existence], the break
up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the passing away, the break
up of the khandhas, the laying down of the corpse: this, bhikkhus, is
called maraṇa.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus,
associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of
dukkha dhammas, the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the
inner sorrow, the inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And
what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated with
various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas,
the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the state of
crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And
what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha, bodily
unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant
vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus,
is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha, mental unpleasantness,
dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this,
bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In
one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by
various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the trouble, the despair, the state of
being in trouble, the state of being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is
called despair.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
associated with what is disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
unpleasing, not enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s
disadvantage, those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s
discomfort, those who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment,
meeting, being associated, being together, encountering them: this,
bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being associated with what is
disagreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
dissociated from what is agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
pleasing, enjoyable, pleasant, or else those who desire one’s
advantage, those who desire one’s benefit, those who desire one’s
comfort, those who desire one’s liberation from attachment, not meeting,
not being associated, not being together, not encountering them: this,
bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being dissociated from what is
agreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of not getting what
one wants? In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of being born,
such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be jāti for us, and
really, may we not come to jāti.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In
beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a wish
arises: “oh really, may there not be jarā for us, and really, may we not
come to jarā.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the
dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having
the characteristic of getting sick, such a wish arises: “oh really, may
there not be sickness for us, and really, may we not come to sickness.”
But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not
getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the
characteristic of getting old, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there
not be maraṇa for us, and really, may we not come to maraṇa.” But this
is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what
one wants.

II. Observation of Vedanā

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā?

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am
experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands:
“I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā
vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”;
experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands:
“I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha
vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa,
undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am
experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”.

Thus he dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing vedanā in
vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā;
or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to
the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does
not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā.

III. Observation of Citta

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga”,
or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga”, or he
understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa”, or he understands
citta without dosa as “citta without dosa”, or he understands citta with
moha as “citta with moha”, or he understands citta without moha as
“citta without moha”, or he understands a collected citta as “a
collected citta”, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered
citta”, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta”, or
he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta”, or he
understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta”, or he
understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta”, or he
understands a settled citta as “a settled citta”, or he understands an
unsettled citta as “an unsettled citta”, or he understands a liberated
citta as “a liberated citta”, or he understands an unliberated citta as
“an unliberated citta”.

Thus he dwells observing citta in citta
internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he
dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is
citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.

 IV. Observation of Dhammas

A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
five nīvaraṇas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
kāmacchanda present within, understands: “there is kāmacchanda within
me”; there not being kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there
is no kāmacchanda within me”; he understands how the unarisen
kāmacchanda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is
abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not
come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there
being byāpāda present within, understands: “there is byāpāda within me”;
there not being byāpāda present within, he understands: “there is no
byāpāda within me”; he understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to
arise; he understands how the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned byāpāda does not come to arise in the
future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thīnamiddhā
present within, understands: “there is thīnamiddhā within me”; there not
being thīnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no
thīnamiddhā within me”; he understands how the unarisen thīnamiddhā
comes to arise; he understands how the arisen thīnamiddhā is abandoned;
and he understands how the abandoned thīnamiddhā does not come to arise
in the future.


In
beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of sorrow, lamentation,
dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises: “oh really, may
there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress for us,
and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa
and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the
dukkha of not getting what one wants.

And what, bhikkhus, are in
short the five upādānakkhandhas? They are: the rūpa upādānakkhandha, the
vedanā upādānakkhandha, the saññā upādānakkhandha, the saṅkhāra
upādānakkhandha, the viññāṇa upādānakkhandha. These are called in short,
bhikkhus, the five upādānakkhandhas.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha ariyasacca

E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when arising, where does it
arise, and when settling [itself], where does it settle? In that in the
world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when
arising, arises, where when settling, it settles.

And what in the
world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The tongue in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Smells in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Dhammas
in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles.

The eye-viññāṇa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-viññāṇa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles.

The eye-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The
vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The
saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā
of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The intention [related to] odors in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles.

The taṇhā for visible forms in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā
for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The vitakka of
visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of sounds
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of odors in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of tastes in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles.

The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling,
it settles. The vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
vicāra of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of bodily
phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of dhammas
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. This is called, bhikkhus, the
dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.

E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it
abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world
which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned,
is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

And what in the
world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Visible
forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases.

The eye-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of
nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born
of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The
saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā
of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā
of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The
intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] odors in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to]
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The vitakka of visible forms in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of tastes in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases.

The vicāra of visible forms in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of sounds in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of odors in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of tastes in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of bodily phenomena
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of dhammas in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. This is called, bhikkhus, the
dukkha·nirodha ariyasacca.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is
just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi,
sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo,
sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi?
That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of
dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of
dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

And
what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are
saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā,
those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.

And what, bhikkhus,
is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā,
abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and
abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

And
what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining
from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from
abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

And
what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having
abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right means of
livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva.

And what,
bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda
for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts
himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he
generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala
dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his
citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen
kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously
his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of
arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence of confusion, for their
increase, their development, their cultivation and their completion, he
exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and
strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.

An what,
bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya
in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing
dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus,
sammāsati.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having
entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra,
with pīti and sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of
vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein
with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor
vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference
towards pīti, he abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences
in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and
mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he
abides therein. Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and
domanassa having previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with
the purity of upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he
abides therein. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the four ariya·saccas.

The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas

For
whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way
for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
anāgāmita.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six
years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these
four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results may be
expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there
is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus.
For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this
way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
anāgāmita.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus,
would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three years,
one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two years, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two years,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven
months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six months, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six months,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four
months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three months, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two months, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two months,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for half a
month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for a week, one of two results may
be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

“This, bhikkhus, is the
path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the
overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has it been said,
and on the basis of all this has it been said.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.


HONEST

VOICE of ALL ABORIGINAL AWAKENED SOCIETIES (VoAAAS)

Australian
researchers claim two existing drugs could ‘cure’ COVID-19 after
patients they tested responded ‘very well’ to treatment

Researchers believe they’ve found a cure for the latest strain of coronavirus
The disease has killed more than 6,500 people around the world since January
Queensland researcher claims HIV and anti-malaria drugs may be the cure
Currently patients cannot be cured and only supported while they recover
Coronavirus symptoms: what are they and should you see a doctor?

Drugs used to treat HIV and malaria could be used to tackle the coronavirus, according to scientists in Australia. 

A
team of infectious disease experts at the University of Queensland in
Brisbane say they have seen two existing medications manage to wipe out
COVID-19 infections.

Chloroquine, an
anti-malarial drug, and HIV-suppressing combination lopinavir/ritonavir
have both reportedly shown promising results in human tests and made the
virus ‘disappear’ in infected patients.

The
drugs are being tested as researchers and doctors around the world
scramble to try and find a vaccine, cure or treatment for the deadly
virus.

Around 170,000 people across the globe have now been infected with the coronavirus and over 6,500 have died. 

After
China managed to get a handle on its sudden outbreak other countries
were blindsided by huge epidemics – almost 25,000 people have caught it
in Italy, around 14,000 in Iran, 8,000 in Spain and more than 5,000 apiece in Germany and France.

Queensland
researcher, Professor David Paterson, said he hopes to enrol people in
larger scale pharmaceutical trials by the end of the month.


One of the drugs being considered for the trial is an anti-malaria treatment known as chloroquine (pictured)

Professor Paterson said it wouldn’t be
wrong to consider the drugs a possible ‘treatment or cure’ for the
deadly respiratory infection. 

He explained that when the HIV
medication lopinavir/ritonavir was given to people infected with the
coronavirus in Australia it led to the ‘disappearance of the virus’.

He told Australian news site news.com.au: ‘It’s a potentially effective treatment.

‘Patients would end up with no viable coronavirus in their system at all after the end of the therapy.’

Although
the treatment had been effective in a smattering of cases, there hasn’t
been any controlled testing like what would be needed to test a new
drug, Professor Paterson said. 

‘That first wave of Chinese
patients we had (in Australia), they all did very, very well when they
were treated with the HIV drug,’ Professor Paterson said. 

‘What
we want to do at the moment is a large clinical trial across Australia,
looking at 50 hospitals, and what we’re going to compare is one drug,
versus another drug, versus the combination of the two drugs,’ Professor
Paterson said. 

There have been around 300 confirmed cases of the coronavirus in Australia and three people have died. 

Lopinavir/ritonavir, the anti-HIV drug being tested, is most commonly sold under the name Kaletra.

It
is an antiviral medication which can be taken twice a day by people
infected with HIV in order to reduce levels of the virus circulating in
the body.

Regular use of the medication
is intended to stop HIV progressing to AIDS, which is fatal, and may
also reduce the risk of people transmitting the infection to others.

It
is a type of drug called a protease inhibitor, which works by stopping
viruses from using an enzyme called protease, which is vital for them to
be able to spread.

Without protease
viruses cannot make the fully-matured clones that they need to be able
to infect other healthy cells, so the infection can’t spread.

This
ability to stop a virus from reproducing and infecting new cells is
believed to be what apparently makes Kaletra an effective coronavirus
treatment.

More than 170,000 people around the world have been infected with the coronavirus, and at least 6,512 have died


Professor David Paterson (pictured) hopes to have patients enrolled in a clinical trial of the drug by the end of March
Professor David Paterson (pictured) hopes to have patients enrolled in a clinical trial of the drug by the end of March
The HIV drug Kaletra has shown promising results in the small number of coronavirus patients who have been treated with it, scientists say – they now want to start proper clinical trials
The HIV drug Kaletra has shown promising results in the small number of
coronavirus patients who have been treated with it, scientists say –
they now want to start proper clinical trials


Kaletra is approved for use in the US,
Europe and Australia, and its manufacturer – AbbVie – has already
donated supplies of the drug to authorities China, the US and to the
World Health Organisation. It is a different combination to the PREP
drug which was recently approved for HIV prevention in the UK.

Chloroquine
– an antimalarial drug – works in a different way and is given to
people to prevent malaria infections if they are bitten by a mosquito
carrying the parasite.

It does not cure malaria but stops it from developing when taken before, during and after someone visits an at-risk area.

The drug works by salts inside them poisoning parasites and preventing them from  growing inside human red blood cells.

It
has also been found to be able to destroy viruses, and scientists found
in lab tests that it could be effective against the coronavirus
(SARS-CoV-2).

Chloroquine is already
widely used as an antimalarial for travellers and is also approved in
the UK for use on people with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

Scientists
are keen to use an already-approved medication to try and treat the
coronavirus because it would cut out the lengthy processes of safety
trials – they are already proven to be safe – and getting government
approval and manufacturing.

Professor
Paterson, an infectious diseases physician, has launched a fundraising
appeal alongside the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital to raise money
to support the clinical trials. 

The Coronavirus Action Fund hopes to raise $750,000 to go toward understanding and better treating COVID-19.

A statement from the organisers says research and trials will be underway as soon as funding is secured.

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